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Goat milk

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100852/allergenicity-of-milk-of-different-animal-species-in-relation-to-human-milk
#1
Robert Pastuszka, Joanna Barłowska, Zygmunt Litwińczuk
Protein content in cow milk (with over 20 proteins, and peptides may also occur as a result of enzymatic hydrolysis) ranges from 2.5% to 4.2% and is about 1.5-2 times higher than in human milk. Its most important allergens are considered to be β-lactoglobulin (absent in human milk) and αs1-casein. The most similar in composition to human milk is horse and donkey milk. It contains considerably more whey proteins (35-50%) than cow milk (about 20%), and the concentration of the most allergenic casein fraction αs1 is 1...
December 31, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098228/unique-bacteria-community-composition-and-co-occurrence-in-the-milk-of-different-ruminants
#2
Zhipeng Li, André-Denis G Wright, Yifeng Yang, Huazhe Si, Guangyu Li
Lactation provides the singular source of nourishment to the offspring of mammals. This nutrition source also contains a diverse microbiota affecting the development and health of the newborn. Here, we examined the milk microbiota in water deer (Hydropotes inermis, the most primitive member of the family Cervidae), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus, the oldest semi-domesticated cervid), and the dairy goat (Capra aegagrus, member of the family Bovidae), to determine if common milk microbiota species were present across all three ruminant species...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095188/mir-148a-and-mir-17-5p-synergistically-regulate-milk-tag-synthesis-via-ppargc1a-and-ppara-in-goat-mammary-epithelial-cells
#3
Zhi Chen, Jun Luo, Shuang Sun, Duoyao Cao, Huaiping Shi, Juan J Loor
MicroRNA (miRNA) are a class of '18-25' nt RNA molecules which regulate gene expression and play an important role in several biological processes including fatty acid metabolism. Here we utilized S-Poly (T) and high-throughput sequencing to evaluate the expression of miRNA and mRNA during early-lactation and in the non-lactating ("dry") period in goat mammary gland tissue. Results indicated that miR-148a, miR-17-5p, PPARGC1A and PPARA are highly expressed in the goat mammary gland in early-lactation and non-lactating periods...
January 17, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088415/qualitative-and-quantitative-adulteration-identification-of-milk-powder-using-the-dna-with-novel-extraction-method
#4
J Liao, Y F Liu, T Ku, M H Liu, Y Huang
The extraction of high-quality DNA from processed dairy products can often represent the crucial step in an authentication process by PCR-based methods. In this study, we optimized a novel DNA extraction method for milk powder and used the extracted DNA for identification of milk powder based on PCR analysis. The DNA quality was assessed by amplifying target sequences from mitochondrial genes, as well as by monitoring the yield, purity, and integrity of the extracted DNA. In addition, a laboratory adulteration model of milk powder was detected by PCR-based methods (PCR and real-time PCR) using primers targeting the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078083/over-expression-of-toll-like-receptor-2-up-regulates-heme-oxygenase-1-expression-and-decreases-oxidative-injury-in-dairy-goats
#5
Shoulong Deng, Kun Yu, Wuqi Jiang, Yan Li, Shuotian Wang, Zhuo Deng, Yuchang Yao, Baolu Zhang, Guoshi Liu, Yixun Liu, Zhengxing Lian
BACKGROUND: Mastitis, an infection caused by Gram-positive bacteria, produces udder inflammation and oxidative injury in milk-producing mammals. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is important for host recognition of invading Gram-positive microbes. Over-expression of TLR2 in transgenic dairy goats is a useful model for studying various aspects of infection with Gram-positive bacteria, in vivo. METHODS: We over-expressed TLR2 in transgenic dairy goats. Pam3CSK4, a component of Gram-positive bacteria, triggered the TLR2 signal pathway by stimulating the monocytes-macrophages from the TLR2-positive transgenic goats, and induced over-expression of activator protein-1 (AP-1), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and inflammation factors downstream of the signal pathway...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075607/efficacy-of-an-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-srp-vaccine-in-orally-challenged-goats-and-strain-persistence-over-time
#6
Jacob M Swift, Derek M Foster, Anna T Rogers, Hannah J Sylvester, Emily H Griffith, Megan E Jacob
Small ruminants have been implicated in outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 at livestock exhibitions throughout the United States. Additionally, goat meat or milk may serve as a reservoir for foodborne transmission of the organism. These associations highlight the public health importance of an effective strategy to reduce E. coli O157:H7 shedding in goats. We examined the efficacy of the SRP(®) vaccine in goats orally challenged with E. coli O157:H7. Mixed-breed goats (n = 14) were randomly allocated into vaccinated and unvaccinated treatments (n = 7 per treatment)...
