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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903654/carbon-and-acyl-chain-flux-during-stress-induced-triglyceride-accumulation-by-stable-isotopic-labeling-of-the-polar-microalga-coccomyxa-subellipsoidea-c169
#1
James W Allen, Concetta C DiRusso, Paul N Black
Deriving biofuels and other lipoid products from algae is a promising future technology directly addressing global issues of atmospheric CO2 balance. To better understand the metabolism of triglyceride synthesis in algae, we examined their metabolic origins in the model species, Coccomyxa subellipsoidea C169, using stable isotopic labeling. Labeling patterns arising from (13)C-U-glucose, (13)CO2, or D2O supplementation were analyzed by GC-MS and/or LC-MS over time courses during nitrogen (N) starvation to address the roles of catabolic carbon (C) recycling, acyl chain redistribution, and de novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis during the expansion of the lipid bodies...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903322/non-use-of-day-care-services-for-dementia-in-singapore-a-dilemma-for-caregivers
#2
Shan Huang, Konstadina Griva, Christina A Bryant, Philip Yap
BACKGROUND: Day care services for patients with dementia (PWD) are generally under-utilized worldwide despite evidence of positive outcomes, such as improved behavioral, psychological, and cognitive functioning for patients, and reduced caregiver burden. This study sought to gain an in-depth understanding of the reasons for non-utilization of day care services in Singapore using qualitative methodology. METHODS: A purposive sample of 16 caregivers of PWD who had never attended day care services participated in semi-structured interviews...
December 1, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901246/chemotherapy-for-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-in-the-elderly-population
#3
Fábio Nasser Santos, Tiago Biachi de Castria, Marcelo Rocha Souza Cruz, Rachel Riera
BACKGROUND: Approximately 50% of patients with newly diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are over 70 years of age at diagnosis. Despite this fact, these patients are underrepresented in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). As a consequence, the most appropriate regimens for these patients are controversial, and the role of single-agent or combination therapy is unclear. In this setting, a critical systematic review of RCTs in this group of patients is warranted. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of different cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens for previously untreated elderly patients with advanced (stage IIIB and IV) NSCLC...
September 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900850/hybridization-between-pollination-syndromes-as-an-ecological-and-evolutionary-resource
#4
Quentin Cronk, Ji Yong Yang
In plants, pollination syndromes (the correlated presence of many features of relevance to pollination mode, for instance pollination by a particular animal clade) are a striking feature of plant biodiversity, providing great floral phenotypic diversity (Fenster et al. ). Adaptation to a particular animal pollinator provides an explanation for why recently diverged plants can have such extreme differentiation in floral form. One might expect such elaborate adaptations to provide a high degree of pollinator specificity and hence reproductive isolation, but there are many cases where substantial gene flow exists between extreme floral morphs (see Table 1), and the resulting hybrids may be highly fertile...
December 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895707/fungal-fermentation-on-anaerobic-digestate-for-lipid-based-biofuel-production
#5
Yuan Zhong, Zhiguo Liu, Christine Isaguirre, Yan Liu, Wei Liao
BACKGROUND: Anaerobic digestate is the effluent from anaerobic digestion of organic wastes. It contains a significant amount of nutrients and lignocellulosic materials, even though anaerobic digestion consumed a large portion of organic matters in the wastes. Utilizing the nutrients and lignocellulosic materials in the digestate is critical to significantly improve efficiency of anaerobic digestion technology and generate value-added chemical and fuel products from the organic wastes...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895554/systemic-radical-scavenger-treatment-of-a-mouse-model-of-rett-syndrome-merits-and-limitations-of-the-vitamin-e-derivative-trolox
#6
Oliwia A Janc, Marc A Hüser, Katharina Dietrich, Belinda Kempkes, Christiane Menzfeld, Swen Hülsmann, Michael Müller
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder typically arising from spontaneous mutations in the X-chromosomal methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. The almost exclusively female Rett patients show an apparently normal development during their first 6-18 months of life. Subsequently, cognitive- and motor-impairment, hand stereotypies, loss of learned skills, epilepsy and irregular breathing manifest. Early mitochondrial impairment and oxidative challenge are considered to facilitate disease progression...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894707/missteps-in-current-estimates-of-cancer-overdiagnosis
#7
Christoph I Lee, Ruth Etzioni
The balance between the benefits and harms of imaging-based cancer screening continues to be an area of controversy and widespread media attention. Of the potential harms, overdiagnosis from screening is likely the most elusive in estimating and quantifying. This article describes the major methodological issues with recently reported estimates of overdiagnosis that are based on excess cancer incidence, and suggests that modeling focused on tumor lead-time can serve as a complementary method for excess incidence-based overdiagnosis estimates...
