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Cancer, epigenetics,methylation,proteomics,mass spectrometry

Tingting Jiang, Michael E Hoover, Matthew V Holt, Michael A Freitas, Alan G Marshall, Nicolas L Young
Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones are important epigenetic regulatory mechanisms that are often dysregulated in cancer. We employ middle-down proteomics to investigate the PTMs and proteoforms of histone H4 during cell cycle progression. We use pH gradient weak cation exchange-hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (WCX-HILIC) for on-line liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis to separate and analyze the proteoforms of histone H4. This procedure provides enhanced separation of proteoforms, including positional isomers, and simplifies downstream data analysis...
June 2018: Proteomics
Johayra Simithy, Simone Sidoli, Benjamin A Garcia
The chromatin fiber is the control panel of eukaryotic cells. Chromatin is mostly composed of DNA, which contains the genetic instruction for cell phenotype, and histone proteins, which provide the scaffold for chromatin folding and part of the epigenetic inheritance. Histone writers/erasers "flag" chromatin regions by catalyzing/removing covalent histone post-translational modifications (PTMs). Histone PTMs chemically contribute to chromatin relaxation or compaction and recruit histone readers to modulate DNA readout...
March 7, 2018: Proteomics
Monika Bauden, Theresa Kristl, Roland Andersson, György Marko-Varga, Daniel Ansari
Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones including acetylation, methylation, and ubiquitination are known to be involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and thus can have an important role in tumorigenesis. A number of PTMs have been linked to pancreatic cancer and are frequently studied as potential targets for cancer therapy or diagnosis. The availability of biobank-stored, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) materials and advanced proteomic analytical tools make it possible to detect histone-related PTMs using predicted mass shifts caused by specific modification...
March 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Ryan Lillico, Marina Gomez Sobral, Nicholas Stesco, Ted M Lakowski
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are cancer treatments that inhibit the removal of the epigenetic modification acetyllysine on histones, resulting in altered gene expression. Such changes in expression may influence other histone epigenetic modifications. We describe a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantify lysine acetylation and methylation and arginine methylation on histones extracted from cultured cells treated with HDAC inhibitors. The HDAC inhibitors vorinostat, mocetinostat and entinostat induced 400-600% hyperacetylation in HEK 293 and K562 cells...
February 5, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
Veronika Borutinskaitė, Rūta Navakauskienė
Today, cancer is understood as an epigenetic as well as genetic disease. The main epigenetic hallmarks of the cancer cell are DNA methylation and histone modifications. Proteins such as histone deacetylases (HDACs) that cause modifications of histones and other proteins can be targets for novel anticancer agents. Recently, interest in compounds that can inhibit HDACs increased, and now there are many HDACs inhibitors (HDACIs) available with different chemical structures, biological and biochemical properties; hopefully some of them will succeed, probably in combination with other agents, in cancer therapies...
2015: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Tawnya C McKee, James V Tricoli
The introduction of novel technologies that can be applied to the investigation of the molecular underpinnings of human cancer has allowed for new insights into the mechanisms associated with tumor development and progression. They have also advanced the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of cancer. These technologies include microarray and other analysis methods for the generation of large-scale gene expression data on both mRNA and miRNA, next-generation DNA sequencing technologies utilizing a number of platforms to perform whole genome, whole exome, or targeted DNA sequencing to determine somatic mutational differences and gene rearrangements, and a variety of proteomic analysis platforms including liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis to survey alterations in protein profiles in tumors...
2015: Methods in Molecular Biology
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