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Biomarker AND Alzheimer's disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453492/quantification-of-butyrylcholinesterase-activity-as-a-sensitive-and-specific-biomarker-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Ian R Macdonald, Selena P Maxwell, G Andrew Reid, Meghan K Cash, Drew R DeBay, Sultan Darvesh
Amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques are a neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, a significant number of cognitively normal older adults can also have Aβ plaques. Thus, distinguishing AD from cognitively normal individuals with Aβ plaques (NwAβ) based on Aβ plaque detection is challenging. It has been observed that butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) accumulates in plaques preferentially in AD. Thus, detecting BChE-associated plaques has the potential as an improved AD biomarker. We present Aβ, thioflavin-S, and BChE quantification of 26 postmortem brain tissues; AD (n = 8), NwAβ (n = 6), cognitively normal without plaques (n = 8), and other common dementias including corticobasal degeneration, frontotemporal dementia with tau, dementia with Lewy bodies, and vascular dementia...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453489/changes-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-peptides-due-to-tauopathy
#2
Petra Majerova, Peter Barath, Alena Michalicova, Stanislav Katina, Michal Novak, Andrej Kovac
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and progressive supranuclear palsy are two common neurodegenerative tauopathies, and the most common cause of progressive brain dementia in elderly affecting more than 35 million people. The tauopathies are characterized by abnormal deposition of microtubule associated protein tau into intracellular neurofibrillary tangles composed mainly of the hyperphosphorylated form of the protein. The diagnosis of tauopathies is based on the presence of clinical features and pathological changes...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453487/neuropsychiatric-symptoms-and-alzheimer-s-disease-biomarkers-predict-driving-decline-brief-report
#3
Ganesh M Babulal, Sarah H Stout, Denise Head, David M Holtzman, Anne M Fagan, John C Morris, Catherine M Roe
We examined whether neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) interact with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers (amyloid-β42 [Aβ42], tau, phosphorylated tau181 [ptau181], tau/Aβ42, and ptau181/Aβ42) of Alzheimer's disease pathology to predict driving decline among cognitively-normal older adults (N = 116) aged ≥65. Cox proportional hazards models examined time to receiving a rating of marginal or fail on the driving test. Age, education, and gender were adjusted in the models. Participants with more abnormal CSF (Aβ42, tau/Aβ42, ptau181/Aβ42) and NPS were faster to receive a marginal/fail on the road test compared to those without NPS...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453482/higher-peripheral-trem2-mrna-levels-relate-to-cognitive-deficits-and-hippocampal-atrophy-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#4
Yi Jayne Tan, Adeline S L Ng, Ashwati Vipin, Joseph K W Lim, Russell J Chander, Fang Ji, Yingwei Qiu, Simon K S Ting, Shahul Hameed, Tih-Shih Lee, Li Zeng, Nagaendran Kandiah, Juan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Variants in triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) are associated with increased Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. Recent studies have reported inconsistent peripheral TREM2 mRNA expression levels and relationship with cognitive scores in AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Additionally, no study has examined the association of peripheral TREM2 levels with neuroimaging measures in AD and MCI. OBJECTIVE: To determine peripheral TREM2 mRNA levels in AD, amnestic MCI (aMCI) and healthy controls, and the association with cognitive performance and brain structural changes...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453477/diagnostic-biomarkers-of-alzheimer-s-disease-as-identified-in-saliva-using-1h-nmr-based-metabolomics
#5
Ali Yilmaz, Tim Geddes, BeomSoo Han, Ray O Bahado-Singh, George Wilson, Khaled Imam, Michael Maddens, Stewart F Graham
Using 1H NMR metabolomics, we biochemically profiled saliva samples collected from healthy-controls (n = 12), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) sufferers (n = 8), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients (n = 9). We accurately identified significant concentration changes in 22 metabolites in the saliva of MCI and AD patients compared to controls. This pilot study demonstrates the potential for using metabolomics and saliva for the early diagnosis of AD. Given the ease and convenience of collecting saliva, the development of accurate and sensitive salivary biomarkers would be ideal for screening those at greatest risk of developing AD...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442406/anti-amnesic-effect-of-extract-and-alkaloid-fraction-from-aerial-parts-of-peganum-harmala-on-scopolamine-induced-memory-deficits-in-mice
#6
