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"Extracellular fluid"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074342/the-presence-of-modified-nucleosides-in-extracellular-fluids-leads-to-the-specific-incorporation-of-5-chlorocytidine-into-rna-and-modulates-the-transcription-and-translation
#1
Caroline Noyon, Thierry Roumeguère, Cédric Delporte, Damien Dufour, Melissa Cortese, Jean-Marc Desmet, Christophe Lelubre, Alexandre Rousseau, Philippe Poelvoorde, Jean Nève, Luc Vanhamme, Karim Zouaoui Boudjeltia, Pierre Van Antwerpen
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is able to promote several kinds of damage and is involved in mechanisms leading to various diseases such as atherosclerosis or cancers. An example of these damages is the chlorination of nucleic acids, which is considered as a specific marker of the MPO activity. Since 5-chlorocytidine has been recently shown in healthy donor plasmas, this study aimed at discovering if these circulating modified nucleosides could be incorporated into RNA and DNA and if their presence impacts the ability of enzymes involved in the incorporation, transcription, and translation processes...
January 10, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064162/acute-genetic-ablation-of-pendrin-lowers-blood-pressure-in-mice
#2
Francesco Trepiccione, Christelle Soukaseum, Veronique Baudrie, Yusuke Kumai, Jacques Teulon, Bruno Villoutreix, Nicolas Cornière, Philine Wangemann, Andrew J Griffith, Yoon Byung Choi, Juliette Hadchouel, Regine Chambrey, Dominique Eladari
BACKGROUND: Pendrin, the chloride/bicarbonate exchanger of β-intercalated cells of the renal connecting tubule and the collecting duct, plays a key role in NaCl reabsorption by the distal nephron. Therefore, pendrin may be important for the control of extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure. METHODS: Here, we have used a genetic mouse model in which the expression of pendrin can be switched-on in vivo by the administration of doxycycline. Pendrin can also be rapidly removed when doxycycline administration is discontinued...
January 7, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042832/r-flurbiprofen-traps-prostaglandins-within-cells-by-inhibition-of-multidrug-resistance-associated-protein-4
#3
Ivonne Wobst, Lisa Ebert, Kerstin Birod, Marthe-Susanna Wegner, Marika Hoffmann, Dominique Thomas, Carlo Angioni, Michael J Parnham, Dieter Steinhilber, Irmgard Tegeder, Gerd Geisslinger, Sabine Grösch
R-flurbiprofen is the non-COX-inhibiting enantiomer of flurbiprofen and is not converted to S-flurbiprofen in human cells. Nevertheless, it reduces extracellular prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) in cancer or immune cell cultures and human extracellular fluid. Here, we show that R-flurbiprofen acts through a dual mechanism: (i) it inhibits the translocation of cPLA2α to the plasma membrane and thereby curtails the availability of arachidonic acid and (ii) R-flurbiprofen traps PGE₂ inside of the cells by inhibiting multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4, ABCC4), which acts as an outward transporter for prostaglandins...
December 30, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036023/aquaporins-in-brain-edema-and-neuropathological-conditions
#4
REVIEW
Aristotelis S Filippidis, Richard B Carozza, Harold L Rekate
The aquaporin (AQP) family of water channels are a group of small, membrane-spanning proteins that are vital for the rapid transport of water across the plasma membrane. These proteins are widely expressed, from tissues such as the renal epithelium and erythrocytes to the various cells of the central nervous system. This review will elucidate the basic structure and distribution of aquaporins and discuss the role of aquaporins in various neuropathologies. AQP1 and AQP4, the two primary aquaporin molecules of the central nervous system, regulate brain water and CSF movement and contribute to cytotoxic and vasogenic edema, where they control the size of the intracellular and extracellular fluid volumes, respectively...
