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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228589/comparison-of-echinococcus-multilocularis-and-echinococcus-granulosus-hydatid-fluid-proteome-provides-molecular-strategies-for-specialized-host-parasite-interactions
#1
Chun-Seob Ahn, Jeong-Geun Kim, Xiumin Han, Insug Kang, Yoon Kong
Alveolar and cystic echinococcoses, caused by the metacestodes of Echinococcus multilocularis and E. granulosus, are prevalent in several regions and invoke deleterious zoonotic helminthiases. Hydatid fluid (HF), which contains proteinaceous and non-proteinaceous secretions of the parasite- and host-derived components, critically affects the host-parasite interplay and disease progression. We conducted HF proteome profiling of fully mature E. multilocularis vesicle (nine months postinfection) and E. granulosus cyst (stage 2)...
November 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223145/antibody-biosensors-for-the-measurement-and-characterization-of-soluble-cd147-molecules
#2
Witida Laopajon, Nuchjira Takheaw, Saichit Khummuang, Tanyaluck Kampoun, Kantinan Cheunsirikulchai, Watchara Kasinrerk, Supansa Pata
BACKGROUND: Soluble CD147 (sCD147) is the shed form of membrane-bound CD147, which is involved in the regulation of cellular functions. The presence of sCD147 in body fluids is associated with several diseases. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to establish antibody (Ab) biosensors for the simultaneous differential detection of the general and truncated forms of sCD147. METHOD: By combining biolayer interferometry technology (BLItz) and different anti-CD147 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to different extracellular domains of the CD147 molecule, Ab-based biosensors were established to rapidly measure and characterize sCD147 isoforms...
December 10, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221141/plasma-derived-extracellular-vesicle-proteins-as-a-source-of-biomarkers-for-lung-adenocarcinoma
#3
Jody Vykoukal, Nan Sun, Clemente Aguilar-Bonavides, Hiroyuki Katayama, Ichidai Tanaka, Johannes F Fahrmann, Michela Capello, Junya Fujimoto, Mitzi Aguilar, Ignacio I Wistuba, Ayumu Taguchi, Edwin J Ostrin, Samir M Hanash
Exosomes and other extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been implicated as mediators of intercellular communication. Their release into the circulation has the potential to inform about tumor status. In-depth proteomic characterization of plasma-derived EVs has been limited by challenges in isolating EVs from protein-abundant biological fluids. We implemented a novel single-step density gradient flotation workflow for efficient and rapid isolation of highly enriched circulating EVs from plasma. Mass-spectrometry analysis of plasma EVs from subjects with lung adenocarcinoma and matched controls resulted in the identification of 640 proteins...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220815/influence-of-fermentation-liquid-from-waste-activated-sludge-on-anoxic-oxic-membrane-bioreactor-performance-nitrogen-removal-membrane-fouling-and-microbial-community
#4
Xiaomeng Han, Zhen Zhou, Xiaojie Mei, Yan Ma, Zhenfang Xie
In order to investigate effects of waste activated sludge (WAS) fermentation liquid on anoxic/oxic- membrane bioreactor (A/O-MBR), two A/O-MBRs with and without WAS fermentation liquid addition were operated in parallel. Results show that addition of WAS fermentation liquid clearly improved denitrification efficiency without deterioration of nitrification, while severe membrane fouling occurred. WAS fermentation liquid resulted in an elevated production of proteins and humic acids in bound extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) and release of organic matter with high MW fractions in soluble microbial product (SMP) and loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS)...
December 2, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220192/fluidic-microactuation-of-flexible-electrodes-for-neural-recording
#5
Flavia Vitale, Daniel Vercosa, Alexander V Rodriguez, Sushma Sri Pamulapati, Frederik Seibt, Eric Lewis, Jiaxi Stephen Yan, Krishna Badhiwala, Mohammed Adnan, Gianni Royer-Carfagni, Michael Beierlein, Caleb Kemere, Matteo Pasquali, Jacob Robinson
Soft and conductive nanomaterials like carbon nanotubes, graphene, and nanowire scaffolds have expanded the family of ultra-flexible microelectrodes that can bend and flex with the natural movement of the brain, reduce the inflammatory response and improve the stability of long-term neural recordings. However, current methods to implant these highly flexible electrodes rely on temporary stiffening agents that temporarily increase the electrode size and stiffness thus aggravating neural damage during implantation, which can lead to cell loss and glial activation that persists even after the stiffening agents are removed or dissolve...
