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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779147/promicromonospora-viridis-sp-nov-a-novel-actinomycete-isolated-from-soil
#1
Liying Jin, Junwei Zhao, Shanwen Jiang, Yang Zhao, Xiaoyang Han, Xiaowei Guo, Xiangjing Wang, Wensheng Xiang
Two Gram-stain positive, aerobic actinomycete strains, designated NEAU-JGR1T and NEAU-JGC41, were isolated from soil collected from Fairy Lake Botanical Garden in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, south of China. The 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis showed that the two strains exhibited 99.5% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with each other and were closely related to Promicromonospora thailandica JCM 17130T (99.4, 99.3%) and Promicromonospora citrea DSM 43110T (99.2, 99.2%). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the two strains clustered together and formed a cluster with P...
May 19, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778799/physiological-vagility-affects-population-genetic-structure-and-dispersal-and-enables-migratory-capacity-in-vertebrates
#2
Thomas V Hancock, Michael S Hedrick
Vagility is defined as the relative capacity for movement. We developed previously a quantitative metric in vertebrates for physiological vagility (PV), the speed at which an animal can move sustainably, incorporating aerobic capacity, body size, body temperature, and transport costs, allowing quantitative tests of whether PV can explain variation in interclass population genetic structure and behaviors involved in dispersal. We found that PV increased with body mass, correlated with maximal dispersal distances, and was inversely related to genetic structure in multiple vertebrate groups...
May 17, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778689/network-analysis-of-a-proposed-exit-pathway-for-protons-to-the-p-side-of-cytochrome-c-oxidase
#3
Xiuhong Cai, Kamran Haider, Jianxun Lu, Slaven Radic, Chang Yun Son, Qiang Cui, M R Gunner
Cytochrome c Oxidase (CcO) reduces O2 , the terminal electron acceptor, to water in the aerobic respiration electron transport chain. The energy released by O2 reductions is stored by removing eight protons from the high pH, N-side, of the membrane with four used for chemistry in the active site and four pumped to the low pH, P-side. The proton transfers must occur along controllable proton pathways that prevent energy dissipating movement towards the N-side. The CcO N-side has well established D- and K-channels to deliver protons to the protein interior...
May 17, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778688/molecular-basis-of-diseases-caused-by-the-mtdna-mutation-m-8969g-a-in-the-subunit-a-of-atp-synthase
#4
Natalia Skoczeń, Alain Dautant, Krystyna Binko, François Godard, Marine Bouhier, Xin Su, Jean-Paul Lasserre, Marie-France Giraud, Déborah Tribouillard-Tanvier, Huimei Chen, Jean-Paul di Rago, Roza Kucharczyk
The ATP synthase which provides aerobic eukaryotes with ATP, organizes into a membrane-extrinsic catalytic domain, where ATP is generated, and a membrane-embedded FO domain that shuttles protons across the membrane. We previously identified a mutation in the mitochondrial MT-ATP6 gene (m.8969G>A) in a 14-year-old Chinese female who developed an isolated nephropathy followed by brain and muscle problems. This mutation replaces a highly conserved serine residue into asparagine at amino acid position 148 of the membrane-embedded subunit a of ATP synthase...
May 17, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778686/methane-correction-factors-for-estimating-emissions-from-aerobic-wastewater-treatment-facilities-based-on-field-data-in-mexico-and-on-literature-review
#5
A Noyola, M G Paredes, L P Güereca, L T Molina, M Zavala
Wastewater treatment (WWT) may be an important source of methane (CH4 ), a greenhouse gas with significant global warming potential. Sources of CH4 emissions from WWT facilities can be found in the water and in the sludge process lines. Among the methodologies for estimating CH4 emissions inventories from WWT, the more adopted are the guidelines of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which recommends default emission factors (Tier 1) depending on WWT systems. Recent published results show that well managed treatment facilities may emit CH4 , due to dissolved CH4 in the influent wastewater; in addition, biological nutrient removal also will produce this gas in the anaerobic (or anoxic) steps...
