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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332180/cd39-adenosinergic-axis-in-renal-pathophysiology-and-therapeutics
#1
REVIEW
Bellamkonda K Kishore, Simon C Robson, Karen M Dwyer
Extracellular ATP interacts with purinergic type 2 (P2) receptors and elicits many crucial biological functions. Extracellular ATP is sequentially hydrolyzed to ADP and AMP by the actions of defined nucleotidases, such as CD39, and AMP is converted to adenosine, largely by CD73, an ecto-5'-nucleotidase. Extracellular adenosine interacts with P1 receptors and often opposes the effects of P2 receptor activation. The balance between extracellular ATP and adenosine in the blood and extracellular fluid is regulated chiefly by the activities of CD39 and CD73, which constitute the CD39-adenosinergic axis...
January 13, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331263/glial-scars-are-permeable-to-the-neurotoxic-environment-of-chronic-stroke-infarcts
#2
Jacob C Zbesko, Thuy-Vi V Nguyen, Tao Yang, Jennifer Beischel Frye, Omar Hussain, Megan Hayes, Amanda Chung, W Anthony Day, Kristina Stepanovic, Maj Krumberger, Justine Mona, Frank M Longo, Kristian P Doyle
Following stroke, the damaged tissue undergoes liquefactive necrosis, a stage of infarct resolution that lasts for months, although the exact length of time is currently unknown. One method of repair involves reactive astrocytes and microglia forming a glial scar to compartmentalize the area of liquefactive necrosis from the rest of the brain. The formation of the glial scar is a critical component of the healing response to stroke, as well as other central nervous system (CNS) injuries. The goal of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of the extracellular fluid present in areas of liquefactive necrosis and determine how effectively it is segregated from the remainder of the brain...
January 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330104/circular-rna-an-emerging-non-coding-rna-as-a-regulator-and-biomarker-in-cancer
#3
Bing Chen, Shenglin Huang
Circular RNA (circRNA) is a type of covalently closed non-coding RNA that may regulate gene expression in eukaryotes. The recent application of high-throughput RNA sequencing and bioinformatics approaches has revealed a large number of circRNAs in human cells. Emerging evidence indicates that many circRNAs have cell-type specific expression and are linked to physiological development and various diseases. Specially, circRNAs can either serve as oncogenic stimuli or tumor suppressors in cancer. circRNAs have also been shown to be enriched and stable in extracellular fluid, indicating the potential of circRNAs as cancer biomarkers...
January 9, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327078/the-role-of-the-thioredoxin-thioredoxin-reductase-system-in-the-metabolic-syndrome-towards-a-possible-prognostic-marker
#4
REVIEW
Alexey A Tinkov, Geir Bjørklund, Anatoly V Skalny, Arne Holmgren, Margarita G Skalnaya, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Jan Aaseth
Mammalian thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is a selenoprotein with three existing isoenzymes (TrxR1, TrxR2, and TrxR3), which is found primarily intracellularly but also in extracellular fluids. The main substrate thioredoxin (Trx) is similarly found (as Trx1 and Trx2) in various intracellular compartments, in blood plasma, and is the cell's major disulfide reductase. Thioredoxin reductase is necessary as a NADPH-dependent reducing agent in biochemical reactions involving Trx. Genetic and environmental factors like selenium status influence the activity of TrxR...
January 11, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324792/critical-evaluation-of-colon-submucosal-microdialysis-in-awake-mobile-rats
#5
Norbert Cibicek, Jiri Ehrmann, Jitka Proskova, Rostislav Vecera
Sensors able to record large bowel physiology and biochemistry in situ in awake rodents are lacking. Microdialysis is a mini-invasive technique that may be utilized to continuously deliver or recover low-molecular substances from various tissues. In this experiment we evaluated the feasibility of in vivo microdialysis to monitor extracellular fluid chemistry in the descending colon submucosa of conscious, freely moving rodents. Following surgical implantation of a microdialysis probe, male Wistar rats were housed in metabolic cages where they were analgized and clinically followed for four days with free access to standard diet and water...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321483/extracellular-total-electrolyte-concentration-imaging-for-electrical-brain-stimulation-ebs
#6
Saurav Z K Sajib, Mun Bae Lee, Hyung Joong Kim, Eung Je Woo, Oh In Kwon
Techniques for electrical brain stimulation (EBS), in which weak electrical stimulation is applied to the brain, have been extensively studied in various therapeutic brain functional applications. The extracellular fluid in the brain is a complex electrolyte that is composed of different types of ions, such as sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), and calcium (Ca+). Abnormal levels of electrolytes can cause a variety of pathological disorders. In this paper, we present a novel technique to visualize the total electrolyte concentration in the extracellular compartment of biological tissues...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308245/distribution-composition-and-functions-of-gelatinous-tissues-in-deep-sea-fishes
#7
Mackenzie E Gerringer, Jeffrey C Drazen, Thomas D Linley, Adam P Summers, Alan J Jamieson, Paul H Yancey
Many deep-sea fishes have a gelatinous layer, or subdermal extracellular matrix, below the skin or around the spine. We document the distribution of gelatinous tissues across fish families (approx. 200 species in ten orders), then review and investigate their composition and function. Gelatinous tissues from nine species were analysed for water content (96.53 ± 1.78% s.d.), ionic composition, osmolality, protein (0.39 ± 0.23%), lipid (0.69 ± 0.56%) and carbohydrate (0.61 ± 0.28%). Results suggest that gelatinous tissues are mostly extracellular fluid, which may allow animals to grow inexpensively...
