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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542568/nesfatin-1-like-peptide-is-a-novel-metabolic-factor-that-suppresses-feeding-and-regulates-whole-body-energy-homeostasis-in-male-wistar-rats
#1
Kavishankar Gawli, Naresh Ramesh, Suraj Unniappan
Nucleobindin-1 has high sequence similarity to nucleobindin-2, which encodes the anorectic and metabolic peptide, nesfatin-1. We previously reported a nesfatin-1-like peptide (NLP), anorectic in fish and insulinotropic in mice islet beta-like cells. The main objective of this research was to determine whether NLP is a metabolic regulator in male Wistar rats. A single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of NLP (100 μg/kg BW) decreased food intake and increased ambulatory movement, without causing any change in total activity or energy expenditure when compared to saline-treated rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541574/accuracy-of-size-specific-dose-estimate-calculation-from-center-slice-in-computed-tomography
#2
Johannes Boos, Patric Kröpil, Oliver Th Bethge, Joel Aissa, Christoph Schleich, Lino Morris Sawicki, Niklas Heinzler, Gerald Antoch, Christoph Thomas
To evaluate the accuracy of size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) calculation from center slice with water-equivalent diameter (Dw) and effective diameter (Deff). A total of 1812 CT exams (1583 adult and 229 pediatric) were included in this retrospective study. Dw and Deff were automatically calculated for all slices of each scan. SSDEs were calculated with two methods: (1) from the center slice; and (2) from all slices of the volume, which was regarded as the reference standard. Impact of patient weight, height and body mass index (BMI) on SSDE accuracy was assessed...
May 25, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540204/advanced-wasting-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patients
#3
Zhi Xu, Glen H Murata, Robert H Glew, Yijuan Sun, Darlene Vigil, Karen S Servilla, Antonios H Tzamaloukas
AIM: To identify patients with end-stage renal disease treated by peritoneal dialysis (PD) who had zero body fat (BF) as determined by analysis of body composition using anthropometric formulas estimating body water (V) and to compare nutritional parameters between these patients and PD patients whose BF was above zero. METHODS: Body weight (W) consists of fat-free mass (FFM) and BF. Anthropometric formulas for calculating V allow the calculation of FFM as V/0.73, where 0...
May 6, 2017: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537906/killing-effects-of-huaier-granule-combined-with-dc-cik-on-nude-mice-transplanted-with-colon-carcinoma-cell-line
#4
Wen-Wen Sun, Jin-Xia Dou, Lin Zhang, Li-Kui Qiao, Na Shen, Qiang Zhao, Wen-Yuan Gao
This study aims to compare the efficacy of different treatments for nude mice transplanted with HT-29 colon carcinoma cell line. BalB/C nude mice were transplanted with HT-29 colon carcinoma cell line and randomly divided into four groups, with 5 mice in each group: blank control group, DC-CIK group, Huaier Granule group, and Huaier Granule group combined with DC-CIK group (combined treatment group). For DC-CIK group and combined treatment group, 1×106 DC-CIK cells were injected via the tail vein 4 days after transplantation...
May 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537652/efficacy-and-safety-of-very-low-calorie-ketogenic-diet-a-double-blind-randomized-crossover-study
#5
C Colica, G Merra, A Gasbarrini, A De Lorenzo, G Cioccoloni, P Gualtieri, M A Perrone, S Bernardini, V Bernardo, L Di Renzo, M Marchetti
OBJECTIVE: To verify safety respect to weight loss, cardiometabolic diseases of short-term Very low-calorie ketogenic diets (VLCKDs, <800 kcal day-1). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Randomized cross-over trial with placebo. The study had no. 2 dietary treatment (DT), conducted in two arms: (1) VLCKD1 in which 50% of protein intake is replaced with synthetic amino acids; (2) VLCKD2 with placebo. The VLCKDs (<800 kcal day-1) were different in term of protein content and quality each arm lasted three weeks (wks)...
May 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536439/pesticides-in-fine-airborne-particles-from-a-green-analysis-method-to-atmospheric-characterization-and-risk-assessment
#6
Madson M Nascimento, Gisele O da Rocha, Jailson B de Andrade
The intensive use of pesticides such as herbicides, insecticides, fungicides and acaricides has been lead to ubiquitous contamination, being present not only in soils, water bodies and/or crops, but also in the atmosphere. Considering the massive amount of pesticides employed globally, together to their persistence, this may be an important concern regarding air quality and human health worldwide. In the present study we developed a green sensitive sample preparation method for determination of nine organophosphates, two pyrethroids, one carbamate, and one strobirulin in PM2...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535311/quantification-of-estradiol-uptake-in-zebrafish-embryos-and-larvae
#7
J Paige Souder, Daniel A Gorelick
Zebrafish are a powerful model system to assess the molecular and cellular effects of exposure to toxic chemicals during embryonic development. To study the effects of environmental endocrine disruptors, embryos and larvae are commonly exposed to supraphysiologic concentrations of these compounds in the water, but their bioavailability in zebrafish is largely unknown. One hypothesis is that supraphysiologic concentrations of estrogens in the water are required to achieve physiologic levels in vivo, however this has not been directly tested...
