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Biomarker AND Stroke

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778925/deep-learning-strategy-for-accurate-carotid-intima-media-thickness-measurement-an-ultrasound-study-on-japanese-diabetic-cohort
#1
Mainak Biswas, Venkatanareshbabu Kuppili, Tadashi Araki, Damodar Reddy Edla, Elisa Cuadrado Godia, Luca Saba, Harman S Suri, Tomaž Omerzu, John R Laird, Narendra N Khanna, Andrew Nicolaides, Jasjit S Suri
MOTIVATION: The carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is an important biomarker for cardiovascular diseases and stroke monitoring. This study presents an intelligence-based, novel, robust, and clinically-strong strategy that uses a combination of deep-learning (DL) and machine-learning (ML) paradigms. METHODOLOGY: A two-stage DL-based system (a class of AtheroEdge™ systems) was proposed for cIMT measurements. Stage I consisted of a convolution layer-based encoder for feature extraction and a fully convolutional network-based decoder for image segmentation...
May 12, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778365/cerebral-microbleeds-and-intracranial-haemorrhage-risk-in-patients-anticoagulated-for-atrial-fibrillation-after-acute-ischaemic-stroke-or-transient-ischaemic-attack-cromis-2-a-multicentre-observational-cohort-study
#2
Duncan Wilson, Gareth Ambler, Clare Shakeshaft, Martin M Brown, Andreas Charidimou, Rustam Al-Shahi Salman, Gregory Y H Lip, Hannah Cohen, Gargi Banerjee, Henry Houlden, Mark J White, Tarek A Yousry, Kirsty Harkness, Enrico Flossmann, Nigel Smyth, Louise J Shaw, Elizabeth Warburton, Keith W Muir, Hans Rolf Jäger, David J Werring
BACKGROUND: Cerebral microbleeds are a potential neuroimaging biomarker of cerebral small vessel diseases that are prone to intracranial bleeding. We aimed to determine whether presence of cerebral microbleeds can identify patients at high risk of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage when anticoagulated for atrial fibrillation after recent ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack. METHODS: Our observational, multicentre, prospective inception cohort study recruited adults aged 18 years or older from 79 hospitals in the UK and one in the Netherlands with atrial fibrillation and recent acute ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack, treated with a vitamin K antagonist or direct oral anticoagulant, and followed up for 24 months using general practitioner and patient postal questionnaires, telephone interviews, hospital visits, and National Health Service digital data on hospital admissions or death...
June 2018: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778312/biomarker-signatures-of-sickle-cell-disease-severity
#3
Mengtian Du, Sarah Van Ness, Victor Gordeuk, Sayed M Nouraie, Sergei Nekhai, Mark Gladwin, Martin H Steinberg, Paola Sebastiani
Identifying sickle cell disease patients at high risk of complications could lead to personalized treatment and better prognosis but despite many advances prediction of the clinical course of these patients remains elusive. We propose a system-type approach to discover profiles of multiple, common biomarkers that correlate with morbidity and mortality in sickle cell disease. We used cluster analysis to discover 17 signatures of 17 common circulating biomarkers in 2320 participants of the Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease, and evaluated the association of these signatures with risk for stroke, pain, leg ulceration, acute chest syndrome, avascular necrosis, seizure, death, and trend of fetal hemoglobin and hemolysis using longitudinally collected data...
May 16, 2018: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776790/-modern-treatment-of-mesenteric-ischemia
#4
Alexandre Nuzzo, Audrey Huguet, Olivier Corcos
Acute mesenteric ischemia is a highly morbid affliction which requires urgent care. Acute mesenteric ischemia consists in an ischemia injury of the small bowel, secondary to vascular insufficiency, either occlusive (thrombosis, embolism, arterial, venous) or non-occlusive (low flow or vasospasm). Given that the superior mesenteric artery supplies the small bowel as well as the right part of the colon, any ischemic process involving the right colon should be considered an acute mesenteric ischemia until proven otherwise...
