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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814497/extracellular-acid-base-balance-and-ion-transport-between-body-fluid-compartments
#1
REVIEW
Julian L Seifter, Hsin-Yun Chang
Clinical assessment of acid-base disorders depends on measurements made in the blood, part of the extracellular compartment. Yet much of the metabolic importance of these disorders concerns intracellular events. Intracellular and interstitial compartment acid-base balance is complex and heterogeneous. This review considers the determinants of the extracellular fluid pH related to the ion transport processes at the interface of cells and the interstitial fluid, and between epithelial cells lining the transcellular contents of the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts that open to the external environment...
September 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812111/syndrome-of-inappropriate-anti-diuresis-induces-volume-dependent-hypercalciuria
#2
J Grellier, A Jaafar, A Martin, M El Alaoui, C Lebely, I Tack, M Vallet
Hyponatremia is associated with bone demineralization. We hypothesized that, during hyponatremia, calciuria and calcium balance depend on volemic status. We evaluated calciuria in patients with hyponatremia, secondary to SIAD or hypovolemia. Patients with SIAD exhibited a volemic expansion that was associated with hypercalciuria. Calciuria was proportional to markers of volemia. INTRODUCTION: Chronic mild hyponatremia has been associated with bone demineralization of unknown mechanisms...
August 15, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811499/the-role-of-dermcidin-isoform-2-in-the-occurrence-and-severity-of-diabetes
#3
Suman Bhattacharya, Md Mobidullah Khan, Chandradipa Ghosh, Sarbashri Bank, Smarajit Maiti
Diabetes is now epidemic worldwide. Several hundred-million peoples are presently suffering from this disease with other secondary-disorders. Stress, hypertension, sedentary life-style, carbohydrate/lipid metabolic-disorders due to genetic or environmental factors attributes to type-1 and/or type-2 diabetes. Present investigation demonstrates that stress-induced protein dermcidin isoform-2 (DCN-2) which appears in the serum of diabetic-patients play a key-role in this disease pathogenesis/severity. DCN-2 suppresses insulin production-release from liver/pancreas...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810844/effect-of-tolvaptan-on-renal-handling-of-water-and-sodium-gfr-and-central-hemodynamics-in-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-during-inhibition-of-the-nitric-oxide-system-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-crossover-study
#4
Safa Al Therwani, My Emma Sofie Malmberg, Jeppe Bakkestroem Rosenbaek, Jesper Noergaard Bech, Erling Bjerregaard Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Tolvaptan slows progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) by antagonizing the vasopressin-cAMP axis. Nitric oxide (NO) stimulates natriuresis and diuresis, but its role is unknown during tolvaptan treatment in ADPKD. METHODS: Eighteen patients with ADPKD received tolvaptan 60 mg or placebo in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover study. L-NMMA (L-NG-monomethyl-arginine) was given as a bolus followed by continuous infusion during 60 min...
August 15, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808055/dynamin-dependent-amino-acid-endocytosis-activates-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-complex-1-mtorc1
#5
Shusaku Shibutani, Hana Okazaki, Hiroyuki Iwata
The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a master regulator of protein synthesis and potential target for modifying cellular metabolism in various conditions, including cancer and aging. mTORC1 activity is tightly regulated by the availability of extracellular amino acids, and previous studies have revealed that amino acids in the extracellular fluid are transported to the lysosomal lumen. There, amino acids induce recruitment of cytoplasmic mTORC1 to the lysosome by the Rag GTPases, followed by mTORC1 activation by the small GTPase Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb)...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803831/localization-of-connexin-43-gap-junctions-and-hemichannels-in-tanycytes-of-adult-mice
#6
Anett Szilvásy-Szabó, Edina Varga, Zsuzsa Beliczai, Ronald M Lechan, Csaba Fekete
Tanycytes are specialized glial cells lining the lateral walls and the floor of the third ventricle behind the optic chiasm. In addition to functioning as barrier cells, they also have an important role in the regulation of neuroendocrine axes and energy homeostasis. To determine whether tanycytes communicate with each other via Connexin 43 (Cx43) gap junctions, individual tanycytes were loaded with Lucifer yellow (LY) through a patch pipette. In all cases, LY filled a larger group of tanycytes as well as blood vessels adjacent to tanycyte processes...
August 10, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795486/a-reassessment-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-transport-of-large-neutral-amino-acids-during-acute-systemic-inflammation-in-humans
#7
Rasmus H Dahl, Ronan M G Berg, Sarah Taudorf, Damian M Bailey, Carsten Lundby, Fin S Larsen, Kirsten Møller
We reassessed data from a previous study on the transcerebral net exchange of large neutral amino acids (LNAAs) using a novel mathematical model of blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport. The study included twelve healthy volunteers who received a 4-h intravenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion (total dose: 0·3 ng/kg), a human experimental model of the systemic inflammatory response during the early stages of sepsis. Cerebral blood flow and arterial-to-jugular venous LNAA concentrations were measured prior to and after LPS, and the BBB transport and brain extracellular concentrations of LNAAs were calculated...
