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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910749/role-of-toll-like-receptors-in-hepatitis-c-virus-pathogenesis-and-treatment
#1
Usman Ali Ashfaq, Muhammad Sarfaraz Iqbal, Saba Khaliq
Viral infections are rising every day, and viruses appear to be the most dangerous pathogens in the world. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is accepted as one of the major destructive factors of promoting severe hepatic disorders by infecting more than 180 million individuals throughout the world. Chronic infection caused by HCV poses a serious global health emergency and appears to be a powerful threat to humanity. Almost 20 years have passed since the disclosure of HCV, but even now, treatment preferences remain limited...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909057/structure-of-the-tir-domain-of-bcap-which-links-phosphoinositide-metabolism-with-the-negative-regulation-of-the-tlr-signalosome
#2
Samer Halabi, Eiki Sekine, Brett Verstack, Nicholas J Gay, Martin C Moncrieffe
Ligand binding to Toll-like receptors (TLRs) results in dimerization of their cytosolic TIR domains and recruitment of post-receptor signal transducers into a complex signalosome. TLR activation leads to the production of transcription factors, pro-inflammatory molecules and the activation of Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) in a process that requires the multi-modular B-cell Adaptor for Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (BCAP). BCAP has a sequence previously proposed as a "cryptic" TIR domain. Here, we present the structure of the N-terminal region of human BCAP and show that it possesses a canonical TIR-fold...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906549/anti-inflammatory-and-ros-suppressive-effects-of-the-addition-of-fiber-to-a-high-fat-high-calorie-meal
#3
Husam Ghanim, Manav Batra, Sanaa Abuaysheh, Kelly Green, Antoine Makdissi, Nitesh Kuhadiya, Ajay Chaudhuri, Paresh Dandona
BACKGROUND: Fiber intake is associated with a reduction in the occurrence of cardiovascular events and diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the addition of fiber to a high fat-high Calorie (HFHC) meal prevents pro-inflammatory changes induced by HFHC meal. DESIGN: Ten fasting normal subjects consumed HFHC meal with or without an additional 30g of insoluble dietary fiber on 2 separate visits. Blood samples were collected over 5hr and mononuclear cells (MNC) isolated...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905985/tlr7-8-agonist-induces-a-post-entry-samhd1-independent-block-to-hiv-1-infection-of-monocytes
#4
Henning Hofmann, Bénédicte Vanwalscappel, Nicolin Bloch, Nathaniel R Landau
BACKGROUND: Monocytes, the primary myeloid cell-type in peripheral blood, are resistant to HIV-1 infection as a result of the lentiviral restriction factor SAMHD1. Toll-like receptors recognize microbial pathogen components, inducing the expression of antiviral host proteins and proinflammatory cytokines. TLR agonists that mimic microbial ligands have been found to have activity against HIV-1 in macrophages. The induction of restriction factors in monocytes by TLR agonist activation has not been well studied...
