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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813474/binge-like-sucrose-consumption-reduces-the-dendritic-length-and-complexity-of-principal-neurons-in-the-adolescent-rat-basolateral-amygdala
#1
Masroor Shariff, Paul Klenowski, Michael Morgan, Omkar Patkar, Erica Mu, Mark Bellingham, Arnauld Belmer, Selena E Bartlett
A compelling body of evidence suggests that the worldwide obesity epidemic is underpinned by excessive sugar consumption, typified by the modern western diet. Furthermore, evidence is beginning to emerge of maladaptive changes in the mesolimbic reward pathway of the brain in relation to excess sugar consumption that highlights the importance of examining this neural circuitry in an attempt to understand and subsequently mitigate the associated morbidities with obesity. While the basolateral amygdala (BLA) has been shown to mediate the reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse, it has also been shown to play an important role in affective and motivated behaviours and has been shown to undergo maladaptive changes in response to drugs of abuse and stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813453/metabolomics-reveals-that-vine-tea-ampelopsis-grossedentata-prevents-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolism-disorder-by-improving-glucose-homeostasis-in-rats
#2
Wenting Wan, Baoping Jiang, Le Sun, Lijia Xu, Peigen Xiao
BACKGROUND: Vine tea (VT), derived from Ampelopsis grossedentata (Hand.-Mazz.) W.T. Wang, is an alternative tea that has been consumed widely in south China for hundreds of years. It has been shown that drinking VT on a daily basis improves hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia. However, little is known about the preventive functions of VT for metabolic dysregulation and the potential pathological mechanisms involved. This paper elucidates the preventive effects of VT on the dysregulation of lipid and glucose metabolism using rats maintained on a high-fat-diet (HFD) in an attempt to explain the potential mechanisms involved...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811672/an-evaluation-of-the-in-vivo-safety-of-nonporous-silica-nanoparticles-ocular-topical-administration-versus-oral-administration
#3
Martha Kim, Joo-Hee Park, Hyejoong Jeong, Jinkee Hong, Woo Sung Choi, Byung-Han Lee, Choul Yong Park
Nonporous silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) have potential as promising carriers for ophthalmic drugs. However, the in vivo safety of ocular topical SiNPs remains unclear. This study investigated the in vivo safety of oral and ocular topical applications of 100 nm-sized SiNPs in Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were divided into the following four groups: low-dose oral administration (total 100 mg/kg of SiNPs mixed with food for one week), high-dose oral administration (total 1000 mg/kg of SiNPs mixed with food for one week), ocular topical administration (10 mg/ml concentration, one drop, applied to the right eyes four times a day for one month), or a negative control (no SiNP treatment)...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811359/exercise-training-prevents-skeletal-muscle-plasma-membrane-cholesterol-accumulation-cortical-actin-filament-loss-and-insulin-resistance-in-c57bl-6j-mice-fed-a-western-style-high-fat-diet
#4
Ashley G Ambery, Lixuan Tackett, Brent A Penque, Joseph T Brozinick, Jeffrey S Elmendorf
Insulin action and glucose disposal are enhanced by exercise, yet the mechanisms involved remain imperfectly understood. While the causes of skeletal muscle insulin resistance also remain poorly understood, new evidence suggest excess plasma membrane (PM) cholesterol may contribute by damaging the cortical filamentous actin (F-actin) structure essential for GLUT4 glucose transporter redistribution to the PM upon insulin stimulation. Here, we investigated whether PM cholesterol toxicity was mitigated by exercise...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806650/floating-rice-culture-system-for-nutrient-remediation-and-feed-production-in-a-eutrophic-lake
#5
Ankita Srivastava, Seong-Jun Chun, So-Ra Ko, Junhwan Kim, Chi-Yong Ahn, Hee-Mock Oh
