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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092823/ph-lactate-and-hypoxia-reciprocity-in-regulating-high-affinity-monocarboxylate-transporter-expression-in-glioblastoma
#1
James P Caruso, Brandon J Koch, Philip D Benson, Elsa Varughese, Michael D Monterey, Amy E Lee, Ajal M Dave, Sam Kiousis, Andrew E Sloan, Saroj P Mathupala
Highly malignant brain tumors harbor the aberrant propensity for aerobic glycolysis, the excessive conversion of glucose to lactic acid even in the presence of ample tissue oxygen. Lactic acid is rapidly effluxed to the tumor microenvironment via a group of plasma-membrane transporters denoted monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) to prevent "self-poisoning." One isoform, MCT2, has the highest affinity for lactate and thus should have the ability to respond to microenvironment conditions such as hypoxia, lactate, and pH to help maintain high glycolytic flux in the tumor...
January 13, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092795/moderate-aerobic-exercise-training-for-improving-reproductive-function-in-infertile-patients-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Behzad Hajizadeh Maleki, Bakhtyar Tartibian
This study investigated for the first time the changes in seminal markers of inflammation, oxidative stress status, semen parameters, sperm DNA integrity as well as pregnancy rate following 24weeks of moderate aerobic exercise in infertile patients. A total of 1026 sedentary men (aged 25-40years) attending the infertility clinic with history of more than one year of infertility, were screened and 419 were randomized to either exercise (EX, n=210) or non-exercise (NON-EX, n=209) groups. Exercise training favorably attenuated seminal markers of both inflammation (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α) and oxidative stress (ROS, MDA, 8-Isoprostane) as well as enhanced antioxidant defense system (SOD, catalase and TAC) (P<0...
January 13, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092657/lipid-production-in-yarrowia-lipolytica-is-maximized-by-engineering-cytosolic-redox-metabolism
#3
Kangjian Qiao, Thomas M Wasylenko, Kang Zhou, Peng Xu, Gregory Stephanopoulos
Microbial factories have been engineered to produce lipids from carbohydrate feedstocks for production of biofuels and oleochemicals. However, even the best yields obtained to date are insufficient for commercial lipid production. To maximize the capture of electrons generated from substrate catabolism and thus increase substrate-to-product yields, we engineered 13 strains of Yarrowia lipolytica with synthetic pathways converting glycolytic NADH into the lipid biosynthetic precursors NADPH or acetyl-CoA. A quantitative model was established and identified the yield of the lipid pathway as a crucial determinant of overall process yield...
January 16, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091518/insights-into-the-molecular-basis-of-long-term-storage-and-survival-of-sperm-in-the-honeybee-apis-mellifera
#4
Ellen Paynter, A Harvey Millar, Mat Welch, Barbara Baer-Imhoof, Danyang Cao, Boris Baer
Honeybee males produce ejaculates consisting of large numbers of high quality sperm. Because queens never re-mate after a single mating episode early in life, sperm are stored in a specialised organ for years but the proximate mechanisms underlying this key physiological adaptation are unknown. We quantified energy metabolism in honeybee sperm and show that the glycolytic metabolite glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GA3P) is a key substrate for honeybee sperm survival and energy production. This reliance on non-aerobic energy metabolism in stored sperm was further supported by our findings of very low levels of oxygen inside the spermatheca...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090141/do-maximal-aerobic-power-and-blood-lactate-concentration-affect-specific-judo-fitness-test-performance-in-female-judo-athletes
#5
H Garbouj, M A Selmi, R Haj Sassi, M Haj Yahmed, K Chamari, A Chaouachi
The Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) has become the test most widely used by coaches and physical trainers for assessment of competitors' judo-specific physical aptitude and training programme prescription. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the SJFT performance indices and both maximal aerobic power and the level of blood lactate concentrations in female judo athletes. Seventeen female judokas (age: 21.9±1.6 years, body mass: 74.6±27.4 kg, height: 164.5±8.6 cm; BMI: 27.1±8...
December 2016: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090140/influence-of-warm-up-duration-and-recovery-interval-prior-to-exercise-on-anaerobic-performance
#6
M Frikha, N Chaâri, N Mezghanni, N Souissi
The purpose of the study was to determine the impact of different active warm-up (AWU) durations and the rest interval separating it from exercise on anaerobic performance. Eleven male physical education students (22.6 ± 2.52 years; 179.2 ± 4.3 cm; 82.5 ± 9.7 kg; mean ± SD) participated in a cross-over randomized study, and they all underwent the Wingate test after three AWU durations: 5 min (AWU5), 15 min (AWU15) and 20 min (AWU20), with recovery (WREC) or without a recovery interval (NREC) separating the AWU and anaerobic exercise performance...
December 2016: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089898/exercise-guidelines-to-promote-cardiometabolic-health-in-spinal-cord-injured-humans-time-to-raise-the-intensity
#7
Tom E Nightingale, Richard S Metcalfe, Niels Bj Vollaard, James L J Bilzon
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a life changing event that, as a result of paralysis, negatively influences habitual levels of physical activity and hence cardiometabolic health. Performing regular structured exercise therefore appears extremely important in persons with SCI. However, exercise options are mainly limited to the upper-body, which involves a smaller activated muscle mass compared to the mainly leg-based activities commonly performed by non-disabled individuals. Current exercise guidelines for SCI focus predominantly on relative short durations of moderate-intensity aerobic arm cranking exercise, yet contemporary evidence suggests this is not sufficient to induce meaningful improvements in risk factors for the prevention of cardiometabolic disease in this population...
