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David C Sheridan, Robert G Hendrickson, Gillian Beauchamp, Amber Laurie, Rongwei Fu, B Zane Horowitz
OBJECTIVE: Adolescent intentional ingestions remain a significant public health problem in the United States with little research to date on the over-the-counter or prescription medicines that adolescents abuse. These data are important for anticipatory guidance by primary care providers, preventive health, and poison center outreach. METHODS: This was an observational study using the American Association of Poison Control Centers National Poison Data System. The study population consisted of all cases of patients aged 13 to 19 years from 2004 to 2013 with a coding of "intentional abuse...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Dal-Sik Kim, Yunjeong Kim, Ji-Young Jeon, Min-Gul Kim
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the drug interaction profile of Red Ginseng (RG) with respect to the activities of major cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in healthy Korean volunteers. METHODS: This article describes an open-label, crossover study. CYP probe cocktail drugs, caffeine, losartan, dextromethorphan, omeprazole, midazolam, and fexofenadine were administered before and after RG supplementation for 2 wk. Plasma samples were collected, and tolerability was assessed...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Rakesh Pore, Swati Biswas, Srirupa Das
PURPOSE: The aim of the survey was to understand the prevailing practice pattern for the management of dry cough among primary care physicians in Indian clinical setting. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This single visit, cross-sectional, non-interventional, interview based physician survey was conducted over a period of 3 months where 500 registered physicians with at least 6 months of clinical practice and willing to participate in the survey were interviewed in their clinic or hospital from June to August 2015...
June 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Ying-Wei Qiu, Xiao-Fei Lv, Gui-Hua Jiang, Huan-Huan Su, Xiao-Fen Ma, Jun-Zhang Tian, Fu-Zhen Zhuo
Adolescence is a unique period in neurodevelopment. Dextromethorphan (DXM)-containing cough syrups are new addictive drugs used by adolescents and young adults. The effects of chronic DXM abuse on neurodevelopment in adolescents and young adults are still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in cortical thickness and subcortical gray matter volumes between DXM-dependent adolescents and young adults and healthy controls, and to explore relationships between alternations in cortical thickness/subcortical volume and DXM duration, initial age of DXM use, as well as impulsive behavior in DXM-dependent adolescents and young adults...
October 13, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Edward C Lauterbach
Dextromethorphan (DM) may have ketamine-like rapid-acting, treatment-resistant, and conventional antidepressant effects.(1,2) This reports our initial experience with DM in unipolar Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). A patient with treatment-resistant MDD (failing adequate trials of citalopram and vortioxetine) with loss of antidepressant response (to fluoxetine and bupropion) twice experienced a rapid-acting antidepressant effect within 48 hours of DM administration and lasting 7 days, sustained up to 20 days with daily administration, then gradually developing labile loss of antidepressant response over the ensuing 7 days...
August 15, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
Maria Jenelyn M Alviar, Tom Hale, Monalisa Dungca
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 12, 2011. Phantom limb pain (PLP) is pain that arises in the missing limb after amputation and can be severe, intractable, and disabling. Various medications have been studied in the treatment of phantom pain. There is currently uncertainty in the optimal pharmacologic management of PLP. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to summarise the evidence of effectiveness of pharmacologic interventions in treating PLP...
