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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434746/supplementing-an-immunomodulatory-feed-ingredient-to-modulate-thermoregulation-physiologic-and-production-responses-in-lactating-dairy-cows-under-heat-stress-conditions
#1
T Leiva, R F Cooke, A P Brandão, K M Schubach, L F D Batista, M F Miranda, E A Colombo, R O Rodrigues, J R G Junior, R L A Cerri, J L M Vasconcelos
This study compared vaginal temperature, physiologic, and productive parameters in lactating dairy cows supplemented or not with Omnigen-AF (Phibro Animal Health, Teaneck, NJ) during the summer months in a tropical environment. Thirty-two lactating, primiparous (n = 16) and multiparous (n = 16) pregnant Holstein × Gir cows were ranked by parity, days in milk, body weight, and body condition score (BCS), and assigned to receive (SUPP; n = 16) or not (CON; n = 16) Omnigen-AF (Phibro Animal Health, Teaneck, NJ) at 56 g/cow daily (as-fed basis)...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434207/maternal-rates-of-lipolysis-and-glucose-production-in-late-pregnancy-are-independently-related-to-fetal-weight
#2
Barbro Diderholm, Kathryn Beardsall, Peter Murgatroyd, Christoph Lees, Jan Gustafsson, David Dunger
OBJECTIVE: Associations between maternal glucose levels and increased fetal growth are well established and independent relationships with maternal weight, weight gain and insulin resistance are also observed. The relative roles of lipolysis and glucose production in the determination of these observations remain unclear. DESIGN: We examined, through detailed physiological studies, the relationship between maternal late gestational energy substrate production (glucose and glycerol), maternal weight and weight gain, and estimated fetal size in the third trimester...
April 23, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432747/whole-body-adipose-tissue-and-lean-muscle-volumes-and-their-distribution-across-gender-and-age-mr-derived-normative-values-in-a-normal-weight-swiss-population
#3
Erika J Ulbrich, Daniel Nanz, Olof Dahlqvist Leinhard, Magda Marcon, Michael A Fischer
PURPOSE: To determine age- and gender-dependent whole-body adipose tissue and muscle volumes in healthy Swiss volunteers in Dixon MRI in comparison with anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance (BIA) measurements. METHODS: Fat-water-separated whole-body 3 Tesla MRI of 80 healthy volunteers (ages 20 to 62 years) with a body mass index (BMI) of 17.5 to 26.2 kg/m(2) (10 men, 10 women per decade). Age and gender-dependent volumes of total adipose tissue (TAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), total abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT) and total abdominal adipose tissue (TAAT), and the total lean muscle tissue (TLMT) normalized for body height were determined by semi-automatic segmentation, and correlated with anthropometric and BIA measurements as well as lifestyle parameters...
April 22, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432007/caloric-compensation-in-preschool-children-relationships-with-body-mass-and-differences-by-food-category
#4
S Carnell, L Benson, E L Gibson, L A Mais, S Warkentin
Maintaining a healthy weight may involve compensating for previously consumed calories at subsequent meals. To test whether heavier children demonstrated poorer caloric compensation across a range of conditions, and to explore whether compensation failure was the result of inadequate adjustment of overall intake or specific over-consumption of highly palatable, high energy-density 'junk' foods, we administered two compensation tests to a sample of 4-5 y olds. For Test A, preloads varied only in carbohydrate content and were organoleptically indistinguishable (200 ml orange-flavored beverage [0 kcal vs...
April 18, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431895/hemolymph-proteins-of-anopheles-gambiae-larvae-infected-by-escherichia-coli
#5
Xuesong He, Xiaolong Cao, Yan He, Krishna Bhattarai, Janet Rogers, Steve Hartson, Haobo Jiang
Anopheles gambiae is a major vector of human malaria and its immune system in part determines the fate of ingested parasites. Proteins, hemocytes and fat body in hemolymph are critical components of this system, mediating both humoral and cellular defenses. Here we assessed differences in the hemolymph proteomes of water- and E. coli-pricked mosquito larvae by a gel-LC-MS approach. Among the 1756 proteins identified, 603 contained a signal peptide but accounted for two-third of the total protein amount on the quantitative basis...
