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"Extracellular fluid"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791836/trpv4-mediates-hypotonic-inhibition-of-central-osmosensory-neurons-via-taurine-gliotransmission
#1
Sorana Ciura, Masha Prager-Khoutorsky, Zahra S Thirouin, Joshua C Wyrosdic, James E Olson, Wolfgang Liedtke, Charles W Bourque
The maintenance of hydromineral homeostasis requires bidirectional detection of changes in extracellular fluid osmolality by primary osmosensory neurons (ONs) in the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT). Hypertonicity excites ONs in part through the mechanical activation of a variant transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 channel (dn-Trpv1). However, the mechanism by which local hypotonicity inhibits ONs in the OVLT remains unknown. Here, we show that hypotonicity can reduce the basal activity of dn-Trpv1 channels and hyperpolarize acutely isolated ONs...
May 22, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783772/acid-sphingomyelinase-promotes-cellular-internalization-of-clostridium-perfringens-iota-toxin
#2
Masahiro Nagahama, Masaya Takehara, Kazuaki Miyamoto, Kazumi Ishidoh, Keiko Kobayashi
Clostridium perfringens iota-toxin is a binary actin-ADP-ribosylating toxin composed of the enzymatic component Ia and receptor binding component Ib. Ib binds to a cell surface receptor, forms Ib oligomer in lipid rafts, and associates with Ia. The Ia-Ib complex then internalizes by endocytosis. Here, we showed that acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) facilitates the cellular uptake of iota-toxin. Inhibitions of ASMase and lysosomal exocytosis by respective blockers depressed cell rounding induced by iota-toxin...
May 20, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777407/modelling-the-delay-between-pharmacokinetics-and-eeg-effects-of-morphine-in-rats-binding-kinetic-versus-effect-compartment-models
#3
Wilhelmus E A de Witte, Vivi Rottschäfer, Meindert Danhof, Piet H van der Graaf, Lambertus A Peletier, Elizabeth C M de Lange
Drug-target binding kinetics (as determined by association and dissociation rate constants, k on and k off ) can be an important determinant of the kinetics of drug action. However, the effect compartment model is used most frequently instead of a target binding model to describe hysteresis. Here we investigate when the drug-target binding model should be used in lieu of the effect compartment model. The utility of the effect compartment (EC), the target binding kinetics (TB) and the combined effect compartment-target binding kinetics (EC-TB) model were tested on either plasma (ECPL , TBPL and EC-TBPL ) or brain extracellular fluid (ECF) (ECECF , TBECF and EC-TBECF ) morphine concentrations and EEG amplitude in rats...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764543/-experimental-research-on-individual-specific-rapid-potassium-supplementation-strategy-for-fatal-severe-hypokalemia
#4
Yu Du, Yi Mou, Jin Liu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effectiveness and safety of the individual-specific rapid potassium supplementation strategy, and to provide experimental basis for treating fatal severe hypokalemia. METHODS: An acute fatal severe hypokalemia model was reproduced in 20 healthy adult Japanese big ear white rabbits with half lethal dose (LD50) of barium chloride (BaCl2 ) solution 168 mg×5 mL-1 ×kg-1 . The rabbits were divided into conventional potassium supplementation group and individual-specific rapid potassium supplementation group according to random number table method with 10 rabbits in each group...