December 8, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219730/a-comprehensive-profile-of-circulating-rnas-in-human-serum
#6
Sinan Uğur Umu, Hilde Langseth, Cecilie Bucher-Johannessen, Bastian Fromm, Andreas Keller, Eckart Meese, Marianne Lauritzen, Magnus Leithaug, Robert Lyle, Trine B Rounge
Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) molecules have fundamental roles in cells and many are also stable in body fluids as extracellular RNAs. In this study, we used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to investigate the profile of small non-coding RNA (sncRNA) in human serum. We analyzed 10 billion Illumina reads from 477 serum samples, included in the Norwegian population-based Janus Serum Bank (JSB). We found that the core serum RNA repertoire includes 258 micro RNAs (miRNA), 441 piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNA), 411 transfer RNAs (tRNA), 24 small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNA), 125 small nuclear RNAs (snRNA) and 123 miscellaneous RNAs (misc-RNA)...
December 8, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218481/concepts-for-a-therapeutic-prolongation-of-nephrogenesis-in-preterm-and-low-birth-weight-babies-must-correspond-to-structural-functional-properties-in-the-nephrogenic-zone
#7
REVIEW
Will W Minuth
Numerous investigations are dealing with anlage of the mammalian kidney and primary development of nephrons. However, only few information is available about the last steps in kidney development leading at birth to a downregulation of morphogen activity in the nephrogenic zone and to a loss of stem cell niches aligned beyond the organ capsule. Surprisingly, these natural changes in the developmental program display similarities to processes occurring in the kidneys of preterm and low-birth-weight babies. Although those babies are born at a time with a principally intact nephrogenic zone and active niches, a high proportion of them suffers on impairment of nephrogenesis resulting in oligonephropathy, formation of atypical glomeruli, and immaturity of parenchyma...
December 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217892/bowel-migration-of-dormant-chronic-ambulatory-peritoneal-dialysis-catheter-a-vexed-problem-not-avoided-by-flushing
#8
P Vincent, J Gopinathan, R Narayanan
Delayed bowel erosion by peritoneal dialysis catheter is rare with fewer than thirty cases having been reported in the literature. This complication is usually encountered when the catheter is kept dormant. Two cases have also been reported with catheters in active use. The risk factors for bowel erosion include immunosuppression, diverticulosis, and amyloidosis. An 80-year-old male with chronic kidney disease Stage 5 due to hypertensive nephrosclerosis underwent chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis catheter insertion...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217089/fully-coupled-mathematical-modeling-of-actomyosin-cytosolic-two-phase-flow-in-a-highly-deformable-moving-keratocyte-cell
#9
M R Nikmaneshi, B Firoozabadi, M S Saidi
Interaction between intracellular dynamics and extracellular matrix (ECM) generally occurred into very thin fragment of moving cell, namely lamellipodia, enables all movable cells to crawl on ECM. In fast-moving cells such as fish Keratocytes, Lamellipodia including most cell area finds a fan-like shape during migration, with a variety of aspect ratio function of fish type. In this work, our purpose is to present a novel and more complete two-dimensional continuum mathematical model of actomyosin-cytosolic two-phase flow of a self-deforming Keratocyte with circular spreaded to steady fan-like shape...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216955/combined-toxicity-of-an-environmental-remediation-residue-magnetite-fe3o4-nanoparticles-cr-vi-adduct
#10
Zhuan Li, Miao Liu, Li Ke Chen, Guang Zhu Li
OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to elucidate the combined toxicity of magnetite nanoparticles/Chromium [MNPs/Cr(VI)] adducts. METHODS: The HEK293 cell was exposed to either Cr(VI) or MNPs, or their adducts MNPs/Cr(VI). The cytotoxicity was evaluated by assessing the cell viability, apoptosis, oxidative stress induction, and cellular uptake. RESULTS: The toxicity of formed adducts is significantly reduced when compared to Cr(VI) anions. We found that the cellular uptake of MNPs/Cr(VI) adduct was rare, only few particles were endocytosed from the extracellular fluid and not accumulated in the cell nucleus...