May 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778477/the-effects-of-microfluidization-on-the-physical-microbial-chemical-and-coagulation-properties-of-milk
#6
A J Bucci, D L Van Hekken, M H Tunick, J A Renye, P M Tomasula
This work examines the use of mild heat treatments in conjunction with 2-pass microfluidization to generate cheese milk for potential use in soft cheeses, such as Queso Fresco. Raw, thermized, and high temperature, short time pasteurized milk samples, standardized to the 3% (wt/wt) fat content used in cheesemaking, were processed at 4 inlet temperature and pressure conditions: 42°C/75 MPa, 42°C/125 MPa, 54°C/125 MPa, and 54°C/170 MPa. Processing-induced changes in the physical, chemical, and microbial properties resulting from the intense pressure, shear, and cavitation that milk experiences as it is microfluidized were compared with nonmicrofluidized controls...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778215/anaerobic-bacterial-response-to-nitrosative-stress
#7
Jeffrey A Cole
This chapter provides an overview of current knowledge of how anaerobic bacteria protect themselves against nitrosative stress. Nitric oxide (NO) is the primary source of this stress. Aerobically its removal is an oxidative process, whereas reduction is required anaerobically. Mechanisms required to protect aerobic and anaerobic bacteria are therefore different. Several themes recur in the review. First, how gene expression is regulated often provides clues to the physiological function of the gene products...
2018: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778214/emerging-roles-of-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-bacterial-physiology
#8
Elizabeth H Hutfless, Sujata S Chaudhari, Vinai C Thomas
Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent inhibitor of diverse cellular processes in bacteria. Therefore, it was surprising to discover that several bacterial species, primarily Gram-positive organisms, harboured a gene encoding nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Recent attempts to characterize bacterial NOS (bNOS) have resulted in the discovery of structural features that may allow it to function as a NO dioxygenase and produce nitrate in addition to NO. Consistent with this characterization, investigations into the biological function of bNOS have also emphasized a role for NOS-dependent nitrate and nitrite production in aerobic and microaerobic respiration...
2018: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778165/simultaneous-pyridine-biodegradation-and-nitrogen-removal-in-an-aerobic-granular-system
#9
Xiaodong Liu, Shijing Wu, Dejin Zhang, Jinyou Shen, Weiqing Han, Xiuyun Sun, Jiansheng Li, Lianjun Wang
Simultaneous pyridine biodegradation and nitrogen removal were successfully achieved in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) based on aerobic granules. In a typical SBR cycle, nitritation occurred obviously after the majority of pyridine was removed, while denitrification occurred at early stage of the cycle when oxygen consumption was aggravated. The effect of several key operation parameters, i.e., air flow rate, influent NH4 + -N concentration, influent pH and pyridine concentration, on nitritation, pyridine degradation and total nitrogen (TN) removal, was systematically investigated...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778158/community-structures-and-population-dynamics-of-candidatus-accumulibacter-in-activated-sludges-of-wastewater-treatment-plants-using-ppk1-as-phylogenetic-marker
#10
Wei Zeng, Limin Zhang, Pengchao Fan, Jingjing Guo, Yongzhen Peng
Candidatus Accumulibacter has been identified as dominant polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) in enhanced biological phosphorus (P) removal (EBPR) from wastewater. This study revealed the relevance of community structure, abundance and seasonal population dynamics of Candidatus Accumulibacter to process operation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in China using ppk1 gene as phylogenetic marker. All sludge samples had properties of denitrifying P removal using nitrate as an electron acceptor. Accumulibacter abundance in the anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A2 O) process was the highest (26% of total bacteria), and higher in winter than in summer with a better EBPR performance...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778148/qualitatively-and-quantitatively-assessing-the-aggregation-ability-of-sludge-during-aerobic-granulation-process-combined-xdlvo-theory-with-physicochemical-properties
#11
Shasha Yuan, Mingming Gao, Hui Ma, Muhammad Zaheer Afzal, Yun-Kun Wang, Mingyu Wang, Hai Xu, Shu-Guang Wang, Xin-Hua Wang
Inexact mechanism of aerobic granulation still impedes optimization and application of aerobic granules. In this study, the extended Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek (XDLVO) theory and physicochemical properties were combined to assess the aggregation ability of sludge during aerobic granulation process qualitatively and quantitatively. Results show that relative hydrophobicity of sludge and polysaccharide content of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) increased, while electronegativity of sludge decreased during acclimation phase...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777375/a-comparison-of-the-effects-of-antibiotics-probiotics-synbiotics-and-prebiotics-on-the-performance-and-carcass-characteristics-of-broilers
#12
Vahid Tayeri, Alireza Seidavi, Leila Asadpour, Clive J C Phillips
Routine use of the antibiotic flavomycin in broiler production may lead to resistance, and alternative growth promoters are used to enhance performance. Two hundred day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks were allocated to five dietary supplements included from d 1-42: flavomycin, three possible alternatives, a probiotic, prebiotic and a synbiotic, as well as a control treatment. There were four replicate cages of 10 birds each in each treatment. Compared with the control and antibiotics treatments, the probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic treatments increased (p = 0...
