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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944401/molecular-and-cellular-effects-of-traumatic-stress-implications-for-ptsd
#1
REVIEW
Matthew J Girgenti, Brendan D Hare, Sriparna Ghosal, Ronald S Duman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by hyperarousal and recurrent stressful memories after an emotionally traumatic event. Extensive research has been conducted to identify the neurobiological determinants that underlie the pathophysiology of PTSD. In this review, we examine evidence regarding the molecular and cellular pathophysiology of PTSD focusing on two primary brain regions: the vmPFC and the amygdala. RECENT FINDINGS: This discussion includes a review of the molecular alterations related to PTSD, focusing mainly on changes to glucocorticoid receptor signaling...
September 25, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944108/the-association-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-chronic-medical-conditions-by-ethnicity
#2
Sarah E Valentine, Carrie J Nobles, Monica W Gerber, Adin Vaewsorn, Derri L Shtasel, Luana Marques
Our study extends the literature on associations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and chronic medical conditions by assessing differences in the magnitude of these relations by ethnicity. We examined group differences in the magnitude of the relation between PTSD and chronic medical conditions (cardiovascular disease [CVD], hypertension, obesity, diabetes). We obtained data from Latino (n = 3,224) and non-Latino white (n = 4,180) respondents from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys...
August 2017: Journal of Latina/o Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942597/sleep-disruption-safety-learning-and-fear-extinction-in-humans-implications-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#3
Laura D Straus, Sean P A Drummond, Victoria B Risbrough, Sonya B Norman
Fear learning is critical in the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and safety learning and extinction are necessary for recovery. Studies in animal models suggest that sleep disruption, and REM sleep fragmentation in particular, interfere with safety learning and extinction processes, and recently, studies are extending these findings to humans. A discussion of the human literature is presented here, which largely consists of experimental studies in healthy human control subjects...
September 24, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942195/short-overview-on-metabolomic-approach-and-redox-changes-in-psychiatric-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Gordana Nedic Erjavec, Marcela Konjevod, Matea Nikolac Perkovic, Dubravka Svob Strac, Lucija Tudor, Coral Barbas, Tilman Grune, Neven Zarkovic, Nela Pivac
Schizophrenia, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are severe mental disorders and complicated diagnostic entities, due to their phenotypic, biological and genetic heterogeneity, unknown etiology, and poorly understood alterations in biological pathways and biological mechanisms. Disturbed homeostasis between overproduction of oxidant species, overcoming redox regulation and a lack of cellular antioxidant defenses, resulting in free radical-mediated pathology and subsequent neurotoxicity contributes to development of depression, schizophrenia and PTSD, their heterogeneous clinical presentation and resistance to treatment...
September 6, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942057/psychosocial-symptoms-in-very-young-children-assessed-for-sexual-abuse-a-qualitative-analysis-from-the-asac-study
#5
T F Vrolijk-Bosschaart, S N Brilleslijper-Kater, G A M Widdershoven, A H Teeuw, E Verlinden, Y Voskes, E M van Duin, A P Verhoeff, M de Leeuw, M J Roskam, M A Benninga, R J L Lindauer
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a worldwide problem with serious consequences. No recognizable symptom pattern for suspected CSA has yet been identified in very young children. We aim to investigate psychosocial symptoms in a sample of children with confirmed or strongly suspected CSA and the interpretations given to such symptoms by independent clinical experts. Secondly we examined whether experts were able to identify confirmed victims of severe CSA. A qualitative study including inductive content analysis of medical files and focus group discussions with independent experts on the interpretation of psychosocial symptoms was conducted...
September 20, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942056/children-s-resilience-and-trauma-specific-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-comparing-resilience-as-an-outcome-a-trait-and-a-process
#6
Kaitlin Happer, Elissa J Brown, Komal Sharma-Patel
Resilience, which is associated with relatively positive outcomes following negative life experiences, is an important research target in the field of child maltreatment (Luthar et al., 2000). The extant literature contains multiple conceptualizations of resilience, which hinders development in research and clinical utility. Three models emerge from the literature: resilience as an immediate outcome (i.e., behavioral or symptom response), resilience as a trait, and resilience as a dynamic process. The current study compared these models in youth undergoing trauma-specific cognitive behavioral therapy...