November 25, 2016: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893717/androgen-and-ar-contribute-to-breast-cancer-development-and-metastasis-an-insight-of-mechanisms
#8
J Feng, L Li, N Zhang, J Liu, L Zhang, H Gao, G Wang, Y Li, Y Zhang, X Li, D Liu, J Lu, B Huang
The role of androgen and androgen receptor (AR) in breast carcinogenesis has long been a disputed issue. This report provides a mechanistic insight into how androgen and AR contributes to invasion and metastasis of breast cancer. We find that dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is able to induce the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cells in an AR-dependent/estrogen receptor-independent manner. This process is dependent on the demethylation activity of lysine-specific demethylase 1A (LSD1) by epigenetically regulating the target genes E-cadherin and vimentin...
November 28, 2016: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893566/validity-and-reliability-of-a-portable-balance-tracking-system-btracks-in-older-adults
#9
Susan S Levy, Katie J Thralls, Shiloah A Kviatkovsky
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Falls are the leading cause of disability, injury, hospital admission, and injury-related death among older adults. Balance limitations have consistently been identified as predictors of falls and increased fall risk. Field measures of balance are limited by issues of subjectivity, ceiling effects, and low sensitivity to change. The gold standard for measuring balance is the force plate; however, its field use is untenable due to high cost and lack of portability...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892683/computer-simulation-for-improving-radio-frequency-rf-heating-uniformity-of-food-products-a-review
#10
Zhi Huang, Francesco Marra, Jeyamkondan Subbiah, Shaojin Wang
Radio frequency (RF) heating has great potential for achieving rapid and volumetric heating in foods, providing safe and high quality food products due to deep penetration depth, moisture self-balance effects, and leaving no chemical residues. However, the non-uniform heating problem (usually resulting in hot and cold spots in the heated product) needs to be resolved. The inhomogeneous temperature distribution not only affects the quality of the food but also raises the issue of food safety when the microorganisms or insects may not be controlled in the cold spots...
November 28, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891023/capacity-issues-and-decision-making-in-dementia
#11
REVIEW
Soumya Hegde, Ratnavalli Ellajosyula
Capacity to make one's own decisions is fundamental to the autonomy of the individual. Capacity is a functional assessment made by a clinician to determine if a patient is capable of making a specific decision. Competency is a global assessment and legal determination made by a judge in court. Capacity evaluation for a patient with dementia is used to determine whether the patient is capable of giving informed consent, participate in research, manage their finances, live independently, make a will, and have ability to drive...
October 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888152/an-improved-methodology-to-overcome-key-issues-in-human-fecal-metagenomic-dna-extraction
#12
Jitendra Kumar, Manoj Kumar, Shashank Gupta, Vasim Ahmed, Manu Bhambi, Rajesh Pandey, Nar Singh Chauhan
Microbes are ubiquitously distributed in nature, and recent culture-independent studies have highlighted the significance of gut microbiota in human health and disease. Fecal DNA is the primary source for the majority of human gut microbiome studies. However, further improvement is needed to obtain fecal metagenomic DNA with sufficient amount and good quality but low host genomic DNA contamination. In the current study, we demonstrate a quick, robust, unbiased, and cost-effective method for the isolation of high molecular weight (> 23 kb) metagenomic DNA (260/280 ratio > 1...
November 22, 2016: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885972/protecting-the-confidentiality-and-security-of-personal-health-information-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-in-the-era-of-sdgs-and-big-data
#13
Eduard J Beck, Wayne Gill, Paul R De Lay
BACKGROUND: As increasing amounts of personal information are being collected through a plethora of electronic modalities by statutory and non-statutory organizations, ensuring the confidentiality and security of such information has become a major issue globally. While the use of many of these media can be beneficial to individuals or populations, they can also be open to abuse by individuals or statutory and non-statutory organizations. Recent examples include collection of personal information by national security systems and the development of national programs like the Chinese Social Credit System...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885747/exploring-the-relationship-between-nursing-hours-per-patient-day-and-mortality-rate-of-hospitalised-patients-in-taiwan
#14
Yu-Chun Chang, Miaofen Yen, Sheng-Mao Chang, Ya-Ming Liu
AIM: To investigate the relationship between nursing hours per patient day and the inpatient mortality rate in Taiwan. BACKGROUND: Nursing hours per patient day has been associated with better patient outcomes. The literature is inconclusive on the relationship between nursing hours per patient day and the inpatient mortality rate, and no studies have yet examined this issue in Taiwan. METHODS: A retrospective longitudinal study analysed data from the 'Nursing Utilization of Resources, Staffing and Environment on Outcome Study: NURSE-outcome study'...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Nursing Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884459/balance-evaluation-techniques-and-physical-therapy-in-post-stroke-patients-a-literature-review
#15
REVIEW
Eglė Lendraitienė, Agnė Tamošauskaitė, Daiva Petruševičienė, Raimondas Savickas
A stroke (cerebrovascular accident - CVA) is a significant social-economic issue. Approximately 15-30% of all patients develop life-long disability, 20% require over 3 months of specialized care in healthcare institutions, and the majority of the patients never recover the ability to maintain a proper vertical position. Such CVA sequelae as balance disturbances not only negatively affect patients' daily physical activity, but also result in social isolation. A number of standardized clinical scales, tests, and instrumental examination techniques have been proposed for evaluating not only post-CVA balance function, but also any changes in this function following various interventions...