The increased inputs of nutrients have been demonstrated to be a major contributing factor to the eutrophication of lakes and reservoirs which can lead to the production of harmful algal/cyanobacterial blooms and deleteriously affect the aesthetics of water-bodies. Floating plant-culture systems have been widely used for the ecological remediation of eutrophic water in a cost-effective manner. We investigated the applicability of Korean japonica rice variety 'Nampyeong' in a floating-culture system in a eutrophic lake for nutrient uptake and biomass production...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805907/evaluation-of-essential-oils-and-prebiotics-for-newborn-dairy-calves
#6
K A Froehlich, K W Abdelsalam, C Chase, J Koppien-Fox, D P Casper
A blend of essential oils (EO; carvacrol, caryophyllene, -cymene, cineole, terpinene, and thymol) and prebiotics (arabinogalactans; Stay Strong; Ralco, Inc., Marshall, MN) was designed to promote immunity and stimulate appetite to diminish health challenges and stresses experienced by newborn calves. It was hypothesized that calves supplemented with the medium dose (2.5 g/feeding) of the commercial EO would demonstrate the optimal response. The study objective was to determine the optimal feeding rate of EO when added to a milk replacer (MR) compared with feeding a control or a yeast cell wall additive (YCW)...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800687/the-profound-effect-of-harmful-cyanobacterial-blooms-from-food-web-and-management-perspectives
#7
Sigitas Šulčius, Danguolė Montvydienė, Hanna Mazur-Marzec, Jūratė Kasperovičienė, Rokas Rulevičius, Živilė Cibulskaitė
Sustainable and effective water management plans must have a reliable risk assessment strategies for harmful cyanobacterial blooms (HABs) that would enable timely decisions to be made, thus avoiding the trespassing of ecological thresholds, leading to the collapse of ecosystem structure and function. Such strategies are usually based on cyanobacterial biomass and/or on the monitoring of known toxins, which may, however, in many cases, under- or over-represent the actual toxicity of the HAB. Therefore, in this study, by the application of growth-inhibition assays using different bacteria, algae, zooplankton and fish species, we assessed the toxicological potential of two cyanobacterial blooms that differed in total cyanobacterial biomass, species composition and cyanopeptide profiles...
August 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792428/influences-of-macrohemodynamic-conditions-on-systemic-microhemodynamic-changes-in-burns
#8
Jochen-Frederick Hernekamp, Florian Neubrech, Tomke Cordts, Volker J Schmidt, Ulrich Kneser, Thomas Kremer
PURPOSE: The clinical course after major burns is characterized by microcirculatory changes and consecutive capillary leakage. However, current clinical monitoring does not properly assess microcirculation, whereas macrohemodynamic changes are continuously evaluated. Here, we assess if macrohemodynamic and microhemodynamic parameters after burn trauma are correlated in a rat model. METHODS: Burn plasma harvested from donor rats 4 hours after thermal injury (30% total body surface area, 100 °C water, 12 seconds) was administered intravenously to healthy animals during 2 hours of intravital microscopy (burn group [BG])...
November 2016: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782075/extracellular-enzymatic-activity-of-two-hydrolases-in-wastewater-treatment-for-biological-nutrient-removal
#9
Jorge Mario Berrio-Restrepo, Julio César Saldarriaga, Mauricio Andrés Correa, Néstor Jaime Aguirre
Due to the complex nature of the wastewater (both domestic and non-domestic) composition, biological processes are widely used to remove nutrients, such as carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorous (P), which cause instability and hence contribute to the damage of water bodies. Systems with different configurations have been developed (including anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic conditions) for the joint removal of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus. The goal of this research is to evaluate the extracellular activity of β-glucosidase and phosphatase enzymes in a University of Cape Town (UCT) system fed with two synthetic wastewaters of different molecular complexity...