Wei Liu, Yudan Zhu, Yongli Wang, Shenglan Qi, Yuwen Wang, Chao Ma, Shuping Li, Bo Jiang, Xuemei Cheng, Zhengtao Wang, Zhenyu Xuan, Changhong Wang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aerial parts of Peganum harmala Linn (APP) is used as traditional medical herb for treatment of forgetfulness in Uighur medicine in China. But, the active ingredients and underlying mechanisms are unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was undertaken to investigate the improvement effects of extract and alkaloid fraction from APP on scopolamine-induced cognitive dysfunction and to elucidate their underlying mechanisms of action, and to support its folk use with scientific evidence, and lay a foundation for its further researches...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441961/the-influence-of-insulin-resistance-on-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-plasma-biomarkers-of-alzheimer-s-pathology
#7
REVIEW
Sarah Westwood, Benjamine Liu, Alison L Baird, Sneha Anand, Alejo J Nevado-Holgado, Danielle Newby, Maria Pikkarainen, Merja Hallikainen, Johanna Kuusisto, Johannes R Streffer, Gerald Novak, Kaj Blennow, Ulf Andreasson, Henrik Zetterberg, Ulf Smith, Markku Laakso, Hilkka Soininen, Simon Lovestone
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance (IR) has previously been associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), although the relationship between IR and AD is not yet clear. Here, we examined the influence of IR on AD using plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers related to IR and AD in cognitively healthy men. We also aimed to characterise the shared protein signatures between IR and AD. METHODS: Fifty-eight cognitively healthy men, 28 IR and 30 non-IR (age and APOE ε4 matched), were drawn from the Metabolic Syndrome in Men study in Kuopio, Finland...
April 26, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439532/recruiting-to-preclinical-alzheimer-s-disease-clinical-trials-through-registries
#8
Joshua D Grill
Participant registries are repositories of individuals who have expressed willingness to learn about studies for which they may be eligible. Registries are increasingly being utilized to improve recruitment to preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical trials, which require large screening efforts to identify adequate numbers of participants who meet enrollment criteria. Recruiting to preclinical AD trials from registries is made more efficient through registry collection of data that permits exclusion of those who will not be eligible and identifies individuals most likely to qualify for trials...
June 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436391/prediction-of-conversion-to-alzheimer-s-disease-with-longitudinal-measures-and-time-to-event-data
#9
Kan Li, Wenyaw Chan, Rachelle S Doody, Joseph Quinn, Sheng Luo
BACKGROUND: Identifying predictors of conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is critically important for AD prevention and targeted treatment. OBJECTIVE: To compare various clinical and biomarker trajectories for tracking progression and predicting conversion from amnestic mild cognitive impairment to probable AD. METHODS: Participants were from the ADNI-1 study. We assessed the ability of 33 longitudinal biomarkers to predict time to AD conversion, accounting for demographic and genetic factors...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436390/biomarkers-for-early-diagnosis-of%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease-in-the-oldest-old-yes-or-no
#10
Lucia Paolacci, David Giannandrea, Patrizia Mecocci, Lucilla Parnetti
In recent years, many efforts have been spent to identify sensitive biomarkers able to improve the accuracy of Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis. Two different workgroups (NIA-AA and IWG) included cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuroimaging findings in their sets of criteria in order to improve diagnostic accuracy as well as early diagnosis. The number of subjects with cognitive impairment increases with aging but the oldest old (≥85 years of age), the fastest growing age group, is still the most unknown from a biological point of view...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435853/preclinical-alzheimer-s-disease-and-longitudinal-driving-decline
#11
Catherine M Roe, Ganesh M Babulal, Denise M Head, Sarah H Stout, Elizabeth K Vernon, Nupur Ghoshal, Brad Garland, Peggy P Barco, Monique M Williams, Ann Johnson, Rebecca Fierberg, M Scot Fague, Chengjie Xiong, Elizabeth Mormino, Elizabeth A Grant, David M Holtzman, Tammie L S Benzinger, Anne M Fagan, Brian R Ott, David B Carr, John C Morris
INTRODUCTION: Links between preclinical AD and driving difficulty onset would support the use of driving performance as an outcome in primary and secondary prevention trials among older adults (OAs). We examined whether AD biomarkers predicted the onset of driving difficulties among OAs. METHODS: 104 OAs (65+ years) with normal cognition took part in biomarker measurements, a road test, clinical and psychometric batteries and self-reported their driving habits. RESULTS: Higher values of CSF tau/Aβ42 and ptau181/Aβ42 ratios, but not uptake on PIB amyloid imaging (p=...
