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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214434/an-examination-of-alcohol-risk-profiles-and-co-occurring-mental-health-symptoms-among-oef-oif-veterans
#1
Jennifer M Cadigan, Alicia K Klanecky, Matthew P Martens
INTRODUCTION: Compared to the general population, veterans of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq (OEF/OIF) are more likely to engage in hazardous alcohol use and meet criteria for mental health disorders including Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Major Depressive Disorder. Less is known how distinct profiles of alcohol use behavior relate to mental health symptoms. METHOD: The current study examined the extent that indicators of alcohol use (i.e., drinks per week, peak blood alcohol concentration, and alcohol-related problems) are categorized into different alcohol risk profiles utilizing a person-centered approach...
February 9, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210542/dynamic-association-between-perfusion-and-white-matter-integrity-across-time-since-injury-in-veterans-with-history-of-tbi
#2
Alexandra L Clark, Katherine J Bangen, Scott F Sorg, Dawn M Schiehser, Nicole D Evangelista, Benjamin McKenna, Thomas T Liu, Lisa Delano-Wood
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) plays a critical role in the maintenance of neuronal integrity, and CBF alterations have been linked to deleterious white matter changes. Although both CBF and white matter microstructural alterations have been observed within the context of traumatic brain injury (TBI), the degree to which these pathological changes relate to one another and whether this association is altered by time since injury have not been examined. The current study therefore sought to clarify associations between resting CBF and white matter microstructure post-TBI...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210229/longitudinal-associations-between-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-severity-and-personality-disorder-features-among-female-rape-survivors
#3
Michelle J Bovin, Erika J Wolf, Patricia A Resick
This study evaluated how change in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms was associated with residualized change in comorbid personality disorder (PD) features and vice versa over the course of 5-10 years. The sample was comprised of 79 female rape survivors who met criteria for PTSD and who were a part of a larger study examining the effects of trauma-focused therapy. PTSD was assessed with the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) version of the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale [CAPS-IV (1)] and PD features were assessed with the DSM-IV dimensional PD scales on the Schedule for Non-adaptive and Adaptive Personality [SNAP (2)]...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209683/evaluation-of-6-remote-first-nations-community-based-buprenorphine-programs-in-northwestern-ontario-retrospective-study
#4
Solomon Mamakwa, Meldon Kahan, Dinah Kanate, Mike Kirlew, David Folk, Sharon Cirone, Sara Rea, Pierre Parsons, Craig Edwards, Janet Gordon, Fiona Main, Len Kelly
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate established opioid addiction treatment programs that use traditional healing in combination with buprenorphine-naloxone maintenance treatment in 6 First Nations communities in the Sioux Lookout region of northwestern Ontario. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Six First Nations communities in northwestern Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 526 First Nations participants in opioid-dependence treatment programs...
February 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209155/intranasal-oxytocin-reduces-provoked-symptoms-in-female-patients-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-despite-exerting-sympathomimetic-and-positive-chronotropic-effects-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
M Sack, D Spieler, L Wizelman, G Epple, J Stich, M Zaba, U Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe psychiatric disease accompanied by neuroendocrine changes such as adrenergic overdrive and hence an elevated cardiovascular morbidity. Current pharmacotherapeutic options for PTSD are less than suboptimal, necessitating the development of PTSD-specific drugs. Although the neuropeptide oxytocin has been repeatedly suggested to be effective in PTSD treatment, there are, to our knowledge, only three studies that have assessed its efficacy on the intensity of PTSD symptoms in PTSD patients - among them one symptom provocation study in male veterans...
February 17, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208816/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-the-dsm-5-controversy-change-and-conceptual-considerations
#6
REVIEW
Anushka Pai, Alina M Suris, Carol S North
The criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD have changed considerably with the newest edition of the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Changes to the diagnostic criteria from the DSM-IV to DSM-5 include: the relocation of PTSD from the anxiety disorders category to a new diagnostic category named "Trauma and Stressor-related Disorders", the elimination of the subjective component to the definition of trauma, the explication and tightening of the definitions of trauma and exposure to it, the increase and rearrangement of the symptoms criteria, and changes in additional criteria and specifiers...
February 13, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207917/the-role-of-ect-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-systematic-review
#7
Nagy A Youssef, W Vaughn McCall, Chittaranjan Andrade
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with a high burden of disability and mortality and frequently is treatment resistant. There is little to offer patients who are not responding to standard interventions. Thus, the objective of this report is to systematically review human data on whether electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is effective in PTSD. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review from 1958 through August 2016 for clinical studies and case reports published in English examining the efficacy of ECT in improving PTSD symptoms...
