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Goat milk

H B Shi, Y Du, C H Zhang, C Sun, Y L He, Y H Wu, J X Liu, J Luo, J J Loor
Increased production of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids (LCUFA) can have a positive effect on the nutritional value of ruminant milk for human consumption. In nonruminant species, fatty acid elongase 5 (ELOVL5) is a key enzyme for endogenous synthesis of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids. However, whether ELOVL5 protein plays a role (if any) in ruminant mammary tissue remains unclear. In the present study, we assessed the mRNA abundance of ELOVL5 at 3 stages of lactation in goat mammary tissue. Results revealed that ELOVL5 had the lowest expression at peak lactation compared with the nonlactating and late-lactating periods...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Guangjun Chang, Jinyu Yan, Nana Ma, Xinxin Liu, Hongyu Dai, Muhammad Shaid Bilal, Xiangzhen Shen
Eighteen lactating goats (38.86 ± 2.06 kg) were randomly allocated to three groups. One group was fed a low-concentrate (LC) diet (forage:concentrate = 6:4, LC), while the other two groups were fed a high-concentrate (HC) diet (forage:concentrate = 4:6, HC) or an HC diet supplemented with sodium butyrate (BHC) for 20 weeks. Samples of ruminal fluid, milk, hepatic blood plasma, and mammary gland tissue were prepared for the experimental analysis. The LPS concentration, caspase-3 and -8 enzymatic activity, caspase-3 and -8 mRNA expression, and NF-κB (p65), phosphorylated-p65, bax, cytochrome C, and caspase-3 protein expression were higher in the HC group than those in the LC group; however, the levels of these parameters were lower in the BHC group than those in the HC group...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Alexis Burakoff, Kerri Brown, Joyce Knutsen, Christina Hopewell, Shannon Rowe, Christy Bennett, Alicia Cronquist
In August 2016, a local public health agency (LPHA) notified the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) of two culture-confirmed cases of Campylobacter infection among persons who consumed raw (unpasteurized) milk from the same herdshare dairy. In Colorado, the sale of raw milk is illegal; however, herdshare programs, in which a member can purchase a share of a herd of cows or goats, are legal and are not regulated by state or local authorities. In coordination with LPHAs, CDPHE conducted an outbreak investigation that identified 12 confirmed and five probable cases of Campylobacter jejuni infection...
February 9, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Perpetuini Giorgia, Tittarelli Fabrizia, Mattarelli Paola, Modesto Monica, Cilli Elisabetta, Suzzi Giovanna, Tofalo Rosanna
In this study, 29 strains of Kluyveromyces marxianus with peculiar genetic and phenotypic traits previously isolated from a fermented goat milk of Yaghnob valley were investigated for chromosome length polymorphism (CLP) by PFGE, adhesion properties and carbon usage by Biolog analysis. Obtained data showed that strains differed in terms of number and size of chromosome bands. The number of bands ranged from 5 to 7, suggesting a probable genome size from 1.4 to 2.6 Mb. Strains showed a certain level of cell surface hydrophobicity ranging from 32% to 77...
February 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Lu Meng, Huimin Liu, Lei Dong, Nan Zheng, Mengru Xing, Yangdong Zhang, Shengguo Zhao, Jiaqi Wang
Commercial milk products worldwide come not only from cows, but also from goats, buffaloes, camels, and yaks. Milk from non-bovine animals is important culturally and economically. Pseudomonas spp. are frequently linked to milk spoilage under storage temperatures. The objectives of this study were to identify Pseudomonas spp. isolated from goat, buffalo, camel, and yak milks, and to measure proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. under different storage temperatures. Raw milk samples of goat (n = 50), buffalo (n = 25), camel (n = 25), and yak (n = 25) were collected from 5 provinces in China...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Bárbara Socas-Rodríguez, Javier Hernández-Borges, Antonio V Herrera-Herrera, Miguel Ángel Rodríguez-Delgado
In this work, the suitability of Fe3O4 nanoparticles coated with polydopamine was evaluated as sorbent for the extraction of a group of 21 compounds with oestrogenic activity including seven phytoestrogens, six mycotoxins as well as four synthetic and four natural oestrogens from different types of milk, including sheep milk, in which the evaluation of oestrogenic compounds have never been developed before. Extraction was carried out using magnetic micro-dispersive solid-phase extraction after a previous deproteinisation step...