April 18, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428134/use-of-physiological-biomarkers-in-diagnosis-along-with-field-trials-of-different-trypanisidal-drugs-in-camels-of-cholistan-desert
#6
Aneela Zameer Durrani, Zubair Bashir, Khalid Mehmood, Muhammad Avais, Haroon Akbar, Waqas Ahmad, Muhammad Azeem
The point prevalence of trypanosomiasis with different physiological biomarkers along with evaluation of the most responsive trypanosidal drug against trypanosomiasis under field conditions was studied. For this purpose a total of 300 free range camels were selected at different grazing and watering point in Cholistan desert. The study population of camels included 150 clinically suspected camels for trypanosomiasis and 150 healthy camels with normal temperature, pulse and respiration. For therapeutic trials 36 positively diagnosed animals were randomly divided into three experimental groups for therapeutic trials...
April 17, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427843/relative-importance-of-different-exposure-routes-of-heavy-metals-for-humans-living-near-a-municipal-solid-waste-incinerator
#7
Tong Li, Yi Wan, Yujie Ben, Senrong Fan, Jianying Hu
The potential health effects of toxic chemicals (e.g. heavy metals) emitted by municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) are of great concern to local residents, however there have been few studies on the contributions of different exposure pathways and their subsequent effects on the body burden of residents living near MSWIs. In this study, multiple exposure routes of heavy metals including Pb, Cr, Cd and Mn were assessed by investigating the metals in foods (such as vegetables, crops, meats and fruits etc...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422530/physiological-changes-following-competition-in-male-and-female-physique-athletes-a-pilot-study
#8
Eric T Trexler, Katie R Hirsch, Bill I Campbell, Abbie E Smith-Ryan
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate changes in body composition, metabolic rate, and hormones during post-competition recovery. Data were collected from natural physique athletes (7 male/8 female) within one week before (T1) competition, within one week after (T2), and 4-6 weeks after (T3) competition. Measures included body composition (fat mass [FM] and lean mass [LM] from ultrasongraphy), resting metabolic rate (RMR; indirect calorimetry), and salivary leptin, testosterone, cortisol, ghrelin, and insulin...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421004/neurosensory-and-cognitive-modifications-in-europe-s-toughest-randoraid-competition-the-transpyr%C3%A3-n%C3%A3-a-extreme-study
#9
Alessandro Tonacci, Simona Mrakic-Sposta, Kristian Ujka, Francesco Sansone, Alice Ferrisi, Guido Giardini, Raffaele Conte, Lorenza Pratali
Introduction: Given the wide proliferation of ultra-long endurance races, it is important to understand the physiological response of the athletes to improve their safety. We evaluated the cognitive and neurosensory effects on ultra-endurance athletes during the Transpyrénéa (866 Km, 65,000 m positive slope), held on the French Pyrenees. Materials and Methods: 40 athletes were enrolled (age 43.8 ± 8.8 years; 36 males). Olfactory and cognitive tests were performed before the race (T0, n = 40), at 166 kms (T1, n = 28), at 418 kms (T2, n = 20), and after the race (T3, 866 kms, n = 13)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419828/hypoglycemic-and-hypolipidemic-effects-of-a-polysaccharide-from-flower-buds-of-lonicera-japonica-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#10
Dongying Wang, Xiangmei Zhao, Yulan Liu
Hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia are classic features for diabetes mellitus (DM). In this study, one fraction of the crude polysaccharides extracted from Lonicera japonica flower buds (LJP) were investigated for its hypolipidaemic and hypoglycaemic activities by means of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Interestingly, after orally administrated with 800mg/kg body weight (B.W.) LJP for 42 days, the food and water intake and the levels of sugar and insulin in blood for the diabetic rats were drastically decreased, while the contents of liver and skeletal muscle glycogen and the concentrations of hepatic pyruvate kinase and hexokinase were obviously increased (p<0...
