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Total body water

Elie Fiogbé, Rafaela Ferreira, Márcio Antônio Gonçalves Sindorf, Silvia Aparecida Tavares, Keiti Passoni de Souza, Marcelo de Castro Cesar, Charles Ricardo Lopes, Marlene Aparecida Moreno
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It is important to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of water-based training programs in order to prescribe it as an alternative in cardiac rehabilitation for patients who have coronary artery disease (CAD). In these patients, autonomic dysfunction is an important physiological change strongly associated with adverse outcomes, morbidity, and mortality. Given that the beneficial effects of physical training in CAD patients have been traditionally evidenced with programs involving land-based aerobic exercises, this study aims to evaluate the effects of water aerobic exercise training (WAET) on the autonomic modulation of heart rate (HR) and body composition, in the rehabilitation of CAD patients...
March 14, 2018: Physiotherapy Research International: the Journal for Researchers and Clinicians in Physical Therapy
Mahmood Yousefi, Mehdi Yaseri, Ramin Nabizadeh, Elham Hooshmand, Mohsen Jalilzadeh, Amir Hossein Mahvi, Ali Akbar Mohammadi
Hypertension is becoming a global epidemic for both rural and urban populations; it is a major public health challenge in Iran. Fluoride can be a risk factor for hypertension. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted in two study areas to assess the relation of fluoride with blood pressure prevalence, BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) among different age groups in both sexes. The mean value of fluoride concentration in the drinking water from the four study villages varied from 0.68 to 10...
March 14, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Mohamed Ghanem, Mohamed Zeineldin, Attia Eissa, Eman El Ebissy, Rasha Mohammed, Yassein Abdelraof
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of varying degrees of water salinity on the ultrasonographical and histopathological appearance of the liver and kidneys in Barki sheep. Thirty Barki sheep (initial weight, 29.48 ± 0.81 kg) were allocated into three groups (n=10 per group) based on the type of drinking water for 9 months: the tap water (TW) group (350 ppm total dissolved solids [TDS]); the moderate saline water (MSW) group (4557 ppm TDS); and the high saline water (HSW) group (8934 ppm TDS)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Trung Bui, Thanh-Son Dao, Truong-Giang Vo, Miquel Lürling
Warming climate is predicted to promote cyanobacterial blooms but the toxicity of cyanobacteria under global warming is less well studied. We tested the hypothesis that raising temperature may lead to increased growth rates but to decreased microcystin (MC) production in tropical Microcystis strains. To this end, six Microcystis strains were isolated from different water bodies in Southern Vietnam. They were grown in triplicate at 27 °C (low), 31 °C (medium), 35 °C (high) and 37 °C (extreme). Chlorophyll-a-, particle- and MC concentrations as well as dry-weights were determined...
March 14, 2018: Toxins
Robin De Roover, Wouter Crijns, Kenneth Poels, Ronald Peeters, Cédric Draulans, Karin Haustermans, Tom Depuydt
PURPOSE: Liquid fiducial markers have shown to be a promising alternative to solid gold markers in terms of imaging artifact reduction, patient comfort and compatibility with different imaging modalities. This study aims to investigate the performance of the novel BioXmark® liquid marker for state-of-the-art multi-modal imaging used in prostate cancer (PCa) radiotherapy, encompassing kV CT/CBCT, multi-parametric MRI and kV X-ray imaging. In addition, automatic detection of the liquid markers in X-ray imaging for prostate motion monitoring during treatment was investigated...
March 14, 2018: Medical Physics
M I Gladyshev
For the first time, the quantity of protectors of cardiovascular deceases-omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3, DHA), obtained through fish (Eurasian perch) catch in water bodies of different trophic status was determined. A formula was drawn to calculate the quantity of obtained EPA + DHA (kg km-2 year-1 ) depending on the concentration of total phosphorus in water. It is found that the maximum quantity of EPA + DHA can be obtained by humans from fish caught in mesotrophic water bodies...