May 18, 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776987/mini-dose-glucagon-as-a-novel-approach-to-prevent-exercise-induced-hypoglycemia-in-type-1-diabetes
#13
Michael R Rickels, Stephanie N DuBose, Elena Toschi, Roy W Beck, Alandra S Verdejo, Howard Wolpert, Martin J Cummins, Brett Newswanger, Michael C Riddell
OBJECTIVE: Patients with type 1 diabetes who do aerobic exercise often experience a drop in blood glucose concentration that can result in hypoglycemia. Current approaches to prevent exercise-induced hypoglycemia include reduction in insulin dose or ingestion of carbohydrates, but these strategies may still result in hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. We sought to determine whether mini-dose glucagon (MDG) given subcutaneously before exercise could prevent subsequent glucose lowering, and to compare the glycemic response to current approaches for mitigating exercise-associated hypoglycemia...
May 18, 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776899/increasing-physical-activity-in-mothers-using-video-exercise-groups-and-exercise-mobile-apps-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Maya Nina Mascarenhas, June Maylin Chan, Eric Vittinghoff, Erin Lynn Van Blarigan, Frederick Hecht
BACKGROUND: Women significantly decrease their activity levels in the transition to motherhood. Digital health technologies are low cost, scalable, and can provide an effective delivery mechanism for behavior change. This is the first study that examines the use of videoconferencing and mobile apps to create exercise groups for mothers. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to test the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of an individually adaptive and socially supportive physical activity intervention incorporating videoconferencing and mobile apps for mothers...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776561/circulating-micrornas-as-emerging-cardiac-biomarkers-responsive-to-acute-exercise
#15
David de Gonzalo-Calvo, Alberto Dávalos, Manuel Fernández-Sanjurjo, Laura Amado-Rodríguez, Susana Díaz-Coto, Cristina Tomás-Zapico, Ana Montero, Ángela García-González, Vicenta Llorente-Cortés, Maria Eugenia Heras, Araceli Boraita Pérez, Ángel E Díaz-Martínez, Natalia Úbeda, Eduardo Iglesias-Gutiérrez
BACKGROUND: Circulating microRNAs (c-miRNAs) are mediators of intercellular communication with great potential as cardiac biomarkers. The analysis of c-miRNAs in response to physiological stress, such as exercise, would provide valuable information for clinical practice and a deeper understanding of the molecular response to physical activity. Here, we analysed for the first time the acute exercise response of c-miRNAs reported as biomarkers of cardiac disease in a well-characterized cohort of healthy active adults...