August 9, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768552/a-mild-form-of-adenylosuccinate-lyase-deficiency-in-absence-of-typical-brain-mri-features-diagnosed-by-whole-exome-sequencing
#8
Marina Macchiaiolo, Sabina Barresi, Francesco Cecconi, Ginevra Zanni, Marcello Niceta, Emanuele Bellacchio, Giacomo Lazzarino, Angela Maria Amorini, Enrico Silvio Bertini, Salvatore Rizza, Benedetta Contardi, Marco Tartaglia, Andrea Bartuli
BACKGROUND: Adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL) deficiency is a defect of purine metabolism affecting purinosome assembly and reducing metabolite fluxes through purine de novo synthesis and purine nucleotide recycling pathways. The disorder shows a wide spectrum of symptoms from slowly to rapidly progressing forms. The most severe form is characterized by neonatal encephalopathy, absence of spontaneous movement, respiratory failure, intractable seizures, and early death within the first weeks of life...
August 2, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766715/hypertonic-nacl-versus-osmotic-stimuli-distinct-ovlt-neurones-can-sense-the-difference-to-control-sympathetic-outflow-and-blood-pressure
#9
V R Antunes
Despite large fluctuations in salt and water intake, mammals are able to maintain electrolyte concentrations, particularly sodium (Na(+) ) as the major determinant of osmolality of the extracellular fluid (ECF), within narrow physiological limits (∼300 mOsm kg(-1) ). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
August 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761086/serotonin-hormonally-regulates-lacrimal-gland-secretory-function-via-the-serotonin-type-3a-receptor
#10
Toshihiro Imada, Shigeru Nakamura, Ryuji Hisamura, Yusuke Izuta, Kai Jin, Masataka Ito, Naoki Kitamura, Kenji F Tanaka, Masaru Mimura, Izumi Shibuya, Kazuo Tsubota
Tears are extracellular fluid secreted from the lacrimal gland (LG). Tears consist of a dynamic tri-layered film composed of secretions from the LG, Meibomian gland, and conjunctival goblet cells. The LG secretes the aqueous component of the tear, the Meibomian gland secretes the lipid component, and conjunctival goblet cells secrete mucin. The regulation of LG activity via the autonomic nervous system has been recognized as fundamental to maintaining aqueous tear flow. Here, we describe the role of a hormone, peripheral serotonin, in tear secretion...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756226/specific-packaging-and-circulation-of-cytochromes-p450-especially-2e1-isozyme-in-human-plasma-exosomes-and-their-implications-in-cellular-communications
#11
Santosh Kumar, Namita Sinha, Kelli A Gerth, Mohammad A Rahman, Murali M Yallapu, Narasimha M Midde
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes metabolize the majority of xenobiotics and are mainly found in hepatic and some extra-hepatic cells. However, their presence and functional role in exosomes, small extracellular vesicles that are secreted from various cells into extracellular fluids including plasma, is unknown. In this study, we analyzed the expression and biological activity of CYP enzymes in human plasma exosomes. First, we optimized isolation of plasma exosomes and characterized them for their physical properties and quality...
July 26, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754722/fixed-dosing-of-monoclonal-antibodies-in-oncology
#12
REVIEW
Jeroen J M A Hendrikx, John B A G Haanen, Emile E Voest, Jan H M Schellens, Alwin D R Huitema, Jos H Beijnen
Most monoclonal antibodies in oncology are administered in body-size-based dosing schedules. This is believed to correct for variability in both drug distribution and elimination between patients. However, monoclonal antibodies typically distribute to the blood plasma and extracellular fluids only, which increase less than proportionally with the increase in body weight. Elimination takes place via proteolytic catabolism, a nonspecific immunoglobulin G elimination pathway, and intracellular degradation after binding to the target...
July 28, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748582/extravasal-albumin-concentration-modulates-contractile-responses-of-renal-afferent-arterioles
#13
Xiang Gao, Zhi Zhao Liu, Hayar Mohammed, Zhengbing Zhuge, Ming Liu, En Yin Lai, Leif Jansson, Mattias Carlström, Andreas Patzak, A Erik G Persson
AIM: Afferent arterioles (AA) hold a key position in the regulation of renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. Being the effector site of tubuloglomerular feedback the afferent arteriole contributes to the renal handling of sodium and fluid. Dehydration goes along with increased renal interstitial protein concentration. Here, the hypothesis was tested that extravasal protein concentration directly modulates afferent arteriolar tone; a mechanism which may contribute to body fluid volume control...
July 27, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737438/prenatal-exposure-to-angiotensin-ii-increases-blood-pressure-and-decreases-salt-sensitivity-in-rats
#14
Pavel Svitok, Tomas Senko, Zuzana Panakova, Lucia Olexova, Lucia Krskova, Monika Okuliarova, Michal Zeman
Renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) plays an essential role in the homeostatic control of arterial blood pressure, perfusion of tissues, and control of extracellular fluid. Its components are highly expressed in the developing kidney, general vasculature, brain, and heart. A modified intrauterine environment alters mechanisms controlling blood pressure (BP) and can lead to hypertension in the adult offspring and developmentally programmed RAAS can be involved in this process. There are very little data about the effects of increased angiotensin II (Ang II) concentrations during pregnancy on in utero development of the fetus...
