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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215775/an-assessment-of-the-microbiological-quality-and-safety-of-raw-drinking-milk-on-retail-sale-in-england
#1
Caroline Willis, Frieda Jørgensen, Heather Aird, Nicola Elviss, Andrew Fox, Claire Jenkins, Deborah Fenelon, Lorraine Sadler-Reeves, Jim McLauchlin
AIMS: This study aimed to review the microbiological results for raw drinking milk (RDM) samples submitted to Public Health England laboratories between 2014 and 2016 in order to produce up-to-date data on the microbiological safety of RDM and inform future risk assessments on its sale. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 902 samples of RDM were collected from retail sale in England for microbiological examination. Overall, 454/770 samples (59.0%) taken for routine monitoring were of a satisfactory quality, whilst eight (1...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191252/pseudopregnancy-and-aseasonal-breeding-in-dairy-goats-genetic-basis-of-fertility-and-impact-on-lifetime-productivity
#2
S Desire, S Mucha, M Coffey, R Mrode, J Broadbent, J Conington
Until recently, the main selection focus in UK dairy goats has been on milk yield. To develop a selection index suitably weighted for a variety of traits, it is important to understand the genetic relationships between production, health and fertility traits. This study focussed on three aspects of reproduction that are of interest to goat breeders. (1) Out of season (OOS) kidding ability: goats are highly seasonal breeders so achieving consistent, year-round dairy production presents a challenge. It may be possible to select for extended or shifted breeding cycles, however, there are no published studies on the genetic basis of seasonal kidding ability, and a genetic correlation with milk production in dairy goats; (2) age at first kidding (AFK): a reduced AFK offers the opportunity for more rapid genetic improvement, as well as reducing the amount of time and resources required to raise the animals to producing age; (3) pseudopregnancy (PPG): as it is difficult to diagnose pregnancy within 30 days of mating, high herd levels of PPG could add a significant delay in breeding replacement animals, or commencing a new lactation...
December 1, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183573/age-dependent-physiological-dynamics-in-acid-base-balance-electrolytes-and-blood-metabolites-in-growing-goats
#3
S Redlberger, S Fischer, H Köhler, R Diller, P Reinhold
There is a paucity of published data reporting acid-base equilibrium in goats, and no information is available on how the acid-base complexity changes when suckling goat kids become ruminants. The aims of this study were to evaluate young healthy goats for age-related changes in serum proteins, metabolites, and electrolytes; differences in results when the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation or strong ion approaches were used were also assessed. To assess biological variability and reproducibility, two consecutive long-term studies, each lasting from the 6th to 56th week of life (wl), were performed in 15 (Study 1) and 10 (Study 2) animals...
November 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177156/risk-factors-for-culling-sales-and-deaths-in-new-zealand-dairy-goat-herds-2000-2009
#4
Milan Gautam, Mark A Stevenson, Nicolas Lopez-Villalobos, Victoria McLean
The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for culling, sales and deaths in intensively managed dairy goat herds in New Zealand. A data set provided by the New Zealand Dairy Goat Cooperative (n = 13,197 does) was analyzed using a Cox proportional hazard model. The outcome of interest was length of productive life (LPL), defined as the number of days from the date of second kidding to the date of removal from the herd or the date on which follow-up was terminated, whichever occurred first. Milk solids yield in the first lactation (MSL1) as a predictor of LPL was parameterized in the model as a penalized spline term...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173628/survival-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-during-the-manufacture-and-ripening-of-cacioricotta-goat-cheese
#5
F Ioanna, N C Quaglia, M M Storelli, D Castiglia, E Goffredo, A Storelli, M De Rosa, G Normanno, A Caputi Jambrenghi, A Dambrosio
The aim of this study was to assess the growth and survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during the manufacturing and ripening of Cacioricotta goat cheese. Goat milk was artificially contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 and the bacterial load was monitored from production up to 90 days of ripening. Goat milk was inoculated with 102 cfu ml-1 of E. coli O157:H7 and the bacterial count of the curd at time zero was 2.31 log10 cfu g-1. During the first day of ripening, the bacterial load has increased to 5.73 log10 cfu g-1 to more than 6...