February 1, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Xiaoyan Zhang, Sihuan Zhang, Lin Ma, Enhui Jiang, Han Xu, Rui Chen, Qing Yang, Hong Chen, Zhuanjian Li, Xianyong Lan
DNA methylation (DNAm), a major element of epigenetics, plays critical roles in individual development. Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) is an effective and economical method for analyzing the DNA methylation of a single base. The aims of this study were to determine the DNAm profiles of the methylation contexts (CGs and non-CGs) of lactation and dry periods of goat mammary glands using the RRBS, and to identify potential milk-related genes. The proportion of CG was the highest among all the sequence contexts...
December 29, 2017: Oncotarget
M Lasagno, M Ortiz, C Vissio, R Yaciuk, C Bonetto, M Pellegrino, C Bogni, L Odierno, C Raspanti
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the most frequently isolated bacteria in cases of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. CNS species may differ in their pathogenicity, but very little is known about their virulence factors or their immune response in intramammary infections. To our knowledge, no experimental studies into the mastitis pathogenesis caused by CNS have been described in lactating goats. The aim of this study was to induce an experimentally Staphylococcus chromogenes mastitis in lactating goats aimed at verifying if the model can be used to evaluate the inflammatory response, the dynamics of infection and the pathological findings within the first hours of intramammary inoculation...
January 19, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Nemanja V Kljajevic, Igor B Tomasevic, Zorana N Miloradovic, Aleksandar Nedeljkovic, Jelena B Miocinovic, Snezana T Jovanovic
The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of climatic conditions and their impact on seasonal variations of physico-chemical characteristics of Saanen goat milk produced over a period of 4 years. Lactation period (early, mid and late) and year were considered as factors that influence physico-chemical composition of milk. Pearson's coefficient of correlation was calculated between the physico-chemical characteristics of milk (fat, proteins, lactose, non-fat dry matter, density, freezing point, pH, titrable acidity) and climatic condition parameters (air temperature, temperature humidity index-THI, solar radiation duration, relative humidity)...
January 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Samane Rahmdel, Saeid Hosseinzadeh, Seyed Shahram Shekarforoush, Sandra Torriani, Veronica Gatto, Safoora Pashangeh
In this study, 28 bacteriocinogenic Staphylococcus strains isolated from goat and sheep milk were subjected to the PCR detection of enterotoxin genes (sea-see), enterotoxin-like toxin Q gene (selq), toxic shock syndrome toxin gene (tst1), and antibiotic resistance genes. They were also evaluated for phenotypic resistance against 10 antibiotics and hemolytic activity. The tyramine and histamine production was investigated using the agar plate assay and capillary zone electrophoretic analysis (CZE). Twenty-five isolates harbored at least one enterotoxin gene...
January 17, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Yuying Zhu, Jianmin Wang, Cunfang Wang
Taking fresh goat milk as raw material after filtering, centrifuging, hollow fiber ultrafiltration, allocating formula, value detection and preparation processing, a set of 10 goat milk mixed standard substances was prepared on the basis of one-factor-at-a-time using a uniform design method, and its accuracy, uniformity and stability were evaluated by paired t-test and F-test of one-way analysis of variance. The results showed that three milk composition contents of these standard products were independent of each other, and the preparation using the quasi-level design method, and without emulsifier was the best program...
January 19, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Patricia Galan-Malo, Isabel Mendiara, Pedro Razquin, Luis Mata
For many years, the adulteration of milk from sheep, goats or water buffalos with cows' milk has been a widespread practice due to the higher cost of milk from those other species. Because of this, great concern has been shown by many Protected Designation of Origin councils that have to assure the quality and genuineness of the cheese produced by their associates. Therefore, the whole production chain needs analytical tools that allow the control of potential adulteration. Rapid methods to be used in the field are scarce and have not been validated according to international guidelines...
January 22, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Stephanie Du Four, Rembert Mertens, Wietse Wiels, Jacques De Keyser, Veronique Bissay, Anja Flamez
Tick borne encephalitis (TBE) is an infectious zoonotic disease caused by an RNA virus that is endemic to Central and Eastern Europe, Russia, and large parts of Asia. The tick borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is transmitted through the saliva of infected ticks and infected goat milk. In the vast majority of cases, an infection with TBEV has a subclinical course. However, in some cases, it leads to neurological symptoms due to meningitis, meningoencephalitis, meningoencephalomyelitis, or meningoencephaloradiculitis...