January 11, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072914/presence-of-pathogenic-rickettsiae-and-protozoan-in-samples-of-raw-milk-from-cows-goats-and-sheep
#7
Ewa Cisak, Violetta Zając, Jacek Sroka, Anna Sawczyn, Anna Kloc, Jacek Dutkiewicz, Angelina Wójcik-Fatla
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present work was to determine the presence of various rickettsiae and protozoan in raw milk and the assessment the potential, milk-borne route in the spread of selected zoonotic pathogens. MATERIALS: A total of 119 raw milk samples collected randomly from 63 cows, 29 goats, and 27 sheep bred on 34 farms situated on eight communities in eastern Poland were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the presence of pathogenic rickettsiae (Coxiella burnetii, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp...
January 10, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071005/fermentation-optimization-of-goat-milk-with-lactobacillus-acidophilus-and-bifidobacterium-bifidum-by-box-behnken-design
#8
Guowei Shu, Chunju Bao, He Chen, Changfeng Wang, Hui Yang
BACKGROUND: Goat milk is only limited to the processing of goat milk powder and liquid milk, the products are mainly about milk powder and a few of them are made as milk tablet. Therefore, the study of probiotic goat milk will have great significance in the full use of goats and the development of the goat milk industry in China. METHODS: The effect of fermentation temperature (35°C, 37°C, 39°C), strain ratio (1:1:1, 2:1:1, 3:1:1) and inoculum size (4%, 5%, 6%) on viable counts of L...
April 2016: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068003/brucella-abortus-is-prevalent-in-both-humans-and-animals-in-bangladesh
#9
A K M A Rahman, C Saegerman, D Berkvens, F Melzer, H Neubauer, D Fretin, E Abatih, N Dhand, M P Ward
To determine the role of different Brucella (B.) spp. in Bangladesh, 62 animal samples and 500 human sera were tested. Animal samples from cattle, goats and sheep (including milk, bull semen, vaginal swabs and placentas) were cultured for Brucella spp. Three test-positive human sera and all animal samples were screened by Brucella genus-specific real-time PCR (RT-PCR), and positive samples were then tested by IS711 RT-PCR to detect B. abortus and B. melitensis DNA. Only B. abortus DNA was amplified from 13 human and six animal samples...
January 9, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053783/novel-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitory-peptides-from-caseins-and-whey-proteins-of-goat-milk
#10
Hisham R Ibrahim, Ahmed S Ahmed, Takeshi Miyata
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) plays a central role in blood pressure regulation by producing the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II. The inhibition of ACE with natural inhibitors, as alternatives to avoid the side effect of synthetic drugs, is a major target in the prevention of hypertension. In this study, we examined the separated caseins and whey proteins of goat milk for the presence of ACE inhibitory peptides. Digestion of isolated whey proteins and caseins of goat milk by gastric pepsin generated soluble hydrolysates exhibiting significant inhibition of ACE compared to weak inhibition by undigested proteins...
January 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045194/the-effect-of-increasing-levels-of-date-palm-phoenix-dactylifera-l-seed-on-the-performance-ruminal-fermentation-antioxidant-status-and-milk-fatty-acid-profile-of-saanen-dairy-goats
#11
M Sharifi, M Bashtani, A A Naserian, H Farhangfar
This study was conducted to examine the effect of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seed (DPS) on the performance, ruminal fermentation, antioxidant status and milk fatty acid (FA) profile of dairy goats. Eight multiparous Saanen dairy goats, averaging 97 ± 7 days in milk (DIM) and 2150 ± 130 g of milk production, were used in a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design. Experimental diets contained 0% (control), 6% (DPS6), 12% (DPS12) and 18% (DPS18) of DPS. Dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and the composition and digestibility of the dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and crude protein (CP) were not affected by the diets...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043568/isolation-and-molecular-identification-of-mycobacterium-from-commercially-available-pasteurized-milk-and-raw-milk-samples-collected-from-two-infected-cattle-farms-in-alborz-province-iran
#12
Mohsen Eftekhari, Nader Mosavari
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is an etiological agent of Johne's disease in ruminant including cattle, sheep and goats. This disease is considered an economically important disease in cattle. Animals with paratuberculosis shed viable MAP, particularly in their milk and feces. MAP may be involved in the development of Crohn's disease in humans through the consumption of contaminated milk and dairy products. Common methods of pasteurization are not enough to kill all MAP present in the milk and the bacterium has been isolated from raw milk, pasteurized milk and cheese samples...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042050/novel-technical-strategies-to-optimize-cryopreservation-of-goat-semen-using-cholesterol-loaded-cyclodextrin
#13
Vianney M Salmon, Pierre Leclerc, Janice L Bailey
Artificial insemination is well-established in dairy cattle, with sires housed in commercial studs for processing. In some species, however, sires located on-farm are used for artificial insemination by shipping their semen to an off-site laboratory for processing within 24 h of collection. To expedite semen transport from the farm to laboratory, protocols must be uncomplicated. For goat semen, an obstacle is the seminal plasma, which must be removed because it contains proteins that impede sperm quality. Our objective is to develop a simple strategy to transiently store goat semen for 24 h prior to freezing...