May 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738532/promotion-of-mammalian-angiogenesis-by-neolignans-derived-from-soybean-extracellular-fluids
#5
Farzaneh Kordbacheh, Thomas J Carruthers, Anna Bezos, Marie Oakes, Lauren Du Fall, Charles H Hocart, Christopher R Parish, Michael A Djordjevic
Excessive or insufficient angiogenesis is associated with major classes of chronic disease. Although less studied, small molecules which can promote angiogenesis are being sought as potential therapeutics for cardiovascular and peripheral arterial disease and stroke. Here we describe a bioassay-directed discovery approach utilising size exclusion and liquid chromatography to purify components of soybean xylem sap that have pro-angiogenic activity. Using high resolution accurate mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the structure of two pro-angiogenic molecules (FK1 and FK2) were identified as erythro-guaiacylglycerol-8-O-4'-(coniferyl alcohol) ether (eGGCE), and threo-guaiacylglycerol-8-O-4'-(coniferyl alcohol) ether (tGGCE)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737520/na-restriction-activates-enac-in-rat-kidney-through-two-mechanisms-and-decreases-distal-na-delivery
#6
Gustavo Frindt, Lei Yang, Krister Bamberg, Lawrence G Palmer
KEY POINTS: Dietary Na restriction, through the mineralocorticoid aldosterone, acts on epithelial Na channels (ENaC) through both fast (24 hrs) and slow (5 to 7 days) mechanisms in the kidney. The fast effect entails increased proteolytic processing and trafficking of channel protein to the apical membrane. It is rapidly reversible by the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist eplerenone and is largely lost when tubules are studied ex vivo. The slow effect does not require increased processing or surface expression, is refractory to acute eplerenone treatment, and is preserved ex vivo...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731287/controversies-in-management-of-hyperkalemia
#7
Brit Long, Justin R Warix, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Hyperkalemia is a common electrolyte disorder that can result in morbidity and mortality if not managed appropriately. OBJECTIVES: This review evaluates the classic treatments of hyperkalemia and discusses controversies and new medications for management. DISCUSSION: Potassium (K+) plays a key role in determining the transmembrane potentials of "excitable membranes" present in nerve and muscle cells. K+ is the predominant intracellular cation, and clinical deterioration typically ensues when patients develop sufficiently marked elevation in extracellular fluid concentrations of K+ (hyperkalemia)...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723540/tnf%C3%AE-dependent-anhedonia-and-upregulation-of-hippocampal-serotonin-transporter-activity-in-a-mouse-model-of-collagen-induced-arthritis
#8
Eric Brown, Conor J Mc Veigh, Leilani Santos, Martina Gogarty, Heidi Kaastrup Müller, Betina Elfving, David J Brayden, Jana Haase
The serotonin transporter (SERT) facilitates high affinity reuptake of 5-HT from the extracellular fluid and dysregulation of transporter function has been implicated in a range of mood disorders including depression. Recent studies have linked immune system activation to depression as well as to altered serotonin transporter activity. Advancing previous studies, which have mainly focussed on acute effects of immune system activation, in this study we used collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice as a model of chronic inflammatory disease, to investigate the effect of prolonged inflammation on brain SERT function and behaviour...
April 30, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723112/effect-of-green-coffee-consumption-on-resting-energy-expenditure-blood-pressure-and-body-temperature-in-healthy-women-a-pilot-study
#9
Nilüfer Acar-Tek, Duygu Agagüundüz, Büşra Ayhan
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the effects of green coffee consumption on resting energy expenditures (REEs), blood pressure, and body temperature of individuals. METHOD: The study was conducted with 24 women. The REE values of the individuals were measured with the COSMED Fitmate PRO. After the first REE measurements, individuals were given 1 cup of green coffee that was prepared to contain 6 mg caffeine per kg of lean body mass. After coffee consumption, REE measurements were made at 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes...
May 3, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712933/effect-of-electroacupuncture-on-99m-tc-sodium-pertechnetate-uptake-and-extracellular-fluid-free-molecules-in-the-stomach-in-acupoint-st36-and-st39
#10
Rui Gao, Shan Gao, Jinteng Feng, Hongying Cui, Yanchao Cui, Junke Fu, Guangjian Zhang
Electroacupuncture (EA) is a therapeutic modality in which the electrical stimulation is integrated with concepts of acupuncture to treat diseases. This study was designed to evaluate the connection between the electro-acupuncture induced increase in Na99m TcO4 uptake in the stomach wall, and the ionic molecule levels in the extracellular fluid in the acupoints. Wistar rats were treated by 2 or 100 Hz EA at Zusanli (ST 36) and Xiajuxu (ST 39) bilaterally for 60 minutes. The accumulation of Na99m TcO4 in the gastric wall and the free ions, including Ca2+ , K+ , Na+ , and Cl- , in the acupoints were measured every 60 minutes...