April 2018: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173621/polyphasic-approach-to-study-physico-chemical-microbiological-and-sensorial-characteristics-of-artisanal-nicastrese-goat-s-cheese
#6
Alessandra Pino, Luigi Liotta, Cinzia L Randazzo, Aldo Todaro, Agata Mazzaglia, Floro De Nardo, Vincenzo Chiofalo, Cinzia Caggia
Nicastrese goat's cheese is produced in the South of Italy under traditional procedures, from raw goat milk without any starter cultures addition. Samples from milk to ripened cheese provided by 4 different farms were subjected to a polyphasic approach to study their physico-chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics. In addition, volatile organic compounds formation in the final products was studied. Overall, gross composition and microbiological data revealed a significant variability among samples, which was confirmed by both the volatile organic compounds generated in the final products and by the sensorial data...
April 2018: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164137/urban-livestock-keeping-in-the-city-of-nairobi-diversity-of-production-systems-supply-chains-and-their-disease-management-and-risks
#7
Pablo Alarcon, Eric M Fèvre, Patrick Muinde, Maurice K Murungi, Stella Kiambi, James Akoko, Jonathan Rushton
Urban livestock keeping in developing cities have an important role in food security and livelihoods but can also pose a significant threat to the environment and health of urban dwellers. The aim of this study was to identify the different livestock systems in Nairobi, their supply chains, and their management and food safety risks. Seven focus group discussions with livestock production officers in charge of each major Nairobi sub-county were conducted. Data were collected on the type of systems existing for each livestock species and their supply chains, disease management, food safety risks, and general husbandry and gender factors...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160816/optimization-of-goat-milk-with-ace-inhibitory-peptides-fermented-by-lactobacillus-bulgaricus-lb6-using-response-surface-methodology
#8
Guowei Shu, Xiaoyu Shi, He Chen, Zhe Ji, Jiangpeng Meng
In the present study, the incubation conditions of goat milk fermented by Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 were optimized to increase the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, EC 3.4.15.1) inhibitory activity by Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology. Incubation temperature, whey powder, and calcium lactate had significant effects on ACE inhibition rate and viable counts of LB6 during incubation. The results showed that optimal conditions of fermentation were found to be 37.05 °C, 0.8% (w/w) whey powder and 0...
November 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158139/expression-and-evaluation-of-recombinant-p32-protein-based-elisa-for-sero-diagnostic-potential-of-capripox-in-sheep-and-goats
#9
Gnanavel Venkatesan, Mahesh Kumar Teli, Muthu Sankar, Amit Kumar, M Dashprakash, Sargam Arya, Aparna Madhavan, Muthannan Andavar Ramakrisnan, Awadh Bihari Pandey
The study is aimed to develop and evaluate a recombinant P32 protein based ELISA for sero-monitoring and sero-surveillance using known and suspected serum samples for capripox from sheep and goats. Truncated P32 gene of goatpox virus (with an ORF of 750 bp) was expressed in E. coli BL-21 CodonPlus (DE3) cells using pET32a vector and characterized by SDS-PAGE analysis and confirmed by western blotting as 48 KDa Poly-His tagged fusion protein. The protein was purified under denaturing conditions using 8M urea and characterized by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting...