May 23, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535093/the-effects-of-crushed-ice-ingestion-prior-to-steady-state-exercise-in-the-heat
#8
Matthew Zimmermann, Grant Landers, Karen E Wallman, Jacinta Saldaris
This study examined the physiological effects of crushed ice ingestion before steady state exercise in the heat. Ten healthy males with age (23 ± 3 y), height (176.9 ± 8.7 cm), body-mass (73.5 ± 8.0 kg), VO2peak (48.5 ± 3.6 mL∙kg∙min(-1)) participated in the study. Participants completed 60 min of cycling at 55% of their VO2peak preceded by 30 min of precooling whereby 7 g∙kg(-1) of thermoneutral water (CON) or crushed ice (ICE) was ingested. The reduction in Tc at the conclusion of precooling was greater in ICE (-0...
June 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531792/an-evaluation-of-the-sustainability-of-onsite-wastewater-treatment-systems-for-nutrient-management
#9
Nancy Diaz-Elsayed, Xiaofan Xu, Maraida Balaguer-Barbosa, Qiong Zhang
The impairment of water bodies from nutrient pollution is a challenging environmental problem that could lead to high eutrophic conditions, fish kills, and human illness, while negatively impacting industries that rely on thriving water bodies. Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs) are a major source of nutrients, however no prior studies have conducted a holistic sustainability assessment of OWTSs that considers their ability to manage nutrients at the household-level in the United States. The aim of this study is therefore to evaluate the environmental and economic impacts of conventional and advanced OWTSs with respect to their ability to remove total nitrogen (TN)...
May 5, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530202/effect-of-age-and-blood-pressure-on-determination-of-normal-fluid-status-in-a-general-population-using-whole-body-and-calf-bioimpedance-techniques
#10
Fansan Zhu, Samer R Abbas, Peter Kotanko, Nathan W Levin
Normal fluid status (dry weight) can be identified by hydration markers established in the healthy population. The general population average could be influenced by age with its accompanying physiological changes and/or illness. The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the effect of age and systolic blood pressure (SBP) on these markers; (2) to compare mean values of hydration markers as assessed by different bioimpedance techniques. Subjects from the general population (n  =  212, males 105, 57...
June 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529716/epidemiology-of-adulthood-drowning-deaths-in-bangladesh-findings-from-a-nationwide-health-and-injury-survey
#11
Mohammad Jahangir Hossain, Animesh Biswas, Saidur Rahman Mashreky, Fazlur Rahman, Aminur Rahman
Background: Annual global death due to drowning accounts for 372,000 lives, 90% of which occur in low and middle income countries. Life in Bangladesh exposes adults and children to may water bodies for daily household needs, and as a result drowning is common. In Bangladesh, due to lack of systemic data collection, drowning among adults is unknown; most research is focused on childhood drowning. The aim of the present study was to explore the epidemiology of adulthood drowning deaths in Bangladesh. Methodology: A nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted from January to December in 2003 among 171,366 rural and urban households, with a sample of 819,429 individuals to determine the epidemiology of adulthood drowning in Bangladesh...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528874/animal-health-and-greenhouse-gas-intensity-the-paradox-of-periparturient-parasitism
#12
J G M Houdijk, B J Tolkamp, J A Rooke, M R Hutchings
Here we provide the first known direct measurements of pathogen challenge impacts on greenhouse gas (GHG) production, yield and intensity. Twin-rearing ewes were ad libitum fed pelleted lucerne from day -32 to 36 (day 0 is parturition), and repeatedly infected with 10,000 Teladorsagia circumcincta infective larvae (n=16), or sham-dosed with water (n=16). A third group of 16 ewes were fed at 80% of uninfected ewes' feed intake during lactation. Methane emissions were measured in respiration chambers (day 30 to -36) whilst total tract apparent nutrient digestibility around day 28 informed calculated manure methane and nitrous oxide emissions estimates...
May 18, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527691/food-and-water-intake-body-temperature-and-metabolic-consequences-of-interleukin-1%C3%AE-microinjection-into-the-cingulate-cortex-of-the-rat
#13
B Csetényi, E Hormay, I Szabó, G Takács, B Nagy, K László, Z Karádi
In order to elucidate whether cytokine mechanisms of the cingulate cortex (cctx) are important in the central regulation of homeostasis, in the present study, feeding-metabolic effects of direct bilateral microinjection of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) into the cctx of the rat have been investigated. Short- (2h), medium (12h) and long-term (24h) food and water intakes and body temperature were measured after the intracerebral administration of this primary cytokine or vehicle solution, with or without paracetamol pretreatment...