October 14, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ian M Paul, Kate M Reynolds, Ralph E Kauffman, William Banner, G Randall Bond, Robert B Palmer, Randy I Burnham, Jody L Green
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Dextromethorphan is the most common over-the-counter (OTC) antitussive medication. We sought to characterize adverse events associated with dextromethorphan in children <12 years old from a surveillance program of OTC cough/cold medication exposures. METHODS: This is a retrospective case series of oral exposures to dextromethorphan with ≥1 adverse event from multiple U.S. sources (National Poison Data System, FDA Adverse Event Reporting System, manufacturer safety reports, news/media, medical literature) reported between 2008 and 2014...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Toxicology
Elena Puris, Markku Pasanen, Mikko Gynther, Merja R Häkkinen, Jussi Pihlajamäki, Tapani Keränen, Paavo Honkakoski, Hannu Raunio, Aleksanteri Petsalo
Cocktail phenotyping using specific probe drugs for cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes provides information on the real-time activity of multiple CYPs. We investigated different sample preparation techniques and validated a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method with simple protein precipitation for the analysis of nine CYP probe drugs and their metabolites in human serum and urine. Specific CYP probe drugs (melatonin, CYP1A2; nicotine, CYP2A6; bupropion, CYP2B6; repaglinide, CYP2C8; losartan, CYP2C9; omeprazole, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4; dextromethorphan, CYP2D6; chlorzoxazone, CYP2E; midazolam, CYP3A4) and their main metabolites, with the exception of 3'-hydroxyrepaglinide, were quantified in human serum and urine using the developed LC-MS/MS method...
October 12, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Jee Sun Min, Doyun Kim, Jung Bae Park, Hyunjin Heo, Soo Hyeon Bae, Jae Hong Seo, Euichaul Oh, Soo Kyung Bae
BACKGROUND: Evaluating the potential risk of metabolic drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is clinically important. OBJECTIVE: To develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for sarpogrelate hydrochloride and its active metabolite, (R,S)-1-{2-[2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethyl]-phenoxy}-3-(dimethylamino)-2-propanol (M-1), in order to predict DDIs between sarpogrelate and the clinically relevant cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 substrates, metoprolol, desipramine, dextromethorphan, imipramine, and tolterodine...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Li Shuying, Li Ping, Ni Juan, Luo Dong
BACKGROUND: Cough is one of the most common complications of opioids. Many studies have evaluated the effect of various drugs in preventing opioid-induced cough (OIC). However, there is existing controversy about those reports. The present study was performed to assess the efficacy of different interventions on OIC. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, and Embase to identify randomized controlled trials on the efficacy of different drugs in the prevention of OIC...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Gilbert Siu, Don Vongviphut
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Danielle Impey, Sara de la Salle, Ashley Baddeley, Verner Knott
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive form of brain stimulation which uses a weak constant current to alter cortical excitability and activity temporarily. tDCS-induced increases in neuronal excitability and performance improvements have been observed following anodal stimulation of brain regions associated with visual and motor functions, but relatively little research has been conducted with respect to auditory processing. Recently, pilot study results indicate that anodal tDCS can increase auditory deviance detection, whereas cathodal tDCS decreases auditory processing, as measured by a brain-based event-related potential (ERP), mismatch negativity (MMN)...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Flora M Hammond, David N Alexander, Andrew J Cutler, Stephen D'Amico, Rachelle S Doody, William Sauve, Richard D Zorowitz, Charles S Davis, Paul Shin, Fred Ledon, Charles Yonan, Andrea E Formella, Joao Siffert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: BMC Neurology
Luc R A Rougée, Michael A Mohutsky, David W Bedwell, Kenneth J Ruterbories, Stephen D Hall
The proton gradient from the intracellular space to plasma creates an unbound drug gradient for weak acids and bases that could modulate apparent drug clearance and drug-drug interactions. Cytochrome P450 intrinsic clearance and inhibitor potency are routinely determined in vitro at the plasma pH of 7.4 rather than the intrahepatocyte pH of 7.0. We determined the impact of pH on in vitro enzyme kinetic parameters and inhibition potency for substrates (bufuralol, dextromethorphan), reversible inhibitors (quinidine, amiodarone, desethylamiodarone, clozapine), and mechanism-based inhibitors (paroxetine, desethylamiodarone) of the major drug metabolizing-enzyme CYP2D6...
