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Extracellular fluid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679446/salt-is-not-only-sodium-how-extracellular-fluid-volume-homeostasis-depends-on-chloride-recovery-by-the-kidneys
#1
EDITORIAL
Boye L Jensen
The Acta Physiologica Prize winners Grill et al.1 address a fundamental issue in renal and circulatory physiology, namely how the kidneys accomplish maintenance of extracellular fluid volume (ECV) by conservation of the freely filtered solutes Na+ and Cl-. In an elegant comprehensive investigation in mice, they show that the chloride channel ClC-K2 is necessary for ECV homeostasis. The study sheds light on how the human kidneys regain 20 moles or 0.5 kg of chloride ions per day. Maintenance of ECV is essential for effective circulating volume, constant perfusion pressure and adequate organ perfusion...
April 20, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676804/the-biphasic-effect-of-extracellular-glucose-concentration-on-carbachol-induced-fluid-secretion-from-mouse-submandibular-glands
#2
Momomi Terachi, Chikara Hirono, Michinori Kitagawa, Makoto Sugita
Cholinergic agonists evoke elevations of the cytoplasmic free-calcium concentration ([Ca2+ ]i ) to stimulate fluid secretion in salivary glands. Salivary flow rates are significantly reduced in diabetic patients. However, it remains elusive how salivary secretion is impaired in diabetes. Here, we used an ex vivo submandibular gland perfusion technique to characterize the dependency of salivary flow rates on extracellular glucose concentration and activities of glucose transporters expressed in the glands. The cholinergic agonist carbachol (CCh) induced sustained fluid secretion, the rates of which were modulated by the extracellular glucose concentration in a biphasic manner...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Oral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670015/extracellular-vesicles-as-conveyors-of-membrane-derived-bioactive-lipids-in-immune-system
#3
REVIEW
Krizia Sagini, Eva Costanzi, Carla Emiliani, Sandra Buratta, Lorena Urbanelli
Over the last 20 years, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been established as an additional way to transmit signals outside the cell. They are membrane-surrounded structures of nanometric size that can either originate from the membrane invagination of multivesicular bodies of the late endosomal compartment (exosomes) or bud from the plasma membrane (microvesicles). They contain proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids—namely miRNA, but also mRNA and lncRNA—which are derived from the parental cell, and have been retrieved in every fluid of the body...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669993/myeloperoxidase-as-an-active-disease-biomarker-recent-biochemical-and-pathological-perspectives
#4
REVIEW
Amjad A Khan, Mohammed A Alsahli, Arshad H Rahmani
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) belongs to the family of heme-containing peroxidases, produced mostly from polymorphonuclear neutrophils. The active enzyme (150 kDa) is the product of the MPO gene located on long arm of chromosome 17. The primary gene product undergoes several modifications, such as the removal of introns and signal peptides, and leads to the formation of enzymatically inactive glycosylated apoproMPO which complexes with chaperons, producing inactive proMPO by the insertion of a heme moiety. The active enzyme is a homodimer of heavy and light chain protomers...
April 18, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668342/sequencing-the-next-generation-of-glioblastomas
#5
Ivana Jovčevska
The most aggressive brain malignancy, glioblastoma, accounts for 60-70% of all gliomas and is uniformly fatal. According to the molecular signature, glioblastoma is divided into four subtypes (proneural, neural, classical, and mesenchymal), each with its own genetic background. The Cancer Genome Atlas project provides information about the most common genetic changes in glioblastoma. They involve mutations in TP53, TERT, and PTEN, and amplifications in EFGR, PDGFRA, CDK4, CDK6, MDM2, and MDM4. Recently, epigenetics was used to demonstrate the oncogenic roles of miR-124, miR-137, and miR-128...
April 18, 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668081/lipocalin-type-prostaglandin-d-synthase-is-a-novel-phytocannabinoid-binding-protein
#6
Matthew W Elmes, Anthony D Volpe, Simon d'Oelsnitz, Joseph M Sweeney, Martin Kaczocha
Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS; EC:5.3.99.2) is an enzyme with dual functional roles as a prostaglandin D2 -synthesizing enzyme and as an extracellular transporter for diverse lipophilic compounds in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Transport of hydrophobic endocannabinoids is mediated by serum albumin in the blood and intracellularly by the fatty acid binding proteins, but no analogous transport mechanism has yet been described in CSF. L-PGDS has been reported to promiscuously bind a wide variety of lipophilic ligands and is among the most abundant proteins found in the CSF...
April 18, 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666210/regulation-and-mechanisms-of-extracellular-vesicle-biogenesis-and-secretion
#7
REVIEW
Crislyn D'Souza-Schorey, Jeffrey S Schorey
EV (extracellular vesicle) biology is a rapidly expanding field. These heterogeneous membrane vesicles, which are shed from virtually all cell types, collectively represent a new dimension of intercellular communication in normal physiology and disease. They have been shown to deliver infectious and pathogenic agents to non-infected cells whereas in cancers they are thought to condition the tumor microenvironment. Their presence in body fluids and inherent capacity for systemic delivery point to their clinical promise...