August 7, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780813/-delayed-effect-of-liver-injury-and-metabolism-of-dimethylformamide-after-high-exposures-in-rats
#10
Z J Wu, M Y Guan, M Zheng, M Zhang, W J Zhao, L J Shao, Y C Zhai, Y L Zhu, J Cheng
Objective: To investigate the delayed effect of liver injury and metabolism of dimethylformamide (DMF) after high exposures in rats. Methods: A total of 12 rats were randomly divided into four groups and 3 rats were in each group. Rats in 1d DMF+2 d delayed group were dosed for 1 day and rested for 2 days, and sacrificed at the 4th day. Rats in 3 d DMF group were dosed for 3 days and sacrificed at the 4th day. Rats in 3 d DMF+3 d delayed group were dosed for 3 days and rested for 3 days, and sacrificed at the 7th day...
June 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780797/-influence-of-sodium-nitrite-exposure-on-sulfhemoglobin-and-hydroxyl-radicals-in-mice
#11
Z Q Zhang, L Lin, C Z Zhang
Objective: To investigate the influence of sodium nitrite exposure on sulfhemoglobin and hydroxyl radicals in mice. Methods: A total of 60 mice were randomly divided into low-, middle-, and high-dose groups (the concentrations of sodium nitrite were 0.055 mg/ml, 0.110 mg/ml, and 0.220 mg/ml, respectively) and control group (treated with distilled water) , with 15 mice in each group (male/female ratio=1: 1) . A free-drink model was applied and the duration of exposure was 2 weeks. The body weight of all mice was recorded before exposure and at weeks 1 and 2 of exposure...
May 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780361/untreated-urban-waste-contaminates-indian-river-sediments-with-resistance-genes-to-last-resort-antibiotics
#12
Nachiket P Marathe, Chandan Pal, Swapnil S Gaikwad, Viktor Jonsson, Erik Kristiansson, D G Joakim Larsson
Efficient sewage treatment is critical for limiting environmental transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In many low and middle income countries, however, large proportions of sewage are still released untreated into receiving water bodies. In-depth knowledge of how such discharges of untreated urban waste influences the environmental resistome is largely lacking. Here, we highlight the impact of uncontrolled discharge of partially treated and/or untreated wastewater on the structure of bacterial communities and resistome of sediments collected from Mutha river flowing through Pune city in India...
July 25, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780210/heavy-metals-lead-cadmium-methylmercury-arsenic-in-commonly-imported-rice-grains-oryza-sativa-sold-in-saudi-arabia-and-their-potential-health-risk
#13
Iman Al-Saleh, Mai Abduljabbar
The levels of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, methylmercury and arsenic) were determined in 37 brands of imported rice commonly consumed in Saudi Arabia after soaking and rinsing with water, and their potential health risks to residents were estimated by three indices: hazard quotient (HQ), hazard index (HI) and cancer risk (CR). The mean levels of lead, cadmium, methylmercury and total arsenic in soaked (rinsed) rice grains were 0.034 (0.057), 0.015 (0.027), 0.004 (0.007) and 0.202 (0.183) μg/g dry weight, respectively...
July 24, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776929/consistency-of-a-mobile-body-composition-trailer-a-novel-portable-laboratory-assessment
#14
Gena R Gerstner, Eric D Ryan, Craig R Kleinberg, Andrew J Tweedell, Abbie E Smith-Ryan
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to (i) assess the test-retest reliability and minimum difference (MD) values of air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) and the Siri 3-compartment (3-C) model in a mobile trailer, and (ii) identify any environmental fluctuations in the trailer. METHODS: percent body fat (%BF) was examined in 22 firefighters on two separate days in a climate-controlled mobile trailer using ADP. Total body water was examined in a subset of participants (n = 12) using bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) to determine %BF using Siri's 3-C model...
