keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

"Extracellular fluid"

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150269/potential-role-of-the-virchow-robin-space-in-the-pathogenesis-of-bacterial-meningitis
#1
Patrick Chan, Denis J Meerdink, James A Uchizono
Meningitis is an infectious disease commonly arising from a bacterial etiology. The rapid progression of morbidity and mortality due to bacterial meningitis requires critical and imminent time-dependent clinical intervention. Although it is unambiguously clear that bacteria must infiltrate the cerebrospinal fluid, the sequence of events in the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis has not been fully elucidated. Most reviews of the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis do not specify the anatomical location of bacteria following BBB traversal...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147843/iron-and-infection
#2
REVIEW
Tomas Ganz
Iron is an essential trace metal for nearly all infectious microorganisms, and host defense mechanisms target this dependence to deprive microbes of iron. This review highlights mechanisms that are activated during infections to restrict iron on mucosal surfaces, in plasma and extracellular fluid, and within macrophages. Iron overload disorders, such as hereditary hemochromatosis or β-thalassemia, interfere with iron-restrictive host responses, and thereby cause increased susceptibility to infections with microbes that can exploit this vulnerability...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146141/the-myth-of-water-and-salt-from-aquaretics-to-tenapanor
#3
REVIEW
Luca Visconti, Valeria Cernaro, Sebastiano Calimeri, Antonio Lacquaniti, Francesca De Gregorio, Carlo Alberto Ricciardi, Viviana Lacava, Domenico Santoro, Michele Buemi
The impact of water intake has been studied in several renal diseases. For example, increasing water intake is useful to prevent primary and secondary nephrolithiasis. In autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, arginine vasopressin (AVP) is involved in the progression of the disease, and water intake could play a therapeutic role by inhibiting the synthesis of AVP, but its efficacy is still controversial. Conversely, the use of aquaretics, which are antagonists of AVP V2 receptors, results in the reduction of the increase rate of total kidney volume with a slower decline of glomerular filtration rate...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145622/plant-extracellular-vesicles-are-incorporated-by-a-fungal-pathogen-and-inhibit-its-growth
#4
Mariana Regente, Marcela Pinedo, Hélène San Clemente, Thierry Balliau, Elisabeth Jamet, Laura de la Canal
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are membrane particles released by cells into their environment and are considered to be key players in intercellular communication. EV are produced by all domains of life but limited knowledge about EV in plants is available, although their implication in plant defense has been suggested. We have characterized sunflower EV and tested whether they could interact with fungal cells. EV were isolated from extracellular fluids of seedlings and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and proteomic analysis...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144770/equine-intestinal-mucosal-pathobiology
#5
Anthony Blikslager, Liara Gonzalez
The equine intestinal mucosa is intimately involved in maintaining homeostasis both on a systemic level by controlling extracellular fluid movement and at the local level to maintain barrier function. Horses are particularly susceptible to the clinical syndrome of colic, with the most severe cases involving strangulating obstruction that induces ischemia. Because of the mucosal vascular architecture, the mucosal epithelium is particularly susceptible to ischemic injury. The potential for reperfusion injury has been investigated and found to play a minimal role...
November 16, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133240/prediction-of-human-cns-pharmacokinetics-using-a-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modeling-approach
#6
Yumi Yamamoto, Pyry A Välitalo, Yin Cheong Wong, Dymphy R Huntjens, Johannes H Proost, An Vermeulen, Walter Krauwinkel, Margot W Beukers, Hannu Kokki, Merja Kokki, Meindert Danhof, Johan G C van Hasselt, Elizabeth C M de Lange
Knowledge of drug concentration-time profiles at the central nervous system (CNS) target-site is critically important for rational development of CNS targeted drugs. Our aim was to translate a recently published comprehensive CNS physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model from rat to human, and to predict drug concentration-time profiles in multiple CNS compartments on available human data of four drugs (acetaminophen, oxycodone, morphine and phenytoin). Values of the system-specific parameters in the rat CNS PBPK model were replaced by corresponding human values...