April 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709915/hydrogen-peroxide-reducing-factor-released-by-pc12d-cells-increases-cell-tolerance-against-oxidative-stress
#11
Asami Muraishi, Emi Haneta, Yoshiro Saito, Yutaka Hitomi, Mamoru Sano, Noriko Noguchi
PC12D cells, a subline of rat adrenal pheochromocytoma PC12 cells, extend neurites rapidly in response to differentiation stimuli and are used to investigate the molecular mechanisms of neurite extension. In the present study, we found significant tolerance of PC12D cells against Parkinson's disease-related stimuli such as dopamine and 6-hydroxydopamine; this tolerance was significantly decreased by a change in the medium. Conditioned medium from PC12D cells induced tolerance against oxidative stress, which suggests that cytoprotective factor may be released by PC12D cells into the culture medium...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709800/evidences-of-extracellular-abiotic-degradation-of-hexadecane-through-free-radical-mechanism-induced-by-the-secreted-phenazine-compounds-of-p-aeruginosa-ny3
#12
Hongyun Nie, Maiqian Nie, Lei Wang, Zhenjun Diwu, Ting Xiao, Qi Qiao, Yan Wang, Xin Jiang
The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of secreted extracellular phenazine compounds (PHCs) on the degradation efficiency of alkanes by P. aeruginosa NY3. Under aerobic conditions, the PHCs secreted by P. aeruginosa NY3 initiate the oxidation of alkanes outside cells, in coupling with some reducing agents, such as β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, reduced disodium salt (NADH) or reduced glutathione (GSH). This reaction might be via free radical reactions similar to Fenton Oxidation Reaction (FOR)...
March 2, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689729/memory-loss-and-the-onset-of-alzheimer-s-disease-could-be-under-the-control-of-extracellular-heat-shock-proteins
#13
Nelson Arispe, Antonio De Maio
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major contemporary and escalating malady in which amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides are the most likely causative agent. Aβ peptides spontaneously tend to aggregate in extracellular fluids following a progression from a monomeric state, through intermediate forms, ending in amyloid fibers and plaques. It is generally accepted now that the neurotoxic agents leading to cellular death, memory loss, and other AD characteristics are the Aβ intermediate aggregated states. However, Aβ peptides are continuously produced, released into the extracellular space, and rapidly cleared from healthy brains...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689228/exosomes-and-ectosomes-in-intercellular-communication
#14
REVIEW
Jacopo Meldolesi
Exosomes and ectosomes, two distinct types of extracellular vesicles generated by all types of cell, play key roles in intercellular communication. The formation of these vesicles depends on local microdomains assembled in endocytic membranes for exosomes and in the plasma membrane for ectosomes. These microdomains govern the accumulation of proteins and various types of RNA associated with their cytosolic surface, followed by membrane budding inward for exosome precursors and outward for ectosomes. A fraction of endocytic cisternae filled with vesicles - multivesicular bodies - are later destined to undergo regulated exocytosis, leading to the extracellular release of exosomes...
April 23, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679446/salt-is-not-only-sodium-how-extracellular-fluid-volume-homeostasis-depends-on-chloride-recovery-by-the-kidneys
#15
EDITORIAL
Boye L Jensen
The Acta Physiologica Prize winners Grill et al.1 address a fundamental issue in renal and circulatory physiology, namely how the kidneys accomplish maintenance of extracellular fluid volume (ECV) by conservation of the freely filtered solutes Na+ and Cl-. In an elegant comprehensive investigation in mice, they show that the chloride channel ClC-K2 is necessary for ECV homeostasis. The study sheds light on how the human kidneys regain 20 moles or 0.5 kg of chloride ions per day. Maintenance of ECV is essential for effective circulating volume, constant perfusion pressure and adequate organ perfusion...