January 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434943/epigenetic-pathways-in-human-disease-the-impact-of-dna-methylation-on-stress-related-pathogenesis-and-current-challenges-in-biomarker-development
#12
M Austin Argentieri, Sairaman Nagarajan, Bobak Seddighzadeh, Andrea A Baccarelli, Alexandra E Shields
HPA axis genes implicated in glucocorticoid regulation play an important role in regulating the physiological impact of social and environmental stress, and have become a focal point for investigating the role of glucocorticoid regulation in the etiology of disease. We conducted a systematic review to critically assess the full range of clinical associations that have been reported in relation to DNA methylation of CRH, CRH-R1/2, CRH-BP, AVP, POMC, ACTH, ACTH-R, NR3C1, FKBP5, and HSD11β1/2 genes in adults...
April 4, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434268/ubiquitin-c-terminal-hydrolase-l1-uch-l1-as-a-therapeutic-and-diagnostic-target-in-neurodegeneration-neurotrauma-and-neuro-injuries
#13
Kevin K Wang, Zhihui Yang, George Sarkis, Isabel Torres, Vijaya Raghavan
Since its discovery as a major CNS-abundant protein 25 years ago, Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) has emerged as an important enzyme in regulating brain protein metabolism, by coupling to the proteasome pathway of protein degradation. Areas covered: UCH-L1 is implicated in both familial and sporadic Parkinson disease and other chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Also, UCH-L1 has been recently emerging as a biofluid-based biomarker for various forms of acute neurotrauma and CNS injury. Expert opinion: The loss of UCH-L1 activity coupled with the gain of proteinopathy function are linked to neurodegeneration such as Parkinsonism and Alzheimer's disease...
April 24, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428473/technical-considerations-on-scanning-and-image-analysis-for-amyloid-pet-in-dementia
#14
Go Akamatsu, Akihito Ohnishi, Kazuki Aita, Yasuhiko Ikari, Yasuji Yamamoto, Michio Senda
Brain imaging techniques, such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET), can provide essential and objective information for the early and differential diagnosis of dementia. Amyloid PET is especially useful to evaluate the amyloid-β pathological process as a biomarker of Alzheimer's disease. This article reviews critical points about technical considerations on the scanning and image analysis methods for amyloid PET...
2017: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428015/plasma-neurofilament-light-chain-levels-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Wenjun Zhou, Jie Zhang, Fanlong Ye, Guangzheng Xu, Hang Su, Yindan Su, Xiangyang Zhang
Plasma neurofilament light (NFL) levels may be a marker of neuronal injury. We examined whether plasma NFL might be a potential biomarker for the prodromal and dementia stages of AD. Participants included 193 cognitively normal (CN), 198 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and 187 Alzheimer's disease (AD) individuals enrolled in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Plasma NFL levels were examined by the Single Molecule array (Simoa) technique. Our results showed significantly increased plasma NFL levels in both AD (50...
