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Cardiopulmonary exercise testing AND athletes

Paul Urbain, Lena Strom, Lena Morawski, Anja Wehrle, Peter Deibert, Hartmut Bertz
BACKGROUND: The ketogenic diet (KD) is a very low-carbohydrate, high-fat and adequate-protein diet that without limiting calories induces different metabolic adaptations, eg, increased levels of circulating ketone bodies and a shift to lipid metabolism. Our objective was to assess the impact of a 6-week non-energy-restricted KD in healthy adults beyond cohorts of athletes on physical performance, body composition, and blood parameters. METHODS: Our single arm, before-and-after comparison study consisted of a 6-week KD with a previous preparation period including detailed instructions during classes and individual counselling by a dietitian...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
Thu-Thao Le, Jennifer Ann Bryant, Alicia Er Ting, Pei Yi Ho, Boyang Su, Raymond Choon Chye Teo, Julian Siong-Jin Gan, Yiu-Cho Chung, Declan P O'Regan, Stuart A Cook, Calvin Woon-Loong Chin
BACKGROUND: Exercise cardiovascular magnetic resonance (ExCMR) has great potential for clinical use but its development has been limited by a lack of compatible equipment and robust real-time imaging techniques. We developed an exCMR protocol using an in-scanner cycle ergometer and assessed its performance in differentiating athletes from non-athletes. METHODS: Free-breathing real-time CMR (1.5T Aera, Siemens) was performed in 11 athletes (5 males; median age 29 [IQR: 28-39] years) and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (7 males; median age 26 [interquartile range (IQR): 25-33] years)...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Artur Haddad Herdy, Luiz Eduardo Fonteles Ritt, Ricardo Stein, Claudio Gil Soares de Araújo, Mauricio Milani, Romeu Sérgio Meneghelo, Almir Sérgio Ferraz, Carlos Hossri, Antonio Eduardo Monteiro de Almeida, Miguel Morita Fernandes-Silva, Salvador Manoel Serra
Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) has been gaining importance as a method of functional assessment in Brazil and worldwide. In its most frequent applications, CPET consists in applying a gradually increasing intensity exercise until exhaustion or until the appearance of limiting symptoms and/or signs. The following parameters are measured: ventilation; oxygen consumption (VO2); carbon dioxide production (VCO2); and the other variables of conventional exercise testing. In addition, in specific situations, pulse oximetry and flow-volume loops during and after exertion are measured...
November 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
Shuaib M Abdullah, Kyler W Barkley, Paul S Bhella, Jeffrey L Hastings, Susan Matulevicius, Naoki Fujimoto, Shigeki Shibata, Graeme Carrick-Ranson, M Dean Palmer, Nainesh Gandhi, Laura F DeFina, Benjamin D Levine
BACKGROUND: Recent reports have suggested that long-term, intensive physical training may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects, including the development of myocardial fibrosis. However, the dose-response association of different levels of lifelong physical activity on myocardial fibrosis has not been evaluated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seniors free of major chronic illnesses were recruited from predefined populations based on the consistent documentation of stable physical activity over >25 years and were classified into 4 groups by the number of sessions/week of aerobic activities ≥30 minutes: sedentary (group 1), <2 sessions; casual (group 2), 2 to 3 sessions; committed (group 3), 4 to 5 sessions; and Masters athletes (group 4), 6 to 7 sessions plus regular competitions...
November 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
Julie Depiazzi, Mark L Everard
Excessive exercise-induced shortness of breath is a common complaint. For some, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction is the primary cause and for a small minority there may be an alternative organic pathology. However for many, the cause will be simply reaching their physiological limit or be due to a functional form of dysfunctional breathing, neither of which require drug therapy.The physiological limit category includes deconditioned individuals, such as those who have been through intensive care and require rehabilitation, as well as the unfit and the fit competitive athlete who has reached their limit with both of these latter groups requiring explanation and advice...
June 2016: Breathe
Katarina Bojanić, Ruža Grizelj, Daniel Dilber, Dalibor Šarić, Jurica Vuković, Paolo T Pianosi, David J Driscoll, Toby N Weingarten, Ena Pritišanac, Darrell R Schroeder, Juraj Sprung
BACKGROUND: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is associated with lung hypoplasia. CDH survivors may have pulmonary morbidity that can decrease cardiopulmonary exercise. We aimed to examine whether cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) results differ in CDH survivors versus healthy age-matched controls and whether CPET results among CDH survivors differ according to self-reported daily activity. METHODS: In one medical center in Croatia, CDH survivors-patients with surgically corrected CDH who were alive at age 5 years-were invited to participate in spirometry and CPET...