November 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216198/hcv-kinetic-and-modeling-analyses-project-shorter-durations-to-cure-under-combined-therapy-with-daclatasvir-and-asunaprevir-in-chronic-hcv-infected-patients
#11
Laetitia Canini, Michio Imamura, Yoshiiku Kawakami, Susan L Uprichard, Scott J Cotler, Harel Dahari, Kazuaki Chayama
BACKGROUND & AIMS: High cure rates are achieved in HCV genotype-1b patients treated with daclatasvir and asunaprevir, DCV/ASV. Here we analyzed early HCV kinetics in genotype-1b infected Japanese subjects treated with DCV/ASV and retrospectively projected, using mathematical modeling, whether shorter treatment durations might be effective. METHODS: HCV RNA levels were measured frequently during DCV/ASV therapy in 95 consecutively treated patients at a single center in Japan...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215110/quercetin-inhibits-renal-cyst-growth-in-vitro-and-via-parenteral-injection-in-a-polycystic-kidney-disease-mouse-model
#12
Yangyang Zhu, Tian Teng, Hu Wang, Hao Guo, Lei Du, Baoxue Yang, Xiaoxing Yin, Ying Sun
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common monogenic disease characterized by massive enlargement of fluid-filled cysts in the kidney. There is an urgent need to develop effective ADPKD therapies. We used an in vitro Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cyst model and a murine embryonic kidney cyst model to evaluate whether quercetin inhibits cyst development. We then used a polycystic kidney disease (PKD) mouse model to further determine the in vivo effects of quercetin (100 mg per kg body weight twice per day) on PKD mice via subcutaneous injections...
December 7, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214073/assessment-of-ocriplasmin-effects-on-the-vitreoretinal-compartment-in-porcine-and-human-model-systems
#13
Bart Jonckx, Michael Porcu, Aurelie Candi, Isabelle Etienne, Philippe Barbeaux, Jean H M Feyen
Ocriplasmin (Jetrea®) is a recombinant protease used to treat vitreomacular traction. To gain insight into vitreoretinal observations reported after ocriplasmin treatment, we have developed an in vivo porcine ocriplasmin-induced posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) model in which we investigated vitreoretinal tissues by optical coherence tomography, histology, and cytokine profiling. Eight weeks postinjection, ocriplasmin yielded PVD in 82% of eyes. Subretinal fluid (85%) and vitreous hyperreflective spots (45%) were resolved by week 3...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212765/changes-in-the-fluid-volume-balance-between-intra-and-extracellular-water-in-a-sample-of-japanese-adults-aged-15-88-years-old-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Yasushi Ohashi, Nobuhiko Joki, Keisuke Yamazaki, Takeshi Kawamura, Reibin Tai, Hideyo Oguchi, Rena Yuasa, Ken Sakai
The fluid volume balance between intracellular water (ICW) and extracellular water (ECW) gradually changes with age and various medical conditions. Comprehension of these physiological changes would aid in clinical decision-making related to body fluid assessments. A total of 1,992 individuals (753 men and 1,239 women) aged ≥15 years included in this study had their body composition measurements performed at training gyms in 2014. We developed a regression formula to assess the association of age with the ratio of ECW to ICW in these subjects...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203902/amniotic-fluid-stem-cell-derived-vesicles-protect-from-vegf-induced-endothelial-damage
#15
S Sedrakyan, V Villani, S Da Sacco, N Tripuraneni, S Porta, A Achena, M Lavarreda-Pearce, A Petrosyan, H Soloyan, R E De Filippo, B Bussolati, L Perin
Injection of amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSC) delays the course of progression of renal fibrosis in animals with Alport Syndrome, enhancing kidney function and improving survival. The mechanisms responsible for these protective outcomes are still largely unknown. Here, we showed that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling within the glomeruli of Alport mice is strongly elevated early on in the disease, causing glomerular endothelial cell damage. Intraventricular injected AFSC that homed within the glomeruli showed strong modulation of the VEGF activity, particularly in glomerular endothelial cells...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203716/immune-tolerance-therapies-for-autoimmune-diseases-based-on-heat-shock-protein-t-cell-epitopes
#16
REVIEW
Willem van Eden
Experimental models of autoimmune diseases have revealed the disease protective role of heat shock proteins (HSPs). Both the administration of exogenous extracellular, mostly recombinant, HSP and the experimental co-induction of endogenous intracellular HSP in models have been shown to lead to production of disease protective regulatory T cells (Tregs). Similar to HSP taken up from extracellular bodily fluids, due to stress-related autophagy upregulated HSP also from intracellular sources is a major provider for the major histocompatibility class II (MHCII) ligandome; therefore, both extracellular and intracellular HSP can be prominent targets of Treg...