April 20, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669993/myeloperoxidase-as-an-active-disease-biomarker-recent-biochemical-and-pathological-perspectives
#16
REVIEW
Amjad A Khan, Mohammed A Alsahli, Arshad H Rahmani
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) belongs to the family of heme-containing peroxidases, produced mostly from polymorphonuclear neutrophils. The active enzyme (150 kDa) is the product of the MPO gene located on long arm of chromosome 17. The primary gene product undergoes several modifications, such as the removal of introns and signal peptides, and leads to the formation of enzymatically inactive glycosylated apoproMPO which complexes with chaperons, producing inactive proMPO by the insertion of a heme moiety. The active enzyme is a homodimer of heavy and light chain protomers...
April 18, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649168/structure-function-relationship-of-transporters-in-the-glutamate-glutamine-cycle-of-the-central-nervous-system
#17
REVIEW
Mariko Kato Hayashi
Many kinds of transporters contribute to glutamatergic excitatory synaptic transmission. Glutamate is loaded into synaptic vesicles by vesicular glutamate transporters to be released from presynaptic terminals. After synaptic vesicle release, glutamate is taken up by neurons or astrocytes to terminate the signal and to prepare for the next signal. Glutamate transporters on the plasma membrane are responsible for transporting glutamate from extracellular fluid to cytoplasm. Glutamate taken up by astrocyte is converted to glutamine by glutamine synthetase and transported back to neurons through glutamine transporters on the plasma membranes of the astrocytes and then on neurons...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643947/comparison-of-saliva-nitric-oxide-between-chronic-kidney-disease-before-and-after-dialysis-and-with-control-group
#18
Fatemeh Rezaei, Reza Mohhamadi
Introduction: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a chronic progressive disorder and a major cause of death and disability in all countries. In the kidneys, Nitric Oxide (NO) has involved in several important cellular processes including glomerular and modular hemodynamics set-out, tubular - glomerular feedback reaction, renin releasing and extracellular fluid volume but NO can act as an inflammatory mediator and oxidative stress factor in high levels. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate salivary levels of NO in patients with chronic kidney disease on dialysis compared to the healthy subjects and evaluate the effect of dialysis on the level of NO in saliva...
2018: Open Dentistry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628997/cancer-metabolism-new-insights-into-classic-characteristics
#19
REVIEW
Yasumasa Kato, Toyonobu Maeda, Atsuko Suzuki, Yuh Baba
Initial studies of cancer metabolism in the early 1920s found that cancer cells were phenotypically characterized by aerobic glycolysis, in that these cells favor glucose uptake and lactate production, even in the presence of oxygen. This property, called the Warburg effect, is considered a hallmark of cancer. The mechanism by which these cells acquire aerobic glycolysis has been uncovered. Acidic extracellular fluid, secreted by cancer cells, induces a malignant phenotype, including invasion and metastasis...
February 2018: Japanese Dental Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615075/lipid-accumulation-in-human-breast-cancer-cells-injured-by-iron-depletors
#20
Maida De Bortoli, Elena Taverna, Elisa Maffioli, Patrizia Casalini, Francesco Crisafi, Vikas Kumar, Claudio Caccia, Dario Polli, Gabriella Tedeschi, Italia Bongarzone
BACKGROUND: Current insights into the effects of iron deficiency in tumour cells are not commensurate with the importance of iron in cell metabolism. Studies have predominantly focused on the effects of oxygen or glucose scarcity in tumour cells, while attributing insufficient emphasis to the inadequate supply of iron in hypoxic regions. Cellular responses to iron deficiency and hypoxia are interlinked and may strongly affect tumour metabolism. METHODS: We examined the morphological, proteomic, and metabolic effects induced by two iron chelators-deferoxamine (DFO) and di-2-pyridylketone 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT)-on MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-157 breast cancer cells...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
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