December 1, 2016: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902761/tlr-2-recognizes-propionibacterium-acnes-camp-factor-1-from-highly-inflammatory-strains
#5
Coralie Lheure, Philippe Alain Grange, Guillaume Ollagnier, Philippe Morand, Nathalie Désiré, Sophie Sayon, Stéphane Corvec, Jöel Raingeaud, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Vincent Calvez, Amir Khammari, Frédéric Batteux, Brigitte Dréno, Nicolas Dupin
BACKGROUND: Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is an anaerobic, Gram-positive bacteria encountered in inflammatory acne lesions, particularly in the pilosebaceous follicle. P. acnes triggers a strong immune response involving keratinocytes, sebocytes and monocytes, the target cells during acne development. Lipoteicoic acid and peptidoglycan induce the inflammatory reaction, but no P. acnes surface protein interacting with Toll-like receptors has been identified. P. acnes surface proteins have been extracted by lithium stripping and shown to induce CXCL8 production by keratinocytes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899203/bioresorbable-scaffold-implantation-in-patients-with-indication-for-oral-anticoagulation-a-propensity-matched-analysis
#6
Niklas F Boeder, Victoria Johnson, Oliver Dörr, Jens Wiebe, Albrecht Elsässer, Helge Möllmann, Christian W Hamm, Holger M Nef, Timm Bauer
OBJECTIVES: To examine ischemic and bleeding outcomes in patients on triple antithrombotic therapy (TAT) compared with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after the implantation of bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS). BACKGROUND: The optimal antithrombotic regimen in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention that have an indication for oral anticoagulation is unclear, in particular among those undergoing BRS implantation. METHODS: Consecutive patients of a single-center, all-comers BRS registry were included...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898411/radioprotective-effects-of-heat-killed-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-cultured-cells-and-radiosensitive-tissues
#7
Yuanyuan Chen, Yang Xu, Jicong Du, Jiaming Guo, Xiao Lei, Jianguo Cui, Cong Liu, Ying Cheng, Bailong Li, Fu Gao, Jintao Ju, Jianming Cai, Yanyong Yang
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) often causes severe damage to radiosensitive tissues, which limits the use of radiotherapy in cancer patients. Novel safe and effective radioprotectant is urgently required. It has been reported toll like receptor 2 (TLR2) plays a critical role in radioresistance. In this study, we demonstrated the protective effects of Heat-Killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis (HKMT), a potent TLR2 agonist, against IR. METHODS: Cell survival and apoptosis were determined by CCK-8 assay and Annexin V assay, respectively...
November 30, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897392/toll-like-receptor-4-signalling-mediates-inflammation-in-skeletal-muscle-of-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#8
Daniela Verzola, Alice Bonanni, Antonella Sofia, Fabrizio Montecucco, Elena D'Amato, Valeria Cademartori, Emanuele Luigi Parodi, Francesca Viazzi, Chiara Venturelli, Giuliano Brunori, Giacomo Garibotto
BACKGROUND: Inflammation in skeletal muscle is implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and cachexia but why uremia up-regulates pro-inflammatory cytokines is unknown. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) regulate locally the innate immune responses, but it is unknown whether in chronic kidney disease (CKD) TLR4 muscle signalling is altered. The aim of the study is to investigate whether in CKD muscle, TLRs had abnormal function and may be involved in transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokine...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897273/a-novel-therapeutic-peptide-as-a-partial-agonist-of-rankl-in-ischemic-stroke
#9
Hitomi Kurinami, Munehisa Shimamura, Hironori Nakagami, Hideo Shimizu, Hiroshi Koriyama, Tomohiro Kawano, Kouji Wakayama, Hideki Mochizuki, Hiromi Rakugi, Ryuichi Morishita
The enhanced receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) ligand (RANKL) and its receptor (RANK) signal have been reported to attenuate ischemic brain injury through inhibition of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4-mediated inflammation. However, augmentation of the RANKL/RANK signal also accelerates osteoporosis, which is a potential problem in clinical use of RANKL. Therefore, we developed novel peptides, microglial healing peptides (MHPs), which were based on the DE and/or EF loop of RANKL. Among them, MHP1 was the most effective inhibitor of TLR4-induced inflammations in microglia/macrophages...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897208/beta-1-integrin-ligation-and-tlr-ligation-enhance-gm-csf-induced-aldh1a2-expression-in-dendritic-cells-but-differentially-regulate-their-anti-inflammatory-properties
#10
Aya Yokota-Nakatsuma, Yoshiharu Ohoka, Hajime Takeuchi, Si-Young Song, Makoto Iwata
Retinoic acid (RA)-producing CD103(+) mature dendritic cells (DCs) in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) play crucial roles in gut immunity. GM-CSF and RA contribute to the expression of the RA-producing enzyme ALDH1A2. However, additional signals appeared to be required for inducing ALDH1A2(high) mature DCs from immature DCs. We found here that TLR ligands (Ls) and immobilized E-cadherin could provide such signals in FLT3-L-generated bone marrow (BM)-derived DCs after treatment with GM-CSF and the RA receptor agonist Am80...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895422/genetic-polymorphism-in-cd14-gene-a-co-receptor-of-tlr4-associated-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#11
Shweta Kapil, Ajay Duseja, Bal Krishan Sharma, Bhupesh Singla, Anuradha Chakraborti, Ashim Das, Pallab Ray, Radha K Dhiman, Yogesh Chawla
AIM: To evaluate the pathogenic role of toll-like receptor (TLR) gene polymorphisms in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Two hundred and fifty subjects (NAFLD = 200, healthy volunteers = 50) underwent polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism to assess one polymorphism in the toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) gene (A753G), two polymorphisms in the TLR4 gene (TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile allele), and two polymorphisms in the cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) (C-159T and C-550T) gene, a co-receptor of TLR4...