August 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776315/aerobic-training-reduces-oxidative-stress-in-skeletal-muscle-of-rats-exposed-to-air-pollution-and-supplemented-with-chromium-picolinate
#16
Bruna Marmett, Ramiro Barcos Nunes, Kellen Sábio de Souza, Pedro Dal Lago, Cláudia Ramos Rhoden
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of chromium picolinate (CrPic) supplementation associated with aerobic exercise using measures of oxidative stress in rats exposed to air pollution. METHODS: Sixty-one male Wistar rats were divided into eight groups: residual oil fly ash (ROFA) exposure and sedentary (ROFA-SED); ROFA exposure, sedentary and supplemented (ROFA-SED-CrPic); ROFA exposure and trained (ROFA-AT); ROFA exposure, supplemented and trained (ROFA-AT-CrPic); sedentary (Sal-SED); sedentary and supplemented (Sal-SED-CrPic); trained (Sal-AT); and supplemented and trained (Sal-AT-CrPic)...
December 2018: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775987/acute-effect-of-interval-walking-on-arterial-stiffness-in-healthy-young-adults
#17
Takanobu Okamoto, Seok-Ki Min, Mikako Sakamaki-Sunaga
The purpose of this study was to determine the acute effects of interval walking (IW) on arterial stiffness. The participants in this study were 14 healthy men and women (age 27.5±3.8 y). Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) was measured using an automatic oscillometric device at 30 min before (baseline) and at 30 and 60 min after walking. Participants repeated five sets of 3-min walks at 30% and 70% of maximum aerobic capacity for a total of 6 min per set in the IW trial. The participants also walked for 30 min at 50% (moderate intensity) of maximum aerobic capacity in a continuous walking (CW) trial...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775929/negative-impacts-of-elevated-nitrate-on-physiological-performance-are-not-exacerbated-by-low-ph
#18
Daniel F Gomez Isaza, Rebecca L Cramp, Craig E Franklin
Multiple environmental stressors, including nutrient effluents (i.e. nitrates [NO3 - ]) and altered pH regimes, influence the persistence of freshwater species in anthropogenically disturbed habitats. Independently, nitrate and low pH affect energy allocation by increasing maintenance costs and disrupting oxygen uptake, which ultimately results in impacts upon whole animal performance. However, the interaction between these two stressors has not been characterised. To address this, the effects of nitrate and pH and their interaction on aerobic scope and physiological performance were investigated in the blueclaw crayfish, Cherax destructor...
May 15, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775886/sprint-interval-training-sit-substantially-reduces-depressive-symptoms-in-major-depressive-disorder-mdd-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Alice Minghetti, Oliver Faude, Henner Hanssen, Lukas Zahner, Markus Gerber, Lars Donath
Continuous aerobic exercise training (CAT) is considered a complementary treatment option in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Intermittent exercise training protocols, such as sprint interval training (SIT) have gained increasing popularity, but no studies on depressive symptoms following SIT in patients with MDD are available. Fifty-nine in-patients with MDD were randomly assigned to a SIT or CAT group. Medication was counterbalanced in both intervention arms. Both intervention groups received 3 weekly training sessions for 4-weeks (12 sessions in total)...
May 8, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775761/the-bone-anabolic-effects-of-irisin-are-through-preferential-stimulation-of-aerobic-glycolysis
#20
Dingdong Zhang, ChuHyun Bae, Junghak Lee, Jiho Lee, Zeyu Jin, Myeongmo Kang, Young Suk Cho, Jeong-Han Kim, Weontae Lee, Sung-Kil Lim
Irisin, a recently identified hormone secreted by skeletal muscle in response to exercise, exhibits anabolic effects on the skeleton primarily through the stimulation of bone formation. However, the mechanism underlying the irisin-stimulated anabolic response remains largely unknown. To uncover the underlying mechanism, we biosynthesized recombinant irisin (r-irisin) using an Escherichia coli expression system and used it to treat several osteoblast cell types. Our synthesized r-irisin could promote proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts as evidenced by enhanced expression of osteoblast-specific transcriptional factors, including Runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2), Oster (Osx), as well as early osteoblastic differentiation markers such as alkaline phosphatase (Alp) and collagen type I alpha 1 (Col1a1)...
May 15, 2018: Bone
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