April 17, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664192/cerebrospinal-fluid-markers-of-extracellular-matrix-remodeling-synaptic-plasticity-and-neuroinflammation-before-and-after-cranial-radiotherapy
#8
E Fernström, K Minta, U Andreasson, Å Sandelius, P Wasling, A Brinkmalm, K Höglund, K Blennow, J Nyman, H Zetterberg, M Kalm
BACKGROUND: Advances in the treatment of brain tumors have increased the number of long-term survivors, but at the cost of side effects following cranial radiotherapy ranging from neurocognitive deficits to outright tissue necrosis. At present, there are no tools reflecting the molecular mechanisms underlying such side effects, and thus no means to evaluate interventional effects after cranial radiotherapy. Therefore, fluid biomarkers is of great clinical interest. OBJECTIVE: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of proteins involved in inflammatory signaling, synaptic plasticity and extracellular matrix (ECM) integrity were investigated following radiotherapy to the brain...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663703/cytological-features-of-breast-peri-implant-papillary-synovial-metaplasia
#9
José A Jiménez-Heffernan, Carmen Bárcena, Patricia Muñoz-Hernández
Synovial metaplasia is a peculiar form of metaplasia seen in the inner lining of the fibrous capsule that surrounds breast implants. Since the description of breast-implant associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma it is increasingly common to receive periprosthetic breast fluid collections for pathologic analysis. We describe a case of breast-implant papillary synovial metaplasia that showed remarkable cytologic findings. A review of the medical literature revealed one previous cytologic description. The patient, A 53-year-old woman underwent surgery because of capsular contracture of textured, silicone breast implants...
April 16, 2018: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660844/moray-micro-forceps-biopsy-improves-the-diagnosis-of-specific-pancreatic-cysts
#10
M Lisa Zhang, Ronald N Arpin, William R Brugge, David G Forcione, Omer Basar, Martha B Pitman
BACKGROUND: Making a specific diagnosis of pancreatic cysts preoperatively is difficult. The new disposable Moray micro forceps biopsy (MFB) device allows tissue sampling from the pancreatic cyst wall/septum and aims to improve diagnosis. This study compares the diagnostic performance of the MFB with the current conventional analysis of pancreatic cyst fluid (PCF). METHODS: A total of 48 patients sampled with MFB were identified. Cysts were classified as mucinous on PCF based on extracellular mucin/mucinous epithelium, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels ≥192 ng/mL, or KRAS/GNAS mutation...
April 16, 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660021/mapping-of-genomic-egfrviii-deletions-in-glioblastoma-insight-into-rearrangement-mechanisms-and-biomarker-development
#11
Tomoyuki Koga, Bin Li, Javier M Figueroa, Bing Ren, Clark C Chen, Bob S Carter, Frank B Furnari
Background: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) variant III (vIII) is the most common oncogenic rearrangement in glioblastoma (GBM) generated by deletion of exons two to seven of EGFR. The proximal breakpoints occur in variable positions within the 123-kb intron one, presenting significant challenges in terms of PCR-based mapping. Molecular mechanisms underlying these deletions remain unclear. Methods: We determined the presence of EGFRvIII and its breakpoints for 29 GBM samples using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), arrayed PCR mapping, Sanger sequencing, and whole genome sequencing (WGS)...
April 12, 2018: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660019/modeling-the-diffusion-of-d-2-hydroxyglutarate-from-idh1-mutant-gliomas-in-the-central-nervous-system
#12
Andreas Linninger, Grant A Hartung, Benjamin P Liu, Snezana Mirkov, Kevin Tangen, Rimas V Lukas, Dusten Unruh, C David James, Jann N Sarkaria, Craig Horbinski
Background: 20-30% of diffusely infiltrative gliomas in adults contain a point mutation in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1mut), which increases production of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D2HG). This is so efficient that D2HG often reaches 30 mM within IDH1mut gliomas. Yet, while up to 100 µM D2HG can be detected in the circulating cerebrospinal fluid of IDH1mut glioma patients, the exposure of nonneoplastic cells within and surrounding an IDH1mut glioma to D2HG is unknown and difficult to measure directly...
April 5, 2018: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659166/strategies-to-improve-tumor-penetration-of-nanomedicines-through-nanoparticle-design
#13
REVIEW
Ya-Ru Zhang, Run Lin, Hong-Jun Li, Wei-Ling He, Jin-Zhi Du, Jun Wang
Nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as an effective means to deliver therapeutic drugs for cancer treatment, as they can preferentially accumulate at tumor site through the enhanced permeability and retention effect. Various forms of NPs including liposomes, polymeric micelles, and inorganic particles have been used for therapeutic applications. However, the therapeutic benefits of nanomedicines are suboptimal. Although many possible reasons may account for the compromised therapeutic efficacy, the inefficient tumor penetration can be a vital obstacle...