December 29, 2016: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012619/relationship-of-mammary-gland-health-status-and-other-noninfectious-factors-with-electrical-conductivity-of-milk-in-manchega-ewes
#14
G Romero, A Roca, M Alejandro, R Muelas, J R Díaz
Measuring the electrical conductivity (EC) of milk during milking has been extensively studied in cattle as a low-cost mastitis detection method that can be easily automated. The aim of this work was to study the effect of the health status of the glands and several noninfectious factors (lactation stage, milking session, and lactation number) that affect the use of EC measurement of milk to detect mastitis in dairy sheep livestock. Likewise, we studied the relation between EC and milk composition (macrocomposition and mineral content) and between EC and somatic cell count (SCC)...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011111/improving-the-quantity-quality-and-transparency-of-data-used-to-derive-radionuclide-transfer-parameters-for-animal-products-2-cow-milk
#15
B J Howard, C Wells, C L Barnett, D C Howard
Under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) MODARIA (Modelling and Data for Radiological Impact Assessments) Programme, there has been an initiative to improve the derivation, provenance and transparency of transfer parameter values for radionuclides from feed to animal products that are for human consumption. A description of the revised MODARIA 2016 cow milk dataset is described in this paper. As previously reported for the MODARIA goat milk dataset, quality control has led to the discounting of some references used in IAEA's Technical Report Series (TRS) report 472 (IAEA, 2010)...
February 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989103/detecting-positive-selection-of-korean-native-goat-populations-using-next-generation-sequencing
#16
Wonseok Lee, Sojin Ahn, Mengistie Taye, Samsun Sung, Hyun-Jeong Lee, Seoae Cho, Heebal Kim
Goats (Capra hircus) are one of the oldest species of domesticated animals. Native Korean goats are a particularly interesting group, as they are indigenous to the area and were raised in the Korean peninsula almost 2,000 years ago. Although they have a small body size and produce low volumes of milk and meat, they are quite resistant to lumbar paralysis. Our study aimed to reveal the distinct genetic features and patterns of selection in native Korean goats by comparing the genomes of native Korean goat and crossbred goat populations...
December 2016: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981504/isolation-identification-and-screening-of-potential-probiotic-bacteria-in-milk-from-south-african-saanen-goats
#17
Goitsemang Makete, Olayinka A Aiyegoro, Mapitsi S Thantsha
This study aimed to evaluate lactic acid bacteria isolates from Saanen goats' milk for probiotic attributes, thereby determining their potential as direct-fed microbials for goats. Isolates were identified using API 50CH system, 16S rDNA sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. All 17 isolates obtained were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum except one identified as Pediococcus acidilactici. Four isolates identified as L. plantarum (Accession numbers KJ026587...
December 15, 2016: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979267/development-of-new-nir-spectroscopy-method-combined-with-multivariate-analysis-for-detection-of-adulteration-in-camel-milk-with-goat-milk
#18
Fazal Mabood, Farah Jabeen, Manzor Ahmed, Javid Hussain, Saaida A A Al Mashaykhi, Zainb M A Al Rubaiey, Saim Farooq, Ricard Boqué, Liaqat Ali, Zahid Hussain, Ahmed Al-Harrasi, Abdul Latif Khan, Zakira Naureen, Mohammed Idrees, Suryyia Manzoor
New NIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis for detection and quantification of camel milk adulteration with goat milk was investigated. Camel milk samples were collected from Aldhahira and Sharqia regions of Sultanate of Oman and were measured using NIR spectroscopy in absorption mode in the wavelength range from 700 to 2500nm, at 2cm(-1) resolution and using a 0.2mm path length CaF2 sealed cell. The multivariate methods like PCA, PLS-DA and PLS regression were used for interpretation of NIR spectral data...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979140/development-of-a-laboratory-technique-for-the-evaluation-of-protease-enzymes-activity-in-goat-and-sheep-milk
#19
Raffaele Palomba, Giorgio Formisano, Assunta Arrichiello, Giuseppe Auriemma, Fiorella Sarubbi
The shelf life of milk and its products is strongly influenced by the quality of raw milk. Several bacteria present in raw milk can produce proteases: among them, those from psychotropic microorganisms (e.g. Bacillus subtilis), which produce enzymes under refrigeration, cause the most serious problem. The interaction of these enzymes with the milk proteins and the main proteolytic enzymes becomes important in determining the quality of the milk. An artificial substrate (azocasein) was used to quantify the enzyme activity through the release of a chromogenic product that was measured spectrophotometrically after clarifying the sample by the addition of trichloroacetic acid...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974399/serological-analysis-of-tuberculosis-in-goats-using-the-enferplex-caprine-tb-multiplex-test
#20
Amanda O'Brien, Clare Whelan, John B Clarke, Alastair Hayton, Neil J Watt, Gordon D Harkiss
Tuberculosis in goats is usually diagnosed clinically, at post-mortem, or by a positive skin test. However, none of these approaches detects all infected animals. Serology offers an additional tool to identify infected animals missed by current tests. We describe the use of the Enferplex Caprine TB serology test to aid management of a large dairy goat herd undergoing a tuberculosis breakdown. Initial skin and serology testing showed that IgG antibodies were present in 100% of skin test positive animals in both serum and milk, and in 77...
December 14, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
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