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Memory Loss

Marion T Turnbull, Elizabeth J Coulson
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, irreversible neurodegenerative disease that destroys memory and cognitive function. Aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau protein are a prominent feature in the brain of patients with AD, and are a major contributor to neuronal toxicity and disease progression. However, the factors that initiate the toxic cascade that results in tau hyperphosphorylation in sporadic AD are unknown. Here we investigated whether degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) and/or a resultant decrease in neurotrophin signaling cause aberrant tau hyperphosphorylation...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Qian Cai, Prasad Tammineni
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by brain deposition of amyloid plaques and tau neurofibrillary tangles along with steady cognitive decline. Synaptic damage, an early pathological event, correlates strongly with cognitive deficits and memory loss. Mitochondria are essential organelles for synaptic function. Neurons utilize specialized mechanisms to drive mitochondrial trafficking to synapses in which mitochondria buffer Ca2+ and serve as local energy sources by supplying ATP to sustain neurotransmitter release...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Silvia Serino, Giuseppe Riva
In addition to impairments in episodic and spatial memory, anosognosia (i.e., loss of awareness of the deficient aspect of own cognitive functioning) may be considered an important cognitive marker of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, although a growing body of interesting models have been proposed to explain this early symptom, what is still missing is a unifying framework of all the characteristic signs occurring in patients with AD that may guide the search for its causal neuropathological process and, ultimately, the etiological process...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Anne M Murray, Fang-Chi Hsu, Jeff D Williamson, R Nick Bryan, Hertzel C Gerstein, Mark D Sullivan, Michael E Miller, Iris Leng, Laura L Lovato, Lenore J Launer
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The Memory in Diabetes (MIND) substudy of the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) study, a double 2x2 factorial parallel-group randomised clinical trial, tested whether intensive compared with standard management of hyperglycaemia, BP or lipid levels reduced cognitive decline and brain atrophy in 2977 people with type 2 diabetes. We describe the results of the observational extension study, ACCORDION MIND ( registration no. NCT00182910), which aimed to measure the long-term effects of the three ACCORD interventions on cognitive and brain structure outcomes approximately 4 years after the trial ended...
October 20, 2016: Diabetologia
Qian Qi, Mary M Cavanagh, Sabine Le Saux, Lisa E Wagar, Sally Mackey, Jinyu Hu, Holden Maecker, Gary E Swan, Mark M Davis, Cornelia L Dekker, Lu Tian, Cornelia M Weyand, Jörg J Goronzy
Vaccination with attenuated live varicella zoster virus (VZV) can prevent zoster reactivation, but protection is incomplete especially in an older population. To decipher the molecular mechanisms underlying variable vaccine responses, T- and B-cell responses to VZV vaccination were examined in individuals of different ages including identical twin pairs. Contrary to the induction of VZV-specific antibodies, antigen-specific T cell responses were significantly influenced by inherited factors. Diminished generation of long-lived memory T cells in older individuals was mainly caused by increased T cell loss after the peak response while the expansion of antigen-specific T cells was not affected by age...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Wang Kezhu, Xu Pan, Lu Cong, Dong Liming, Zhang Beiyue, Lu Jingwei, Yang Yanyan, Liu Xinmin
Ginsenoside Rg1 is one of the major active ingredients of Panax ginseng and has showed notable improving learning and memory effects in several behavioral tasks, such as water maze, shuttle-box, and step-through, based on avoidance. However, there was no report about the role of Rg1 on the performance of reward-directed instrumental conditioning, which could reflect the adaptive capacity to ever-changing environments. Thus, in this study, the reward devaluation test and conditional visual discrimination task were conducted to study the ameliorating effects of Rg1 on cognitive deficits, especially the loss of adaptation capacity in chronic restraint stress (CRS) rat model...