April 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417327/influence-of-land-use-and-land-cover-on-the-spatial-variability-of-dissolved-organic-matter-in-multiple-aquatic-environments
#11
Shatrughan Singh, Padmanava Dash, Saurav Silwal, Gary Feng, Ardeshir Adeli, Robert J Moorhead
Water quality of lakes, estuaries, and coastal areas serves as an indicator of the overall health of aquatic ecosystems as well as the health of the terrestrial ecosystem that drains to the water body. Land use and land cover plays not only a significant role in controlling the quantity of the exported dissolved organic matter (DOM) but also influences the quality of DOM via various biogeochemical and biodegradation processes. We examined the characteristics and spatial distribution of DOM in five major lakes, in an estuary, and in the coastal waters of the Mississippi, USA, and investigated the influence of the land use and land cover of their watersheds on the DOM composition...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417309/effects-of-nano-zinc-on-biochemical-parameters-in-cadmium-exposed-rats
#12
Marzie Hejazy, Mohammad Kazem Koohi
Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic environmental and occupational pollutant with reported toxic effects on the kidneys, liver, lungs, bones, and the immunity system. Based on its physicochemical similarity to cadmium, zinc (Zn) shows protective effects against cadmium toxicity and cadmium accumulation in the body. Nano-zinc and nano-zinc oxide (ZnO), recently used in foods and pharmaceutical products, can release a great amount of Zn(2+) in their environment. This research was carried out to investigate the more potent properties of the metal zinc among sub-acute cadmium intoxicated rats...
April 17, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411512/evaluating-biochemical-response-of-filamentous-algae-integrated-with-different-water-bodies
#13
Abuzer Çelekli, Emine Kapı, Çiğdem Soysal, Hamdullah Arslanargun, Hüseyin Bozkurt
The present study prompted the second attempts to evaluate biochemical responses of filamentous algae under different physico-chemical variables in various water bodies in Turkey. These variables were investigated by use of multivariate approach in the years of 2013 (May and November) and 2014 (May and October). Studied ecoregions had the different geographic position, climate, land-use, and anthropogenic activities, could strongly affect physico-chemical variables of water bodies, which caused to change or regulate in algal biomass composition due to the different response of filamentous species...
April 12, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410328/manipulation-of-muscle-creatine-and-glycogen-changes-dual-x-ray-absorptiometry-estimates-of-body-composition
#14
Julia L Bone, Megan L Ross, Kristyen A Tomcik, Nikki A Jeacocke, Will G Hopkins, Louise M Burke
Standardizing a dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) protocol is thought to provide a reliable measurement of body composition. PURPOSE: We investigated the effects of manipulating muscle glycogen and creatine content independently and additively on DXA estimates of lean mass. METHOD: Eighteen well-trained male cyclists undertook a parallel group application of creatine loading (n = 9) (20 g·d for 5 d loading; 3 g·d maintenance) or placebo (n = 9) with crossover application of glycogen loading (12 v 6 g·kg BM per day for 48 h) as part of a larger study involving a glycogen-depleting exercise protocol...
May 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407637/pneumatic-compression-but-not-exercise-can-avoid-intradialytic-hypotension-a-randomized-trial
#15
Valeria R C Álvares, Camila D Ramos, Benedito J Pereira, Ana Lucia Pinto, Rosa M A Moysés, Bruno Gualano, Rosilene M Elias
BACKGROUND: Conventional hemodialysis (HD) is associated with dialysis-induced hypotension (DIH) and ineffective phosphate removal. As the main source of extracellular fluid removed during HD are the legs, we sought to reduce DIH and increase phosphate removal by using cycling and pneumatic compression, which would potentially provide higher venous return, preserving central blood flow and also offering more phosphate to the dialyzer. METHODS: We evaluated 21 patients in a randomized crossover fashion in which each patient underwent 3 different HD: control; cycling exercise during the first 60 min; and pneumatic compression during the first 60 min...