April 18, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424619/retinal-and-circulating-mirnas-in-age-related-macular-degeneration-an-in-vivo-animal-and-human-study
#16
Giovanni L Romano, Chiara B M Platania, Filippo Drago, Salvatore Salomone, Marco Ragusa, Cristina Barbagallo, Cinzia Di Pietro, Michele Purrello, Michele Reibaldi, Teresio Avitabile, Antonio Longo, Claudio Bucolo
Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness among people aged 50 and over. Retinal deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregates in AMD patients has suggested a potential link between AMD and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have evaluated the differential retinal expression profile of miRNAs in a rat model of AMD elicited by Aβ. A serum profile of miRNAs in AMD patients has been also assessed using single TaqMan assay. Analysis of retina from rats intravitreally injected with Aβ revealed that miR-27a, miR-146a, and miR-155 were up-regulated in comparison to control rats...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424614/relationship-between-cognitive-and-sleep-wake-variables-in-asymptomatic-offspring-of-patients-with-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Carolina Abulafia, Bárbara Duarte-Abritta, Mirta F Villarreal, María S Ladrón-de-Guevara, Celeste García, Geraldine Sequeyra, Gustavo Sevlever, Leticia Fiorentini, Karl-Jürgen Bär, Deborah R Gustafson, Daniel E Vigo, Salvador M Guinjoan
Early neuropathological changes characteristic of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) involve brain stem and limbic structures that regulate neurovegetative functions, including sleep-wake rhythm. Indeed, sleep pattern is an emerging biomarker and a potential pathophysiological mechanism in LOAD. We hypothesized that cognitively asymptomatic, middle-aged offspring of patients with LOAD (O-LOAD) would display a series of circadian rhythm abnormalities prior to the onset of objective cognitive alterations. We tested 31 children of patients with LOAD (O-LOAD) and 19 healthy individuals without family history of Alzheimer's disease (control subjects, CS) with basic tests of cognitive function, as well as actigraphy measures of sleep-wake rhythm, cardiac autonomic function, and bodily temperature...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424166/applying-fluid-biomarkers-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Henrik Zetterberg
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disease that starts with a clinically silent phase of a decade or more during which brain pathologies accumulate predominantly in the medial temporal lobe but also elsewhere in the brain. Network dysfunction and clinical symptoms typically appear when senile plaque (amyloid β) and neurofibrillary tangle (tau) pathologies meet in the brain parenchyma, producing synapse and neuronal loss. For plaque and tangle pathologies, reliable fluid biomarkers have been developed...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422821/how-the-cognitive-reserve-interacts-with-%C3%AE-amyloid-deposition-in-mitigating-fdg-metabolism-an-observational-study
#19
Elena Carapelle, Laura Serra, Sergio Modoni, Michele Falcone, Carlo Caltagirone, Marco Bozzali, Luigi Maria Specchio, Carlo Avolio
This observational study had the aim to assess the interaction between cognitive reserve (CR) and cerebrospinal fluid β-amyloid1-42 (Aβ1-42) in modulating brain [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) metabolism in patients with moderate Alzheimer disease (AD).Twenty-seven patients with probable AD and 25 neurological normal subjects (NNS) entered the study. All participants had an FDG-PET scan, and AD patients also received a lumbar puncture to measure Aβ1-42, 181p-tau, and Tau concentrations...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421328/association-of-adiponectin-leptin-and-resistin-with-inflammatory-markers-and-obesity-in-dementia
#20
Małgorzata Bednarska-Makaruk, Ałła Graban, Anna Wiśniewska, Wanda Łojkowska, Anna Bochyńska, Magdalena Gugała-Iwaniuk, Ksenia Sławińska, Agnieszka Ługowska, Danuta Ryglewicz, Hanna Wehr
The aim of the study was to determine the role of adiponectin, leptin and resistin in various types of dementia and to investigate their association with inflammatory markers, insulin resistance and abdominal obesity. In 205 patients with dementia [89 with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 47 with vascular dementia (VaD), 69 with mixed dementia (MD)], 113 persons with mild cognitive impairment and in 107 controls serum adiponectin, leptin and resistin levels, pro-inflammatory [interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and chitotriosidase] and anti-inflammatory (25-OH vitamin D, HDL-cholesterol and paraoxonase 1) markers, as well as glucose metabolism parameters (glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR) were determined...
April 18, 2017: Biogerontology
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