November 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129925/the-neural-basis-of-homeostatic-and-anticipatory-thirst
#7
REVIEW
Claire Gizowski, Charles W Bourque
Water intake is one of the most basic physiological responses and is essential to sustain life. The perception of thirst has a critical role in controlling body fluid homeostasis and if neglected or dysregulated can lead to life-threatening pathologies. Clear evidence suggests that the perception of thirst occurs in higher-order centres, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insular cortex (IC), which receive information from midline thalamic relay nuclei. Multiple brain regions, notably circumventricular organs such as the organum vasculosum lamina terminalis (OVLT) and subfornical organ (SFO), monitor changes in blood osmolality, solute load and hormone circulation and are thought to orchestrate appropriate responses to maintain extracellular fluid near ideal set points by engaging the medial thalamic-ACC/IC network...
November 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127487/towards-a-unified-understanding-of-lithium-action-in-basic-biology-and-its-significance-for-applied-biology
#8
REVIEW
Eric Jakobsson, Orlando Argüello-Miranda, See-Wing Chiu, Zeeshan Fazal, James Kruczek, Santiago Nunez-Corrales, Sagar Pandit, Laura Pritchet
Lithium has literally been everywhere forever, since it is one of the three elements created in the Big Bang. Lithium concentration in rocks, soil, and fresh water is highly variable from place to place, and has varied widely in specific regions over evolutionary and geologic time. The biological effects of lithium are many and varied. Based on experiments in which animals are deprived of lithium, lithium is an essential nutrient. At the other extreme, at lithium ingestion sufficient to raise blood concentration significantly over 1 mM/, lithium is acutely toxic...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125999/preclinical-evaluation-of-heat-denatured-18-f-fdg-labeled-red-blood-cells-for-detecting-splenic-tissues-with-pet-in-rats
#9
Yohji Matsusaka, Tadaki Nakahara, Kazuhiro Takahashi, Yu Iwabuchi, Yuji Ogata, Chiyoko Nishime, Mayumi Kajimura, Masahiro Jinzaki
INTRODUCTION: Heat-denatured (99m)Tc-labeled red blood cells (RBCs) are used for detecting splenic tissues with scintigraphy. The present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using heat-denatured [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG)-labeled RBCs in detecting splenic tissues using positron emission tomography (PET) in rats. METHODS: RBCs were washed with phosphate buffered saline, labeled with [(18)F]FDG at 38°C, and heat-denatured at 50°C for 15 min. In vitro stability was assessed by measuring extracellular radioactivity during the 0-180 min incubation at 37°C...
September 18, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120962/endothelial-factors-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-chronic-kidney-disease-part-i-general-mechanisms-a-joint-consensus-statement-from-the-european-society-of-hypertension-working-group-on-endothelin-and-endothelial-factors-and-the-japanese-society-of-hypertension
#10
Gian Paolo Rossi, Teresa M Seccia, Matthias Barton, A H Jan Danser, Peter W de Leeuw, Neeraj Dhaun, Damiano Rizzoni, Patrick Rossignol, Luis-Miguel Ruilope, Anton H van den Meiracker, Sadayoshi Ito, Naoyuki Hasebe, David J Webb