September 20, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940473/deployment-characteristics-and-long-term-ptsd-symptoms
#7
Sandra B Morissette, Bryann B DeBeer, Nathan A Kimbrel, Eric C Meyer, Suzy B Gulliver
OBJECTIVE: The impact of number, length, and time between (i.e., "dwell time") deployments on long-term Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms was examined in post-9/11 U.S. veterans. METHOD: This cross-sectional design includes data from 278 veterans participating in a larger longitudinal research program of postdeployment recovery. Measures included self-report questionnaires and the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940060/psychosocial-implications-of-living-with-catecholaminergic-polymorphic-ventricular-tachycardia-in-adulthood
#8
Ebony Richardson, Catherine Spinks, Andrew Davis, Christian Turner, John Atherton, Julie McGaughran, Christopher Semsarian, Jodie Ingles
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a rare inherited arrhythmogenic disease with a high risk of sudden cardiac death. The impact on health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) and psychosocial outcomes is not known. We sought to provide the first description of HR-QoL and psychosocial wellbeing of adults with CPVT, parents of affected children and at-risk relatives. Participants were recruited through the Australian Genetic Heart Disease Registry and invited to complete a cross-sectional survey comprising a number of validated scales and open-ended questions...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939392/self-and-other-directed-forms-of-violence-and-their-relationship-with-lifetime-dsm-5-psychiatric-disorders-results-from-the-national-epidemiologic-survey-on-alcohol-related-conditions-iii-nesarc-iii
#9
Thomas C Harford, Chiung M Chen, Bradley T Kerridge, Bridget F Grant
A combined history of violence toward self and others has been reported in clinical and incarcerated populations. Psychiatric disorders have been implicated as risk factors. This study examines the lifetime prevalence of this combined violence in the general population and its associations with DSM-5 psychiatric disorders in comparison with other- and self-directed violence. Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III) were analyzed, including 36,309 U.S. adults ages 18 and older...
September 13, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939188/neural-and-psychological-characteristics-of-college-students-with-alcoholic-parents-differ-depending-on-current-alcohol-use
#10
Kathleen A Brown-Rice, Jamie L Scholl, Kelene A Fercho, Kami Pearson, Noah A Kallsen, Gareth E Davies, Erik A Ehli, Seth Olson, Amy Schweinle, Lee A Baugh, Gina L Forster
A significant proportion of college students are adult children of an alcoholic parent (ACoA), which can confer greater risk of depression, poor self-esteem, alcohol and drug problems, and greater levels of college attrition. However, some ACoA are resilient to these negative outcomes. The goal of this study was to better understand the psychobiological factors that distinguish resilient and vulnerable college-aged ACoAs. To do so, scholastic performance and psychological health were measured in ACoA college students not engaged in hazardous alcohol use (resilient) and those currently engaged in hazardous alcohol use (vulnerable)...