November 17, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154466/%C3%AE-fosb-regulates-rosiglitazone-induced-milk-fat-synthesis-and-cell-survival
#10
Xuefeng Wei, Hui Li, Guangwei Zhao, Jiameng Yang, Lihui Li, Yongzhen Huang, Xianyong Lan, Yun Ma, Huiling Zheng, Hong Chen
Rosiglitazone induces adipogenesis in adipocyte and regulates cell survival and differentiation in number of cell types. However, whether PPARγ regulates the synthesis of milk fat and cell survival in goat mammary gland remains unknown. Rosiglitazone strongly enhanced cellular triacylglycerol content and accumulation of lipid droplet in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC). Furthermore, ΔFosB decreased the expression of PPARγ at both mRNA and protein levels, and rosiglitazone-induced milk fat synthesis was abolished by ΔFosB overexpression...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154437/effect-of-adding-different-levels-of-rumen-protected-choline-to-the-diet-on-productive-and-reproductive-performance-of-female-goats-and-growth-of-their-kids-from-birthing-to-weaning
#11
Alsaied A Habeeb, Ahmed E Gad, Mostafa A Atta, Mohammed M Mustafa
Forty female goats in the third parity were randomly divided into four similar groups. The experiment was started 20 days before mating and lasted until the end of the suckling period for 60 days and weaning their kids. The first group were fed diet without supplementation and kept as control while in the second, third and fourth groups, each doe was fed diets with rumen protected choline (RPC) at the rate of 10, 20 and 40 g/day, respectively. Results showed that number of doe kidding twins and triplets and litter weight of kids born per group increased with increasing the level of RPC in the diet of goats and viability rate of born kids during the suckling period improved due to RPC supplementation in the diets of their mothers...
November 20, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153153/a-100-year-review-advances-in-goat-milk-research
#12
Stephanie Clark, María Bárbara Mora García
In the century of research chronicled between 1917 and 2017, dairy goats have gone from simply serving as surrogates to cows to serving as transgenic carriers of human enzymes. Goat milk has been an important part of human nutrition for millennia, in part because of the greater similarity of goat milk to human milk, softer curd formation, higher proportion of small milk fat globules, and different allergenic properties compared with cow milk; however, key nutritional deficiencies limit its suitability for infants...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152416/microbial-agents-in-macroscopically-healthy-mammary-gland-tissues-of-small-ruminants
#13
Liliana Spuria, Elena Biasibetti, Donal Bisanzio, Ilaria Biasato, Daniele De Meneghi, Patrizia Nebbia, Patrizia Robino, Paolo Bianco, Michele Lamberti, Claudio Caruso, Alessia Di Blasio, Simone Peletto, Loretta Masoero, Alessandro Dondo, Maria Teresa Capucchio
Background: Health of mammary glands is fundamental for milk and dairy products hygiene and quality, with huge impacts on consumers welfare. Methods: This study aims to investigate the microbial agents (bacteria, fungi and lentiviruses) isolated from 89 macroscopically healthy udders of regularly slaughtered small ruminants (41 sheep, 48 goats), also correlating their presence with the histological findings. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to evaluate the association between lesions and positivity for different microbial isolates, animal age and bacteria...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130123/informal-value-chain-actors-knowledge-and-perceptions-about-zoonotic-diseases-and-biosecurity-in-kenya-and-the-importance-for-food-safety-and-public-health
#14
Simon Nyokabi, Regina Birner, Bernard Bett, Linda Isuyi, Delia Grace, Denise Güttler, Johanna Lindahl
Zoonotic diseases, transmitted from animals to humans, are a public health challenge in developing countries. Livestock value chain actors have an important role to play as the first line of defence in safeguarding public health. However, although the livelihood and economic impacts of zoonoses are widely known, adoption of biosecurity measures aimed at preventing zoonoses is low, particularly among actors in informal livestock value chains in low and middle-income countries. The main objective of this study was to investigate knowledge of zoonoses and adoption of biosecurity measures by livestock and milk value chain actors in Bura, Tana River County, in Kenya, where cattle, camels, sheep and goats are the main livestock kept...
November 13, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128404/milk-from-transgenic-goat-expressing-human-lysozyme-for-recovery-and-treatment-of-gastrointestinal-pathogens
#15
Igor de Sá Carneiro, José Nilson Rodrigues de Menezes, Julyana Almeida Maia, André Marrocos Miranda, Victor Bruno Soares de Oliveira, James D Murray, Elizabeth A Maga, Marcelo Bertolini, Luciana Relly Bertolini
Lysozyme is an important non-specific immune protein in human milk, modulating the immune response against bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to characterize the milk of a transgenic goat expressing a recombinant human lysozyme (rhLZ) in the milk, also testing the in vitro antibacterial activity of the rhLZ milk against pathogens of the gastrointestinal tract. Milk samples collected from Tg and non-transgenic goats (nTg) from the 3rd to the 11th week of lactation were submitted to physicochemical analyses, rhLZ semi-quantification, and to rhLZ antimicrobial activity against Micrococcus luteus, Shiguella sonnei and Enterococcus faecalis...