May 15, 2018: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774062/-in-vivo-imaging-biomarkers-of-neuroinflammation-in-the-development-and-assessment-of-stroke-therapies-towards-clinical-translation
#5
REVIEW
Bastian Zinnhardt, Maximilian Wiesmann, Lisa Honold, Cristina Barca, Michael Schäfers, Amanda J Kiliaan, Andreas H Jacobs
Modulation of the inflammatory microenvironment after stroke opens a new avenue for the development of novel neurorestorative therapies in stroke. Understanding the spatio-temporal profile of (neuro-)inflammatory imaging biomarkers in detail thereby represents a crucial factor in the development and application of immunomodulatory therapies. The early integration of quantitative molecular imaging biomarkers in stroke drug development may provide key information about (i) early diagnosis and follow-up, (ii) spatio-temporal drug-target engagement (pharmacodynamic biomarker), (iii) differentiation of responders and non-responders in the patient cohort (inclusion/exclusion criteria; predictive biomarkers), and (iv) the mechanism of action...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774059/inflammation-in-stroke-the-role-of-cholinergic-purinergic-and-glutamatergic-signaling
#6
REVIEW
Abraham Martín, María Domercq, Carlos Matute
The inflammatory response is a major factor in stroke pathophysiology and contributes to secondary neuronal damage in both acute and chronic stages of the ischemic injury. Recent work in experimental cerebral ischemia has demonstrated the involvement of neurotransmitter signaling in the modulation of neuroinflammation. The present review discusses recent findings on the therapeutic potential and diagnostic perspectives of cholinergic, purinergic and glutamatergic receptors and transporters in experimental stroke...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773576/joint-effect-of-carotid-plaque-and-c-reactive-protein-on-first-ever-ischemic-stroke-and-myocardial-infarction
#7
Agnethe Eltoft, Kjell Arne Arntzen, Tom Wilsgaard, John-Bjarne Hansen, Ellisiv B Mathiesen, Stein Harald Johnsen
BACKGROUND: The joint effect of atherosclerosis and CRP (C-reactive protein) on risk of ischemic stroke (IS) and myocardial infarction (MI) has been sparsely studied. The aim of this study was to explore whether CRP mediates the risk of events in subjects with prevalent carotid plaque, examine synergism, and test whether CRP and carotid plaque add to risk prediction beyond traditional risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: CRP and carotid total plaque area (TPA) were measured in 10 109 participants in the Tromsø Study from 1994 to 2008...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766804/cyclophilin-a-a-predictive-biomarker-of-carotid-stenosis-in-cerebral-ischemic-stroke
#8
Chen-Shu Chang, Shih-Li Su, Chen-Ling Kuo, Ching-Shan Huang, Wan-Min Tseng, Song-Shei Lin, Chin-San Liu
BACKGROUND: Cyclophilin A plays a pathogenic role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis, which can be assessed by measuring carotid intima-media thickness. The primary aim of this study was to examine the interaction between plasma Cyclophilin A level and carotid intima-media thickness in patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHOD: Plasma concentration of Cyclophilin A was measured on admission in 66 consecutive patients who had been hospitalized for acute cerebral stroke and in 52 case-control subjects without a history of acute stroke...
May 16, 2018: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753575/quantitative-apparent-diffusion-coefficient-mapping-may-predict-seizure-onset-in-children-with-sturge-weber-syndrome
#9
Anna L R Pinto, Yangming Ou, Mustafa Sahin, P Ellen Grant
BACKGROUND: Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is often accompanied by seizures, stroke-like episodes, hemiparesis, and visual field deficits. This study aimed to identify early pathophysiologic changes that exist before the development of clinical symptoms and to evaluate if the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map is a candidate early biomarker of seizure risk in patients with SWS. METHODS: This is a prospective cross-sectional study using quantitative ADC analysis to predict onset of epilepsy...