January 12, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089747/metabolic-engineering-of-a-diazotrophic-bacterium-improves-ammonium-release-and-biofertilization-of-plants-and-microalgae
#8
Rafael Ambrosio, Juan Cesar Federico Ortiz-Marquez, Leonardo Curatti
The biological nitrogen fixation carried out by some Bacteria and Archaea is one of the most attractive alternatives to synthetic nitrogen fertilizers. However, with the exception of the symbiotic rhizobia-legumes system, progress towards a more extensive realization of this goal has been slow. In this study we manipulated the endogenous regulation of both nitrogen fixation and assimilation in the aerobic bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii. Substituting an exogenously inducible promoter for the native promoter of glutamine synthetase produced conditional lethal mutant strains unable to grow diazotrophically in the absence of the inducer...
January 9, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089610/epidemiology-of-physical-activity-and-exercise-training-in-the-united-states
#9
REVIEW
Peter T Katzmarzyk, I-Min Lee, Corby K Martin, Steven N Blair
The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of the descriptive epidemiology of physical activity (PA) and exercise training in the United States. Overall, there is a low prevalence of meeting the current PA guidelines in all age, sex and race/ethnic groups. Among adults the prevalence of meeting the aerobic component of the guidelines is approximately 51%, whereas the prevalence of meeting both the aerobic and muscle-strengthening guidelines is approximately 23%. Approximately 27% of high school students meet the aerobic component of the pediatric guidelines (60minutes of daily moderate-to-vigorous activity), and the proportion of youth meeting the guidelines decreases with advancing age...
January 12, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089456/protective-effects-of-exercise-training-on-endothelial-dysfunction-induced-by-total-sleep-deprivation-in-healthy-subjects
#10
Fabien Sauvet, Pierrick J Arnal, Pierre Emmanuel Tardo-Dino, Catherine Drogou, Pascal Van Beers, Clément Bougard, Arnaud Rabat, Garance Dispersyn, Alexandra Malgoyre, Damien Leger, Danielle Gomez-Merino, Mounir Chennaoui
BACKGROUND: Sleep loss is a risk factor for cardiovascular events mediated through endothelial dysfunction. AIMS: To determine if 7weeks of exercise training can limit cardiovascular dysfunction induced by total sleep deprivation (TSD) in healthy young men. METHODS: 16 subjects were examined during 40-h TSD, both before and after 7weeks of interval exercise training. Vasodilatation induced by ACh, insulin and heat (42°C) and pulse wave velocity (PWV), blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were assessed before TSD (controlday), during TSD, and after one night of sleep recovery...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089421/microbiology-and-treatment-of-brain-abscess
#11
REVIEW
Itzhak Brook
Brain abscess is a focal pyogenic infection of the brain's parenchyma. The most frequent intracranial locations (in descending order of frequency) are: frontal-temporal, frontal-parietal, partial, cerebellar, and occipital lobes. The major predisposing factors are: an associated contiguous focus of infection, trauma, and hematogenous spread from a distant focus. The microbial etiology depends on the site of the primary infection; the patient's age, underlying condition, and immune status; and the geographic location...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089402/aerobic-composting-of-digested-residue-eluted-from-dry-methane-fermentation-to-develop-a-zero-emission-process
#12
Yu-Lian Huang, Zhao-Yong Sun, Xiao-Zhong Zhong, Ting-Ting Wang, Li Tan, Yue-Qin Tang, Kenji Kida
Digested residue remained at the end of a process for the production of fuel ethanol and methane from kitchen garbage. To develop a zero-emission process, the compostability of the digested residue was assessed to obtain an added-value fertilizer. Composting of the digested residue by adding matured compost and a bulking agent was performed using a lab-scale composting reactor. The composting process showed that volatile total solid (VTS) degradation mainly occurred during the first 13days, and the highest VTS degradation efficiency was about 27% at the end...
January 12, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089399/a-mass-balance-model-to-estimate-the-rate-of-composting-methane-oxidation-and-anaerobic-digestion-in-soil-covers-and-shallow-waste-layers
#13
Reza Rafiee, Lizanne Obersky, Sihuang Xie, William P Clarke
Although CH4 oxidation in landfill soil covers is widely studied, the extent of composting and CH4 oxidation in underlying waste layers has been speculated but not measured. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a mass balance model to estimate the simultaneous rates of anaerobic digestion (rAD), CH4 oxidation (rOX) and composting (rCOM) in environments where O2 penetration is variable and zones of aerobic and anaerobic activity are intermingled. The modelled domain could include, as an example, a soil cover and the underlying shallow waste to a nominated depth...