December 28, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028135/unique-transcriptional-programs-identify-subtypes-of-aki
#5
Katherine Xu, Paul Rosenstiel, Neal Paragas, Christian Hinze, Xiaobo Gao, Tian Huai Shen, Max Werth, Catherine Forster, Rong Deng, Efrat Bruck, Roger W Boles, Alexandra Tornato, Tejashree Gopal, Madison Jones, Justin Konig, Jacob Stauber, Vivette D'Agati, Hediye Erdjument-Bromage, Subodh Saggi, Gebhard Wagener, Kai M Schmidt-Ott, Nicholas Tatonetti, Paul Tempst, Juan A Oliver, Paolo Guarnieri, Jonathan Barasch
Two metrics, a rise in serum creatinine concentration and a decrease in urine output, are considered tantamount to the injury of the kidney tubule and the epithelial cells thereof (AKI). Yet neither criterion emphasizes the etiology or the pathogenetic heterogeneity of acute decreases in kidney excretory function. In fact, whether decreased excretory function due to contraction of the extracellular fluid volume (vAKI) or due to intrinsic kidney injury (iAKI) actually share pathogenesis and should be aggregated in the same diagnostic group remains an open question...
December 27, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018229/the-calcium-sensing-receptor-and-the-parathyroid-past-present-future
#6
REVIEW
Arthur D Conigrave
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) defends the extracellular fluid from hypocalcemia and has powerful and well-documented actions on the skeleton and renal tubular system. To achieve a satisfactory stable plasma calcium level, the secretion of PTH, and the resulting serum PTH level, is titrated carefully to the prevailing plasma ionized Ca(2+) concentration via a Ca(2+) sensing mechanism that mediates feedback inhibition of PTH secretion. Herein, I consider the properties of the parathyroid Ca(2+) sensing mechanism, the identity of the Ca(2+) sensor, the intracellular biochemical mechanisms that it controls, the manner of its integration with other components of the PTH secretion control mechanism, and its modulation by other nutrients...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010747/using-on-line-solid-phase-extraction-for-in%C3%A2-vivo-speciation-of-diffusible-ferrous-and-ferric-iron-in-living-rat-brain-extracellular-fluid
#7
Cheng-Kuan Su, Yi-Ting Chen, Yuh-Chang Sun
Exploration of brain extracellular non-protein-bound/diffusible iron species remains a critically important issue in investigations of free radical biology and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, a facile sample pretreatment scheme, involving poly(vinyl chloride)-metal ion interactions as a selective extraction procedure, was optimized in conjunction with microdialysis (MD) sampling and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in cool-plasma mode for in vivo online monitoring of rat brain extracellular Fe(II) and Fe(III) species...
February 8, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007306/a-quick-reference-on-chloride
#8
REVIEW
Andrea A Bohn, Helio Autran De Morais
Chloride is an essential element, playing important roles in digestion, muscular activity, regulation of body fluids, and acid-base balance. As the most abundant anion in extracellular fluid, chloride plays a major role in maintaining electroneutrality. Chloride is intrinsically linked to sodium in maintaining osmolality and fluid balance and has an inverse relationship with bicarbonate in maintaining acid-base balance. It is likely because of these close ties that chloride does not get the individual attention it deserves; we can use these facts to simplify and interpret changes in serum chloride concentrations...
December 19, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992875/calf-resistivity-values-in-chronic-kidney-disease-in-a-caucasian-population
#9
Eric Seibert, Stephan G Müller, Johanna Pattmöller, Peter Kotanko, Fansan Zhu, Nathan W Levin, Roman Fiedler, Martin K Kuhlmann, Matthias Girndt
BACKGROUND: Continuous intradialytic calf bioimpedance spectroscopy (cBIS) allows assessment of changes in calf extracellular fluid volume (ECV) to determine dry weight (DW) in hemodialysis patients. During dialysis, calf ECV decreases until excessive ECV has been removed and normalized resistivity ρN,5 rises to values comparable to those of a normal population (cBIS-DW). It is not clear whether chronic kidney disease (CKD) itself influences ρN,5 and whether normal values depend on race and ethnicity...