July 24, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716046/blood-volume-monitored-regulation-of-ultrafiltration-to-decrease-the-dry-weight-in-fluid-overloaded-hemodialysis-patients-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Marlies Antlanger, Peter Josten, Michael Kammer, Isabella Exner, Katharina Lorenz-Turnheim, Manfred Eigner, Gernot Paul, Renate Klauser-Braun, Gere Sunder-Plassmann, Marcus D Säemann, Manfred Hecking
BACKGROUND: Because chronic fluid volume overload is associated with higher mortality, we tested whether blood-volume monitored regulation of ultrafiltration and dialysate conductivity (UCR) and/or regulation of ultrafiltration and temperature (UTR) would facilitate dry weight reduction, in comparison to conventional dialysis (CONV). METHODS: We carried out a multicenter, 4-week, randomized controlled trial in hemodialysis patients ≥15% above normal extracellular fluid volume (ECV), per bioimpedance spectroscopy, who were randomized 1:1:1...
July 17, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696993/special-communication-of-a-case-of-hypovolemic-associated-eah-lessons-learned-during-recovery
#16
Tamara Hew-Butler, Rus Hamilton, Bridget Hamilton, Zachary Colesa
Severe exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is largely dilutional, whereas contributions of sodium loss remain equivocal. We present a case of EAH with encephalopathy involving an experienced male cyclist with no recollection of the event. We thereby conducted a retrospective analysis of biochemical trajectories during hospital recovery. The normalization of serum [Na], in context with changes in other variables, offered a 'reverse' perspective of the underlying pathophysiology. The following biochemical changes were temporally observed, with the return of normonatremia: 1) a decrease in serum potassium and calcium concentrations (absence of extracellular fluid dilution); 2) a decrease in total protein, blood urea nitrogen, hematocrit and hemoglobin (plasma volume expansion); and 3) an increase in mean platelet and red cell corpuscular volumes (cellular expansion after total body water and sodium deficits)...
July 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694730/topiramate-induced-metabolic-acidosis-and-kidney-stones-a-case-study
#17
Tomas Salek, Ivan Andel, Irena Kurfurstova
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to present a case of 44 years old woman with topiramate induced metabolic acidosis and kidney stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The laboratory features of topiramate caused renal tubular acidosis in blood and urine during topiramate treatment, with correction of metabolic acidosis by potassium citrate, and after topiramate withdrawal are presented. Differential diagnosis of all possible causes of metabolic acidosis is discussed...
June 15, 2017: Biochemia Medica: časopis Hrvatskoga Društva Medicinskih Biokemičara
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678485/an-ursolic-acid-derived-small-molecule-triggers-cancer-cell-death-through-hyperstimulation-of-macropinocytosis
#18
Lin Sun, Bin Li, Xiaohui Su, Ge Chen, Yaqin Li, Linqian Yu, Li Li, Wanguo Wei
Macropinocytosis is a transient endocytosis that internalizes extracellular fluid and particles into vacuoles. Recent studies suggest that hyperstimulation of macropinocytosis can induce a novel nonapoptotic cell death, methuosis. In this report, we describe the identification of an ursolic acid derived small molecule (compound 17), which induces cancer cell death through hyperstimulation of macropinocytosis. 17 causes the accumulation of vacuoles derived from macropinosomes based on transmission electron microscopy, time-lapse microscopy, and labeling with extracellular fluid phase tracers...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675633/increased-urine-production-due-to-leg-fluid-displacement-reduces-hours-of-undisturbed-sleep
#19
Keisuke Kiba, Akihide Hirayama, Motokiyo Yoshikawa, Yutaka Yamamoto, Kazumasa Torimoto, Nobutaka Shimizu, Nobumichi Tanaka, Kiyohide Fujimoto, Hirotsugu Uemura
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether or not the leg fluid displacement observed when moving from the standing to recumbent position at bedtime reduces the hours of undisturbed sleep (HUS). METHODS: Men aged 50 years or older who were hospitalized for urological diseases were investigated. Body water evaluation was performed three times with a bioelectric impedance method: (i) 17:00, (ii) 30 min after (short-term), and (iii) waking up (long-term). A frequency volume chart was used to evaluate the status of nocturnal urine production, and the factors affecting HUS were investigated...
July 3, 2017: Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663722/bacoside-a-induces-tumor-cell-death-in-human-glioblastoma-cell-lines-through-catastrophic-macropinocytosis
#20
Sebastian John, K C Sivakumar, Rashmi Mishra
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly aggressive type of brain tumor with an extremely poor prognosis. Recent evidences have shown that the "biomechanical imbalances" induced in GBM patient-derived glioblastoma cells (GC) and in vivo via the administration of synthetic small molecules, may effectively inhibit disease progression and prolong survival of GBM animal models. This novel concept associated with de novo anti-GBM drug development has however suffered obstacles in adequate clinical utility due to the appearance of unrelated toxicity in the prolonged therapeutic windows...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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