April 16, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655369/trem2-regulates-innate-immunity-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
REVIEW
Jiang-Tao Li, Ying Zhang
Recent research has shown that the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) in microglia is closely related to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The mechanism of this relationship, however, remains unclear. TREM2 is part of the TREM family of receptors, which are expressed primarily in myeloid cells, including monocytes, dendritic cells, and microglia. The TREM family members are cell surface glycoproteins with an immunoglobulin-like extracellular domain, a transmembrane region and a short cytoplasmic tail region...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649168/structure-function-relationship-of-transporters-in-the-glutamate-glutamine-cycle-of-the-central-nervous-system
#15
REVIEW
Mariko Kato Hayashi
Many kinds of transporters contribute to glutamatergic excitatory synaptic transmission. Glutamate is loaded into synaptic vesicles by vesicular glutamate transporters to be released from presynaptic terminals. After synaptic vesicle release, glutamate is taken up by neurons or astrocytes to terminate the signal and to prepare for the next signal. Glutamate transporters on the plasma membrane are responsible for transporting glutamate from extracellular fluid to cytoplasm. Glutamate taken up by astrocyte is converted to glutamine by glutamine synthetase and transported back to neurons through glutamine transporters on the plasma membranes of the astrocytes and then on neurons...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643947/comparison-of-saliva-nitric-oxide-between-chronic-kidney-disease-before-and-after-dialysis-and-with-control-group
#16
Fatemeh Rezaei, Reza Mohhamadi
Introduction: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a chronic progressive disorder and a major cause of death and disability in all countries. In the kidneys, Nitric Oxide (NO) has involved in several important cellular processes including glomerular and modular hemodynamics set-out, tubular - glomerular feedback reaction, renin releasing and extracellular fluid volume but NO can act as an inflammatory mediator and oxidative stress factor in high levels. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate salivary levels of NO in patients with chronic kidney disease on dialysis compared to the healthy subjects and evaluate the effect of dialysis on the level of NO in saliva...
2018: Open Dentistry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643515/-role-of-aquaporin-4-in-the-change-of-interstitial-fluid-drainage-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
E Liu, Y X Zhang, L L Sun, Z Teng, A B Wang, H B Han, J H Yan
OBJECTIVE: To observe the characteristics of the interstitial fluid (ISF) drainage in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) rats through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tracer gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentacetic acid (Gd-DTPA)spread in the brain extracellular space (ECS) and to discuss the role of aquaporin-4 (Aqp4) in the AD. METHODS: Wild type SD rats (300-350 g) and Aqp4 gene knock out (Aqp4-/- ) SD rats (300-350g) were divided into Sham group, AD group, Aqp4-/- -Sham group and Aqp4-/- -AD group...
April 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643013/circulating-micrornas-predict-survival-of-patients-with-tumors-of-glial-origin
#18
Drusco A, P Fadda, Nigita G, Fassan M, Bottoni A, Gardiman Mp, D Sacchi, Calore F, Carosi M, Antenucci A, B Casini, Kelani H, Pescarmona E, Di Leva G, Zanesi N, Berger Ms, Croce Cm
The World Health Organization has recently introduced molecular prognostic-diagnostic biomarkers in the classification of Central Nervous System (CNS) tumors. In order to characterize subclasses of tumors that cannot find a precise location in the current classification, and, or cannot be tested because of scant material, it is important to find new molecular biomarkers in tissue and, or biological fluid samples. In this study, we identified serum microRNAs that could serve as biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with tumors of glial origin...
March 21, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628997/cancer-metabolism-new-insights-into-classic-characteristics
#19
REVIEW
Yasumasa Kato, Toyonobu Maeda, Atsuko Suzuki, Yuh Baba
Initial studies of cancer metabolism in the early 1920s found that cancer cells were phenotypically characterized by aerobic glycolysis, in that these cells favor glucose uptake and lactate production, even in the presence of oxygen. This property, called the Warburg effect, is considered a hallmark of cancer. The mechanism by which these cells acquire aerobic glycolysis has been uncovered. Acidic extracellular fluid, secreted by cancer cells, induces a malignant phenotype, including invasion and metastasis...
February 2018: Japanese Dental Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628792/the-emerging-role-of-plasma-exosomes-in-diagnosis-prognosis-and-therapies-of-patients-with-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Theresa L Whiteside
Exosomes, small (30-150nm) extracellular vesicles of endocytic origin, are present in all body fluids of cancer patients. Tumor-derived exosomes, TEX, emerge as potentially promising non-invasive biomarkers of tumor progression and of immune cell dysfunction in cancer. Exosomes isolated from plasma by size exclusion chromatography can be fractionated into TEX and non-TEX by immune capture on beads. Profiling of molecular and genetic contents of TEX shows that levels if immunosuppressive proteins, such as PD-L1, carried by TEX associate with disease progression...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
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