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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451858/cerebrospinal-fluid-micrornas-as-diagnostic-biomarkers-in-brain-tumors
#1
REVIEW
Alena Kopkova, Jiri Sana, Pavel Fadrus, Ondrej Slaby
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a body fluid that has many important functions and is in direct contact with the extracellular environment of the central nervous system (CNS). CSF serves as both the communication channel allowing the distribution of various substances among the CNS cells and the storage facility for the waste products these cells release. For these reasons, CSF is a potential source of diagnostic biomarkers of many CNS diseases, including brain tumors. Recent studies have revealed that CSF also contains circulating microRNAs (miRNAs), short non-coding RNAs that have been described as biomarkers in many cancers...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447934/mismatch-between-gluts-and-glucose-levels-causes-neuronal-damage-during-glucose-fluctuations
#2
Zhichao Xie, Jun Guo, Yan Kang, Xiaofeng Ou
Abnormal glucose levels damage the central nervous system, especially in case of rapid fluctuations. Even a single episode of glucose reperfusion can result in overt impairment of neurons. Oxidative stress plays an important role in this process, sharing properties with the pathophysiologic changes of glucose neurotoxicity. Glucose transporters (GLUTs) located in the brain are involved in direct glucose uptake by neurons. Instead of being insulin-sensitive, these transporters are regulated by glucose levels in the extracellular fluid, increasing their expression while glucose levels fall, to absorb more glucose...
March 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446616/new-mechanism-for-release-of-endosomal-contents-osmotic-lysis-via-nigericin-mediated-k-h-exchange
#3
Loganathan Rangasamy, Venkatesh Chelvam, Ananda Kumar Kanduluru, Madduri Srinivasarao, Achini N Bandara, Fei You, Esteban Orellana, Andrea L Kasinski, Philip S Low
Although peptides, antibodies/antibody fragments, siRNAs, antisense DNAs, enzymes and aptamers are all under development as possible therapeutic agents, the breadth of their applications has been severely compromised by their inability to reach intracellular targets. Thus, while macromolecules can often enter cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis, their missions frequently fail due to an inability to escape their entrapping endosomes. In this paper, we describe a general method for promoting release of any biologic material from any entrapping endosome...
February 15, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443075/human-pluripotent-stem-cell-culture-on-polyvinyl-alcohol-co-itaconic-acid-hydrogels-with-varying-stiffness-under-xeno-free-conditions
#4
Tzu-Cheng Sung, Hsing-Fen Li, Akon Higuchi, Qing-Dong Ling, Jia-Sin Yang, Yeh-Chia Tseng, Chih-Hsien Pan Pan, Abdullah A Alarfaj, Murugan A Munusamy, Suresh Kumar, Shih-Tien Hsu, Kadarkarai Murugan
The effect of physical cues, such as the stiffness of biomaterials on the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells, has been investigated by several researchers. However, most of these investigators have used polyacrylamide hydrogels for stem cell culture in their studies. Therefore, their results are controversial because those results might originate from the specific characteristics of the polyacrylamide and not from the physical cue (stiffness) of the biomaterials. Here, we describe a protocol for preparing hydrogels, which are not based on polyacrylamide, where various stem, cells including human embryonic stem (ES) cells and human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, can be cultured...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441794/biophysical-properties-of-extracellular-vesicles-in-diagnostics
#5
Lucia Paolini, Andrea Zendrini, Annalisa Radeghieri
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived nanoparticles, involved in cell-to-cell communication, in both normal and pathological processes. Originating by the outward budding of the plasma membrane or released by exocytosis, they are natural cargoes for lipids, carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids. EV-based diagnostics promises unique advantages compared with conventional strategies involving whole body fluid analysis, including the reduction of biofluids complexity and more specific and sensitive detection of low abundance biomacromolecules...
