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Extracellular fluid

Yong Cui, Huiming Li, Sihui Wu, Runzhen Zhao, Deyi Du, Yan Ding, Hongguang Nie, Hong-Long Ji
Unsaturated oxidative formaldehyde is a noxious aldehyde in cigarette smoke that causes edematous acute lung injury. However, the mechanistic effects of formaldehyde on lung fluid transport are still poorly understood. We examined how formaldehyde regulates human epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) in H441 and expressed in Xenopus oocytes and exposed mice in vivo. Our results showed that formaldehyde reduced mouse transalveolar fluid clearance in vivo. Formaldehyde caused a dose-dependent inhibition of amiloride-sensitive short-circuit Na(+) currents in H441 monolayers and of αβγ-ENaC channel activity in oocytes...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Antonella Caivano, Francesco La Rocca, Vittorio Simeon, Marco Girasole, Simone Dinarelli, Ilaria Laurenzana, Angelo De Stradis, Luciana De Luca, Stefania Trino, Antonio Traficante, Giovanni D'Arena, Giovanna Mansueto, Oreste Villani, Giuseppe Pietrantuono, Luca Laurenti, Luigi Del Vecchio, Pellegrino Musto
PURPOSE: The use of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from body fluids as "liquid biopsies" is emerging as a promising approach for the diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic monitoring of cancer patients. MicroRNA-155 (miR155), a non-coding transcript of the B-cell integration cluster (BIC) gene, has been reported to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of several types of hematologic malignancies (HMs) in which high miR155 levels have been found. At yet, however, the EV miR155 level and its putative clinical relevance in sera of HM patients have not been reported...
October 19, 2016: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
David Reigada, Rosa María Navarro-Ruiz, Marcos Javier Caballero-López, Ángela Del Águila, Teresa Muñoz-Galdeano, Rodrigo M Maza, Manuel Nieto-Díaz
Reducing cell death during the secondary injury is a major priority in the development of a cure for traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). One of the earliest processes that follow SCI is the excitotoxicity resulting from the massive release of excitotoxicity mediators, including ATP, which induce an excessive and/or prolonged activation of their receptors and a deregulation of the calcium homeostasis. Diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) is an endogenous purinergic agonist, present in both extracellular and intracellular fluids, with promising cytoprotective effects in different diseases including neurodegenerative processes...
October 19, 2016: Purinergic Signalling
Yongkang Yue, Fangjun Huo, Songyi Lee, Caixia Yin, Juyoung Yoon
Intracellular pH values are some of the most important factors that govern biological processes and the acid-base homeostasis in cells, body fluids and organs sustains the normal operations of the body. Subcellular organelles including the acidic lysosomes and the alkalescent mitochondria undergo various processes such as intracellular digestion, ATP production and apoptosis. Due to their precise imaging capabilities, fluorescent probes have attracted great attention for the illustration of pH modulated processes...
October 19, 2016: Analyst
Bernd Schmidt, Grit Rehbein, Michael Fleischhacker
Extracellular miRNAs cannot only be isolated from different body fluids like plasma and serum, but also from bronchial lavage samples (BL) obtained by bronchoscopy. Alterations in the expression of microRNAs might be useful for a discrimination of lung cancer patients from patients with a benign lung disease. We profiled extracellular microRNAs from three BL pools of lung cancer patients and three BL pools from a control group (patients with a benign lung disease) with TaqMan MicroRNA Array cards. For the confirmation of these results, we analyzed a panel of eight miRNAs in a qRT-PCR of the BL of 30 different lung cancer and non-cancerous patients...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jun Qiu, Fang-Fang Li
Mechanical properties of a single cell and its mechanical response under stimulation play an important role in regulating interactions between cell and extracellular matrix and affecting mechanotransduction. Osteocytes exhibit solid-like viscoelastic behavior in response to the interstitial fluid shear resulting from tissue matrix deformation. This study intends to quantitatively describe the mechanical behavior of osteocytes combining in vitro experiment and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) finite element (FE) model...
October 17, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Hidehito Kimura, Masaaki Taniguchi, Tatsuya Mori, Kohkichi Hosoda, Eiji Kohmura
We present a rare case of a patient suffering temporary aphasia after an extracranial-to-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery, which was shown as a transient hypointense lesion on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value, evidence of postoperative hyperperfusion. Postoperative hyperperfusion syndrome after EC-IC bypass causing temporary neurological deterioration has been reported rarely as isosignal intensity on DWI with hyperintense lesion on T2-weighted image and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) image as an expression of vasogenic edema...