February 2017: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207775/the-contribution-of-gender-based-violence-and-network-trauma-to-gender-differences-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#8
Derrick Silove, Jess R Baker, Mohammed Mohsin, Maree Teesson, Mark Creamer, Meaghan O'Donnell, David Forbes, Natacha Carragher, Tim Slade, Katherine Mills, Richard Bryant, Alexander McFarlane, Zachary Steel, Kim Felmingham, Susan Rees
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurs twice as commonly amongst women as men. Two common domains of trauma, network trauma and gender based violence (GBV), may contribute to this gender difference in PTSD rates. We examined data from a nationally representative sample of the Australian population to clarify the characteristics of these two trauma domains in their contributions to PTSD rates in men and women. METHODS: We drew on data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Well-being to assess gender differences across a comprehensive range of trauma domains, including (1) prevalence of lifetime exposure; (2) identification of an index trauma or DSM-IV Criterion A event; and (3) the likelihood of developing full DSM-IV PTSD symptoms once an index trauma was identified...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207571/systematic-review-of-interventions-to-reduce-psychiatric-morbidity-in-parents-and-children-after-picu-admissions
#9
Samantha C Baker, Julia A Gledhill
OBJECTIVE: To describe and evaluate interventions aimed at reducing psychiatric morbidity in parents and children discharged from PICU. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of the literature was undertaken, searching EMBASE, PSYCHinfo, MEDLINE, and CINAHL. Experts in the field were contacted to identify unpublished studies. STUDY SELECTION: Exclusion criteria: Studies with participants above age 18 or drawn from a neonatal ICU, studies not in English, and those not measuring psychopathology...
February 15, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206786/posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-and-marital-adjustment-among-israeli-combat-veterans-the-role-of-loneliness-and-attachment
#10
Liat Itzhaky, Jacob Y Stein, Yafit Levin, Zahava Solomon
OBJECTIVE: War trauma may foster ramifications for marital relationships. Veterans may feel that no one can understand them and thus impact their relationships. The current study aims to shed light on the role that posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), loneliness, and attachment orientations may play in marital adjustment among combat veterans. METHOD: Participants were 504 veterans who served in the Lebanon War in 1982. RESULTS: Analysis revealed that higher PTSS levels were related to lower marital adjustment and that the indirect path of this relation through loneliness was significant...
February 16, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206785/relationships-among-traumatic-experiences-ptsd-and-posttraumatic-growth-for-police-officers-a-path-analysis
#11
Brian A Chopko, Patrick A Palmieri, Richard E Adams
OBJECTIVE: Law enforcement officers tend to be exposed to a high frequency of potentially traumatic incidents. A dichotomous distinction among these events involves the witnessing of threat or harm to others and the experiencing of threat or harm directly to oneself. Past research suggests that different types of trauma exposure produce varying levels of negative posttraumatic responses including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and positive outcomes such as posttraumatic growth (PTG)...
February 16, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201957/chilean-men-exposed-to-the-major-earthquake-in-2010
#12
Oscar Labra, Danielle Maltais, Gilles Tremblay
The article presents the results of a study involving 18 men, 4 years after one of South America's most powerful natural disasters: An earthquake occurring off the coast of Chile in February 2010. Participants reported having developed new psychological health problems in the months following the catastrophe. The manifestations most frequently reported by participants were the presence of depressive and stress symptoms, as well as sleep disorders. The majority of participants registered scores of 33 and above on the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, indicating that they were suffering from posttraumatic stress...
March 2017: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199913/new-dsm-5-ptsd-guilt-and-shame-symptoms-among-italian-earthquake-survivors-impact-on-maladaptive-behaviors
#13
Claudia Carmassi, Carlo Antonio Bertelloni, Camilla Gesi, Ciro Conversano, Paolo Stratta, Gabriele Massimetti, Alessandro Rossi, Liliana Dell'Osso
Important changes were introduced concerning posttraumatic-stress disorder (PTSD) by the DSM-5 recognizing the role of negative emotions such as guilt and shame, but little evidence is yet available on their prevalence in population assessed by means of DSM-5 criteria. In this study we explored the rates of guilt and shame DSM-5 PTSD diagnostic symptoms among Italian survivors to a massive earthquake and their possible correlation with PTSD and maladaptive behaviors. 869 residents of the town of L'Aquila exposed to the earthquake of April 6th, 2009 were investigated by the Trauma and Loss Spectrum-Self Report (TALS-SR) with particular attention to guilt and shame feelings...