February 14, 2018: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441425/detailed-analysis-of-the-plasma-extracellular-vesicle-proteome-after-separation-from-lipoproteins
#6
Nasibeh Karimi, Aleksander Cvjetkovic, Su Chul Jang, Rossella Crescitelli, Mohammad Ali Hosseinpour Feizi, Rienk Nieuwland, Jan Lötvall, Cecilia Lässer
The isolation of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from blood is of great importance to understand the biological role of circulating EVs and to develop EVs as biomarkers of disease. Due to the concurrent presence of lipoprotein particles, however, blood is one of the most difficult body fluids to isolate EVs from. The aim of this study was to develop a robust method to isolate and characterise EVs from blood with minimal contamination by plasma proteins and lipoprotein particles. Plasma and serum were collected from healthy subjects, and EVs were isolated by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), with most particles being present in fractions 8-12, while the bulk of the plasma proteins was present in fractions 11-28...
February 13, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441013/%C3%AE-synuclein-aggregated-with-tau-and-%C3%AE-amyloid-in-human-platelets-from-healthy-subjects-correlation-with-physical-exercise
#7
Simona Daniele, Deborah Pietrobono, Jonathan Fusi, Annalisa Lo Gerfo, Eugenio Cerri, Lucia Chico, Caterina Iofrida, Lucia Petrozzi, Filippo Baldacci, Chiara Giacomelli, Fabio Galetta, Gabriele Siciliano, Ubaldo Bonuccelli, Maria L Trincavelli, Ferdinando Franzoni, Claudia Martini
The loss of protein homeostasis that has been associated with aging leads to altered levels and conformational instability of proteins, which tend to form toxic aggregates. In particular, brain aging presents characteristic patterns of misfolded oligomers, primarily constituted of β-amyloid (Aβ), tau, and α-synuclein (α-syn), which can accumulate in neuronal membranes or extracellular compartments. Such aging-related proteins can also reach peripheral compartments, thus suggesting the possibility to monitor their accumulation in more accessible fluids...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434584/tlr3-ligand-poly-i-c-exerts-distinct-actions-in-synovial-fibroblasts-when-delivered-by-extracellular-vesicles
#8
Mojca Frank-Bertoncelj, David S Pisetsky, Christoph Kolling, Beat A Michel, Renate E Gay, Astrid Jüngel, Steffen Gay
Extracellular vesicles (EV) can modulate the responses of cells to toll-like receptor (TLR) ligation; conversely, TLR ligands such as double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can enhance the release of EV and influence of the composition and functions of EV cargos. Inflamed synovial joints in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are rich in EV and extracellular RNA; besides, RNA released from necrotic synovial fluid cells can activate the TLR3 signaling in synovial fibroblasts (SFs) from patients with RA. Since EV occur prominently in synovial joints in RA and may contribute to the pathogenesis, we questioned whether EV can interact with dsRNA, a TLR3 ligand, and modify its actions in arthritis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433546/a-unique-role-for-galectin-9-in-angiogenesis-and-inflammatory-arthritis
#9
Martin J O'Brien, Qiang Shu, W Alexander Stinson, Pei-Suen Tsou, Jeffrey H Ruth, Takeo Isozaki, Phillip L Campbell, Ray A Ohara, Alisa E Koch, David A Fox, M Asif Amin
BACKGROUND: Galectin-9 (Gal-9) is a mammalian lectin secreted by endothelial cells that is highly expressed in rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissues and synovial fluid. Roles have been proposed for galectins in the regulation of inflammation and angiogenesis. Therefore, we examined the contribution of Gal-9 to angiogenesis and inflammation in arthritis. METHODS: To determine the role of Gal-9 in angiogenesis, we performed human dermal microvascular endothelial cell (HMVEC) chemotaxis, Matrigel tube formation, and mouse Matrigel plug angiogenesis assays...
