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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213301/mental-retirement-and-health-selection-analyses-from-the-u-s-health-and-retirement-study
#1
Sean A P Clouston, Nicole Denier
BACKGROUND: Research has recently suggested that retirement may decrease cognitive engagement, resulting in cognitive aging. Few studies have systematically documented whether or how selectivity into retirement shapes the relationship between retirement and cognitive aging. METHODS: We draw on data from the Health and Retirement Study (1998-2012) to examine the relationship between cognition and retirement for 18,575 labor force participants. Longitudinal regression discontinuity modeling was used to examine performance and decline in episodic memory...
January 22, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212525/ablation-of-ferroptosis-regulator-glutathione-peroxidase-4-in-forebrain-neurons-promotes-cognitive-impairment-and-neurodegeneration
#2
William Sealy Hambright, Rene Solano Fonseca, Liuji Chen, Ren Na, Qitao Ran
Synaptic loss and neuron death are the underlying cause of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the modalities of cell death in those diseases remain unclear. Ferroptosis, a newly identified oxidative cell death mechanism triggered by massive lipid peroxidation, is implicated in the degeneration of neurons populations such as spinal motor neurons and midbrain neurons. Here, we investigated whether neurons in forebrain regions (cerebral cortex and hippocampus) that are severely afflicted in AD patients might be vulnerable to ferroptosis...
February 1, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211810/therapeutics-of-neurotransmitters-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Ramesh Kandimalla, P Hemachandra Reddy
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, characterized by the loss of memory, multiple cognitive impairments and changes in the personality and behavior. Several decades of intense research have revealed that multiple cellular changes are involved in disease process, including synaptic damage, mitochondrial abnormalities and inflammatory responses, in addition to formation and accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) and phosphorylated tau. Although tremendous progress has been made in understanding the impact of neurotransmitters in the progression and pathogenesis of AD, we still do not have a drug molecule associated with neurotransmitter(s) that can delay disease process in elderly individuals and/or restore cognitive functions in AD patients...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211253/comparison-of-neurotoxicity-of-different-aggregated-forms-of-a%C3%AE-40-a%C3%AE-42-and-a%C3%AE-43-in-cell-cultures
#4
Lu Fu, Yao Sun, Yongqing Guo, Yan Chen, Bin Yu, Haihong Zhang, Jiaxin Wu, Xianghui Yu, Wei Kong, Hui Wu
The abnormal deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides in the brain is the main neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amyloid deposits are formed by a heterogeneous mixture of Aβ peptides, among which the most studied are Aβ40 and Aβ42. Aβ40 is abundantly produced in the human brain, but the level of Aβ42 is remarkably increased in the brain of AD patients. Aside from Aβ40 and Aβ42, recent data have raised the possibility that Aβ43 peptides may be instrumental in AD pathogenesis. Besides its length, whether the Aβ aggregated form accounts for the neurotoxicity is also particularly controversial...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209634/cognitive-decline-in-prostate-cancer-patients-undergoing-adt
#5
Niamh Liana Mundell, Robin M Daly, Helen Macpherson, Steve F Fraser
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is an effective and widely prescribed treatment for prostate cancer (PCa), but it is associated with multiple treatment induced adverse effects that impact on various musculoskeletal and cardiometabolic health outcomes. Emerging research has shown that ADT is also associated with cognitive impairment, which has been linked to a loss of independence, increased falls and fracture risk and greater use of medical services. The aim of this review is to outline the evidence related to the effect of ADT use on cognitive function, and propose a role for exercise training as part of usual care to prevent and/or manage cognitive impairments for PCa survivors on ADT...
February 16, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205585/neuronally-directed-effects-of-rxr-activation-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
M M Mariani, T Malm, R Lamb, T R Jay, L Neilson, B Casali, L Medarametla, G E Landreth
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by extensive neuron loss that accompanies profound impairments in memory and cognition. We examined the neuronally directed effects of the retinoid X receptor agonist bexarotene in an aggressive model of AD. We report that a two week treatment of 3.5 month old 5XFAD mice with bexarotene resulted in the clearance of intraneuronal amyloid deposits. Importantly, neuronal loss was attenuated by 44% in the subiculum in mice 4 months of age and 18% in layer V of the cortex in mice 8 months of age...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202716/pattern-separation-and-goal-directed-behavior-in-the-aged-canine
#7
Shikha Snigdha, Michael A Yassa, Christina deRivera, Norton W Milgram, Carl W Cotman
The pattern separation task has recently emerged as a behavioral model of hippocampus function and has been used in several pharmaceutical trials. The canine is a useful model to evaluate a multitude of hippocampal-dependent cognitive tasks that parallel those in humans. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the suitability of pattern separation task(s) for detecting age-related changes in canines. We also assessed the dogs' ability to show pattern separation and discrimination reversal, which provides a novel extension of the pattern separation learning literature...