April 14, 2017: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401294/drinking-and-water-permeability-in-the-pacific-hagfish-eptatretus-stoutii
#16
Chris N Glover, Chris M Wood, Greg G Goss
Hagfish are osmoconformers, maintaining an internal osmolality that matches their seawater habitats. Hagfish would, therefore, appear to have no physiological need to drink, but previous studies are equivocal regarding whether drinking in hagfish occurs. The current study addressed this knowledge gap, by examining drinking and water permeability in the Pacific hagfish, Eptatretus stoutii. One-third of analysed hagfish were shown to accumulate radiolabelled drinking rate markers (tritiated inulin and polyethylene glycol-4000) in their gut tissues; however, this was attributed to the presence of markers in the blood perfusing the digestive tract, following absorption through paracellular pathways at the gill...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400722/sex-differences-in-the-physiological-and-behavioral-effects-of-chronic-oral-methylphenidate-treatment-in-rats
#17
Lisa S Robison, Michalis Michaelos, Jason Gandhi, Dennis Fricke, Erick Miao, Chiu-Yim Lam, Anthony Mauceri, Melissa Vitale, Junho Lee, Soyeh Paeng, David E Komatsu, Michael Hadjiargyrou, Panayotis K Thanos
Methylphenidate (MP) is a psychostimulant prescribed for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Previously, we developed a dual bottle 8-h-limited-access-drinking-paradigm for oral MP treatment of rats that mimics the pharmacokinetic profile of treated patients. This study assessed sex differences in response to this treatment. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to one of three treatment groups at 4 weeks of age (n = 12/group): Control (water), low dose (LD) MP, and high dose (HD) MP. Rats drank 4 mg/kg MP (LD) or 30 mg/kg MP (HD) during the first hour, and 10 mg/kg (LD) or 60 mg/kg MP (HD) for the remaining 7 h each day...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399499/occurrence-of-personal-care-products-as-emerging-chemicals-of-concern-in-water-resources-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Diana Montes-Grajales, Mary Fennix-Agudelo, Wendy Miranda-Castro
Personal care products (PCPs) are a diverse group of common household substances used for health, beauty and cleaning purposes. These include disinfectants, fragrances, insect repellents, preservatives and UV filters, among others. Some of them are considered chemicals of emerging concern due to their presence and negative impact on aquatic ecosystems, specially related to endocrine disruption and reproductive disorders. The entry of those chemicals to water bodies occurs mainly through the sewage effluents from wastewater treatment plants due to their incomplete or inefficient removal...
April 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399209/spatial-distribution-of-phlebotomus-argentipes-diptera-psychodidae-in-eastern-india-a-case-study-evaluating-multispatial-resolution-remotely-sensed-environmental-evidence-and-microclimatic-data
#19
Rakesh Mandal, Pradeep Das, Vijay Kumar, Shreekant Kesari
Remote sensing, a powerful tool for analyzing landscape factors, is being used to explore the spatial ecology of vectors of several diseases. This study aims to explore the role of buffer size in identification and quantification of geo-environmental factors from multispatial resolution satellite data and its application along with microclimatic data to kala-azar vector abundance modeling.Sand fly abundance and microclimatic data were collected from 210 sample sites during the premonsoon and postmonsoon season of 2014 from Muzaffarpur district of Bihar (India)...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399142/oral-cavity-hydrodynamics-and-drag-production-in-balaenid-whale-suspension-feeding
#20
Jean Potvin, Alexander J Werth
Balaenid whales feed on large aggregates of small and slow-moving prey (predominantly copepods) through a filtration process enabled by baleen. These whales exhibit continuous filtration, namely, with the mouth kept partially opened and the baleen exposed to oncoming prey-laden waters while fluking. The process is an example of crossflow filtration (CFF) in which most of the particulates (prey) are separated from the substrate (water) without ever coming into contact with the filtering surface (baleen). This paper discusses the simulation of baleen filtration hydrodynamics based on a type of hydraulic circuit modeling commonly used in microfluidics, but adapted to the much higher Reynolds number flows typical of whale hydrodynamics...
2017: PloS One
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