April 12, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752699/hiv-and-cardiovascular-disease-update-on-clinical-events-special-populations-and-novel-biomarkers
#10
REVIEW
Kaku So-Armah, Matthew S Freiberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of this review is to provide an update on the link between HIV infection and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We will focus our review mainly on literature describing clinical CVD events and understudied topics of importance. RECENT FINDINGS: Heart failure, peripheral artery disease, and stroke are CVD modalities deserving more attention in the context of HIV infection in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. Incidence data on clinical CVD from HIV populations in low- and middle-income countries are limited...
May 11, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752392/independent-prognostic-value-of-stroke-volume-index-in-patients-with-immunoglobulin-light-chain-amyloidosis
#11
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Heart involvement is the most important prognostic determinant in AL amyloidosis patients. Echocardiography is a cornerstone for the diagnosis and provides important prognostic information. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 754 patients with AL amyloidosis who underwent echocardiographic assessment at the Mayo Clinic, including a Doppler-derived measurement of stroke volume (SV) within 30 days of their diagnosis to explore the prognostic role of echocardiographic variables in the context of a well-established soluble cardiac biomarker staging system...
May 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747834/platelet-count-affects-efficacy-of-folic-acid-in-preventing-first-stroke
#12
Xiangyi Kong, Xiao Huang, Min Zhao, Benjamin Xu, Richard Xu, Yun Song, Yaren Yu, Wenbin Yang, Jingping Zhang, Lishun Liu, Yan Zhang, Genfu Tang, Binyan Wang, Fan Fan Hou, Ping Li, Xiaoshu Cheng, Shuiping Zhao, Xiaobin Wang, Xianhui Qin, Jianping Li, Yong Huo
BACKGROUND: The role of platelets and important effect modifiers on the risk of first stroke is unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether low platelet count (PLT) and elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) levels jointly increase the risk of first stroke, and, if so, whether folic acid treatment is particularly effective in stroke prevention in such a setting. METHODS: A total of 10,789 Chinese hypertensive adults (mean age 59.5 years; 38% male, with no history of stroke and myocardial infarction) were analyzed from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial, where participants were randomly assigned to daily treatments of 10 mg enalapril and 0...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744684/biochemical-markers-of-cardiac-dysfunction-in-children-with-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-osa
#13
Daniel Hirsch, Carla A Evans, Melanie Wong, Rita Machaalani, Karen A Waters
OBJECTIVES: We explored relationships between biochemical markers and cardiac responses of children with and without obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) during exercise. We hypothesised that serum markers of sympathetic nervous system activity and low-grade inflammation would correlate with cardiac responses to exercise in children with or without OSA. METHODOLOGY: The study included 40 of 71 children with previously characterised responses to cardiopulmonary exercise testing...
May 9, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739912/early-cerebral-vein-after-endovascular-ischemic-stroke-treatment-predicts-symptomatic-reperfusion-hemorrhage
#14
Samuel C D Cartmell, Robyn L Ball, Rajani Kaimal, Nicholas A Telischak, Michael P Marks, Huy M Do, Robert L Dodd, Gregory W Albers, Maarten G Lansberg, Jeremy J Heit
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Parenchymal hemorrhage (PH) after endovascular mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke leads to worse outcomes. Better clinical and imaging biomarkers of symptomatic reperfusion PH are needed to identify patients at risk. We identified clinical and imaging predictors of reperfusion PH after endovascular mechanical thrombectomy with attention to early cerebral veins (ECVs) on postreperfusion digital subtraction angiography. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing endovascular mechanical thrombectomy at our neurovascular referral center...
