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"Extracellular fluid"

Richard R Kew, Tahmineh Tabrizian, James A Vosswinkel, James E Davis, Randeep S Jawa
BACKGROUND: Severe acute muscle injury results in massive cell damage, causing the release of actin into extracellular fluids where it complexes with the vitamin D binding protein (DBP). We hypothesized that a systemic Vitamin D deficiency would result in a less pro-inflammatory phenotype. METHODS: C57BL/6 wild-type and DBP deficient (DBP-/-) mice received intramuscular injections of either 50% glycerol or phosphate-buffered saline into thigh muscles. Muscle injury was assessed by histology...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Laura Santambrogio
This review will highlight our current understanding of the formation, circulation, and immunological role of lymphatic fluid. The formation of the extracellular fluid depends on the net balance between the hydrostatic and osmotic pressure gradients effective in the capillary beds. Lymph originates from the extracellular fluid and its composition combines the ultrafiltrated plasma proteins with the proteome generated by the metabolic activities of each parenchymal tissue. Several analyses have indicated how the lymph composition reflects the organs' physiological and pathological states...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Hasmik Grigoryan, William M B Edmands, Qing Lan, Henrik Carlsson, Roel Vermeulen, Luoping Zhang, Song-Nian Yin, Gui-Lan Li, Martyn T Smith, Nathaniel Rothman, Stephen M Rappaport
Although benzene has long been recognized as a cause of human leukemia, the mechanism by which this simple molecule causes cancer has been problematic. A complicating factor is benzene metabolism, which produces many reactive intermediates, some specific to benzene and others derived from redox processes. Using archived serum from 20 nonsmoking Chinese workers, 10 with and 10 without occupational exposure to benzene (exposed: 3.2 - 88.9 ppm, controls: 0.002 - 0.020 ppm), we employed an adductomic pipeline to characterize protein modifications at Cys34 of human serum albumin (HSA), a nucleophilic hotspot in extracellular fluids...
March 10, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Min Jae Kim, Kyung Jin Choi, Mi Na Yoon, Sang Hwan Oh, Dong Kwan Kim, Se Hoon Kim, Hyung Seo Park
Intracellular Ca2+ mobilization is closely linked with the initiation of salivary secretion in parotid acinar cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be related to a variety of oxidative stress-induced cellular disorders and believed to be involved in salivary impairments. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) on cytosolic Ca2+ accumulation in mouse parotid acinar cells. Intracellular Ca2+ levels were slowly elevated when 1 mM H2 O2 was perfused in the presence of normal extracellular Ca2+ ...
March 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Sarifuddin, Prashanta Kumar Mandal
Angioplasty with drug-coated balloons (DCBs) using excipients as drug carriers is emerging as a potentially viable strategy demonstrating clinical efficacy and proposing additional compliance for the treatment of obstructive vascular diseases. An attempt is made to develop an improved computational model where attention has been paid to the effect of interstitial flow, that is, plasma convection and internalization of bound drug. The present model is capable of capturing the phenomena of the transport of free drug and its retention, and also the internalization of drug in the process of endocytosis to atherosclerotic vessel of heterogeneous tissue composition comprising of healthy tissue, as well as regions of fibrous cap, fibro-fatty, calcified and necrotic core lesions...
March 5, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
Brandon H Kim, Alexey Pereverzev, Shuying Zhu, Abby Oi Man Tong, S Jeffrey Dixon, Peter Chidiac
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) activates the PTH/PTH-related peptide receptor (PTH1R) on osteoblasts and other target cells. Mechanical stimulation of cells, including osteoblasts, causes release of nucleotides such as ATP into the extracellular fluid. In addition to its role as an energy source, ATP serves as an agonist at P2 receptors and an allosteric regulator of many proteins. We investigated the effects of concentrations of extracellular ATP, comparable to those that activate low affinity P2X7 receptors, on PTH1R signaling...
March 1, 2018: Cellular Signalling
Limin Zhang, Yang Tian
The in vivo analysis of chemical signals in brain extracellular fluid (ECF) using implanted electrochemical biosensors is a vital way to study brain functions and brain activity mapping. This approach offers excellent spatial (10-200 μm) and temporal (approximately second) resolution and the major advantage of long-term stability. By implantation of a microelectrode in a specific brain region, changes in the concentration of a variety of ECF chemical species can be monitored through applying a suitable electrical signal and, typically, recording the resulting Faradaic current...