December 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290976/neuron-derived-transthyretin-modulates-astrocytic-glycolysis-in-hormone-independent-manner
#8
Alina Zawiślak, Piotr Jakimowicz, James A McCubrey, Dariusz Rakus
It has been shown that neurons alter the expression of astrocytic metabolic enzymes by secretion of until now unknown molecule(s) into extracellular fluid. Here, we present evidence that neuron-derived transthyretin (TTR) stimulates expression of glycolytic enzymes in astrocytes which is reflected by an increased synthesis of ATP. The action of TTR is restricted to regulatory enzymes of glycolysis: phosphofructokinase P (PFKP) and pyruvate kinase M1/M2 isoforms (PKM1/2). The regulation of PFK and PKM expression by TTR is presumably specific for brain tissue and is independent of the role of TTR as a carrier protein for thyroxine and retinol...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282003/fluid-status-evaluation-by-inferior-vena-cava-diameter-and-bioimpedance-spectroscopy-in-pediatric-chronic-hemodialysis
#9
Xavier Torterüe, Laurène Dehoux, Marie-Alice Macher, Olivier Niel, Thérésa Kwon, Georges Deschênes, Julien Hogan
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of patient's dry weight remains challenging in chronic hemodialysis (HD) especially in children. Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) measurement was reported useful to assess fluid overload both in adults and children. METHODS: We performed a monocentric prospective study to evaluate the relation between predialytic IVC diameter measurements and hydration status evaluated by physicians and bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) and between IVC measurements and persistent hypertension...
December 28, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244016/oleic-acid-in-the-modulation-of-oocyte-and-preimplantation-embryo-development
#10
Shabnam Fayezi, Jo L M R Leroy, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Masoud Darabi
Potential reproductive effects are considered as the major aspect of biomolecules functionality in an organism. The recent identification of differential patterns of fatty acids across ovarian follicles and their association with levels of sexual maturity highlights the importance of these biomolecules. It is well known that fatty acids are highly diverse in terms of their functional properties. Oleic acid is chemically classified as an unsaturated omega-9 fatty acid. Besides serving as an important energy source, oleic acid is involved in metabolic and structural roles...
December 15, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217892/bowel-migration-of-dormant-chronic-ambulatory-peritoneal-dialysis-catheter-a-vexed-problem-not-avoided-by-flushing
#11
P Vincent, J Gopinathan, R Narayanan
Delayed bowel erosion by peritoneal dialysis catheter is rare with fewer than thirty cases having been reported in the literature. This complication is usually encountered when the catheter is kept dormant. Two cases have also been reported with catheters in active use. The risk factors for bowel erosion include immunosuppression, diverticulosis, and amyloidosis. An 80-year-old male with chronic kidney disease Stage 5 due to hypertensive nephrosclerosis underwent chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis catheter insertion...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216955/combined-toxicity-of-an-environmental-remediation-residue-magnetite-fe3o4-nanoparticles-cr-vi-adduct
#12
Zhuan Li, Miao Liu, Li Ke Chen, Guang Zhu Li
OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to elucidate the combined toxicity of magnetite nanoparticles/Chromium [MNPs/Cr(VI)] adducts. METHODS: The HEK293 cell was exposed to either Cr(VI) or MNPs, or their adducts MNPs/Cr(VI). The cytotoxicity was evaluated by assessing the cell viability, apoptosis, oxidative stress induction, and cellular uptake. RESULTS: The toxicity of formed adducts is significantly reduced when compared to Cr(VI) anions. We found that the cellular uptake of MNPs/Cr(VI) adduct was rare, only few particles were endocytosed from the extracellular fluid and not accumulated in the cell nucleus...
November 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193406/online-1-h-mrs-measurements-of-time-varying-lactate-production-in-an-animal-model-of-glioma-during-administration-of-an-anti-tumoral-drug
#13
Yannick Crémillieux, Roberto Salvati, Ursule Dumont, Noël Pinaud, Véronique Bouchaud, Stéphane Sanchez, Stefan Glöggler, Alan Wong
The aims of this study were to implement a magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) protocol for the online profiling of subnanomolar quantities of metabolites sampled from the extracellular fluid using implanted microdialysis and to apply this protocol in glioma-bearing rats for the quantification of lactate concentration and the measurement of time-varying lactate concentration during drug administration. MRS acquisitions on the brain microdialysate were performed using a home-built, proton-tuned, microsolenoid with an active volume of 2 μL...