September 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936597/terminal-weaning-or-immediate-extubation-for-withdrawing-mechanical-ventilation-in-critically-ill-patients-the-arreve-observational-study
#11
René Robert, Amélie Le Gouge, Nancy Kentish-Barnes, Alice Cottereau, Bruno Giraudeau, Mélanie Adda, Djillali Annane, Juliette Audibert, François Barbier, Patrick Bardou, Simon Bourcier, Jeremy Bourenne, Alexandre Boyer, François Brenas, Vincent Das, Arnaud Desachy, Jérôme Devaquet, Marc Feissel, Frédérique Ganster, Maïté Garrouste-Orgeas, Guillaume Grillet, Olivier Guisset, Rebecca Hamidfar-Roy, Anne-Claire Hyacinthe, Sebastien Jochmans, Mercé Jourdain, Alexandre Lautrette, Nicolas Lerolle, Olivier Lesieur, Fabien Lion, Philippe Mateu, Bruno Megarbane, Sybille Merceron, Emmanuelle Mercier, Jonathan Messika, Paul Morin-Longuet, Bénédicte Philippon-Jouve, Jean-Pierre Quenot, Anne Renault, Xavier Repesse, Jean-Philippe Rigaud, Ségolène Robin, Antoine Roquilly, Amélie Seguin, Didier Thevenin, Patrice Tirot, Isabelle Vinatier, Elie Azoulay, Jean Reignier
PURPOSE: The relative merits of immediate extubation versus terminal weaning for mechanical ventilation withdrawal are controversial, particularly regarding the experience of patients and relatives. METHODS: This prospective observational multicentre study (ARREVE) was done in 43 French ICUs to compare terminal weaning and immediate extubation, as chosen by the ICU team. Terminal weaning was a gradual decrease in the amount of ventilatory assistance and immediate extubation was extubation without any previous decrease in ventilatory assistance...
September 22, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931334/repeated-exposure-to-experimental-pain-differentiates-combat-tbi-with-and-without-ptsd
#12
Irina A Strigo, Andrea D Spadoni, Sabra S Inslicht, Alan N Simmons
Mild traumatic brain injury(mTBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder(PTSD) are highly comorbid conditions that often co-occur with chronic pain. We have shown that women with PTSD following intimate partner violence show attenuated brain response to repeated experimental pain that was related to symptoms of avoidance. The aim of this study was to extend our prior findings to males with combat trauma and to examine brain response to experimental pain in men with and without PTSD who sustained mTBI during combat...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930889/the-burden-of-mental-illness-among-veterans-use-of-vha-health-care-services-by-those-with-service-connected-conditions
#13
Charles Maynard, Adam Batten, Chuan-Fen Liu, Karin Nelson, Stephan D Fihn
BACKGROUND: Little is known about how Veterans with service-connected conditions use health care provided by the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). OBJECTIVES: To ascertain what proportion of Veterans with service-connected conditions used VHA health care and whether it varied according to type of condition, combined disability rating, age, sex, military rank, or other characteristics and whether there were differences in receipt of inpatient and outpatient care...
September 19, 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929625/association-of-trauma-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-with-incident-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-sle-in-a-longitudinal-cohort-of-women
#14
Andrea L Roberts, Susan Malspeis, Laura D Kubzansky, Candace H Feldman, Shun-Chiao Chang, Karestan C Koenen, Karen H Costenbader
OBJECTIVE: To conduct the first longitudinal study examining whether trauma exposure and PTSD are associated with increased risk of incident SLE in a civilian cohort. METHODS: We examined the association of trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms with SLE incidence over 24 years of follow-up in a U.S. longitudinal cohort of women (N=54,763). Incident SLE with ≥4 American College of Rheumatology criteria was ascertained by self-report and confirmed by medical record review...