February 12, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432867/release-of-high-amounts-of-lipopolysaccharides-from-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-cells-reduces-their-susceptibility-to-colistin
#10
Shin-Ichi Yokota, Hiroshi Hakamada, Soh Yamamoto, Toyotaka Sato, Tsukasa Shiraishi, Masaaki Shinagawa, Satoshi Takahashi
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important etiological agent of opportunistic infections. Injectable colistin is available as a last-line option of treatment for multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa infections. When cells were inoculated at a high number, colistin-susceptible P. aeruginosa grew on agar medium containing colistin at a concentration 10-fold higher than the MIC without acquiring colistin resistance. This study examined the responsible mechanism for growth in the presence of a high concentration of colistin...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430449/new-insights-into-the-mechanisms-of-pulmonary-edema-in-acute-lung-injury
#11
REVIEW
Raquel Herrero, Gema Sanchez, Jose Angel Lorente
Appearance of alveolar protein-rich edema is an early event in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Alveolar edema in ARDS results from a significant increase in the permeability of the alveolar epithelial barrier, and represents one of the main factors that contribute to the hypoxemia in these patients. Damage of the alveolar epithelium is considered a major mechanism responsible for the increased pulmonary permeability, which results in edema fluid containing high concentrations of extravasated macromolecules in the alveoli...
January 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428972/the-role-of-brain-barriers-in-fluid-movement-in-the-cns-is-there-a-glymphatic-system
#12
REVIEW
N Joan Abbott, Michelle E Pizzo, Jane E Preston, Damir Janigro, Robert G Thorne
Brain fluids are rigidly regulated to provide stable environments for neuronal function, e.g., low K+, Ca2+, and protein to optimise signalling and minimise neurotoxicity. At the same time, neuronal and astroglial waste must be promptly removed. The interstitial fluid (ISF) of the brain tissue and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) bathing the CNS are integral to this homeostasis and the idea of a glia-lymph or 'glymphatic' system for waste clearance from brain has developed over the last 5 years. This links bulk (convective) flow of CSF into brain along the outside of penetrating arteries, glia-mediated convective transport of fluid and solutes through the brain extracellular space (ECS) involving the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel, and finally delivery of fluid to venules for clearance along peri-venous spaces...
February 10, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427412/galectin-3-interacts-with-the-chi3l1-axis-and-contributes-to-hermansky-pudlak-syndrome-lung-disease
#13
Yang Zhou, Chuan Hua He, Daniel S Yang, Tung Nguyen, Yueming Cao, Suchitra Kamle, Chang-Min Lee, Bernadette R Gochuico, William A Gahl, Barry S Shea, Chun Geun Lee, Jack A Elias
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) comprises a group of inherited disorders caused by mutations that alter the function of lysosome-related organelles. Pulmonary fibrosis is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in HPS-1 and HPS-4 patients. However, the mechanisms that underlie the exaggerated injury and fibroproliferative repair responses in HPS have not been adequately defined. In particular, although Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is dysregulated in HPS, its roles in the pathogenesis of HPS have not been adequately defined...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427295/unveiling-a-hidden-31-p-signal-coresonating-with-extracellular-inorganic-phosphate-by-outer-volume-suppression-and-localized-31-p-mrs-in-the-human-brain-at-7t
#14
Jimin Ren, Ty Shang, A Dean Sherry, Craig R Malloy
PURPOSE: The study was undertaken to demonstrate that there is more than 1 component in the extracellular Pi31 P signal ( Piex) acquired from human head using nonlocalized 31 P MRS. METHODS: Outer-volume-suppression (OVS) saturation and 1D/2D 31 P CSI were utilized to reveal the presence of an additional component in the Piex signal. RESULTS: 67% of the head extracellular Pi signal was attenuated upon OVS saturation of the peripheral meningeal tissues, likely reflecting elimination of the Pi signal in the meningeal fluids (the blood and CSF)...