March 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202389/targeting-the-hdac2-hnf-4a-mir-101b-ampk-pathway-rescues-tauopathy-and-dendritic-abnormalities-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Dan Liu, Hui Tang, Xin-Yan Li, Man-Fei Deng, Na Wei, Xiong Wang, Ya-Fan Zhou, Ding-Qi Wang, Peng Fu, Jian-Zhi Wang, Sébastien S Hébert, Jian-Guo Chen, Youming Lu, Ling-Qiang Zhu
Histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) plays a major role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Previous studies have shown that HDAC2 expression is strongly increased in Alzheimer's disease (AD), a major neurodegenerative disorder and the most common form of dementia. Moreover, previous studies have linked HDAC2 to Aβ overproduction in AD; however, its involvement in tau pathology and other memory-related functions remains unclear. Here, we show that increased HDAC2 levels strongly correlate with phosphorylated tau in a mouse model of AD...
February 12, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198431/investigation-of-hippocampal-synaptic-transmission-and-plasticity-in-mice-deficient-in-the-actin-binding-protein-drebrin
#9
Claudia G Willmes, Till G A Mack, Julia Ledderose, Dietmar Schmitz, Christian Wozny, Britta J Eickholt
The dynamic regulation of the actin cytoskeleton plays a key role in controlling the structure and function of synapses. It is vital for activity-dependent modulation of synaptic transmission and long-term changes in synaptic morphology associated with memory consolidation. Several regulators of actin dynamics at the synapse have been identified, of which a salient one is the postsynaptic actin stabilising protein Drebrin (DBN). It has been suggested that DBN modulates neurotransmission and changes in dendritic spine morphology associated with synaptic plasticity...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197195/myricetin-protects-hippocampal-ca3-pyramidal-neurons-and-improves-learning-and-memory-impairments-in-rats-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Matin Ramezani, Niloufar Darbandi, Fariba Khodagholi, Azam Hashemi
There is currently no treatment for effectively slowing the progression of Alzheimer's disease, so early prevention is very important. Numerous studies have shown that flavonoids can improve memory impairment. The present study investigated the effects of myricetin, a member of the flavonoids, on intracerebroventricular streptozotocin induced neuronal loss and memory impairment in rat models of Alzheimer's disease. Myricetin at 5 or 10 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected into rats over 21 days. Control rats were treated with 10 mL/kg saline...
December 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193736/down-regulation-of-cd73-on-b-cells-of-patients-with-viremic-hiv-correlates-with-b-cell-activation-and-disease-progression
#11
Eun-Seong Kim, Christin Ackermann, Ilona Tóth, Patrick Dierks, Johanna M Eberhard, Raluca Wroblewski, Felix Scherg, Matthias Geyer, Reinhold E Schmidt, Claudia Beisel, Maximilian Bockhorn, Friedrich Haag, Jan van Lunzen, Julian Schulze Zur Wiesch
Recently, alterations of the T cell expression of the ectonucleotidases, CD39 and CD73, during HIV infection have been described. Here, peripheral (n = 70) and lymph nodal B cells (n = 10) of patients with HIV at different stages of disease as well as uninfected individuals were analyzed via multicolor flow cytometry with regard to expression of CD39 and CD73 and differentiation, proliferation, and exhaustion status. Patients with chronic, untreated HIV showed a significantly decreased frequency of CD73-expressing B cells (P < 0...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192749/ascorbic-acid-ameliorates-behavioural-deficits-and-neuropathological-alterations-in-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Olayemi Joseph Olajide, Emmanuel Olusola Yawson, Ismail Temitayo Gbadamosi, Tolulope Timothy Arogundade, Ezra Lambe, Kosisochukwu Obasi, Ismail Tayo Lawal, Abdulmumin Ibrahim, Kehinde Yomi Ogunrinola
Exploring the links between neural pathobiology and behavioural deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and investigating substances with known therapeutic advantages over subcellular mechanisms underlying these dysfunctions could advance the development of potent therapeutic molecules for AD treatment. Here we investigated the efficacy of ascorbic acid (AA) in reversing aluminium chloride (AlCl3)-induced behavioural deficits and neurotoxic cascades within prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus of rats. A group of rats administered oral AlCl3 (100mg/kg) daily for 15days showed degenerative changes characterised by significant weight loss, reduced exploratory/working memory, frontal-dependent motor deficits, cognitive decline, memory dysfunction and anxiety during behavioural assessments compared to control...