December 20, 2016: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986638/the-immune-properties-of-manduca-sexta-transferrin
#10
Lisa M Brummett, Michael R Kanost, Maureen J Gorman
Transferrins are secreted proteins that bind iron. The well-studied transferrins are mammalian serum transferrin, which is involved in iron transport, and mammalian lactoferrin, which functions as an immune protein. Lactoferrin and lactoferrin-derived peptides have bactericidal activity, and the iron-free form of lactoferrin has bacteriostatic activity due to its ability to sequester iron. Insect transferrin is similar in sequence to both serum transferrin and lactoferrin, and its functions are not well-characterized; however, many studies of insect transferrin indicate that it has some type of immune function...
December 13, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986226/glutathione-conjugation-dose-dependently-increases-brain-specific-liposomal-drug-delivery-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#11
REVIEW
David Maussang, Jaap Rip, Joan van Kregten, Angelique van den Heuvel, Susanne van der Pol, Burt van der Boom, Arie Reijerkerk, Linda Chen, Marco de Boer, Pieter Gaillard, Helga de Vries
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) represents a major obstacle for the delivery and development of drugs curing brain pathologies. However, this biological barrier presents numerous endogenous specialized transport systems that can be exploited by engineered nanoparticles to enable drug delivery to the brain. In particular, conjugation of glutathione (GSH) onto PEGylated liposomes (G-Technology(®)) showed to safely enhance delivery of encapsulated drugs to the brain. Yet, understanding of the mechanism of action remains limited and full mechanistic understanding will aid in the further optimization of the technology...
June 2016: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982694/cigarette-smoke-and-decreased-oxygen-tension-inhibit-pulmonary-claudin-6-expression
#12
Felix R Jimenez, Josh B Lewis, Samuel T Belgique, Dallin C Milner, Adam L Lewis, Todd M Dunaway, Kaleb M Egbert, Duane R Winden, Juan A Arroyo, Paul R Reynolds
PURPOSE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a condition involving perturbed barrier integrity coincident with both emphysema and inflammation of the airways, and smoking is considered a major risk factor. Claudins (Cldns) stabilize barriers and contribute to tight junctions by preventing paracellular transport of extracellular fluid constituents. METHODS: To determine Cldn6 was differentially influenced by tobacco smoke, Cldn6 was evaluated in cells and tissues by q-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry following exposure...
December 16, 2016: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979690/mri-guided-breast-vacuum-biopsy-localization-of-the-lesion-without-contrast-agent-application-using-diffusion-weighted-imaging
#13
Nicole Berger, Zsuzsanna Varga, Thomas Frauenfelder, Andreas Boss
OBJECTIVE: In magnetic resonance-guided breast vacuum biopsies, the contrast agent for targeting suspicious lesions can typically be applied only once during an intervention, due to the slow elimination of the gadolinium chelate from the extracellular fluid space. This study evaluated the feasibility of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for lesion targeting in vacuum assisted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biopsies. CONCLUSION: DWI may be used as an alternative to dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI with the advantage of reproducibility...
December 12, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978789/heat-shock-proteins-therapeutic-perspectives-in-inflammatory-disorders
#14
Rekha Khandia, Ashok K Munjal, Hafiz M N Iqbal, Kuldeep Dhama
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are highly conserved proteins present in all kingdoms of organisms. These are expressed under stress conditions in order to protect the cells from injuries. The stress induced protein denaturation is rectified by refolding and remodelling. These are intracellular proteins but can be present in extracellular fluid like serum of the patients suffering from trauma, autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Virtually in most inflammatory diseases, immune response towards HSPs is developed...
December 13, 2016: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978559/oct-leakage-a-new-method-to-identify-and-locate-abnormal-fluid-accumulation-in-diabetic-retinal-edema
#15
José Cunha-Vaz, Torcato Santos, Luísa Ribeiro, Dalila Alves, Inês Marques, Morton Goldberg
Purpose: To identify retinal extracellular fluid changes and their correlation with increased retinal thickness (RT) in eyes with subclinical and clinical macular edema in diabetes type 2. Methods: A cohort of 48 eyes from 48 type 2 diabetic patients with mild or moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study levels 20/35) were classified as having normal RT (10), subclinical macular edema (30), or clinical macular edema (8)...