October 14, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Monika Łęgowska, Yveline Hamon, Anna Wojtysiak, Renata Grzywa, Marcin Sieńczyk, Timo Burster, Brice Korkmaz, Adam Lesner
Cathepsin C is a wildly expressed cysteine exopeptidase that is mostly recognized for the activation of the granule-associated proinflammatory serine proteases in neutrophils, cytotoxic T lymphocytes and mast cells. It has been shown that the enzyme can be secreted extracellularly; however, its occurrence in human bodily fluids/physiological samples has not been thoroughly studied. In the course of this study, the first fluorescence resonance energy transfer peptides for the measurement of the activity of human cathepsin C were designed and synthesized...
October 13, 2016: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Jin Lin, Yan Wang, Ye-Qing Zou, Xin Chen, Bo Huang, Jing Liu, Yan-Mei Xu, Jing Li, Jing Zhang, Wei-Ming Yang, Qing-Hua Min, Fan Sun, Shu-Qi Li, Qiu-Fang Gao, Xiao-Zhong Wang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to play important regulatory roles in various physiological and pathological processes. MiRNAs also exhibit high stability and are present at high concentrations in human bodily fluids. Consequently, miRNAs may represent attractive and novel diagnostic biomarkers for certain clinical conditions. Recently, the capacity for extracellular vesicles, including microvesicles and exosomes, to carry miRNAs that participate in cell-to-cell communication has been described. In the present study, the miRNA expression patterns for three kinds of pleural effusions that were obtained from patients with pneumonia (group A), pulmonary tuberculosis (group B), and lung cancer (group C) were detected with high-throughput sequencing...
October 14, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Angela Sánchez-Guerrero, Gemma Mur-Bonet, Marian Vidal-Jorge, Darío Gándara-Sabatini, Ivette Chocrón, Esteban Cordero, Maria-Antonia Poca, Katharine Mullen, Juan Sahuquillo
Cerebral microdialysis is widely used in neurocritical care units. The goal of this study was to establish the reference interval for the interstitial fluid concentrations of energy metabolites and glycerol by using the extrapolation to zero-flow methodology in anesthetized patients and by constant perfusion at 0.3 µL/min in awake patients. A CMA-71 probe was implanted during surgery in normal white matter of patients with posterior fossa or supratentorial lesions, and the perfusion flow rate was randomized to 0...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Richard A Hawkins, Juan R Viña
A facilitative transport system exists on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that has been tacitly assumed to be a path for glutamate entry to the brain. However, glutamate is a non-essential amino acid whose brain content is much greater than plasma, and studies in vivo show that glutamate does not enter the brain in appreciable quantities except in those small regions with fenestrated capillaries (circumventricular organs). The situation became understandable when luminal (blood facing) and abluminal (brain facing) membranes were isolated and studied separately...
October 8, 2016: Biology
Katarzyna A Rejniak
Solid tumor dissemination from the primary site to the sites of metastasis involves tumor cell transport through the blood or lymph circulation systems. Once the tumor cells enter the bloodstream, they encounter a new hostile microenvironment. The cells must withstand hemodynamic forces and overcome the effects of fluid shear. The cells are exposed to immunological signaling insults from leukocytes, to collisions with erythrocytes, and to interactions with platelets or macrophages. Finally, the cells need to attach to the blood vessel walls and extravasate to the surrounding stroma to form tumor metastases...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Meriam Nefla, Dirk Holzinger, Francis Berenbaum, Claire Jacques
Alarmins (also known as danger signals) are endogenous molecules that are released to the extracellular milieu after infection or tissue damage. Extracellular alarmins interact with specific receptors expressed by cells that are engaged in host defence to stimulate signalling pathways that result in initiation of innate and adaptive immune responses, triggering inflammation or tissue repair. Alarmins are considered to be markers of destructive processes that occur in degenerative joint diseases (primarily osteoarthritis (OA)) and chronic inflammatory joint diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and spondylarthropathy)...