November 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895399/altered-pattern-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-production-in-peripheral-blood-monocytes-from-crohn-s-disease
#12
Claudia Loganes, Alessia Pin, Samuele Naviglio, Martina Girardelli, Anna Monica Bianco, Stefano Martelossi, Alberto Tommasini, Elisa Piscianz
AIM: To evaluate the inflammatory state in Crohn's disease (CD) patients and correlate it with genetic background and microbial spreading. METHODS: By means of flow cytometry, production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was measured in peripheral blood monocytes from patients suffering from CD, ulcerative colitis (UC) and in healthy subjects after stimulation of the NOD2 and TLR pathways. CD patients were genotyped for the three most common NOD2 variants (R702W, G908R and L1007Pfs*2) and basal production of TNF-α was correlated to NOD2 genotype...
November 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895398/dysregulation-of-innate-immunity-in-ulcerative-colitis-patients-who-fail-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-therapy
#13
Angela C Baird, Dominic Mallon, Graham Radford-Smith, Julien Boyer, Thierry Piche, Susan L Prescott, Ian C Lawrance, Meri K Tulic
AIM: To study the innate immune function in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients who fail to respond to anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy. METHODS: Effects of anti-TNF therapy, inflammation and medications on innate immune function were assessed by measuring peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cytokine expression from 18 inflammatory bowel disease patients pre- and 3 mo post-anti-TNF therapy. Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression and cytokine production post TLR stimulation was assessed in UC "responders" (n = 12) and "non-responders" (n = 12) and compared to healthy controls (n = 12)...
November 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895172/pulmonary-dendritic-cell-subsets-shape-the-respiratory-syncytial-virus-specific-cd8-t-cell-immunodominance-hierarchy-in-neonates
#14
Allison M W Malloy, Tracy J Ruckwardt, Kaitlyn M Morabito, Annie W Lau-Kilby, Barney S Graham
Young infants are generally more susceptible to viral infections and experience more severe disease than do adults. CD8(+) T cells are important for viral clearance, and although often ineffective in neonates they can be protective when adequately stimulated. Using a murine CB6F1/J hybrid model of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, we previously demonstrated that the CD8(+) T cell immunodominance hierarchy to two RSV-derived epitopes, K(d)M282-90 and D(b)M187-195, was determined by the age at infection...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895126/versican-deficiency-significantly-reduces-lung-inflammatory-response-induced-by-polyinosine-polycytidylic-acid-stimulation
#15
Inkyung Kang, Ingrid A Harten, Mary Y Chang, Kathleen R Braun, Alyssa Sheih, Mary P Nivison, Pamela Y Johnson, Gail Workman, Gernot Kaber, Stephen P Evanko, Christina K Chan, Mervyn J Merrilees, Steven F Ziegler, Michael G Kinsella, Charles W Frevert, Thomas N Wight
Viral infection is an exacerbating factor contributing to chronic airway diseases such as asthma via mechanisms which are still unclear. Polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), a toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 agonist used as a mimetic to study viral infection, has been shown to elicit inflammatory responses in lungs and to exacerbate pulmonary allergic reactions in animal models. Previously, we have shown that poly I:C stimulates lung fibroblasts to accumulate an extracellular matrix (ECM), enriched in hyaluronan (HA) and its binding partner versican, which promotes monocyte adhesion...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894923/therapeutic-implications-of-toll-like-receptors-in-peripheral-neuropathic-pain
#16
REVIEW
Krishan K Thakur, Jyoti Saini, Kanika Mahajan, Dhyanendra Singh, Dinkar P Jaiswal, Srishti Mishra, Anupam Bishyaee, Gautam Sethi, Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara
Neuropathic pain is a state of chronic pain arising after peripheral or central nerve injury. These injuries can be mediated through the activation of various cells (astrocytes, microglia and Schwann cells), as well as the dissolution of distal axons. Recent studies have suggested that after nerve injury, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in Wallerian degeneration and generation of neuropathic pain. Furthermore, these TLRs are responsible for the stimulation of astrocytes and microglia that can cause induction of the proinflammatory mediators and cytokines in the spinal cord, thereby leading to the generation and maintenance of neuropathic pain...
