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Posttraumatic stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449365/duty-related-trauma-exposure-and-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-in-professional-firefighters
#1
Junghyun H Lee, Dayoung Lee, Jiae Kim, Kyoungsun Jeon, Minyoung Sim
Firefighters commonly encounter traumatic events during duty hours. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of duty-related trauma as risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in professional firefighters. A sample of 212 firefighters participated in the study and completed self-reported questionnaires. Potentially traumatic events (PTE) were assessed using a list of 17 traumatic event types. The posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) were measured by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (Lim et al...
April 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449364/the-association-between-peritraumatic-dissociation-and-ptsd-symptoms-the-mediating-role-of-negative-beliefs-about-the-self
#2
Johanna Thompson-Hollands, Janie J Jun, Denise M Sloan
Peritraumatic dissociation, a term used to describe a complex array of reactions to trauma, including depersonalization, derealization, and emotional numbness, has been associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms across a number of studies. Cognitive theory suggests that interpretations of traumatic events and reactions underlie the persistence of PTSD. The present study examined the associations among peritraumatic dissociation, posttraumatic cognitions, and PTSD symptoms in a group of trauma-exposed adults (N = 169)...
April 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449105/family-communication-styles-and-resilience-among-adolescents
#3
M Alejandra Acuña, Sheryl Kataoka
Some adolescents manage to be resilient, whereas others develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after experiencing trauma, but the mechanisms underlying these differences are unclear. Public secondary school students (N = 98) referred for counseling completed questionnaires assessing exposure to stressful events, family communication, and PTSD. Seventy percent of the sample reported PTSD symptoms in the clinical range. Open family communication was negatively associated with female gender, problem family communication (PFC), and PTSD symptom severity...
April 26, 2017: Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448322/dexmedetomidine-as-a-rescue-therapy-for-emergence-delirium-in-adults-a-case-series
#4
Matthew D Read, Christopher V Maani, Scott Blackwell
Emergence delirium (ED) in adult patients encountered in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) is not well studied; nor are ED treatment strategies. Similar to delirium in the intensive care unit, ED in the PACU can result in serious complications. We describe 3 cases of ED in the PACU in patients with a history of posttraumatic stress disorder who were successfully treated with dexmedetomidine. Although likely utilized more frequently in recent years, the use of dexmedetomidine in the PACU for treatment of ED is not established in the literature...
April 26, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447808/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-after-spinal-cord-injury
#5
Yue Cao, Chao Li, Susan Newman, Jasmine Lucas, Susan Charlifue, James S Krause
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to identify the relationships of demographics, injury-related characteristics, employment, depressive symptoms, and health events with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among participants with spinal cord injury. RESEARCH METHOD: A total of 1,063 participants were recruited from 3 sites in different regions (Southeastern, Mountain, and Western) of the United States. Hispanics and non-Hispanic Blacks were oversampled. Three hundred sixty-nine were non-Hispanic White, followed by 361 non-Hispanic Black, 277 Hispanic, and 56 from other racial-ethnic groups...
April 27, 2017: Rehabilitation Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447137/-climate-change-physical-and-mental-consequences
#6
REVIEW
Maxie Bunz, Hans-Guido Mücke
Climate change has already had a large influence on the human environmental system and directly or indirectly affects physical and mental health. Triggered by extreme meteorological conditions, for example, storms, floods, earth slides and heat periods, the direct consequences range from illnesses to serious accidents with injuries, or in extreme cases fatalities. Indirectly, a changed environment due to climate change affects, amongst other things, the cardiovascular system and respiratory tract, and can also cause allergies and infectious diseases...
April 26, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446047/effect-of-chronic-restraint-stress-on-inhibitory-gating-in-the-auditory-cortex-of-rats
#7
Lanlan Ma, Wai Li, Sibin Li, Xuejiao Wang, Ling Qin
A fundamental adaptive mechanism of auditory function is inhibitory gating (IG), which refers to the attenuation of neural responses to repeated sound stimuli. IG is drastically impaired in individuals with emotional and cognitive impairments (i.e., posttraumatic stress disorder). The objective of this study was to test whether chronic stress impairs the IG of the auditory cortex (AC). We used the standard two-tone stimulus paradigm and examined the parametric qualities of IG in the AC of rats by recording the electrophysiological signals of a single-unit and local field potential (LFP) simultaneously...