September 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774950/energy-expenditure-responses-to-exercise-training-in-older-women
#15
Xuewen Wang, Kimberly P Bowyer, Ryan R Porter, Charity B Breneman, Sabra S Custer
Previous studies have shown inconsistent findings regarding how structured exercise affects energy expenditure (EE). This study was designed to determine the changes in EE and physical activity following exercise training in older women. Nonobese (body mass index = 25.8 ± 3.4 kg·m(-2)) women (60-75 years, n = 72) completed a 4-month supervised aerobic exercise training of lower- or higher-dose (33.6 and 58.8 kJ·kg(-1) body weight weekly, respectively) at 50-55% of heart rate reserve. Total daily EE (TDEE) by the doubly labeled water method, resting metabolic rate (RMR) via indirect calorimetry, and physical activity by accelerometer were determined before and at the end of exercise training...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774754/altitudinal-variation-in-metabolic-parameters-of-a-small-afrotropical-bird
#16
Lindy J Thompson, Colleen T Downs
Of the numerous factors affecting avian metabolic rate, altitude is one of the least studied. We used mass-flow respirometry to measure resting metabolic rate (RMR), evaporative water loss (EWL) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in two populations of a small (10-12g) Afrotropical bird, the Cape White-eye (Zosterops virens), in summer and in winter. In total, 51 freshly wild-caught adult Cape White-eyes were measured overnight. Altitude was included as a source of variation in the best approximating models for body mass, whole-animal RMR, RER, whole-animal standard EWL and whole-animal basal EWL...
July 31, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771840/influence-of-l-carnitine-and-l-arginine-on-protein-synthesis-and-maturation-of-the-semitendinosus-muscle-of-lightweight-piglets
#17
J G Madsen, E Seoni, M Kreuzer, P Silacci, G Bee
Lightweight (LW) piglets from large litters display impaired growth performance compared with heavier littermates. This study investigated the growth performance and muscle development of early-weaned LW piglets (birthweight <1.2 kg) from large litters (17.3 ± 3.0 total born per litter), fed ad libitum a milk replacer supplemented with either l-carnitine (CAR) or l-arginine (ARG) from day 7 to day 28 of age. In total, 36 female and entire male Swiss Large White piglets, weaned on day 7 of age, were artificially reared in pairs in rescue decks...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771063/reliability-of-urinary-dehydration-markers-among-elite-youth-boxers
#18
Damir Zubac, Drazen Cular, Uros Marusic
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to determine the reliability and diagnostic accuracy of non-invasive urinary dehydration markers, in field-based settings on a day-to-day basis in elite adolescent amateur boxers. METHODS: Sixty-nine urine samples were collected on a day-to-day basis, from twenty-three athletes (17.3±1.9 y), during their weigh-stable phase and analyzed by field and laboratory measures of hydration status. Urine osmolality (UOSM), urine specific gravity (USG), total protein content (TPC) and body-mass (BM) stability were evaluated to determine fluid balance and hydration status...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766143/pickling-of-chanterelle-cantharellus-cibarius-mushrooms-highly-reduce-cadmium-contamination
#19
Małgorzata Drewnowska, Anetta Hanć, Danuta Barałkiewicz, Jerzy Falandysz
Mushrooms are considered as potential bio-remediation agents in soil polluted with heavy metals, while many species which efficiently accumulate them in flesh are edible. Question is if there is any possible culinary use of edible mushrooms with high heavy metal contents? This study aimed to investigate and discuss a fate of cadmium (Cd) in common household-treated fruitbodies of common chanterelle Cantharellus cibarius. The samples of Cantharellus cibarius Fr. were collected from five spatially distanced sites in Poland in 2011-2012...
August 1, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763700/effect-of-dietary-tartary-buckwheat-extract-supplementation-on-growth-performance-meat-quality-and-antioxidant-activity-in-ewe-lambs
#20
Junxing Zhao, Kan Li, Rui Su, Wenzhong Liu, Youshe Ren, Chunxiang Zhang, Min Du, Jianxing Zhang
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary Tartary buckwheat extract (TBE) supplementation on animal growth performance, meat quality and antioxidative activity in the Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle of lambs. The results showed that dietary TBE increased body weight, average daily gain, carcass weight, dry matter intake, and digestive organ weight. Dietary TBE had no effect on the pH, color, shear force or intramuscular fat of Longissimus muscle examined, whereas the cooking loss was decreased...
July 25, 2017: Meat Science
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