October 20, 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Erica M Barhorst-Cates, Kristina M Rand, Sarah H Creem-Regehr
Recent work with simulated reductions in visual acuity and contrast sensitivity has found decrements in survey spatial learning as well as increased attentional demands when navigating, compared to performance with normal vision. Given these findings, and previous work showing that peripheral field loss has been associated with impaired mobility and spatial memory for room-sized spaces, we investigated the role of peripheral vision during navigation using a large-scale spatial learning paradigm. First, we aimed to establish the magnitude of spatial memory errors at different levels of field restriction...
2016: PloS One
Poonam Piplani, Chhanda Charan Danta
BACKGROUND: In 2016, the statistical reports stated that Alzheimer is not just memory loss but it kills and has become the 6th leading cause of death. The number of dementia patients is increasing rapidly and expected to rise to 131.5 million by 2050. Still there is not a drug candidate that can cure the cognitive deficits completely. OBJECTIVE: Series of novel piperazine derivatives have been designed, synthesized and evaluated for cognition enhancing activity...
October 14, 2016: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Stephen Macfarlane, Daniel O'Connor
Most patients with dementia have some behavioural and psychological symptoms. While aggression and agitation are easily recognised, symptoms such as apathy may be overlooked. Behavioural and psychological symptoms should be managed without drugs whenever possible. Although there is little evidence to support their use, antipsychotic drugs are often prescribed to people with dementia. Before prescribing it is important to exclude other causes of altered behaviour, such as pain or infection. Some symptoms may be artefacts of memory loss rather than psychosis...
August 2016: Australian Prescriber
Bettina K Steiger, Hennric Jokeit
Social bonds are at the center of our daily living and are an essential determinant of our quality of life. In people with epilepsy, numerous factors can impede cognitive and affective functions necessary for smooth social interactions. Psychological and psychiatric complications are common in epilepsy and may hinder the processing of social information. In addition, neuropsychological deficits such as slowed processing speed, memory loss or attentional difficulties may interfere with enjoyable reciprocity of social interactions...
October 11, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Salma Jamal, Sukriti Goyal, Asheesh Shanker, Abhinav Grover
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex progressive neurodegenerative disorder commonly characterized by short term memory loss. Presently no effective therapeutic treatments exist that can completely cure this disease. The cause of Alzheimer's is still unclear, however one of the other major factors involved in AD pathogenesis are the genetic factors and around 70 % risk of the disease is assumed to be due to the large number of genes involved. Although genetic association studies have revealed a number of potential AD susceptibility genes, there still exists a need for identification of unidentified AD-associated genes and therapeutic targets to have better understanding of the disease-causing mechanisms of Alzheimer's towards development of effective AD therapeutics...
October 18, 2016: BMC Genomics
Yutaka Imai
It has been confirmed that clinical significance of home blood pressure measurements (HBPM) is higher than clinic BP measurements and ambulatory BP monitoring. However, several drawbacks of HBPM have also been mentioned, e.g. selection and reporting biases, difficulties of calculation of multiple measurements, difficulties of onsite judgement of numerous recordings, etc. Recent devices for HBPM incorporate memory function. This function can overcome such drawbacks of HBPM. These memorized data can transmit, storage, retrieve, be arithmetic and control, be judged based on algorithm and be got feedback...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Yuda Turana
Observational studies have conveyed the connection between hypertension and cognitive impairment. Several forms of dementia are more frequent in hypertensive subjects or those with previous history of hypertension compared to subjects with normal blood pressure.In many studies, hypertension occuring in mid-life is a risk factor of dementia occuring in later age. Long-standing hypertension will induce structural damages in the brain. It is also widely known that hypertension attributes to small vessel diseases causing lacunar infarcts and white matter lesions associated with cognitive decline...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Joanne Paton, Sam Glasser, Richard Collings, Jon Marsden
BACKGROUND: Over 1 in 3 older people with diabetes sustain a fall each year. Postural instability has been identified as independent risk factor for falls within people with Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN). People with DPN, at increased risk of falls, are routinely required to wear offloading insoles, yet the impact of these insoles on postural stability and postural control is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a standard offloading insole and its constituent parts on the balance in people with DPN...