: Kidney damage is a common consequence of arterial hypertension, but is also a cause of atherogenesis. Dysfunction and/or harm of the endothelium in glomeruli and tubular interstitium damage the function of these structures and translates into dynamic changes of filtration fraction, with progressive reduction in glomerular filtration rate, expansion of extracellular fluid volume, abnormal ion balance, and hypoxia, ultimately leading to chronic kidney disease. Considering the key role played by endothelial dysfunction in chronic kidney disease, the Working Group on Endothelin and Endothelial Factors of the European Society of Hypertension and the Japanese Society of Hypertension have critically reviewed available knowledge on the mechanisms underlying endothelial cell injury...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116192/human-stem-cell-derived-retinal-epithelial-cells-activate-complement-via-collectin-11-in-response-to-stress
#11
Giorgia Fanelli, Anai Gonzalez-Cordero, Peter J Gardner, Qi Peng, Milan Fernando, Magdalena Kloc, Conrad A Farrar, Arifa Naeem, Peter Garred, Robin R Ali, Steven H Sacks
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness and is associated with complement dysregulation. The disease is a potential target for stem cell therapy but success is likely to be limited by the inflammatory response. We investigated the innate immune properties of human induced-pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived RPE cells, particularly with regard to the complement pathway. We focused on collectin-11 (CL-11), a pattern recognition molecule that can trigger complement activation in renal epithelial tissue...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115801/the-relationship-between-the-vitamin-serum-25-oh-d-and-the-b12-concentrations-in-obese-women
#12
Nikola Curic, Branislava Ilincic, Natasa Milic, Velibor Cabarkapa, Stanislava Nikolic, Milica Medic-Stojanoska, Rinaldo Pellicano, Ludovico Abenavoli
BACKGROUND: In obesity, low levels of vitamin D (VD) and vitamin B12 (VB12), may be the result of different pathophysiological mechanisms, but the possible association between them has not yet been defined. The aim of this cross-sectional analysis was to investigate the possible relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and VB12 levels in middle aged women. METHODS: In 80 women, we indirectly evaluated body composition and body volumes [extracellular fluid volume (ECV) and total body water (TBW)] by anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance analysis...
November 7, 2017: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114586/calcification-process-dynamics-in-coral-primary-polyps-as-observed-using-a-calcein-incubation-method
#13
Yoshikazu Ohno, Akira Iguchi, Chuya Shinzato, Mikako Gushi, Mayuri Inoue, Atsushi Suzuki, Kazuhiko Sakai, Takashi Nakamura
Calcification processes are largely unknown in scleractinian corals. In this study, live confocal imaging was used to elucidate the spatiotemporal dynamics of the calcification process in aposymbiotic primary polyps of the coral species Acropora digitifera. The fluorophore calcein was used as a calcium deposition marker and a visible indicator of extracellular fluid distribution at the tissue-skeleton interface (subcalicoblastic medium, SCM) in primary polyp tissues. Under continuous incubation in calcein-containing seawater, initial crystallization and skeletal growth were visualized among the calicoblastic cells in live primary polyp tissues...
March 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112621/the-role-of-extracellular-fluid-in-biokinetic-modeling
#14
Guthrie Miller, John A Klumpp, Dunstana Melo, Deepesh Poudel
The pharmacokinetic equations of Pierson et al. describing the behavior of bromide in rat provide a general approach to the modeling of extracellular fluid (ECF). The movement of material into ECF spaces is rapid and is completely characterized by tissue volumes and vascular flow rates to and from a tissue, the volumes of the tissue, and the ECF associated with the tissue. Early-time measurements are needed to characterize ECF. Measurements of DTPA disappearance from plasma by Wedeking et al. are discussed as an example of such measurements...