January 8, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Yasunori Shinozuka, Kazuhiro Kawai, Reiichiro Sato, Akito Higashitani, Yoshiki Hamamoto, Miki Okita, Naoki Isobe
The aim of this study was to determine the blood ionized calcium (Ca) levels and acute-phase blood glucose kinetics in goats with mastitis induced by an intramammary challenge of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Five goats were subjected to intramammary challenge of either LPS (10 µg) or saline (control). Some clinical manifestations (rectal temperature, pulse rate, respiration rate, ruminal motility, physical activity, and dehydration) were observed, and blood was collected for the measurement of several parameters [ionized and total Ca levels, blood glucose level, pH, and white blood count (WBC)] at 0 (just before challenge), 1-4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 hr post-challenge in both the LPS and control phases...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
P Cremonesi, G Conte, M Severgnini, F Turri, A Monni, E Capra, L Rapetti, S Colombini, S Chessa, G Battelli, S P Alves, M Mele, B Castiglioni
Fat supplementation plays an important role in defining milk fatty acids (FA) composition of ruminant products. The use of sources rich in linoleic and α-linolenic acid favors the accumulation of conjugated linoleic acids isomers, increasing the healthy properties of milk. Ruminal microbiota plays a pivotal role in defining milk FA composition, and its profile is affected by diet composition. The aim of this study was to investigate the responses of rumen FA production and microbial structure to hemp or linseed supplementation in diets of dairy goats...
January 8, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
L Li, M L He, Y Liu, Y S Zhang
Dairy goats are often fed a high-concentrate (HC) diet to meet their lactation demands; however, long-term concentrate feeding is unhealthy and leads to milk yield and lactose content decreases. Therefore, we tested whether a buffering agent is able to increase the output of glucose in the liver and influence lactose synthesis. Eight lactating goats were randomly assigned to two groups: one group received a HC diet (Concentrate : Forage = 6:4, HG) and the other group received the same diet with a buffering agent added (0...
January 5, 2018: Physiological Research
Ewelina Celińska, Radosław Bonikowski, Wojciech Białas, Anna Dobrowolska, Barbara Słoma, Monika Borkowska, Monika Kubiak, Paulina Korpys, Włodzimierz Grajek
The pivotal role of non-conventional yeast (NCY) species in formation of valuable aroma compounds in various food commodities is widely acknowledged. This fact inspires endeavors aiming at exploitation of food-derived NCYs as biocatalysts in natural aromas production. In this study, we isolated, characterized and evaluated aroma-producing capacity of two NCY representatives-Pichia cactophila 7.20 and Klyuveromyces lactis 6.10 strains. The strains were isolated from food-related habitats-goat-milk regional cheese and Swiss-type ripening cheese, respectively...
January 2, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Sebastian Mucha, Raphael Mrode, Mike Coffey, Mehmet Kizilaslan, Suzanne Desire, Joanne Conington
Identification of genetic markers that affect economically important traits is of high value from a biological point of view, enabling the targeting of candidate genes and providing practical benefits for the industry such as wide-scale genomic selection. This study is one of the first to investigate the genetic background of economically important traits in dairy goats using the caprine 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip. The aim of the project was to perform a genome-wide association study for milk yield and conformation of udder, teat, and feet and legs...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Alison J Hodgkinson, Olivia A M Wallace, Irina Boggs, Marita Broadhurst, Colin G Prosser
Many infants and young children are fed nutritional milk formulas. Although products are commonly based on cow milk, goat milk provides an alternative. We directly compared digestion of cow and goat milk proteins, varying pH, enzyme concentrations and incubation times to simulate infant and young child gastric conditions. Protein digestion and peptide formation were evaluated using electrophoresis and chromatography. Digestion of higher molecular weight whey proteins increased with decreased pH and higher enzyme concentrations of young child gastric digestion conditions compared to infant conditions...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Fatchiyah Fatchiyah, Atika Hanoum Rahasta, James R Ketudat Cairns
Introduction: Glucokinase (hexokinase D) is an enzyme that phosphorylates glucose in hepatocytes totrap it in the cell and prime it for conversion to other compounds, yet this enzyme has low affinity to bind with glucose. In Diabetes Mellituspatients, the blood glucose level is poorly controled. Material and Methods: This study explored the possibility to induce glucokinase activity with bioactive peptides derived from the goat milk protein CSN1S2 by in- silico docking approach...
December 2017: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
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