2016: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
Natalia A Stefanova, Natalia A Muraleva, Kseniya Yi Maksimova, Ekaterina A Rudnitskaya, Elena Kiseleva, Darya V Telegina, Nataliya G Kolosova
Mitochondrial aberrations are observed in human Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in medical conditions that increase the risk of this disorder, suggesting that mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to pathophysiology of AD. Here, using OXYS rats that simulate key characteristics of sporadic AD, we set out to determine the role of mitochondria in the pathophysiology of this disorder. OXYS rats were treated with a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 from age 12 to 18 months, that is, during active progression of AD-like pathology in these animals...
October 6, 2016: Aging
Stephanie Cosentino, Carolyn Zhu, Elodie Bertrand, Janet Metcalfe, Sarah Janicki, Sarah Cines
Disordered awareness of memory loss (i.e., anosognosia) is a frequent and clinically relevant symptom of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The metacognitive errors which characterize anosognosia in AD, however, have not been fully articulated. The current study examined metamemory performance as a function of clinically defined awareness groups using different task conditions to examine the extent to which specific metacognitive deficits (i.e., detecting, integrating, or being explicitly aware of errors) contribute to anosognosia in AD (n = 49)...
August 13, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Juliana Sorraila de Oliveira, Fátima Husein Abdalla, Guilherme Lopes Dornelles, Stephen Adeniyi Adefegha, Taís Vidal Palma, Cristiane Signor, Jamile da Silva Bernardi, Jucimara Baldissarelli, Luana Suéling Lenz, Luana Pereira Magni, Maribel Antonello Rubin, Micheli Mainardi Pillat, Cinthia Melazzo de Andrade
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of berberine (BRB) on spatial and learning memory, anxiety, acetylcholinesterase activity and cell death in an experimental model of intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) induced sporadic Alzheimer's-like dementia. Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups: control (CTR), BRB 50mg/kg (BRB 50), BRB 100mg/kg (BRB 100), streptozotocin (STZ), streptozotocin plus BRB 50mg/kg (STZ+BRB 50), and streptozotocin plus BRB 100mg/kg (STZ+BRB 100)...
October 13, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Helena Soler, Jonatan Dorca-Arévalo, Marta González, Sara Esmeralda Rubio, Jesús Ávila, Eduardo Soriano, Marta Pascual
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia nowadays, has been linked to alterations in the septohippocampal pathway (SHP), among other circuits in the brain. In fact, the GABAergic component of the SHP, which controls hippocampal rhythmic activity crucial for learning and memory, is altered in the J20 mouse model of AD-a model that mimics the amyloid pathology of this disease. However, AD is characterized by another pathophysiological hallmark: the hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of the microtubule-associated protein Tau...
September 15, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Ruth L F Leong, June C Lo, Sam K Y Sim, Hui Zheng, Jesisca Tandi, Juan Zhou, Michael W L Chee
Although East Asia harbors the largest number of aging adults in the world, there is currently little data clarifying the longitudinal brain-cognition relationships in this group. Here, we report structural MRI and neuropsychological findings from relatively healthy Chinese older adults of the Singapore-Longitudinal Aging Brain Study cohort over 8 years of follow up (n = 111, mean age = 67.1 years, range = 56.1-83.1 years at baseline). Aging-related change in structural volume was observed, with total cerebral atrophy at -0...
October 11, 2016: NeuroImage
Bandhan Mukherjee, Qi Yuan
The interactions of L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) and NMDA receptors (NMDARs) in memories are poorly understood. Here we investigated the specific roles of anterior piriform cortex (aPC) LTCCs and NMDARs in early odor preference memory in mice. Using calcium imaging in aPC slices, LTCC activation was shown to be dependent on NMDAR activation. Either D-APV (NMDAR antagonist) or nifedipine (LTCC antagonist) reduced somatic calcium transients in pyramidal cells evoked by lateral olfactory tract stimulation. However, nifedipine did not further reduce calcium in the presence of D-APV...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
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