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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533031/enantioseparation-and-optical-rotation-of-flavor-relevant-4-alkyl-branched-fatty-acids
#1
Dorothee Eibler, Walter Vetter
Short chain 4-alkyl-branched fatty acids are character impact compounds of the flavor of sheep and goat milk and meat. Due to their methyl or ethyl branches these volatile fatty acids are chiral, and both enantiomers are characterized by different aroma intensities. Recently, it was found that 4-methyloctanoic acid (4-Me-8:0), 4-ethyloctanoic acid (4-Et-8:0), and 4-methylnonanoic acid (4-Me-9:0) are enantiopure in goat and sheep samples, if present. Here we generated enantiopure or enantioenriched standards from racemates by means of (R)-selective esterification with lipase B and verified that 4-Me-8:0, 4-Et-8:0 and 4-Me-9:0 were (R)-enantiopure in these tissues...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531195/livestock-metabolomics-and-the-livestock-metabolome-a-systematic-review
#2
Seyed Ali Goldansaz, An Chi Guo, Tanvir Sajed, Michael A Steele, Graham S Plastow, David S Wishart
Metabolomics uses advanced analytical chemistry techniques to comprehensively measure large numbers of small molecule metabolites in cells, tissues and biofluids. The ability to rapidly detect and quantify hundreds or even thousands of metabolites within a single sample is helping scientists paint a far more complete picture of system-wide metabolism and biology. Metabolomics is also allowing researchers to focus on measuring the end-products of complex, hard-to-decipher genetic, epigenetic and environmental interactions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509139/unusual-listeria-monocytogenes-peritonitis-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patient-with-liver-cirrhosis-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#3
Miloš Mitrović, P Đurić, A Janković, V Todorov, J Tošić-Dragović, N Simović, T Damjanović, N Dimković
Spontaneous Listeria peritonitis is well described in liver failure, but is uncommon in peritoneal dialysis patients. Atypical cases where peritonitis symptoms develop after systemic manifestations are rare and challenging for diagnostic. A 57-year-old peritoneal dialysis patient with history of ethylic cirrhosis was admitted after epileptic seizure. On admission, patient was soporous without signs of peritonitis and meningitis. Patient's peritoneal effluent was clear, with normal leukocytes. Cranial CT scan showed no abnormalities...
May 2017: CEN Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508581/effect-of-under-and-overfeeding-on-sheep-and-goat-milk-and-plasma-enzymes-activities-related-to-oxidation
#4
E Tsiplakou, C Mitsiopoulou, A Mavrommatis, C Karaiskou, E G Chronopoulou, G Mavridis, K Sotirakoglou, N E Labrou, G Zervas
Twenty-four dairy sheep and goats, respectively, were assigned each to three homogenous subgroups per animal species and fed the same diet in quantities which met 70% (underfeeding), 100% (control) and 130% (overfeeding) of their energy and crude protein requirements. The results showed that the underfed sheep in comparison with the control had significantly lower glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities and total antioxidant capacity (measured with Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma [FRAP] assay) in their blood plasma...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500343/a-genome-scan-for-milk-production-traits-in-dairy-goats-reveals-two-new-mutations-in-dgat1-reducing-milk-fat-content
#5
Pauline Martin, Isabelle Palhière, Cyrielle Maroteau, Philippe Bardou, Kamila Canale-Tabet, Julien Sarry, Florent Woloszyn, Justine Bertrand-Michel, Ines Racke, Hüseyin Besir, Rachel Rupp, Gwenola Tosser-Klopp
The quantity of milk and milk fat and proteins are particularly important traits in dairy livestock. However, little is known about the regions of the genome that influence these traits in goats. We conducted a genome wide association study in French goats and identified 109 regions associated with dairy traits. For a major region on chromosome 14 closely associated with fat content, the Diacylglycerol O-Acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) gene turned out to be a functional and positional candidate gene. The caprine reference sequence of this gene was completed and 29 polymorphisms were found in the gene sequence, including two novel exonic mutations: R251L and R396W, leading to substitutions in the protein sequence...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475318/changes-in-adiposity-and-body-composition-during-anemia-recovery-with-goat-or-cow-fermented-milks
#6
Javier Diaz-Castro, Jorge Moreno-Fernandez, Mario Pulido-Moran, María J M Alférez, María Robles-Rebollo, Julio J Ochoa, Inmaculada López-Aliaga