November 29, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180981/cerebral-microdialysis-monitoring-to-improve-individualized-neurointensive-care-therapy-an-update-of-recent-clinical-data
#14
REVIEW
Laurent Carteron, Pierre Bouzat, Mauro Oddo
Cerebral microdialysis (CMD) allows bedside semicontinuous monitoring of patient brain extracellular fluid. Clinical indications of CMD monitoring are focused on the management of secondary cerebral and systemic insults in acute brain injury (ABI) patients [mainly, traumatic brain injury (TBI), subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)], specifically to tailor several routine interventions-such as optimization of cerebral perfusion pressure, blood transfusion, glycemic control and oxygen therapy-in the individual patient...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172126/role-of-6-o-%C3%AE-maltosyl-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-in-lysosomal-cholesterol-deprivation-in-npc1-deficient-chinese-hamster-ovary-cells
#15
Yasuyo Okada, Erika Ueda, Yuki Kondo, Yoichi Ishitsuka, Tetsumi Irie, Taishi Higashi, Keiichi Motoyama, Hidetoshi Arima, Muneaki Matuso, Katsumi Higaki, Kousaku Ohno, Junichi Nishikawa, Atsushi Ichikawa
We aimed to investigate whether 6-O-α-maltosyl-β-cyclodextrin (Mal-βCD) is incorporated into cells and lysosomes during the release of unesterified cholesterol in Npc1-deficient Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells (Npc1 KO cells) and CHO-JP17 cells (JP17 cells). Internalization of Mal-βCD in cells and lysosomes and extracellular release of lysosomal unesterified cholesterol were demonstrated by LC/MS/MS and LC/MS, respectively. Internalization of Mal-βCD was greater in Npc1 KO cells than in JP17 cells...
November 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166002/structure-and-affinity-of-cu-i-bound-to-human-serum-albumin
#16
Madison Sendzik, M Jake Pushie, Ewelina Stefaniak, Kathryn L Haas
Human serum albumin (HSA) is a major Cu carrier in human blood and in cerebrospinal fluid. A major assumption is that Cu bound to HSA is in the Cu(II) oxidation state; thus, interactions between HSA and Cu(II) have been intensely investigated for over four decades. HSA has been reported previously to support the reduction of Cu(II) to the Cu(I) oxidation state in the presence of the weak reductant, ascorbate; however, the interactions between HSA and Cu(I) have not been explicitly investigated. Here, we characterize both the apparent affinity of HSA for Cu(I) using solution competition experiments and the coordination structure of Cu(I) bound to HSA using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and in silico modeling...
November 22, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150269/potential-role-of-the-virchow-robin-space-in-the-pathogenesis-of-bacterial-meningitis
#17
Patrick Chan, Denis J Meerdink, James A Uchizono
Meningitis is an infectious disease commonly arising from a bacterial etiology. The rapid progression of morbidity and mortality due to bacterial meningitis requires critical and imminent time-dependent clinical intervention. Although it is unambiguously clear that bacteria must infiltrate the cerebrospinal fluid, the sequence of events in the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis has not been fully elucidated. Most reviews of the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis do not specify the anatomical location of bacteria following BBB traversal...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147843/iron-and-infection
#18
REVIEW
Tomas Ganz
Iron is an essential trace metal for nearly all infectious microorganisms, and host defense mechanisms target this dependence to deprive microbes of iron. This review highlights mechanisms that are activated during infections to restrict iron on mucosal surfaces, in plasma and extracellular fluid, and within macrophages. Iron overload disorders, such as hereditary hemochromatosis or β-thalassemia, interfere with iron-restrictive host responses, and thereby cause increased susceptibility to infections with microbes that can exploit this vulnerability...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146141/the-myth-of-water-and-salt-from-aquaretics-to-tenapanor
#19
REVIEW
Luca Visconti, Valeria Cernaro, Sebastiano Calimeri, Antonio Lacquaniti, Francesca De Gregorio, Carlo Alberto Ricciardi, Viviana Lacava, Domenico Santoro, Michele Buemi
The impact of water intake has been studied in several renal diseases. For example, increasing water intake is useful to prevent primary and secondary nephrolithiasis. In autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, arginine vasopressin (AVP) is involved in the progression of the disease, and water intake could play a therapeutic role by inhibiting the synthesis of AVP, but its efficacy is still controversial. Conversely, the use of aquaretics, which are antagonists of AVP V2 receptors, results in the reduction of the increase rate of total kidney volume with a slower decline of glomerular filtration rate...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145622/plant-extracellular-vesicles-are-incorporated-by-a-fungal-pathogen-and-inhibit-its-growth
#20
Mariana Regente, Marcela Pinedo, Hélène San Clemente, Thierry Balliau, Elisabeth Jamet, Laura de la Canal
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are membrane particles released by cells into their environment and are considered to be key players in intercellular communication. EV are produced by all domains of life but limited knowledge about EV in plants is available, although their implication in plant defense has been suggested. We have characterized sunflower EV and tested whether they could interact with fungal cells. EV were isolated from extracellular fluids of seedlings and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and proteomic analysis...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
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