November 22, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199430/-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-conceptualization-and-psychopharmacological-treatment-update
#14
Leandro N Grendas
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by four symptom complexes: the reexperience/intrusion of the traumatic event, a state of hyperarousal when exposed to traumatic events, emotional block and emotional/affective deregulation with negative cognitive and mood alterations. Its evolution tends to be chronic and its related with a significative morbidity, affecting the functionality of the individual in his interpresonal, social and employment areas. In 1980, the American Psychiatric Association includes PTSD in the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III), and thereafter several research studies are developed to evaluate the effectiveness of drugs on its treatment...
March 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199429/-emotional-processing-theory-and-prolonged-exposure-therapy-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#15
Rafael Kichic, Noelí D'Alessio
Prolonged exposure therapy is a first-line treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. In this article we discuss the theoretical underpinnings and underlying mechanisms of PE, its efficacy and safety. We briefly describe the procedures involved in PE with special emphasis in imaginal exposure. Also, we present examples of efforts to integrate evidence-based treatments that concurrently target PTSD and borderline personality disorder. Next, we review efforts made to adapt the intervention to Hispanics. Finally, obstacles for disseminating and implementing PE are discussed...
March 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199426/-translating-hysteria-ptsd-dissociative-subtype
#16
Elena Levy Yeyati
To address the symptoms of depersonalization and derealization a specific dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder has been included in DSM-5. Depersonalization and derealization have been defined as acute and chronic symptoms of dissociative disorders since DSM-III. Dissociative disorders with chronic features are often diagnosed in North America, Canada and other European countries, but this is not the case in Argentina. Dissociative disorders have clinical and historical features that are strongly connected with hysteria...
March 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198537/racial-discrimination-associated-with-higher-diastolic-blood-pressure-in-a-sample-of-american-indian-adults
#17
Zaneta M Thayer, Irene V Blair, Dedra S Buchwald, Spero M Manson
OBJECTIVES: Hypertension prevalence is high among American Indians (AIs). AIs experience a substantial burden of interpersonal racial discrimination, which in other populations has been associated with higher blood pressure. The purpose of this study is to understand whether racial discrimination experiences are associated with higher blood pressure in AIs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the Everyday Discrimination Scale to evaluate the relationship between discrimination and measured blood pressure among 77 AIs from two reservation communities in the Northern Plains...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198140/u-s-reserve-soldiers-combat-exposure-and-intimate-partner-violence-not-more-common-but-it-is-more-violent
#18
Sarah Cercone Heavey, D Lynn Homish, Erin Anderson Goodell, Gregory G Homish
Combat exposure's influence on intimate partner violence (IPV) in reserve soldiers is not well understood. This work examines combat exposure's influence on IPV in U.S. Army Reserve/National Guard soldiers and partners. Data are from Operation: SAFETY, a longitudinal study of U.S. Army Reserve/National Guard soldiers and partners. Logistic regression models examined odds of sexual aggression, physical aggression, and physical injury with combat exposure, controlling for posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, marital satisfaction, and age...
February 15, 2017: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197680/effect-of-a-condolence-letter-on-grief-symptoms-among-relatives-of-patients-who-died-in-the-icu-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#19
Nancy Kentish-Barnes, Sylvie Chevret, Benoît Champigneulle, Marina Thirion, Virginie Souppart, Marion Gilbert, Olivier Lesieur, Anne Renault, Maïté Garrouste-Orgeas, Laurent Argaud, Marion Venot, Alexandre Demoule, Olivier Guisset, Isabelle Vinatier, Gilles Troché, Julien Massot, Samir Jaber, Caroline Bornstain, Véronique Gaday, René Robert, Jean-Philippe Rigaud, Raphaël Cinotti, Mélanie Adda, François Thomas, Laure Calvet, Marion Galon, Zoé Cohen-Solal, Alain Cariou, Elie Azoulay
PURPOSE: Family members of patients who die in the intensive care unit (ICU) may experience symptoms of stress, anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and/or prolonged grief. We evaluated whether grief symptoms were alleviated if the physician and the nurse in charge at the time of death sent the closest relative a handwritten condolence letter. METHODS: Multicenter randomized trial conducted among 242 relatives of patients who died at 22 ICUs in France between December 2014 and October 2015...
February 14, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195577/hippocampus-glutamate-and-n-acetyl-aspartate-markers-of-excitotoxic-neuronal-compromise-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#20
Isabelle M Rosso, David J Crowley, Marisa M Silveri, Scott L Rauch, J Eric Jensen
Hippocampus atrophy is implicated in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and may partly reflect stress-induced glutamate excitotoxicity that culminates in neuron injury and manifests as re-experiencing symptoms and other memory abnormalities. This study used high-field proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to determine whether PTSD is associated with lower hippocampus levels of the neuron marker N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), along with higher levels of glutamate (Glu) and Glu/NAA. We also predicted that metabolite levels would correlate with re-experiencing symptoms and lifetime trauma load...
February 13, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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