October 13, 2016: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
Heedoo Lee, Duo Zhang, Ziwen Zhu, Charles S Dela Cruz, Yang Jin
Intercellular communications between lung epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages play an essential role in host defense against acute lung injury. Hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress is an established model to mimic human lung injury. We show that after hyperoxia-associated oxidative stress, a large amount of extracellular vesicles (EVs) are detectable in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and culture medium of lung epithelial cells. Microvesicles (MVs), but not exosomes (Exos) or apoptotic bodies (Abs), are the main type of EVs found in the early stages after hyperoxia...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Agata A Filip, Anna Grenda, Sylwia Popek, Dorota Koczkodaj, Małgorzata Michalak-Wojnowska, Michał Budzyński, Ewa Wąsik-Szczepanek, Szymon Zmorzyński, Agnieszka Karczmarczyk, Krzysztof Giannopoulos
Expression of microRNAs is altered in cancer. Circulating miRNA level assessed in body fluids commonly reflects their expression in tumor cells. In leukemias, however, both leukemic and nonleukemic cells compose circulating miRNA expression profile of peripheral blood. The latter contribution to extracellular miRNA pool may result in specific microenvironmental signaling, which promotes proliferation and survival. In our study, we used qT-PCR to assay peripheral blood serum of 22 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients for the expression of 84 miRNAs associated with activation and differentiation of B and T lymphocytes...
October 12, 2016: Annals of Hematology
Juliana E Bajic, Georgina L Eden, Lorrinne S Lampton, Ker Y Cheah, Kerry A Lymn, Jinxin V Pei, Andrea J Yool, Gordon S Howarth
AIM: To investigate the effects of orally gavaged aqueous rhubarb extract (RE) on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced intestinal mucositis in rats. METHODS: Female Dark Agouti rats (n = 8/group) were gavaged daily (1 mL) with water, high-dose RE (HDR; 200 mg/kg) or low-dose RE (LDR; 20mg/kg) for eight days. Intestinal mucositis was induced (day 5) with 5-FU (150 mg/kg) via intraperitoneal injection. Intestinal tissue samples were collected for myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and histological examination...
October 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Ann Cathrine Kroksveen, Astrid Guldbrandsen, Marc Vaudel, Ragnhild Reehorst Lereim, Harald Barsnes, Kjell-Morten Myhr, Øyvind Torkildsen, Frode S Berven
In the current study, we conducted a quantitative in-depth proteome and deglycoproteome analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and neurological controls using mass spectrometry and pathway analysis. More than 2000 proteins and 1700 deglycopeptides were quantified, with 484 proteins and 180 deglycopeptides significantly changed between pools of RRMS and pools of controls. Approximately 300 of the significantly changed proteins were assigned to various biological processes, including inflammation, extracellular matrix organization, cell adhesion, immune response and neuron development...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Deepak K Kaushik, Heather Y F Yong, Jennifer N Hahn, Claudia Silva, Steven Casha, R John Hurlbert, Francois H Jacques, Robert Lisak, Omar Khan, Carolina Ionete, Catherine Larochelle, Alex Prat, Amit Bar-Or, V Wee Yong
Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN, CD147) is an inducer of matrix metalloproteinases and has roles in leukocyte activation and migration. We reported previously that in MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, cell surface-associated EMMPRIN was significantly elevated in leukocytes around inflammatory perivascular cuffs in the CNS. In this study we report that activated T-cells can secrete soluble form of EMMPRIN (sEMMPRIN) upon activation. As sEMMPRIN is also present in biological fluids, we determined whether sEMMPRIN is altered in the CSF and sera of MS subjects...
2016: PloS One
E R Garvican, M Salavati, R K W Smith, J Dudhia
AIM: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of normal synovial fluid (SF) on exposed endogenous tendon-derived cells (TDC) and engrafted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) within the tendon extracellular matrix. METHODS: Explants from equine superficial digital flexor (extra-synovial) and deep digital flexor tendons (DDFT) from the compressed, intra-synovial and the tensile, extra-synovial regions were cultured in allogeneic or autologous SF-media. Human hamstring explants were cultured in allogeneic SF...
October 11, 2016: Connective Tissue Research
Takahiro Masuda, Takuya Murakami, Yusuke Igarashi, Kyochika Okabe, Takahisa Kobayashi, Shin-Ichi Takeda, Takako Saito, Chuji Sekiguchi, Yasuharu Miyazawa, Tetsu Akimoto, Osamu Saito, Shigeaki Muto, Daisuke Nagata
Objective Tolvaptan, an oral selective V2-receptor antagonist, is a water diuretic that ameliorates fluid retention with a lower risk of a worsening renal function than conventional loop diuretics. Although loop diuretics predominantly decrease extracellular water (ECW) compared with intracellular water (ICW), the effect of tolvaptan on fluid distribution remains unclear. We therefore examined how tolvaptan changes ICW and ECW in accordance with the renal function. Methods Six advanced chronic kidney disease patients (stage 4 or 5) with fluid retention were enrolled in this study...
2016: Internal Medicine
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