January 2018: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
Mohd Firdaus Mohd Radi, Jamal Hisham Hashim, Mohd Hasni Jaafar, Rozita Hod, Norfazilah Ahmad, Azmawati Binti Mohammed Nawi, Gul Muhammad Baloch, Rohaida Ismail, Nur Izzah Farakhin Ayub
Severe floods increase the risk of leptospirosis outbreaks in endemic areas. This study determines the spatial-temporal distribution of leptospirosis in relation to environmental factors after a major flooding event in Kelantan, Malaysia. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving incident leptospirosis cases, from the 3 months before, during, and three months after flood, in reference to the severe 2014 Kelantan flooding event. Geographical information system was used to determine the spatial distribution while climatic factors that influenced the cases were also analyzed...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Robin S Sleith, John D Wehr, Kenneth G Karol
Forecasting changes in the distributions of macrophytes is essential to understanding how aquatic ecosystems will respond to climate and environmental changes. Previous work in aquatic ecosystems has used climate data at large scales and chemistry data at small scales; the consequence of using these different data types has not been evaluated. This study combines a survey of macrophyte diversity and water chemistry measurements at a large regional scale to demonstrate the feasibility and necessity of including ecological measurements, in addition to climate data, in species distribution models of aquatic macrophytes...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Xiaopeng Guo, Lu Gao, Xiaodong Shi, Hailong Li, Qiang Wang, Zihao Wang, Wei Chen, Bing Xing
Objective: To investigate the preoperative body composition, metabolic characteristics, and postoperative changes in patients with active acromegaly and analyze the effects of gender and age. Methods: We included 36 patients with untreated acromegaly and 37 patients with nonfunctional pituitary adenomas. Adipose tissue (AT), the visceral fat index (VFI), sclerotin, protein, skeletal muscle, total body water (TBW), intracellular water (ICW), and extracellular water (ECW) were measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
Gabriella Di Lena, Irene Casini, Roberto Caproni, Elena Orban
This study investigated mercury contamination levels in eight commercially valuable Crustacean species caught off the Central Adriatic and Tyrrhenian coasts of Italy. Total mercury levels were measured by Thermal Decomposition-Amalgamation-Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Results showed a high variability among species with values ranging between 0.070 and 1.24 (mg kg-1 wet weight). The lowest mercury levels were detected in caramote prawn (Penaeus kerathurus), warty crab (Eriphia verrucosa) and European spider crab (Maja squinado), decapods living in shallow waters...
March 12, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
Kenji Kuzuhara, Kanako Katai, Tatsuya Hojo, Yoshihiko Fujisawa, Misaka Kimura, Yasuyoshi Yanagida, Yosuke Yamada, Junta Iguchi
Well-controlled seasonal distribution of training intensity appears to be an important variable for endurance athletes' success as competitors and/or for avoidance of overtraining. The aim of this study was to examine the interrelationships of training distribution, body composition, energy intake/expenditure, and rowing ergometer performance throughout the 2012-2013 season. In the present study of 15 collegiate male rowers, most of whom started rowing during their time at the university, we divided the 2012-2013 season (total 37 weeks) into 3 phases (off-season, December to mid-March, 16 weeks; pre-season, late March to April, 5 weeks; and in-season, May to August, 16 weeks) and analyzed the transition of 2000-m rowing ergometer time, training intensity/volume, body composition (body weight and body fat) and energy intake/expenditure in each phase...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Fei Zhong, Wei Liu, Mengdan Lv, Zifa Deng, Juan Wu, Hongjiu Ji, Shuiping Cheng
Eutrophication often leads to the periodic proliferation of harmful cyanobacterial blooms (HCBs), which threaten the sustainability of freshwater ecosystems and lead to serious environmental, health and economic damage. Hence, it is vitally important to take effective measures to manage HCBs and associated problems. In this study, vertical flow constructed wetlands (CWs) were operated under different hydraulic loading rates (HLRs) to treat a hyper-eutrophic water body with HCBs. Six sampling ports (representing different layers) were evenly distributed along the water flow direction to study the purification processes of CWs...
March 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Kittima Lewchalermvong, Nuchanart Rangkadilok, Sumontha Nookabkaew, Tawit Suriyo, Jutamaad Satayavivad
Despite its nutritional values, rice also contains arsenic. There has been increasing concern about health implications associated with exposure to arsenic through rice consumption. The present study evaluated arsenic accumulation and its speciation in selected organs of Wistar rats after 28-day repeated oral administrations of polished or unpolished rice and their control arsenic compounds (sodium arsenite or dimethylarsinic acid). Only the treatment of sodium arsenite (2 µg/kg body weight), significantly increased total arsenic concentrations in blood when compared to the distilled water control group...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Hironori Nagasaka, Ken-Ichi Hirano, Tohru Yorifuji, Haruki Komatsu, Tomonozumi Takatani, Ichiro Morioka, Satoshi Hirayama, Takashi Miida
OBJECTIVE: CD36 deficiency is characterized by limited cellular long chain fatty acid uptake in the skeletal and cardiac muscles and often causes energy crisis in these muscles. However, suitable treatment for CD36 deficiency remains to be established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and metabolic effects of medium chain triacylglycerols (MCTs) in two CD36-deficient preschool children who often developed fasting hypoglycemia and exercise-induced myalgia. METHODS: Fasting blood glucose, total ketone bodies, and free fatty acids were examined and compared for usual supper diets and for diets with replacement of one component with 2 g/kg of 9% MCT-containing milk (MCT milk)...