November 8, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125639/chemical-physiochemical-and-microstructural-properties-and-probiotic-survivability-of-fermented-goat-milk-using-polymerized-whey-protein-and-starter-culture-kefir-mild-01
#16
Hao Wang, Cuina Wang, Mu Wang, Mingruo Guo
A set-type fermented goat milk (FGM) using polymerized whey protein (PWP) as main thickening agent and Kefir Mild 01 as starter culture was developed. The FGM with PWP (0.3%, w/v) and pectin (0.2%, w/v) had low syneresis (5.44 ± 0.92%), desirable viscosity (952.86 ± 61.52 mPa⋅s), and hardness (112.57 ± 3.23 g), which were comparable to a fermented cow milk. Sensory evaluation data showed that the FGM with PWP and pectin had higher scores of both flavor (4.41 ± 0.39) and taste (3.72 ± 0.34) than the sample without PWP...
November 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122055/extruded-linseed-alone-or-in-combination-with-fish-oil-modifies-mammary-gene-expression-profiles-in-lactating-goats
#17
Y Faulconnier, L Bernard, C Boby, J Domagalski, Y Chilliard, C Leroux
Nutrition is a major factor that regulates ruminant milk components, particularly its fatty acid (FA) composition, which is an important determinant of milk nutritional quality. In the mammary gland, milk component biosynthesis involves a large number of genes under nutritional regulation that are not well understood. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of extruded linseeds (EL) alone or in combination with fish oil (ELFO) on goat mammary gene expression. In total, 14 goats were fed one of the following three diets: a natural grassland hay basal diet (CTRL) alone, CTRL supplemented with 530 g/day of EL, or 340 g/day of EL plus 39 g/day of fish oil (ELFO)...
November 10, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114968/trans10-cis12-conjugated-linoleic-acid-increases-triacylglycerol-accumulation-in-goat-mammary-epithelial-cells-in%C3%A2-vitro
#18
Tianying Zhang, Yue Ma, Hui Wang, Juan J Loor, Huifen Xu, Huaiping Shi, Jun Luo
Trans10, cis12 conjugated linoleic acid (t10c12-CLA) is well-established in decreasing milk fat content and causing milk fat depression (MFD) in dairy cattle and goats. However, the detailed mechanisms of its effect are not completely understood. Therefore, we used goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs) to further study the molecular mechanisms whereby t10c12-CLA regulates milk fat synthesis. The optimal concentration of t10c12-CLA (100 μmol/L) for cell culture was determined through a cell vitality and morphology assay, and evaluation of abundance of apoptosis-related proteins...
November 8, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103709/comparison-of-dna-quality-in-raw-and-reconstituted-milk-during-sterilization
#19
J Liao, L Yang, A M Sheppard, Y F Liu
Responses to milk sterilization are usually evaluated only in terms of physicochemical properties and microbial safety, thus undervaluing the importance of DNA quality in an authentication process by methods based on PCR. Because DNA is a heat-sensitive molecule, we hypothesized that the heating process may impair the detection or quantification of DNA in raw fresh milk (FM) or reconstituted milk (RM), and that differences in DNA quality might exist between FM and RM. We thus investigated the effects of sterilization on the quality of DNA extracted from FM or RM; differences in DNA quality between FM and RM were also evaluated...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091994/quantifying-biological-samples-using-linear-poisson-independent-component-analysis-for-maldi-tof-mass-spectra
#20
S Deepaisarn, P D Tar, N A Thacker, A Seepujak, A W McMahon
Motivation: Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI) facilitates the analysis of large organic molecules. However, the complexity of biological samples and MALDI data acquisition leads to high levels of variation, making reliable quantification of samples difficult. We present a new analysis approach that we believe is well-suited to the properties of MALDI mass spectra, based upon an Independent Component Analysis derived for Poisson sampled data...
October 28, 2017: Bioinformatics
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