December 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Patrick D Savage, Kim Dittus, Susan G Lakoski
PURPOSE: This is a case study of an aerobically trained, multisport, female athlete (age = 39) diagnosed with stage IIIc human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive breast cancer. The focus of the study is on measures of cardiorespiratory fitness (V˙O2peak) through the course of cancer therapy. METHODS: A symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise tolerance test was performed to determine V˙O2peak. The tests were performed at five different time points: 1) at diagnosis of breast cancer and before initiating chemotherapy, 2) after completion of chemotherapy (5 months postdiagnosis), 3) 2...
October 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Jiewen Zheng, Congying Ha, Zhengbo Zhang
Ambulatory recording of physiological data will provide us deep insight into the physical condition of patients and athletes, and assessing treatment effects and training performances. This study presents a miniature wearable cardiopulmonary monitoring system called "Smart Chest Strap," which consists of an elastic band worn around the user's chest with integrated sensors, a physiological signals acquisition unit, and a mobile phone. The physiological signals including electrocardiogram, respiratory inductance plethysmograph, and accelerations (ACC) are sampled, digitalized, stored, and simultaneously transmitted to a mobile phone via Bluetooth...
May 13, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Philipp Bohm, Günther Schneider, Lutz Linneweber, Axel Rentzsch, Nadine Krämer, Hashim Abdul-Khaliq, Wilfried Kindermann, Tim Meyer, Jürgen Scharhag
BACKGROUND: It is under debate whether the cumulative effects of intensive endurance exercise induce chronic cardiac damage, mainly involving the right heart. The aim of this study was to examine the cardiac structure and function in long-term elite master endurance athletes with special focus on the right ventricle by contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-three healthy white competitive elite male master endurance athletes (age range, 30-60 years) with a training history of 29±8 years, and 33 white control subjects pair-matched for age, height, and weight underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing, echocardiography including tissue-Doppler imaging and speckle tracking, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance...
May 17, 2016: Circulation
Nicole Nelson, Chad A Asplund
There are different modalities of exercise testing that can provide valuable information to physicians about patient and athlete fitness and cardiopulmonary status. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) is a form of exercise testing that measures ventilatory and gas exchange, heart rate, electrocardiogram, and blood pressures to provide detailed information on the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and muscular systems. This testing allows an accurate quantification of functional capacity/measure of exercise tolerance, diagnosis of cardiopulmonary disease, disease-progression monitoring or response to intervention, and the prescription of exercise and training...
March 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Daniel Dumitrescu, Felix Gerhardt, Thomas Viethen, Matthias Schmidt, Eckhard Mayer, Stephan Rosenkranz
BACKGROUND: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a progressive disease. For patients with operable CTEPH, there is a clear recommendation for surgical removal of persistent thrombi by pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA). However, without the presence of PH, therapeutic management of chronic thromboembolic disease (CTED) is challenging - especially in highly trained subjects exceeding predicted values of maximal exercise capacity. CASE PRESENTATION: A 43-year-old male athlete reported with progressive exercise limitation since 8 months...
January 28, 2016: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Tianzhao Xu, Qiulian Zhou, Lin Che, Saumya Das, Lemin Wang, Jinfa Jiang, Guanghe Li, Jiahong Xu, Jianhua Yao, Hongbao Wang, Yue Dai, Junjie Xiao
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a major cause of hospitalizations, morbidity, and mortality in Western societies. In addition to optimal medical and device therapy, exercise training is an important adjunct treatment option for CHF patients. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) participate in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. Dynamic regulation of circulating miRNAs during exercise in healthy persons and athletes has recently been documented, however, the response of circulating miRNAs to exercise in CHF patients is undetermined...
March 15, 2016: Oncotarget
Ana Paula Rennó Sierra, Anderson Donelli da Silveira, Ricardo Contesini Francisco, Rodrigo Bellios de Mattos Barretto, Carlos Anibal Sierra, Romeu Sergio Meneghelo, Maria Augusta Peduti Dal Molin Kiss, Nabil Ghorayeb, Ricardo Stein
BACKGROUND: Prolonged aerobic exercise, such as running a marathon, produces supraphysiological stress that can affect the athlete's homeostasis. Some degree of transient myocardial dysfunction ("cardiac fatigue") can be observed for several days after the race. OBJECTIVE: To verify if there are changes in the cardiopulmonary capacity, and cardiac inotropy and lusitropy in amateur marathoners after running a marathon. METHODS: The sample comprised 6 male amateur runners...