February 27, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Marijke J E Dekker, Frank M van der Sande, Florence van den Berghe, Karel M L Leunissen, Jeroen P Kooman
Extracellular fluid overload (FO), which is assessed using bioimpedance technologies, is an important predictor of outcome in dialysis patients and in patients with early stages of chronic kidney disease. While traditional cardiovascular abnormalities are assumed to mediate this risk, recently also, the importance of noncardiovascular factors, such as systemic inflammation and malnutrition has been shown. While both FO and inflammation are independent risk factors for mortality, recent studies have shown that their combined presence can lead to a cumulative risk profile...
January 26, 2018: Blood Purification
Jan Tønnesen, V V G Krishna Inavalli, U Valentin Nägerl
The extracellular space (ECS) of the brain has an extremely complex spatial organization, which has defied conventional light microscopy. Consequently, despite a marked interest in the physiological roles of brain ECS, its structure and dynamics remain largely inaccessible for experimenters. We combined 3D-STED microscopy and fluorescent labeling of the extracellular fluid to develop super-resolution shadow imaging (SUSHI) of brain ECS in living organotypic brain slices. SUSHI enables quantitative analysis of ECS structure and reveals dynamics on multiple scales in response to a variety of physiological stimuli...
February 22, 2018: Cell
John Eppensteiner, Robert Patrick Davis, Andrew S Barbas, Jean Kwun, Jaewoo Lee
Despite significant improvements in injury prevention and emergency response, injury-related death and morbidity continues to increase in the US and worldwide. Patients with trauma, invasive operations, anti-cancer treatment, and organ transplantation produce a host of danger signals and high levels of pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic mediators, such as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and extracellular vesicles (EVs). DAMPs (e.g., nucleic acids, histone, high-mobility group box 1 protein, and S100) are molecules released from injured, stressed, or activated cells that act as endogenous ligands of innate immune receptors, whereas EVs (e...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
G Sakalauskienė, G Civinskienė, A Antuševas, P Civinskas
Edematous states caused by an excessesive extracellular fluid retention are major components of cardiovascular and renal disorders including chronic kidney disease, nephrotic syndrome, and heart failure. The use of diuretic drugs from various groups including loop duiretics are important means of pharmacological correction of these clinical conditions. Moreover, diuretics used to lower bood pressure as a part of antihypertensive treatment, reduce cardiovascular events. The response of patients to the dose of a diuretic is reflected by a sigmoid dose-response curve which can be affected by changes of sodium content in the body...
January 2018: Kardiologiia
Fergus W Hamilton, Chris M Penfold, Andrew R Ness, Kirsty P Stevenson, Charlotte Atkinson, Andrew M Day, Gregory M Sebepos-Rogers, Jonathan Tyrrell-Price
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Urinary sodium concentration is a commonly used marker for extracellular fluid depletion which is often associated with dehydration. A point of care test for urinary sodium may reduce delays in clinical decision making by offering more timely guidance leading to improved salt and fluid management. We compared laboratory assessed urinary sodium with a potential point of care measure of urinary chloride in a variety of in- and outpatient specialities, to explore its use as an indicator of low urine sodium...
February 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Zhichao Xie, Jun Guo, Yan Kang, Xiaofeng Ou
Abnormal glucose levels damage the central nervous system, especially in case of rapid fluctuations. Even a single episode of glucose reperfusion can result in overt impairment of neurons. Oxidative stress plays an important role in this process, sharing properties with the pathophysiologic changes of glucose neurotoxicity. Glucose transporters (GLUTs) located in the brain are involved in direct glucose uptake by neurons. Instead of being insulin-sensitive, these transporters are regulated by glucose levels in the extracellular fluid, increasing their expression while glucose levels fall, to absorb more glucose...