April 26, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445840/modification-of-cognitive-biases-related-to-posttraumatic-stress-a-systematic-review-and-research-agenda
#8
REVIEW
Marcella L Woud, Johan Verwoerd, Julie Krans
Cognitive models of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) postulate that cognitive biases in attention, interpretation, and memory represent key factors involved in the onset and maintenance of PTSD. Developments in experimental research demonstrate that it may be possible to manipulate such biases by means of Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM). In the present paper, we summarize studies assessing cognitive biases in posttraumatic stress to serve as a theoretical and methodological background. However, our main aim was to provide an overview of the scientific literature on CBM in (analogue) posttraumatic stress...
April 17, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445653/describing-the-mental-health-profile-of-first-respondersa-systematic-review-formula-see-text
#9
Sara Jones
BACKGROUND: First responders (FRs) are responsible for providing multiple services during various critical events. Considering the frequency, nature, and intensity of duty-related traumatic exposures, the cumulative impact on FRs' mental health is of paramount importance. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this systematic review was to describe how duty-related trauma exposure can affect the comprehensive mental health profile of FRs, including firefighters, emergency medical technicians, and paramedics...
February 1, 2017: Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443058/predicting-outcome-12-months-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-patients-admitted-to-a-neurosurgery-service
#10
Torgeir Hellstrøm, Tobias Kaufmann, Nada Andelic, Helene L Soberg, Solrun Sigurdardottir, Eirik Helseth, Ole A Andreassen, Lars T Westlye
OBJECTIVE: Accurate outcome prediction models for patients with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) are key for prognostic assessment and clinical decision-making. Using multivariate machine learning, we tested the unique and added predictive value of (1) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based brain morphometric and volumetric characterization at 4-week postinjury and (2) demographic, preinjury, injury-related, and postinjury variables on 12-month outcomes, including global functioning level, postconcussion symptoms, and mental health in patients with MTBI...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443054/childbirth-induced-posttraumatic-stress-syndrome-a-systematic-review-of-prevalence-and-risk-factors
#11
REVIEW
Sharon Dekel, Caren Stuebe, Gabriella Dishy
Background: Posttraumatic stress related with the childbirth experience of full-term delivery with health outcomes has been recently documented in a growing body of studies. The magnitude of this condition and the factors that might put a woman at risk for developing childbirth-related postpartum posttraumatic stress disorder (PP-PTSD) symptoms are not fully understood. Methods: In this systematic review of 36 articles representing quantitative studies of primarily community samples, we set to examine PP-PTSD prevalence rates and associated predictors with a focus on the role of prior PTSD and time since childbirth...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441585/assessing-the-latent-structure-of-dsm-5-ptsd-among-chinese-adolescents-after-the-ya-an-earthquake
#12
Xiao Zhou, Xinchun Wu, Rui Zhen
To examine the underlying substructure of DSM-5 PTSD in an adolescent sample, this study used a confirmatory factor analysis alternative model approach to assess 813 adolescents two and a half years after the Ya'an earthquake. Participants completed the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children, and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders. The results found that the seven-factor hybrid PTSD model entailing intrusion, avoidance, negative affect, anhedonia, externalizing behaviors, anxious arousal, and dysphoric arousal had significantly better fit indices than other alternative models...
April 19, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439101/largest-gwas-of-ptsd-n-20%C3%A2-070-yields-genetic-overlap-with-schizophrenia-and-sex-differences-in-heritability
#13
L E Duncan, A Ratanatharathorn, A E Aiello, L M Almli, A B Amstadter, A E Ashley-Koch, D G Baker, J C Beckham, L J Bierut, J Bisson, B Bradley, C-Y Chen, S Dalvie, L A Farrer, S Galea, M E Garrett, J E Gelernter, G Guffanti, M A Hauser, E O Johnson, R C Kessler, N A Kimbrel, A King, N Koen, H R Kranzler, M W Logue, A X Maihofer, A R Martin, M W Miller, R A Morey, N R Nugent, J P Rice, S Ripke, A L Roberts, N L Saccone, J W Smoller, D J Stein, M B Stein, J A Sumner, M Uddin, R J Ursano, D E Wildman, R Yehuda, H Zhao, M J Daly, I Liberzon, K J Ressler, C M Nievergelt, K C Koenen
The Psychiatric Genomics Consortium-Posttraumatic Stress Disorder group (PGC-PTSD) combined genome-wide case-control molecular genetic data across 11 multiethnic studies to quantify PTSD heritability, to examine potential shared genetic risk with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder and to identify risk loci for PTSD. Examining 20 730 individuals, we report a molecular genetics-based heritability estimate (h(2)SNP) for European-American females of 29% that is similar to h(2)SNP for schizophrenia and is substantially higher than h(2)SNP in European-American males (estimate not distinguishable from zero)...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437731/children-and-adolescents-facing-a-continuous-security-threat-aggressive-behavior-and-post-traumatic-stress-symptoms
#14
Orit Nuttman-Shwartz
There is extensive research evidence indicating that children and youth are the most vulnerable population for developing psychological symptoms relating to war and terror. Although studies have documented a wide range of detrimental emotional and behavioral effects of such exposure, much less is known about the effects of exposure to a continuous security threat for children and adolescents. Against this background, the current article examined the implications of continuous exposure to missile attacks among 1096 children and adolescents enrolled in public schools near the Israeli border with Gaza...