February 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
Katja I Braam, Elisabeth M van Dijk-Lokkart, Gertjan J L Kaspers, Tim Takken, Jaap Huisman, Marc B Bierings, Johannes H M Merks, Marry M van de Heuvel-Eibrink, Eline van Dulmen-den Broeder, Margreet A Veening
PURPOSE: This study assessed cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), physical activity (PA), and sedentary behavior (SB), as well as factors associated with these outcomes in children during or shortly after cancer treatment. METHODS: Cross-sectionally, CRF data, obtained by the cardiopulmonary exercise test, and PA and SB data, obtained by an accelerometer, were assessed in children with cancer (8-18 years old). Linear regression models were used to determine associations between CRF, PA, or SB and patient characteristics...
May 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Christoph Zinner, Billy Sperlich, Patrick Wahl, Joachim Mester
Incremental exercise testing is frequently used as a tool for evaluating determinants of endurance performance. The available reference values for the peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), % of VO2peak, running speed at the lactate threshold (vLT), running economy (RE), and maximal running speed (vpeak) for different age, gender, and disciplines are not sufficient for the elite athletic population. The key variables of 491 young athletes (age range 12-21 years; 250 males, 241 females) assessed during a running step test protocol (2...
2015: SpringerPlus
Jelena Suzic Lazic, Milica Dekleva, Ivan Soldatovic, Roman Leischik, Slavica Suzic, Dragan Radovanovic, Biljana Djuric, Dejan Nesic, Milivoje Lazic, Sanja Mazic
There is compelling evidence that postexercise heart rate recovery (HRR) is a valid indicator of sympaticovagal balance. It is also used in prescription and monitoring of athletic training. The purpose of our study was to determine HRR after maximal exercise among elite athletes with respect to age. A total of 274 elite male Caucasian athletes were randomly selected from the larger sample and divided into two groups: adolescent (group Y) and adult athletes (≥18 years; group A). They performed maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a treadmill...
March 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Leonida Compostella, Russo Nicola, Setzu Tiziana, Compostella Caterina, Bellotto Fabio
BACKGROUND: Cardiac autonomic dysfunction, clinically expressed by reduced heart rate variability (HRV), is present in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and is related to the degree of left ventricular dysfunction. In athletes, HRV is an indicator of ability to improve performance. No similar data are available for CHF. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess whether HRV could predict the capability of CHF patients to improve physical fitness after a short period of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR)...
November 2014: Research in Cardiovascular Medicine
Jodi L Zilinski, Miranda E Contursi, Stephanie K Isaacs, James R Deluca, Gregory D Lewis, Rory B Weiner, Adolph M Hutter, Pierre A d'Hemecourt, Christopher Troyanos, K Sophia Dyer, Aaron L Baggish
BACKGROUND: Myocardial adaptations to exercise have been well documented among competitive athletes. To what degree cardiac remodeling occurs among recreational exercisers is unknown. We sought to evaluate the effect of recreational marathon training on myocardial structure and function comprehensively. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male runners (n=45; age, 48±7 years; 64% with ≥1 cardiovascular risk factor) participated in a structured marathon-training program. Echocardiography, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and laboratory evaluation were performed pre and post training to quantify changes in myocardial structure and function, cardiorespiratory fitness, and traditional cardiac risk parameters...
February 2015: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
Sanja Mazic, Jelena Suzic Lazic, Milica Dekleva, Milena Antic, Ivan Soldatovic, Marina Djelic, Dejan Nesic, Tijana Acimovic, Milivoje Lazic, Biljana Lazovic, Slavica Suzic
OBJECTIVES: Hypertension is one of the most prevalent cardiovascular disorders in athletes. The aims of our study were to assess the impact of elevated blood pressure (BP) on exercise capacity in athletes and evaluate the differences in left ventricular structure and function. METHODS: Elite male athletes (n=517, aged 23±5years) underwent Doppler echocardiography with tissue Doppler imaging. Diastolic function was assessed by measuring peak early and late transmitral (E and A) and annular diastolic filling velocities (e' and a')...
February 1, 2015: International Journal of Cardiology
Antonio Eduardo Monteiro de Almeida, Charles de Moraes Stefani, João Agnaldo do Nascimento, Narla Miranda de Almeida, Amilton da Cruz Santos, Jorge Pinto Ribeiro, Ricardo Stein
BACKGROUND: The equations predicting maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max or peak) presently in use in cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) softwares in Brazil have not been adequately validated. These equations are very important for the diagnostic capacity of this method. OBJECTIVE: Build and validate a Brazilian Equation (BE) for prediction of VO2peak in comparison to the equation cited by Jones (JE) and the Wasserman algorithm (WA). METHODS: Treadmill evaluation was performed on 3119 individuals with CPET (breath by breath)...
October 2014: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
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