November 17, 2016: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882630/workplace-stress-burnout-and-coping-a-qualitative-study-of-the-experiences-of-australian-disability-support-workers
#16
Megan J Judd, Kate P Dorozenko, Lauren J Breen
Disability support workers (DSWs) are the backbone of contemporary disability support services and the interface through which disability philosophies and policies are translated into practical action. DSWs often experience workplace stress and burnout, resulting in a high turnover rate of employees within the non-professional disability service workforce. The full implementation of the National Disability Insurance Scheme in Australia is set to intensify the current challenges of attracting and retaining DSWs, as the role becomes characterised by greater demands, ambiguity and conflict...
November 23, 2016: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881743/intralocus-sexual-conflict-and-insecticide-resistance
#17
M F Hawkes, C E Gamble, E C R Turner, M R Carey, N Wedell, D J Hosken
The BA allele of the Drosophila cytochrome P450 gene Cyp6g1 confers resistance to a range of insecticides. It is also subject to intralocus sexual conflict when introgressed into the Canton-S background, whose collection predates the widespread use of insecticides. In this genetic background, the allele confers a pleiotropic fitness benefit to females but a cost to males, and exhibits little sexual dimorphism in conferred insecticide resistance. It is unclear whether these sexually antagonistic effects also exist in current populations that have naturally evolved with insecticides, where genetic modifiers that offset male costs might be expected to evolve...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881254/health-technology-assessment-international-reference-pricing-and-budget-control-tools-from-china-s-perspective-what-are-the-current-developments-and-future-considerations
#18
Liling Koh, Christoph Glaetzer, Shu Chuen Li, Meng Zhang
BACKGROUND: China is investing considerably in health care reforms to address issues in its health care system. An example is access to innovative drugs, which remains challenging because it is largely dependent on patient self-pay. Recognizing this, the government has invested considerably in its basic medical insurance. As health care expenditure increases, there are growing concerns on budget control. Several health policy tools have been discussed recently such as health technology assessment, international reference pricing, and hospital budget control tools, which can be viewed as addressing the affordability concerns of the government budget...
May 2016: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874250/immunosuppression-in-pediatric-liver-transplant-recipients-unique-aspects
#19
REVIEW
Miloh Tamir, Barton Andrea, Wheeler Justin, Pham Yen, Hewitt Winston, Keegan Tara, Sanchez Christine, Bulut Pinar, Goss John
Pediatric liver transplantation has experienced improved outcomes over the last 50 years. This can be attributed in part to establishing optimal use of immunosuppressive agents to achieve a balance between minimizing the risks of allograft rejection and infection. The management of immunosuppression in children is generally more complex and can be challenging when compared to the use of these agents in adult liver transplant patients. Physiologic differences in children alter the pharmacokinetics of immunosuppressive agents, which affects absorption, distribution, metabolism and drug excretion...
November 22, 2016: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872968/new-functions-and-potential-applications-of-amino-acids
#20
Hisayuki Uneyama, Hisamine Kobayashi, Naoto Tonouchi
Currently, several types of amino acids are being produced and used worldwide. Nevertheless, several new functions of amino acids have been recently discovered that could result in other applications. For example, oral stimulation by glutamate triggers the cephalic phase response to prepare for food digestion. Further, the stomach and intestines have specific glutamate-recognizing systems in their epithelial mucosa. Regarding clinical applications, addition of monosodium glutamate to the medicinal diet has been shown to markedly enhance gastric secretion in a vagus-dependent manner...
November 22, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
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