November 29, 2017: Nutrition
Miwa Suzuki, Kaho Banno, Toshiki Usui, Noriko Funasaka, Takao Segawa, Tetsuo Kirihata, Haruka Kamisako, Keiichi Ueda, Arimune Munakata
In general, thyroid hormones (THs) stimulate cellular metabolism by inducing ATP utilization that collaterally leads to thermogenesis. However, in cetaceans, TH functions and the contribution of THs to cold adaptation are not fully understood. To investigate the role of THs in metabolism of cetaceans, seasonal changes in circulating levels in thyroxine (T4 ) were investigated in the common bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus that were monitored under two different conditions for two years, with routine measurements of body temperature (BT), water temperature (WT) and air temperature (AT)...
March 7, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Angela M Cadavid Restrepo, Yu Rong Yang, Donald P McManus, Darren J Gray, Tamsin S Barnes, Gail M Williams, Ricardo J Soares Magalhães, Archie C A Clements
BACKGROUND: Human echinococcoses are parasitic helminth infections that constitute a serious public health concern in several regions across the world. Cystic (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) in China represent a high proportion of the total global burden of these infections. This study was conducted to predict the spatial distribution of human seropositivity for Echinococcus species in Xiji County, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), with the aim of identifying communities where targeted prevention and control efforts are required...
March 9, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Agnieszka Dmitruk, Jan Czeczelewski, Ewa Czeczelewska, Jolanta Golach, Urszula Parnicka
Background: Menopause, also referred to as climacterium, is a period of multiple changes in the structure and functions of a woman organism. Objective: Determination of differences in body composition and fatty tissue distribution in women from groups discriminated based on their menstrual status. Material and Methods: The survey covered 312 women aged 38-75 years. Menstrual status of the surveyed women was established according to WHO guidelines based on answers to a questionnaire, and three groups were discriminated: women in the premenopausal period (group 1), in the perimenopausal period (group 2), and in the postmenopausal period (group 3)...
2018: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
Haihan Zhang, Yue Wang, Shengnan Chen, Zhenfang Zhao, Ji Feng, Zhonghui Zhang, Kuanyu Lu, Jingyu Jia
Urban lakes play a vital role in the sustainable development of urbanized areas. In this freshwater ecosystem, massive microbial communities can drive the recycling of nutrients and regulate the water quality. However, water bacterial and fungal communities in the urban lakes are not well understood. In the present work, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was combined with community level physiological profiles (CLPPs) and Illumina Miseq sequence techniques to determine the diversity and composition of the water bacterial and fungal community in three urban lakes, namely Xingqing lake (LX), Geming lake (LG) and Lianhu lake (LL), located in Xi'an City (Shaanxi Province, China)...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Takeshi Matsubara, Hiroshi Iwamoto, Yuki Nakazato, Tomoyuki Okamoto, Tatsuya Ehara, Hirohisa Izumi, Yasuhiro Takeda
BACKGROUND: Epicutaneous sensitization to food allergens can occur through defective skin barriers. However, the relationship between oral tolerance and epicutaneous sensitization remains to be elucidated. We aimed to determine whether prior oral exposure to whey proteins or their hydrolysates prevents epicutaneous sensitization and subsequent food allergic reaction to the whey protein, β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), and investigated the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: BALB/c mice were given whey protein concentrate (WPC), two kinds of partial whey protein hydrolysate (PWH1 or PWH2), or extensive whey protein hydrolysate (EWH) in drinking water for 21 days...
March 8, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Vahid Vosooghi-Postindoz, Abdol Mansour Tahmasbi, Abbas Ali Naserian, Reza Valizadeh, Seyed Hadi Ebrahimi
Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of intermittent watering on Baluchi lambs, regarding their performance, blood metabolites, and nutrient digestibility. Methods: Twenty male Baluchi lambs, 120 ± 5 days of age and 29 ±2.2 kg body weight were randomly assigned to four watering treatments: (T1) free access to water during the day, (T2) watered ad libitum twice a day, (T3) watered ad libitum once a day, (T4) watered ad libitum once every two days...
March 2, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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