April 21, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437216/posttraumatic-symptom-reporting-and-reported-cigarette-smoking-during-pregnancy
#15
Sara L Kornfield, Marian Moseley, Dina Appleby, Courtney L McMickens, Mary D Sammel, C Neill Epperson
INTRODUCTION: Increased prevalence of nicotine dependence among individuals suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is well established. However, there are limited studies on the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in relation to prepregnancy history of trauma exposures and active PTSD symptoms during pregnancy. Prenatal smoking has been implicated in a host of negative outcomes for mother and baby. Given maternal and fetal risk, it is critical to define predictors of continued cigarette smoking during pregnancy...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436547/are-type-d-personality-and-depression-predictors-of-anxiety-and-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-among-icd-patients
#16
EDITORIAL
Jessica Ford
The literature surrounding posttraumatic stress symptoms (PSS) and anxiety among patients living with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) is becoming increasingly sophisticated with evidence linking traumatic stress and anxiety to cardiovascular outcomes, examinations of psychosocial treatment of PSS and anxiety, and predictive modeling all contributing to a more nuanced understanding of the predictors, course, and treatment of PSS and anxiety among ICD patients. In this issue of PACE, Habibovic, Denollet, and Pedersen report secondary analyses from the WEBCARE trial data in which the author employed Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to identify trajectories of trauma and anxiety symptoms among patients implanted with ICDs across the 12-month post-implant period and examined associations between the identified trajectories and demographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics of the participants...
April 24, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435932/default-mode-network-subsystems-are-differentially-disrupted-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#17
Danielle R Miller, Scott M Hayes, Jasmeet P Hayes, Jeffrey M Spielberg, Ginette Lafleche, Mieke Verfaellie
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by debilitating re-experiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal symptoms following trauma exposure. Recent evidence suggests that individuals with PTSD show disrupted functional connectivity in the default mode network, an intrinsic network that consists of a midline core, a medial temporal lobe (MTL) subsystem, and a dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC) subsystem. The present study examined whether functional connectivity in these subsystems is differentially disrupted in PTSD...
January 13, 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433950/an-electrocortical-investigation-of-emotional-face-processing-in-military-related-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#18
Julia A DiGangi, Katie L Burkhouse, Darrin M Aase, Joseph M Babione, Christopher Schroth, Amy E Kennedy, Justin E Greenstein, Eric Proescher, K Luan Phan
PTSD is a disorder of emotion dysregulation. Although much work has intended to elucidate the neural underpinnings of the disorder, much remains unknown about the neurobiological substrates of emotion dysregulation in PTSD. In order to assess the relationship between a neural measure of attention to emotion (i.e. the late positive potential; LPP) and PTSD symptoms, EEG was recorded and examined as a potential predictor of military-related PTSD symptoms in a sample of 73 OEF/OIF/OND veterans. Results revealed that higher PTSD symptoms were related to an attenuated LPP response to angry facial expressions...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432794/posttraumatic-stress-and-anxiety-in-patients-with-an-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator-trajectories-and-vulnerability-factors
#19
M Habibović, J Denollet, S S Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy is first-line treatment for the primary and secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death. Despite the unequivocal medical benefits, living with an ICD may affect patients' psychological functioning and general well-being. We examined the trajectories of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety in patients with an ICD and the vulnerability factors associated with an increased risk of symptoms of PTSD and anxiety...
April 22, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430672/lamotrigine-uses-in-psychiatric-practice-beyond-bipolar-prophylaxis-a-hope-or-hype
#20
Ahmed Naguy, Najah Al-Enezi
BACKGROUND: Lamotrigine (LAM), an antiepileptic, with panoply of indications and uses in neurology, is FDA approved, in psychiatry, for bipolar prophylaxis. Apart from this indication, trend of its use in psychiatry is on the rise addressing a multitude of disorders. STUDY QUESTION: LAM remains one of only few psychotropic drugs with antiglutamate activity. This might render LAM a potential therapeutic option in treatment-resistant major psychiatric disorders. We reviewed LAM pharmacology and its diverse indications while examining the extant evidence...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
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