January 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203707/extracellular-cell-stress-heat-shock-proteins-immune-responses-and-disease-an-overview
#17
REVIEW
A Graham Pockley, Brian Henderson
Extracellular cell stress proteins are highly conserved phylogenetically and have been shown to act as powerful signalling agonists and receptors for selected ligands in several different settings. They also act as immunostimulatory 'danger signals' for the innate and adaptive immune systems. Other studies have shown that cell stress proteins and the induction of immune reactivity to self-cell stress proteins can attenuate disease processes. Some proteins (e.g. Hsp60, Hsp70, gp96) exhibit both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory properties, depending on the context in which they encounter responding immune cells...
January 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203547/regulated-release-of-cryptococcal-polysaccharide-drives-virulence-and-suppresses-immune-infiltration-into-the-central-nervous-system
#18
Steven T Denham, Surbhi Verma, Raymond C Reynolds, Colleen L Worne, Joshua M Daugherty, Thomas E Lane, Jessica C S Brown
Cryptococcus neoformans is a common environmental yeast and opportunistic pathogen responsible for 15% of AIDS-related deaths worldwide. Mortality primarily results from meningoencephalitis, which occurs when fungal cells disseminate to the brain from the initial pulmonary infection site. A key C. neoformans virulence trait is the polysaccharide capsule. Capsule shields C. neoformans from immune-mediated recognition and destruction. The main capsule component, glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), is found both attached to the cell surface and free in the extracellular space (as exo-GXM)...
December 4, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199178/carbonic-anhydrase-2-like-in-the-giant-clam-tridacna-squamosa-characterization-localization-response-to-light-and-possible-role-in-the-transport-of-inorganic-carbon-from-the-host-to-its-symbionts
#19
Yuen K Ip, Clarissa Z Y Koh, Kum C Hiong, Celine Y L Choo, Mel V Boo, Wai P Wong, Mei L Neo, Shit F Chew
The fluted giant clam, Tridacna squamosa, lives in symbiosis with zooxanthellae which reside extracellularly inside a tubular system. Zooxanthellae fix inorganic carbon (Ci) during insolation and donate photosynthate to the host. Carbonic anhydrases catalyze the interconversion of CO2 and HCO3-, of which carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA2) is the most ubiquitous and involved in many biological processes. This study aimed to clone a CA2 homolog (CA2-like) from the fleshy and colorful outer mantle as well as the thin and whitish inner mantle of T...
December 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198173/autophagy-inhibition-promotes-snca-alpha-synuclein-release-and-transfer-via-extracellular-vesicles-with-a-hybrid-autophagosome-exosome-like-phenotype
#20
Georgia Minakaki, Stefanie Menges, Agnes Kittel, Evangelia Emmanouilidou, Iris Schaeffner, Katalin Barkovits, Anna Bergmann, Edward Rockenstein, Anthony Adame, Franz Marxreiter, Brit Mollenhauer, Douglas Galasko, Edit Irén Buzás, Ursula Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Katrin Marcus, Wei Xiang, Dieter Chichung Lie, Kostas Vekrellis, Eliezer Masliah, Jürgen Winkler, Jochen Klucken
The autophagy-lysosome pathway (ALP) regulates intracellular homeostasis of the cytosolic protein SNCA/alpha-synuclein and is impaired in synucleinopathies, including Parkinson disease and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Emerging evidence suggests that ALP influences SNCA release, but the underlying cellular mechanisms are not well understood. Several studies identified SNCA in exosome/extracellular vesicle (EV) fractions. EVs are generated in the multivesicular body compartment and either released upon its fusion with the plasma membrane, or cleared via the ALP...
December 4, 2017: Autophagy
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