May 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527141/rice-agriculture-impacts-catchment-hydrographic-patterns-and-nitrogen-export-characteristics-in-subtropical-central-china-a-paired-catchment-study
#14
Yi Wang, Xinliang Liu, Hua Wang, Yong Li, Yuyuan Li, Feng Liu, Runlin Xiao, Jianlin Shen, Jinshui Wu
Increased nitrogen (N) concentrations in water bodies have highlighted issues regarding nutrient pollution in agricultural catchments. In this study, the ammonium-N (NH4(+)-N), nitrate-N (NO3(-)-N), and total N (TN) concentrations were observed in the stream water and groundwater of two contrasting catchments (named Tuojia and Jianshan) in subtropical central China from 2010 to 2014, to determine the rice agriculture impacts on the hydrographic patterns, and N export characteristics of the catchments. The results suggested that greater amounts of stream flow (523...
May 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527047/dietary-ascorbic-acid-reduced-micronucleus-and-nuclear-abnormalities-in-clarias-gariepinus-burchell-1822-exposed-to-hospital-effluent
#15
Chibuisi G Alimba, Raphael D Ajiboye, Olakunle S Fagbenro
Hospital effluents contain myriad of mutagens and genotoxins capable of increasing DNA damage in aquatic biota. African mudfish, Clarias gariepinus, are exposed to genotoxins when cultured in swamps and derelict water bodies often contaminated by effluents. Moreover, its DNA is susceptible to xenobiotic-induced lesions since it lacks L-gulonolactone oxidase and hence cannot synthesize L-ascorbic acid. This study investigated 96-h acute toxicity and protective effects of dietary ascorbic acid (AA) against micronucleus (MN) and abnormal nuclear (NAs) formation in C...
May 19, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524039/-prevention-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-gubiao-pixie-prescription-for-nosocomial-infection-in-elderly-population
#16
Wanxiang Zhang, Bochao Wang, Zhijun Li
OBJECTIVE: To observe the curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Gubiao Pixie prescription on the prevention of nosocomial infection in elderly patients with susceptible factors. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted. The elderly patients aged over 70 years admitted to the Department of Integrated TCM and Western Medicine of Tianjin First Center Hospital from March 2015 to March 2016 were enrolled. The patients were divided into experiment group and control group by random number table...
May 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514904/effects-of-viola-mandshurica-on-atherosclerosis-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-apoe-formula-see-text-via-the-ampk-pathway
#17
Sun Haeng Park, Yoon-Young Sung, Kyoung Jin Nho, Dong Sun Kim, Ho Kyoung Kim
Atherosclerosis was previously thought to be a disease that primarily involves lipid accumulation in the arterial wall. In this report, we investigated the effect of Viola mandshurica W. Becker (V. mandshurica) water extract on atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE[Formula: see text]) mice. The administration of V. mandshurica to high-fat diet-fed mice reduced body weight, liver weight, and serum levels of lipids (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides), glucose, alanine transaminase, and aspartate transaminase...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514618/aerobic-or-resistance-exercise-or-both-in-dieting-obese-older-adults
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Dennis T Villareal, Lina Aguirre, A Burke Gurney, Debra L Waters, David R Sinacore, Elizabeth Colombo, Reina Armamento-Villareal, Clifford Qualls
BACKGROUND: Obesity causes frailty in older adults; however, weight loss might accelerate age-related loss of muscle and bone mass and resultant sarcopenia and osteopenia. METHODS: In this clinical trial involving 160 obese older adults, we evaluated the effectiveness of several exercise modes in reversing frailty and preventing reduction in muscle and bone mass induced by weight loss. Participants were randomly assigned to a weight-management program plus one of three exercise programs - aerobic training, resistance training, or combined aerobic and resistance training - or to a control group (no weight-management or exercise program)...
May 18, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514233/energy-balance-over-one-athletic-season
#19
Analiza M Silva, Catarina N Matias, Diana A Santos, Diana Thomas, Anja Bosy-Westphal, Manfred J Müller, Steven B Heymsfield, Luís B Sardinha
INTRODUCTION: Magnitude and variation in energy balance (EB) components over an athletic season are largely unknown. PURPOSE: We investigated the longitudinal changes in EB over one season and explored the association between EB variation and the change in the main fat-free mass (FFM) components in highly trained athletes. METHODS: Eighty athletes (54 males; handball, volleyball, basketball, triathlete, and swimming) were evaluated from the beginning of the season to the main competition stage...
March 22, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513264/body-composition-analysis-by-using-bioelectrical-impedance-in-a-young-healthy-chinese-population-methodological-considerations
#20
Wei Chen, Hua Jiang, Jiong-Xian Yang, Hao Yang, Jing-Min Liu, Xiu-Yuan Zhen, Lian-Jun Feng, Jian-Chun Yu
OBJECTIVE: To develop a new bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) model for analyzing body composition by using isotope dilution, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) as the reference methods in young healthy Chinese populations. METHODS: Thirty healthy participants were enrolled. Their body composition was analyzed using BIA and 3 reference methods. We established a model that uniformed data from 3 references methods (isotope, MRI, and DEXA) into 1 formula...
June 2017: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
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