November 25, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894569/five-year-outcomes-after-paclitaxel-coated-balloon-angioplasty-for-drug-eluting-stent-restenosis
#17
Katsuya Miura, Kazushige Kadota, Seiji Habara, Takenobu Shimada, Masanobu Ohya, Hidewo Amano, Shunsuke Kubo, Yusuke Hyodo, Suguru Otsuru, Takeshi Tada, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Yasushi Fuku, Tsuyoshi Goto
The long-term outcomes of patients who underwent paclitaxel-coated balloon (PCB) angioplasty for drug-eluting stent restenosis (DES-ISR) remain unclear. We investigated the 5-year safety and efficacy outcomes of PCB angioplasty for DES-ISR. The study included 185 patients with 216 DES-ISR lesions who underwent PCB angioplasty from September 2008 to December 2010. Two serial angiographic follow-ups were routinely scheduled at 6 and 18 months after the index procedure. Five-year clinical outcomes were investigated...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893851/expression-and-regulation-of-piwil-proteins-and-piwi-interacting-rnas-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#18
Lenka Pleštilová, Michel Neidhart, Giancarlo Russo, Mojca Frank-Bertoncelj, Caroline Ospelt, Adrian Ciurea, Christoph Kolling, Renate E Gay, Beat A Michel, Jiří Vencovský, Steffen Gay, Astrid Jüngel
OBJECTIVE: The PIWIL (P-element induced wimpy testis like protein) subfamily of argonaute proteins is essential for Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) biogenesis and their function to silence transposons during germ-line development. Here we explored their presence and regulation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: The expression of PIWIL genes in RA and osteoarthritis (OA) synovial tissues and synovial fibroblasts (SF) was analysed by Real-time PCR, immunofluorescence and Western blot...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892502/mitochondrial-fat-oxidation-is-essential-for-lipid-induced-inflammation-in-skeletal-muscle-in-mice
#19
Jaycob D Warfel, Estrellita M Bermudez, Tamra M Mendoza, Sujoy Ghosh, Jingying Zhang, Carrie M Elks, Randall Mynatt, Bolormaa Vandanmagsar
Inflammation, lipotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction have been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, how these factors are intertwined in the development of obesity/insulin resistance remains unclear. Here, we examine the role of mitochondrial fat oxidation on lipid-induced inflammation in skeletal muscle. We used skeletal muscle-specific Cpt1b knockout mouse model where the inhibition of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation results in accumulation of lipid metabolites in muscle and elevated circulating free fatty acids...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891600/human-pdcs-display-sex-specific-differences-in-type-i-interferon-subtypes-and-interferon-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-receptor-expression
#20
Susanne Ziegler, Claudia Beisel, Kathrin Sutter, Morgane Griesbeck, Heike Hildebrandt, Sven Hagen, Ulf Dittmer, Marcus Altfeld
The outcomes of many diseases differ between women and men, with women experiencing a higher incidence and more severe pathogenesis of autoimmune and some infectious diseases. It has been suggested that this is partially due to activation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), the main producers of interferon (IFN)-α, in response to toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 stimulation. We investigated the induction of type I IFN (IFN-I) subtypes upon TLR7 stimulation on isolated pDCs. Our data revealed a sex-specific differential expression of IFN-Is, with pDCs from females showing a significantly higher mRNA expression of all 13 IFNα-subtypes...
November 28, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
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