February 9, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427068/the-brain-as-a-hyper-network-the-key-role-of-neural-networks-as-main-producers-of-the-integrated-brain-actions-especially-via-the-broadcasted-neuroconnectomics
#15
REVIEW
Luigi F Agnati, Manuela Marcoli, Guido Maura, Amina Woods, Diego Guidolin
Investigations of brain complex integrative actions should consider beside neural networks, glial, extracellular molecular, and fluid channels networks. The present paper proposes that all these networks are assembled into the brain hyper-network that has as fundamental components, the tetra-partite synapses, formed by neural, glial, and extracellular molecular networks. Furthermore, peri-synaptic astrocytic processes by modulating the perviousness of extracellular fluid channels control the signals impinging on the tetra-partite synapses...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416730/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-contribute-to-the-pathogenesis-of-acid-aspiration-induced-ali-ards
#16
Haitao Li, Xiaoting Zhou, Hongyi Tan, Yongbin Hu, Lemeng Zhang, Shuai Liu, Minhui Dai, Yi Li, Qian Li, Zhi Mao, Pinhua Pan, Xiaoli Su, Chengpin Hu
Background: Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) is a manifestation of systemic inflammation in the lungs, but the factors that trigger inflammation in ALI/ARDS are unclear. We hypothesized that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contribute to the pathogenesis of acid aspiration-induced ALI/ARDS. Results: Analysis of bronchial aspirates from ARDS patients showed that NETs were significantly correlated with the degree of ARDS (r = -0...
January 5, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412047/ptx3-a-humoral-pattern-recognition-molecule-in-innate-immunity-tissue-repair-and-cancer
#17
Cecilia Garlanda, Barbara Bottazzi, Elena Magrini, Antonio Inforzato, Alberto Mantovani
Innate immunity includes a cellular and a humoral arm. PTX3 is a fluid-phase pattern recognition molecule conserved in evolution which acts as a key component of humoral innate immunity in infections of fungal, bacterial, and viral origin. PTX3 binds conserved microbial structures and self-components under conditions of inflammation and activates effector functions (complement, phagocytosis). Moreover, it has a complex regulatory role in inflammation, such as ischemia/reperfusion injury and cancer-related inflammation, as well as in extracellular matrix organization and remodeling, with profound implications in physiology and pathology...
April 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411103/ultrastructure-and-biological-function-of-matrix-vesicles-in-bone-mineralization
#18
REVIEW
Tomoka Hasegawa
Bone mineralization is initiated by matrix vesicles, small extracellular vesicles secreted by osteoblasts, inducing the nucleation and subsequent growth of calcium phosphate crystals inside. Although calcium ions (Ca2+) are abundant throughout the tissue fluid close to the matrix vesicles, the influx of phosphate ions (PO43-) into matrix vesicles is a critical process mediated by several enzymes and transporters such as ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1), ankylosis (ANK), and tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP)...
February 6, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407160/biomimetic-polyurethane-tio2-nanocomposite-scaffolds-capable-of-promoting-biomineralization-and-mesenchymal-stem-cell-proliferation
#19
Qingxia Zhu, Xiaofei Li, Zhaobo Fan, Yanyi Xu, Hong Niu, Chao Li, Yu Dang, Zheng Huang, Yun Wang, Jianjun Guan
Scaffolds with extracellular matrix-like fibrous morphology, suitable mechanical properties, biomineralization capability, and excellent cytocompatibility are desired for bone regeneration. In this work, fibrous and degradable poly(ester urethane)urea (PEUU) scaffolds reinforced with titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2) were fabricated to possess these properties. To increase the interfacial interaction between PEUU and nTiO2, poly(ester urethane) (PEU) was grafted onto the nTiO2. The scaffolds were fabricated by electrospinning and exhibited fiber diameter of <1μm...
April 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406386/low-shear-stress-upregulates-the-expression-of-fractalkine-through-the-activation-of-mitogen-activated-protein-kinases-in-endothelial-cells
#20
Amanguli Ruze, Yiwei Zhao, Hui Li, Xiayimaidan Gulireba, Jing Li, Dongyu Lei, Hongyan Dai, Jiang Wu, Xin Zhao, Yongmei Nie
: Fractalkine (FKN) is a cytokine which plays an important role in atherosclerosis and other inflammatory diseases. Studies have shown that FKN induces integrin-independent leukocyte adhesion to primary endothelial cells under physiological flow conditions. Further, increased expression of FKN has been demonstrated in atherosclerotic lesions induced by low shear stress. However, the signal transduction mechanisms involved in low shear stress-induced FKN upregulation are not well characterized. In this study, EA...
February 5, 2018: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
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