December 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110773/cerebrospinal-fluid-and-brain-extracellular-fluid-in-severe-brain-trauma
#15
Raimund Helbok, Ronny Beer
Traumatic brain injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Pathophysiologic mechanisms of secondary brain injury are complex and still not fully understood. Cerebrospinal fluid deserves attention to detect infectious complications and to identify biomarkers of disease severity and impending secondary brain injury. As an adjunct, cerebral microdialysis (CMD) allows online measurements of biomarkers derived directly from brain extracellular fluid. We critically review relevant literature related to infectious complications detectable in the cerebrospinal fluid in trauma patients...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109162/comparative-assessment-of-tedizolid-pharmacokinetics-and-tissue-penetration-between-diabetic-patients-with-wound-infections-and-healthy-volunteers-via-in-vivo-microdialysis
#16
Sean M Stainton, Marguerite L Monogue, Arlinda Baummer-Carr, Ashley K Shepard, James F Nugent, Joseph L Kuti, David P Nicolau
Herein, we present pharmacokinetic and tissue penetration data for oral tedizolid in hospitalized patients with diabetic foot infections (DFI) compared with healthy volunteers. Participants received oral tedizolid phosphate 200mg every 24 hours for 3 doses to achieve steady-state. A microdialysis catheter was inserted into the subcutaneous tissue near the margin of the wound for patients or into thigh tissue of volunteers. Following the 3(rd) dose, 12 blood and 14 dialysate fluid samples were collected over 24 hours to characterize tedizolid concentrations in plasma and interstitial extracellular fluid of soft tissue...
November 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106979/development-of-a-population-pharmacokinetic-model-to-predict-brain-distribution-and-dopamine-d2-receptor-occupancy-of-raclopride-in-non-anesthetized-rat
#17
Yin Cheong Wong, Trayana Ilkova, Rob C van Wijk, Robin Hartman, Elizabeth C M de Lange
BACKGROUND: Raclopride is a selective antagonist of the dopamine D2 receptor. It is one of the most frequently used in vivo D2 tracers (at low doses) for assessing drug-induced receptor occupancy (RO) in animals and humans. It is also commonly used as a pharmacological blocker (at high doses) to occupy the available D2 receptors and antagonize the action of dopamine or drugs on D2 in preclinical studies. The aims of this study were to comprehensively evaluate its pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles in different brain compartments and to establish a PK-RO model that could predict the brain distribution and RO of raclopride in the freely moving rat using a LC-MS based approach...
November 4, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100532/a-comprehensive-overview-of-exosomes-in-ovarian-cancer-emerging-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-strategies
#18
REVIEW
Lin Cheng, Shuying Wu, Kun Zhang, Yun'an Qing, Tianmin Xu
Exosomes are nanoparticles(40-100 nm) secreted by most cells in the body, which can be isolated from several types of extracellular fluids. It has been shown that exosomes play a key role in intercellular communication and in transportation of genetic information. Emerging evidence shows that exosomes are mediators of metastasis in tumour cells, stromal cells and the extracellular matrix component through the shuttling of cargo, such as proteins, lipids, RNAs, double-stranded DNAs, non-transcribed RNAs, and microRNAs...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098280/a-method-to-administer-agents-to-the-larynx-in-an-awake-large-animal
#19
Abigail Durkes, M Preeti Sivasankar
Purpose: This research note describes an adapted experimental methodology to administer an exogenous agent to the larynx and upper airway of awake animals. The exogenous agent could be a perturbation. In the current study, the agent was isotonic saline. Isotonic saline was selected because it is safe, of similar composition to extracellular fluid, and used in voice studies. The described approach allowed large animals such as pigs to be comfortably restrained without chemical sedation or anesthesia for extended periods while receiving the agent...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093476/in-vivo-neurochemical-measurements-in-cerebral-tissues-using-a-droplet-based-monitoring-system
#20
Guillaume Petit-Pierre, Philippe Colin, Estelle Laurer, Julien Déglon, Arnaud Bertsch, Aurélien Thomas, Bernard L Schneider, Philippe Renaud
Direct collection of extracellular fluid (ECF) plays a central role in the monitoring of neurological disorders. Current approaches using microdialysis catheters are however drastically limited in term of temporal resolution. Here we show a functional in vivo validation of a droplet collection system included at the tip of a neural probe. The system comprises an advanced droplet formation mechanism which enables the collection of neurochemicals present in the brain ECF at high-temporal resolution. The probe was implanted in a rat brain and could successfully collect fluid samples organized in a train of droplets...
November 1, 2017: Nature Communications
keyword
keyword
25360
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"