To date, no studies are available about adipose tissue modifications during anemia recovery; therefore, the aim of this study is to provide detailed information about adipose tissue homeostasis during anemia recovery with fermented milks. Forty male Wistar rats were placed on a pre-experimental period of 40 days, divided in two groups (normal-Fe diet and Fe-deficient diet). Then rats were fed fermented goat or cow milk-based diets with normal-Fe content during 30 days. Ghrelin and adiponectin decreased in both groups of animals fed fermented goat milk, whereas leptin and NEFA increased...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472956/codon-141-polymorphisms-of-the-ovine-prion-protein-gene-affect-the-phenotype-of-classical-scrapie-transmitted-from-goats-to-sheep
#7
Timm Konold, Laura J Phelan, Ben R Donnachie, Melanie J Chaplin, Saira Cawthraw, Lorenzo González
BACKGROUND: A study to investigate transmission of classical scrapie via goat milk was carried out in sheep: firstly, lambs were challenged orally with goat scrapie brain homogenate to confirm transmission of scrapie from goats to sheep. In the second study phase, milk from scrapie-infected goats was fed to lambs. Lambs were selected according to their prion protein gene (PRNP) genotype, which was either VRQ/VRQ or ARQ/ARQ, with or without additional polymorphisms at codon 141 (FF141, LF141 or LL141) of the ovine PRNP...
May 4, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470723/pharmacokinetics-milk-penetration-and-pk-pd-analysis-by-monte-carlo-simulation-of-marbofloxacin-after-intravenous-and-intramuscular-administration-to-lactating-goats
#8
A M Lorenzutti, N J Litterio, M A Himelfarb, M D P Zarazaga, M I San Andrés, J J De Lucas
The main objectives of this study were (i) to evaluate the serum pharmacokinetic behaviour and milk penetration of marbofloxacin (MFX; 5 mg/kg), after intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration in lactating goats and simulate a multidose regimen on steady-state conditions, (ii) to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and mutant prevention concentration (MPC) of coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from caprine mastitis in Córdoba, Argentina and (iii) to make a PK/PD analysis by Monte Carlo simulation from steady-state pharmacokinetic parameters of MFX by IV and IM routes to evaluate the efficacy and risk of the emergence of resistance...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464334/high-prevalence-of-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-goats
#9
Feiyan Long, Wenhai Yu, Chenchen Yang, Jue Wang, Yunlong Li, Yi Li, Fen Huang
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of acute hepatitis worldwide, primarily transmitted by fecal-oral route. Zoonotic transmission of HEV from HEV-infected pigs (pork) or cows (milk) to human or non-human primate has been confirmed, but the risk of HEV in goat is still rarely assessed. In the present study, stool, blood, tissues and milk of goat were collected for HEV infection investigation from Dali City of Yunnan Province in China, where raw mutton and goat milk are traditionally consumed. Surprisingly, a high prevalence of HEV infection in goat was found...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459616/effect-of-water-activity-on-the-thermal-tolerance-and-survival-of-salmonella-enterica-serovars-tennessee-and-senftenberg-in-goat-s-milk-caramel
#10
Oscar Acosta, Jessie Usaga, John J Churey, Randy W Worobo, Olga I Padilla-Zakour
The low thermal tolerance of Salmonella enterica in foods with intermediate moisture levels, such as caramel sauces, ensures that mild heat treatment is sufficient to achieve 5-log reductions of this pathogen. This treatment mitigates the risk posed by salmonellae in raw materials; however, recontamination might occur because of survival of the pathogen in products that are not heated before consumption. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of water activity (aw) on the thermal tolerance and survival of S...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451663/the-effect-of-isabel-grape-addition-on-the-physicochemical-microbiological-and-sensory-characteristics-of-probiotic-goat-milk-yogurt
#11
Francyeli Araújo Silva, Maria Elieidy Gomes de Oliveira, Rossana Maria Feitosa de Figueirêdo, Karoliny Brito Sampaio, Evandro Leite de Souza, Carlos Eduardo Vasconcelos de Oliveira, Maria Manuela Estevez Pintado, Rita de Cássia Ramos do Egypto Queiroga
Goat milk is an attractive food because of its nutritional properties, easy digestibility and hypoallergenicity. Goat milk yogurt is an appropriate matrix for the inclusion of new ingredients such as probiotic cultures, fruit and its derivatives. Grapes are rich in polyphenols and recognized for their health benefits. The aim of this study was to improve the quality characteristics of probiotic goat milk yogurt by the addition of an Isabel grape (Vitis labrusca L.) preparation (IGP). For this, the influence of the addition of IGP on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of goat milk yogurt containing the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-05 was evaluated during 28 days of refrigerated storage (5 ± 0...