March 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Luigi F Agnati, Manuela Marcoli, Guido Maura, Amina Woods, Diego Guidolin
Investigations of brain complex integrative actions should consider beside neural networks, glial, extracellular molecular, and fluid channels networks. The present paper proposes that all these networks are assembled into the brain hyper-network that has as fundamental components, the tetra-partite synapses, formed by neural, glial, and extracellular molecular networks. Furthermore, peri-synaptic astrocytic processes by modulating the perviousness of extracellular fluid channels control the signals impinging on the tetra-partite synapses...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Marco Duering, Sofia Finsterwalder, Ebru Baykara, Anil Man Tuladhar, Benno Gesierich, Marek J Konieczny, Rainer Malik, Nicolai Franzmeier, Michael Ewers, Eric Jouvent, Geert Jan Biessels, Reinhold Schmidt, Frank-Erik de Leeuw, Ofer Pasternak, Martin Dichgans
INTRODUCTION: Diffusion tensor imaging detects early tissue alterations in Alzheimer's disease and cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). However, the origin of diffusion alterations in SVD is largely unknown. METHODS: To gain further insight, we applied free water (FW) imaging to patients with genetically defined SVD (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy [CADASIL], n = 57), sporadic SVD (n = 444), and healthy controls (n = 28)...
February 16, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Zhiheng Qiu, Xiangli Wu, Jinxia Zhang, Chenyang Huang
Pleurotus ostreatus is a widely cultivated edible fungus in China. Green mold disease of P. ostreatus which can seriously affect yield is a common disease during cultivation. It occurs mostly after P. ostreatus mycelia have been subjected to high temperatures. However, little information is available on the relationship between high temperature and green mold disease. The aim of this study is to prove that extracellular metabolites of P. ostreatus affected by high temperature can promote the growth of Trichoderma asperellum...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Busra Gurel, Mehmet Cansev, Cansu Sevinc, Seda Kelestemur, Busra Ocalan, Aysen Cakir, Sami Aydin, Nevzat Kahveci, Mehmet Ozansoy, Ozlem Taskapilioglu, Ismail Hakki Ulus, Merve Karayel Başar, Betul Sahin, Mete Bora Tuzuner, Ahmet Tarik Baykal
In recent years, an increasing number of research papers revealed that the compositional and volumetric alterations in the extracellular matrix are the consequences of aging and may be related to Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the alterations in hippocampal extracellular fluid proteins in vivo using the 5XFAD mouse model. Samples were obtained from hippocampi of 5XFAD mice (n = 6) and their non-transgenic littermates by intracerebral push-pull perfusion technique at 3 months of age, representing the pre-pathological stage of the AD...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Tiangang Ma, Danhua Qu, Bingdi Yan, Qinghua Zhang, Jin Ren, Yanbing Hu
A mutation in the IIb sodium phosphate transporter SLC34A2 gene has recently been described in pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) patients. Experiments in this study were aimed at confirming the role of the gene product in PAM by comparing phosphorylated products in extracellular fluid of alveolar epithelial cells overexpressing the SLC34A2 gene or its mutated version. Eukaryotic expression vectors were constructed and transfected into A549 human alveolar epithelial cells. There were three groups of cells including those transfected with empty vector plasmid pcDNA3...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Axel Schweickert, Tim Ott, Sabrina Kurz, Melanie Tingler, Markus Maerker, Franziska Fuhl, Martin Blum
Laterality of inner organs is a wide-spread characteristic of vertebrates and beyond. It is ultimately controlled by the left-asymmetric activation of the Nodal signaling cascade in the lateral plate mesoderm of the neurula stage embryo, which results from a cilia-driven leftward flow of extracellular fluids at the left-right organizer. This scenario is widely accepted for laterality determination in wildtype specimens. Deviations from this norm come in different flavors. At the level of organ morphogenesis, laterality may be inverted (situs inversus) or non-concordant with respect to the main body axis (situs ambiguus or heterotaxia)...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
Kotaro Suehiro, Noriyasu Morikage, Koshiro Ueda, Makoto Samura, Yuriko Takeuchi, Takashi Nagase, Takahiro Mizoguchi, Kaori Nakamura, Kimikazu Hamano
BACKGROUND: To clarify the differences in the mode of fluid accumulation between arm and leg lymphedema using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). METHODS AND RESULTS: In 22 arms with lymphedema (ALE) and 65 legs with lymphedema (LLE), as well as 54 legs with venous edema (VE) for comparison, BIA was performed twice between April 2015 and March 2017. Then, the changes in BIA-derived parameters were correlated with the changes in extremity volumes. In ALE, the change in extracellular fluid resistance (Re) was negatively correlated with the change in arm volume (r = 0...
January 22, 2018: Lymphatic Research and Biology
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