September 20, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928678/mindfulness-based-stress-reduction-mbsr-as-a-standalone-intervention-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-after-mixed-traumatic-events-a-mixed-methods-feasibility-study
#15
Meike Müller-Engelmann, Susanne Wünsch, Marina Volk, Regina Steil
Objectives: There is promising evidence that mindfulness-based interventions are effective in reducing the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, until now, studies have often lacked a full clinical PTSD assessment, and interventions are often administered in addition to other interventions. This study examined the feasibility of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) as a standalone intervention in patients with PTSD who have experienced mixed traumatic events. Method: Fourteen patients participated in 8 weeks of MBSR...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928398/bumetanide-treatment-during-early-development-rescues-maternal-separation-induced-susceptibility-to-stress
#16
Die Hu, Zhou-Long Yu, Yan Zhang, Ying Han, Wen Zhang, Lin Lu, Jie Shi
Stress is a major risk factor for psychiatric disorders, such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia. Early life stress, such as maternal separation, can have long-term effects on the development of the central nervous system and pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. In the present study, we found that maternal separation increased the susceptibility to stress in adolescent rats, increased the expression of Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) on postnatal day 14, and increased the expression of K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter 2 (KCC2) and γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptor subunits on postnatal day 40 in the hippocampus...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926486/comorbid-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-traumatic-brain-injury-generalization-of-prolonged-exposure-ptsd-treatment-outcomes-to-postconcussive-symptoms-cognition-and-self-efficacy-in-veterans-and-active-duty-service-members
#17
Gregory K Wolf, Gregory J Mauntel, Tracy Kretzmer, Eric Crawford, Christina Thors, Thad Q Strom, Rodney D Vanderploeg
OBJECTIVES: To examine (a) generalization of the effectiveness of prolonged exposure (PE) therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in improving postconcussive symptoms (PCSs) and other outcomes in military service members and Veterans (VA) with histories of mild to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), and (b) factors associated with PCS reduction. SETTING: VA polytrauma medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive referrals for PTSD treatment of Active Duty (n = 17) or Veterans (n = 27) diagnosed with PTSD and TBI (N = 44)...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925716/differential-neural-activation-when-voluntarily-regulating-emotions-in-service-members-with-chronic-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Michael N Dretsch, Thomas A Daniel, Adam M Goodman, Jeffrey S Katz, Thomas Denney, Gopikrishna Deshpande, Jennifer L Robinson
The objective of this study was to characterize the functional activation of the neural correlates of voluntary regulation of emotion in soldiers both with and without chronic mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a battery of cognitive and psychological health measures, we assessed differences between active-duty U.S. soldiers with chronic mTBI (n = 37) and without (Controls, n = 35). Participants were instructed to maintain (passively view), enhance, and suppress emotions associated with negative and neutral visual stimuli...
September 19, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925389/ptsd-blood-transcriptome-mega-analysis-shared-inflammatory-pathways-across-biological-sex-and-modes-of-trauma
#19
Michael S Breen, Daniel S Tylee, Adam X Maihofer, Thomas C Neylan, Divya Mehta, Elisabeth Binder, Sharon D Chandler, Jonathan L Hess, William S Kremen, Victoria B Risbrough, Christopher H Woelk, Dewleen G Baker, Caroline M Nievergelt, Ming T Tsuang, Joseph D Buxbaum, Stephen J Glatt
Transcriptome-wide screens of peripheral blood during the onset and development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) indicate widespread immune dysregulation. However, little is known as to whether biological sex and the type of traumatic event influence shared or distinct biological pathways in PTSD. We performed a combined analysis of five independent PTSD blood transcriptome studies covering seven types of trauma in 229 PTSD and 311 comparison individuals to synthesize the extant data. Analyses by trauma type revealed a clear pattern of PTSD gene expression signatures distinguishing interpersonal (IP)-related traumas from combat-related traumas...
September 19, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925016/wall-object-punching-an-important-but-under-recognized-form-of-nonsuicidal-self-injury
#20
Nathan A Kimbrel, Shaun P Thomas, Terrell A Hicks, Michael A Hertzberg, Carolina P Clancy, Eric B Elbogen, Eric C Meyer, Bryann B DeBeer, Georgina M Gross, Paul J Silvia, Sandra B Morissette, Kim L Gratz, Patrick S Calhoun, Jean C Beckham
The present research investigated wall/object punching as a form of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among 1,143 veterans seeking treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Wall/object punching was remarkably common in this sample (43%), and its inclusion in the definition of NSSI increased estimated prevalence of recent NSSI by 14%. As expected, wall/object punching was strongly associated with other traditional forms of NSSI, post-NSSI relief, and suicide ideation. Male veterans and veterans with PTSD were significantly more likely to engage in wall/object punching than female veterans and veterans without PTSD...
September 19, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
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