May 8, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734386/renal-papillary-tip-extract-stimulates-bnp-production-and-excretion-from-cardiomyocytes
#15
Itaru Goto, Ryuji Okamoto, Ryotaro Hashizume, Noboru Suzuki, Rie Ito, Keiichi Yamanaka, Hiromitsu Saito, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Isao Tawara, Yuki Kageyama, Yoshito Ogihara, Yusuf Ali, Norikazu Yamada, Naoyuki Katayama, Masaaki Ito
BACKGROUND: Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is an important biomarker for patients with cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure, hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. It is also known that BNP levels are relatively higher in patients with chronic kidney disease and no heart disease; however, the mechanism remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed a BNP reporter mouse and occasionally found that this promoter was activated specifically in the papillary tip of the kidneys, and its activation was not accompanied by BNP mRNA expression...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733497/hemostasis-biomarkers-and-incident-cognitive-impairment-the-regards-study
#16
S R Gillett, L A McClure, P W Callas, E L Thacker, F W Unverzagt, V G Wadley, A J Letter, M Cushman
BACKGROUND: Vascular risk factors are associated with cognitive impairment, a condition with substantial public health burden. We hypothesized that hemostasis biomarkers related to vascular disease would be associated with risk of incident cognitive impairment. METHODS: We performed a nested case control study including 1,082 participants with 3.5 years of follow-up in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study, a longitudinal cohort study of 30,239 black and white Americans ≥45 years old...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731659/meta-analysis-of-the-association-of-the-haptoglobin-genotype-with-cardiovascular-outcomes-and-the-pharmacogenomic-interactions-with-vitamin-e-supplementation
#17
Rabea Asleh, Alexandros Briasoulis, Elliot M Berinstein, Joshua B Wiener, Mohan Palla, Sudhir S Kushwaha, Andrew P Levy
Objectives: The objectives of the study were to compile and summarize the data from all of the clinical trials designed to examine the association between haptoglobin (Hp) genotype and incidence of cardiovascular (CV) events in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and to assess the impact of vitamin E treatment on CV outcomes according to the Hp genotype. Background: The Hp genotype could serve as a predictive biomarker to DM patients who may benefit from vitamin E therapy...
2018: Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729392/imaging-vascular-and-hemodynamic-features-of-the-brain-using-dynamic-susceptibility-contrast-and-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri
#18
C Chad Quarles, Laura C Bell, Ashley M Stokes
In the context of neurologic disorders, dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI provide valuable insights into cerebral vascular function, integrity, and architecture. Even after two decades of use, these modalities continue to evolve as their biophysical and kinetic basis is better understood, with improvements in pulse sequences and accelerated imaging techniques and through application of more robust and automated data analysis strategies. Here, we systematically review each of these elements, with a focus on how their integration improves kinetic parameter accuracy and the development of new hemodynamic biomarkers that provide sub-voxel sensitivity (e...
May 2, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726891/understanding-the-role-of-the-perivascular-space-in-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#19
Rosalind Brown, Helene Benveniste, Sandra E Black, Serge Charpak, Martin Dichgans, Anne Joutel, Maiken Nedergaard, Kenneth J Smith, Berislav V Zlokovic, Joanna M Wardlaw
Small vessel diseases are a group of disorders that result from pathological alteration of the small blood vessels in the brain, including the small arteries, capillaries and veins. Of the 35-36 million people that are estimated to suffer from dementia worldwide, up to 65% have an SVD component. Furthermore, SVD causes 20-25% of strokes, worsens outcome after stroke and is a leading cause of disability, cognitive impairment and poor mobility. Yet the underlying cause(s) of SVD are not fully understood.Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has confirmed enlarged perivascular spaces (PVS) as a hallmark feature of SVD...
May 2, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724092/s100%C3%A3-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-d-dimer-and-heat-shock-protein-70-are-serologic-biomarkers-of-acute-cerebral-infarction-in-a-mouse-model-of-transient-mca-occlusion
#20
Jong-Il Choi, Sung-Kon Ha, Dong-Jun Lim, Sang-Dae Kim, Se-Hoon Kim
Objective: Diagnosing acute cerebral infarction is crucial in determining prognosis of stroke patients. Although many serologic tests for prompt diagnosis are available, the clinical application of serologic tests is currently limited. We investigated whether S100β, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), D-dimer, and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) can be used as biomarkers for acute cerebral infarction. Methods: Focal cerebral ischemia was induced using the modified intraluminal filament technique...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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