February 6, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183559/factors-associated-with-blood-transfusion-during-intracranial-aneurysm-surgery
#13
Jessica N Yee, Antoun Koht, Robert J McCarthy, John F Bebawy
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors associated with intraoperative blood transfusions in patients presenting for intracranial aneurysm surgery in the current era of more restrictive transfusion guidelines. DESIGN: Retrospective observational cohort study with stepwise, multivariate binary logistic regression analysis. SETTING: Tertiary care university teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Four hundred seventy-one consecutive patients undergoing intracranial aneurysm surgery at Northwestern Memorial Hospital (Chicago, IL) from 2006 to 2012...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183402/the-effects-of-acute-inflammation-on-cognitive-functioning-and-emotional-processing-in-humans-a-systematic-review-of-experimental-studies
#14
REVIEW
Jessica Bollen, Leanne Trick, David Llewellyn, Chris Dickens
OBJECTIVE: The cognitive neuropsychological model of depression proposes that negative biases in the processing of emotionally salient information have a central role in the development and maintenance of depression. We have conducted a systematic review to determine whether acute experimental inflammation is associated with changes to cognitive and emotional processing that are thought to cause and maintain depression. METHODS: We identified experimental studies in which healthy individuals were administered an acute inflammatory challenge (bacterial endotoxin/vaccination) and standardised tests of cognitive function were performed...
March 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183366/effects-of-almond-consumption-on-the-post-lunch-dip-and-long-term-cognitive-function-in-energy-restricted-overweight-and-obese-adults
#15
Jaapna Dhillon, Sze-Yen Tan, Richard D Mattes
The post-lunch dip in cognition is a well-established phenomenon of decreased alertness, memory and vigilance after lunch consumption. Lunch composition reportedly influences the post-lunch dip. Moreover, dieting is associated with cognitive function impairments. The negative effects of dieting have been reversed with nut-supplemented diets. The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate the acute effect of an almond-enriched high-fat lunch or high-carbohydrate lunch on the post-lunch decline in cognitive function, and (2) evaluate the effects of chronic almond consumption as part of an energy-restricted diet on the memory and attention domains of cognitive function...
February 10, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182732/optimal-and-safe-standard-doses-of-midazolam-and-propofol-to-achieve-patient-and-doctor-satisfaction-with-dental-treatment-a-prospective-cohort-study
#16
Rikuo Masuda, Mutsumi Nonaka, Akiko Nishimura, Kinuko Gotoh, Shuichirou Oka, Takehiko Iijima
BACKGROUND: The incidences of morbidity and mortality caused by pharmacosedation for dental treatment have not yet reached zero. Adverse events are related to inappropriate respiratory management, mostly originating from an overdose of sedatives. Since sedation is utilized for the satisfaction of both the dentist and the patient, the optimal dose should be minimized to prevent adverse events. We attempted to define the optimal doses of midazolam and propofol required to achieve high levels of patient and dentist satisfaction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181977/a-synthesis-of-coping-experiences-after-infant-death
#17
Deborah Stiffler, Nicole Birch, Hailey Campbell, Deborah Cullen
The purpose of this article was to synthesize qualitative research data that examine parental coping strategies following infant death. This qualitative synthesis found that parents who effectively cope with the death of their infant would continue the bond with the deceased child, have differences in the way they manage their emotions about the loss, and have intergenerational support in the form of family being present, acknowledging the death, performing immediate tasks, and providing helpful information...
March 2017: Holistic Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181716/legacy-effects-and-memory-loss-how-contingencies-moderate-the-response-of-rocky-intertidal-biofilms-to-present-and-past-extreme-events
#18
Martina Dal Bello, Luca Rindi, Lisandro Benedetti-Cecchi
Understanding how historical processes modulate the response of ecosystems to perturbations is becoming increasingly important. In contrast to the growing interest in projecting biodiversity and ecosystem functioning under future climate scenarios, how legacy effects originating from historical conditions drive change in ecosystems remains largely unexplored. Using experiments in combination with Stochastic Antecedent Modelling, we evaluated how extreme warming, sediment deposition and grazing events modulated the ecological memory of rocky intertidal epilithic microphytobenthos (EMPB)...
February 9, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179386/cognitive-impairment-and-depressive-symptoms-coexisting-in-an-elderly-man
#19
Ruziana Masiran, Nicholas Tze Ping Pang
We report a case of a man aged 67 years presenting with recent depressive symptoms and paranoid ideations in addition to 1-year cognitive impairment. He has vascular risk factors and family history of memory loss. An episode of depression 2 decades ago resolved spontaneously but was followed by occupational decline. On mental state examination, he denied having depressed mood, hallucinations or delusions, but there were prominent word-finding difficulties and impaired attention and concentration.
February 8, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178861/ren%C3%A3-e-l-beard-living-with-alzheimer-s-managing-memory-loss-identity-and-illness-beard-ren%C3%A3-e-l-living-with-alzheimer-s-managing-memory-loss-identity-and-illness-new-york-university-press-new-york-usa-2016-338-pp-isbn-9781479889808-30-00-pbk
#20
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