April 28, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447361/the-effect-of-dietary-chlorella-vulgaris-inclusion-on-goat-s-milk-chemical-composition-fatty-acids-profile-and-enzymes-activities-related-to-oxidation
#12
E Tsiplakou, M A M Abdullah, A Mavrommatis, M Chatzikonstantinou, D Skliros, K Sotirakoglou, E Flemetakis, N E Labrou, G Zervas
The impact of dietary supplementation with microalgae on goat's milk chemical composition, fatty acids (FA) profile and enzymes activities related to antioxidant mechanism has not been well documented. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary inclusion of Chlorella vulgaris on the following: (i) milk yield, chemical composition and FA profile, (ii) the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in blood plasma and (iii) the activities of SOD, GR and lactoperoxidase (LPO) in milk of goats...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434741/dietary-linseed-oil-increases-trans-10-cis-15-18-2-in-caprine-milk-fat
#13
P Gómez-Cortés, A Cívico, M A de la Fuente, M Juárez, N Núñez Sánchez, F Peña Blanco, A L Martínez Marín
Trans-10,cis-15 18:2 has been recently detected and characterized in digestive contents and meat and adipose tissue of ruminants, but its presence in milk and dairy products is hardly known. The aim of this study was to quantify trans-10,cis-15 18:2 in milk fat, better understand its metabolic origin, and help to elucidate the mechanisms of rumen biohydrogenation when the diet composition might affect ruminal environment. To address these objectives, 16 dairy goats were allocated to 2 simultaneous experiments (2 groups of goats and 2 treatments in each experiment)...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434735/effects-of-graded-removal-of-lysine-from-an-intravenously-infused-amino-acid-mixture-on-lactation-performance-and-mammary-amino-acid-metabolism-in-lactating-goats
#14
C L Guo, Y T Li, X Y Lin, M D Hanigan, Z G Yan, Z Y Hu, Q L Hou, F G Jiang, Z H Wang
To investigate responses of milk protein synthesis and mammary AA metabolism to a graded decrease of postruminal Lys supply, 4 lactating goats fitted with jugular vein, mammary vein, and carotid artery catheters and transonic blood flow detectors on the external pudic artery were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment. Goats were fasted for 24 h and then received a 9-h intravenous infusion of an AA mixture plus glucose. Milk yield was recorded and samples were taken in h 2 to 8 of the infusion period; a mammary biopsy was performed in the last hour...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429912/growth-patterns-during-the-first-12-months-of-life-post-hoc-analysis-for-south-australian-aboriginal-and-caucasian-infants-in-a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-formula-feeding
#15
Karen Hawke, Jennie Louise, Carmel Collins, Shao J Zhou, Alex Brown, Robert Gibson, Maria Makrides
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To compare growth characteristics of Aboriginal and Caucasian formula-fed in-fants in the first 12 months of life. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We conducted post-hoc data analysis of infants who were part of a previous randomised controlled trial comparing infants randomly assigned to cow or goat milk-based infant formulae. Weight, height, and body composition were assessed at serial time points between study entry (~1-2 weeks of age) and 12 months...