November 2016: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Hiromi Soraoka, Kentaro Oniki, Kazuki Matsuda, Tatsumasa Ono, Kosuke Taharazako, Yoshihiro Uchiyashiki, Ryoko Kamihashi, Ayana Kita, Ayaka Takashima, Kazuko Nakagawa, Norio Yasui-Furukori, Daisuke Kadowaki, Keishi Miyata, Junji Saruwatari
The concomitant use of herb and prescription medications is increasing globally. Herb-drug interactions are therefore a clinically important problem. Yokukansan (YKS), a Japanese traditional herbal medicine, is one of the most frequently used herbal medicines. It is effective for treating the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. We investigated the potential effects of YKS on drug-metabolizing enzyme activities in humans. An open-label repeat-dose study was conducted in 26 healthy Japanese male volunteers (age: 22...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Akihiro Yamamoto, Katsuhisa Kurogi, Isaac Thomas Schiefer, Ming-Yih Liu, Yoichi Sakakibara, Masahito Suiko, Ming-Cheh Liu
Dextrorphan, an active metabolite of the antitussive dextromethorphan, has been shown to be subjected to sulfation by several zebrafish cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs). We were interested in finding out which of the human SULT(s) is(are) capable of catalyzing the sulfation of dextrorphan, and to verify whether sulfation of dextrorphan may occur in cultured human cells and human organ cytosols. Data from the enzymatic assays showed that, of all thirteen known human SULTs, SULT1A3 displayed the strongest dextrorphan-sulfating activity...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Carley R Corado, Daniel S McKemie, Heather K Knych
Dextromethorphan is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) non-competitive antagonist commonly used in human medicine as an antitussive. Dextromethorphan is metabolized in humans by cytochrome P450 2D6 into dextrorphan, which is reported to be more potent than the parent compound. The goal of this study is to describe the metabolism of and determine the pharmacokinetics of dextromethorphan and its major metabolites following oral administration to horses. A total of 23 horses received a single oral dose of 2 mg/kg...
September 1, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Linda Nguyen, Brandon P Lucke-Wold, Aric F Logsdon, Anna L Scandinaro, Jason D Huber, Rae R Matsumoto
Ketamine has been shown to produce rapid and robust antidepressant effects in depressed individuals; however, its abuse potential and adverse psychotomimetic effects limit its widespread use. Dextromethorphan (DM) may serve as a safer alternative on the basis of pharmacodynamic similarities to ketamine. In this proof-of-concept study, behavioral and biochemical analyses were carried out to evaluate the potential involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the antidepressant-like effects of DM in mice, with comparisons to ketamine and imipramine...
September 28, 2016: Neuroreport
Carley R Corado, Daniel S McKemie, Heather K Knych
OBJECTIVE To characterize polymorphisms of the gene for cytochrome P450 isozyme 2D50 (CYP2D50) and the disposition of 2 CYP2D50 probe drugs, dextromethorphan and debrisoquine, in horses. ANIMALS 23 healthy horses (22 Thoroughbreds and 1 Standardbred). PROCEDURES Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP2D50 were identified. Disposition of dextromethorphan (2 mg/kg) and debrisoquine (0.2 mg/kg) were determined after oral (dextromethorphan) or nasogastric (debrisoquine) administration to the horses. Metabolic ratios of plasma dextromethorphan and total dextrorphan (dextrorphan plus dextrorphan-O-β-glucuronide) and 4-hydroxydebrisoquine concentrations were calculated on the basis of the area under the plasma concentration-versus-time curve extrapolated to infinity for the parent drug divided by that for the corresponding metabolite...
September 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Ole Kristian Thu, Odd Georg Nilsen, Bent Hellum
CONTEXT: Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) products are popular natural remedies with a worldwide distribution. Recent studies have revealed potent CYP inhibition by R. rosea extracts both in vitro and in vivo, but information on in vitro CYP inhibition by commercial products are lacking. Variations in commercial R. rosea product quality have also been published. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the variation of in vitro CYP inhibition potential and product quality of six commercially available R...
August 29, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
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