January 12, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089378/butyrate-production-under-aerobic-growth-conditions-by-engineered-escherichia-coli
#14
Naoya Kataoka, Alisa S Vangnai, Thunyarat Pongtharangkul, Toshiharu Yakushi, Kazunobu Matsushita
Butyrate is an important industrial platform chemical. Although several groups have reported butyrate production under oxygen-limited conditions by a native producer, Clostridium tyrobutylicum, and by a metabolically engineered Escherichia coli, efforts to produce butyrate under aerobic growth conditions have met limited success. Here, we constructed a novel butyrate synthetic pathway that functions under aerobic growth conditions in E. coli, by modifying the 1-butanol synthetic pathway reported previously...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088676/structure-of-o-specific-polysaccharide-of-oligotropha-carboxidovorans-om5-a-wastewater-bacterium
#15
Iwona Komaniecka, Adam Choma, Katarzyna Zamlynska, Anna Sroka-Bartnicka, Pawel Sowinski
Oligotropha carboxidovorans strain OM5 (previously known as Pseudomonas carboxydovorans OM5) is a rod-shaped Gram-negative bacterium isolated from wastewater. This bacterium is able to live in aerobic and, facultatively, in autotrophic conditions. For autotrophic growth, the bacteria can utilize carbon monoxide or hydrogen as a source of energy. The O-specific polysaccharide isolated from O. carboxidovorans OM5 lipopolysaccharide was structurally characterized using chemical analyses, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry techniques...
January 3, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088532/comparison-of-an-anaerobic-feed-and-split-anaerobic-aerobic-feed-on-granular-sludge-development-performance-and-ecology
#16
Benjamin J Thwaites, Petra Reeve, Nirmala Dinesh, Michael D Short, Ben van den Akker
The retrofitting of existing wastewater sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) to select for rapid-settling aerobic granular sludge (AGS) over floc-based conventional activated sludge (CAS), could be a viable option to decrease reactor cycle time and increase hydraulic capacity. Successful CAS-to-AGS conversion has previously been shown to be highly dependent on having a dedicated anaerobic feed, which presents additional engineering challenges when retrofitting SBRs. In this study we compared the performance of a split anaerobic-aerobic (An-Aer) feed with that of a traditional dedicated anaerobic feed regarding AGS formation and stability, nitrogen removal performance and microbial ecology...
December 29, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088418/laboratory-silo-type-and-inoculation-effects-on-nutritional-composition-fermentation-and-bacterial-and-fungal-communities-of-oat-silage
#17
J J Romero, Y Zhao, M A Balseca-Paredes, F Tiezzi, E Gutierrez-Rodriguez, M S Castillo
The objectives were to evaluate (1) the use of 2 types of experimental silos (S) to characterize whole-crop oat (Avena sativa L.) silage with or without addition of an inoculant (I), and (2) the effect of inoculation on the microbial community structure of oats ensiled using only plastic bucket silos (BKT). From each of 6 sections in a field, oats were harvested, treated (INO) or not (CON) with inoculant, packed into 19-L BKT or vacuum bags (BG), and ensiled for 217 d. The inoculant added contained Lactobacillus buchneri and Pediococcus pentosaceus (4 × 10(5) and 1 × 10(5) cfu/g of fresh oats, respectively)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087923/enhanced-aerobic-sludge-granulation-by-seeding-concentrated-activated-sludge-with-ca-alginate-gel
#18
Can Sun
The present study focuses on the effect of Ca-alginate gel on aerobic sludge granulation. Three sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) seeded with different mixtures of Ca-alginate gel and activated sludge with the fraction (weight/weight of dry biomass) of 0%, 5.5% and 15.5% respectively. The granulation time of 14 days was obtained with 5.5% additive, whilst 32 days were needed to adapt aerobic granules developed with 0% Ca-alginate gel. Full granulation was achieved in the trial with 15.5% additive from the 20th day...
December 9, 2016: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087891/physical-activity-and-exercise-for-chronic-pain-in-adults-an-overview-of-cochrane-reviews
#19
REVIEW
Louise J Geneen, R Andrew Moore, Clare Clarke, Denis Martin, Lesley A Colvin, Blair H Smith
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is defined as pain lasting beyond normal tissue healing time, generally taken to be 12 weeks. It contributes to disability, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, and healthcare costs. Chronic pain has a weighted mean prevalence in adults of 20%.For many years, the treatment choice for chronic pain included recommendations for rest and inactivity. However, exercise may have specific benefits in reducing the severity of chronic pain, as well as more general benefits associated with improved overall physical and mental health, and physical functioning...
January 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087619/genome-wide-transcription-profiling-of-aerobic-and-anaerobic-escherichia-coli-biofilm-and-planktonic-cultures
#20
Bihter Bayramoglu, David Toubiana, Osnat Gillor
Many studies have described the response of the facultative anaerobe, Escherichia coli, to anaerobic conditions, yet they all investigated free-living (planktonic) cells because attempts to cultivate anaerobic E. coli biofilm were mostly unsuccessful. We challenged these findings and cultivated E. coli strain MG1655 biofilm under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, characterizing the mature biofilm architecture and global gene expression profile. We used RNA sequencing technology to compare stationary phase planktonic cells with mature biofilm, cultured with and without oxygen...
January 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
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