December 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974315/mechanisms-of-blood-pressure-salt-sensitivity-new-insights-from-mathematical-modeling
#16
John S Clemmer, William Andrew Pruett, Thomas G Coleman, John E Hall, Robert L Hester
Mathematical modeling is an important tool for understanding quantitative relationships among components of complex physiological systems and for testing competing hypotheses. We used HumMod, a large physiological model, to test hypotheses of blood pressure (BP) salt sensitivity. Systemic hemodynamics, renal, and neurohormonal responses to chronic changes in salt intake were examined during normal renal function, fixed low or high plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) levels, bilateral renal artery stenosis, increased renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and decreased nephron numbers...
December 14, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965440/cfap157-is-a-murine-downstream-effector-of-foxj1-that-is-specifically-required-for-flagellum-morphogenesis-and-sperm-motility
#17
Marina Weidemann, Karin Schuster-Gossler, Michael Stauber, Christoph Wrede, Jan Hegermann, Tim Ott, Karsten Boldt, Tina Beyer, Katrin Serth, Elisabeth Kremmer, Martin Blum, Marius Ueffing, Achim Gossler
Motile cilia move extracellular fluids or mediate cellular motility. Their function is essential for embryonic development, adult tissue homeostasis and reproduction throughout vertebrates. FOXJ1 is a key transcription factor for the formation of motile cilia but its downstream genetic programme is only partially understood. Here, we characterise a novel FOXJ1 target, Cfap157, that is specifically expressed in motile ciliated tissues in mouse and Xenopus in a FOXJ1-dependent manner. CFAP157 protein localises to basal bodies and interacts with tubulin and the centrosomal protein CEP350...
December 15, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941227/comparison-of-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-bio-impedance-spectroscopy-for-the-assessment-of-fluid-displacement-induced-by-external-leg-compression
#18
Salvatore Saporito, Silviu Dovancescu, Ingeborg H F Herold, Harrie C M van den Bosch, Hans C van Assen, Ronald M Aarts, Hendrikus H M Korsten, Massimo Mischi
Heart failure is marked by frequent hospital admissions, often as a consequence of pulmonary congestion. Current gold standard techniques for thoracic fluid measurement require invasive heamodynamic access and therefore they are not suitable for continuous monitoring. Changes in thoracic impedance (TI) may enable non-invasive early detection of congestion and prevention of unplanned hospitalizations. However, the usefulness of TI to assess thoracic fluid status is limited by inter-subject variability and by the lack of reliable normalization methods...
January 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935982/a-cost-effective-method-to-assemble-biomimetic-3d-cell-culture-platforms
#19
Sabreen Khalil, Nagwa El-Badri, Mohamed El-Mokhtaar, Saif Al-Mofty, Mohamed Farghaly, Radwa Ayman, Dina Habib, Noha Mousa
METHODS: We utilized the hAM to provide the biological and the three dimensional (3D) topographic components of the prototype. The 3D nano-roughness of the hAM was characterized using surface electron microscopy and surface image analysis (ImageJ and SurfaceJ). We developed additional macro-scale and micro-scale versions of the platform which provided additional shear stress factors to simulate the fluid dynamics of the in vivo extracellular fluids. RESULTS: Three models of varying complexities of the prototype were assembled...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931174/decolorization-of-congo-red-by-phanerochaete-chrysosporium-the-role-of-biosorption-and-biodegradation
#20
Francesca Bosco, Chiara Mollea, Bernardo Ruggeri
The degradation of Congo Red by means of Phanerochaete chrysosporium BKM-F-1767 is reported in this work. Solid and liquid cultures have been prepared to evaluate in vivo biodegradation as well as the role of biosorption phenomena on mycelium. Moreover, in vitro tests have been performed to define the influence of MnP on dye decolorization. P. chrysosporium, cultivated on Malt Extract Agar in the presence of Congo Red 0.005% (w/v), has shown good growth and the ability to decolorize the dye in the 25-39°C temperature range...
December 29, 2016: Environmental Technology
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