May 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426942/polychlorinated-biphenyl-and-polybrominated-diphenyl-ether-profiles-in-serum-from-cattle-sheep-and-goats-across-california
#16
S Sethi, X Chen, P H Kass, B Puschner
It has been previously been shown by our lab and others that persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), are contaminants in milk produced for human consumption. To further this research we determined the concentration of 21 PCB and 14 PBDE congeners in livestock serum, mainly bovine, across California. Congeners were extracted from serum using solid phase extraction (SPE), cleaned up by silica cartridge and quantified using gas chromatography-triple quadruple mass spectrometry...
April 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403908/permissiveness-of-bovine-epithelial-cells-from-lung-intestine-placenta-and-udder-for-infection-with-coxiella-burnetii
#17
Katharina Sobotta, Katharina Bonkowski, Elisabeth Liebler-Tenorio, Pierre Germon, Pascal Rainard, Nina Hambruch, Christiane Pfarrer, Ilse D Jacobsen, Christian Menge
Ruminants are the main source of human infections with the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella (C.) burnetii. Infected animals shed high numbers of C. burnetii by milk, feces, and birth products. In goats, shedding by the latter route coincides with C. burnetii replication in epithelial (trophoblast) cells of the placenta, which led us to hypothesize that epithelial cells are generally implicated in replication and shedding of C. burnetii. We therefore aimed at analyzing the interactions of C. burnetii with epithelial cells of the bovine host (1) at the entry site (lung epithelium) which govern host immune responses and (2) in epithelial cells of gut, udder and placenta decisive for the quantity of pathogen excretion...
April 12, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393862/characterization-of-chiral-amino-acids-from-different-milk-origins-using-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-ion-mobility-mass-spectrometry
#18
He Tian, Nan Zheng, Songli Li, Yangdong Zhang, Shengguo Zhao, Fang Wen, Jiaqi Wang
Milk contains free amino acids (AAs) that play essential roles in maintaining the growth and health of infants, and D-AA isomers are increasingly being recognized as important signalling molecules. However, there are no studies of the different characteristics of chiral AA (C-AA) from different milk origins. Here, UPLC coupled to ion-mobility high-resolution MS (IM-HRMS) was employed to characterize 18 pairs of C-AAs in human, cow, yak, buffalo, goat, and camel milk. The results proved that milk origins can be differentiated based on the D- to L- AA ratio-based projection scores by principal component analysis...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393747/relationship-of-goat-milk-flow-emission-variables-with-milking-routine-milking-parameters-milking-machine-characteristics-and-goat-physiology
#19
G Romero, R Panzalis, P Ruegg
The aim of this paper was to study the relationship between milk flow emission variables recorded during milking of dairy goats with variables related to milking routine, goat physiology, milking parameters and milking machine characteristics, to determine the variables affecting milking performance and help the goat industry pinpoint farm and milking practices that improve milking performance. In total, 19 farms were visited once during the evening milking. Milking parameters (vacuum level (VL), pulsation ratio and pulsation rate, vacuum drop), milk emission flow variables (milking time, milk yield, maximum milk flow (MMF), average milk flow (AVMF), time until 500 g/min milk flow is established (TS500)), doe characteristics of 8 to 10 goats/farm (breed, days in milk and parity), milking practices (overmilking, overstripping, pre-lag time) and milking machine characteristics (line height, presence of claw) were recorded on every farm...
April 10, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389465/acquired-brucella-bacteraemia-in-a-young-infant
#20
Ambar Bhatnagar, Daisy Khera, Kuldeep Singh, Anuradha Sharma
An infant aged 6 weeks presented with failure to thrive since birth, fever and lethargy for 4 days. The child was fed on unpasteurised diluted goat's milk after birth. She was diagnosed to have brucellosis both by blood culture and serology. Her mother's Brucella serology was negative. She was successfully treated with injection amikacin and tablet rifampicin and had satisfactory weight gain thereafter. Acquired brucellosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of failure to thrive in young infants...
April 7, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
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