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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332603/the-arabidopsis-mir396-mediates-pathogen-associated-molecular-pattern-triggered-immune-responses-against-fungal-pathogens
#1
Mauricio Soto-Suárez, Patricia Baldrich, Detlef Weigel, Ignacio Rubio-Somoza, Blanca San Segundo
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a pivotal role in regulating gene expression during plant development. Although a substantial fraction of plant miRNAs has proven responsive to pathogen infection, their role in disease resistance remains largely unknown, especially during fungal infections. In this study, we screened Arabidopsis thaliana lines in which miRNA activity has been reduced using artificial miRNA target mimics (MIM lines) for their response to fungal pathogens. Reduced activity of miR396 (MIM396 plants) was found to confer broad resistance to necrotrophic and hemibiotrophic fungal pathogens...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324752/vertical-ground-reaction-force-during-standing-and-walking-are-they-related-to-bone-mineral-density-left-right-asymmetries
#2
Marina Brozgol, Mira Arbiv, Anat Mirelman, Talia Herman, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Nachum Vaisman
Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease that is characterized by reduced bone mass, deterioration of bone tissue and skeletal fragility. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether asymmetrical femur bone mineral density (BMD) is associated with asymmetrical gait and standing. We compared measures of gait and standing asymmetry in subjects with (n=38) and without (n=11) significant left-right differences in BMD. Participants walked for 72m at their comfortable speed and stood quietly for 60s while outfitted with pressure-sensitive insoles...
March 7, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284668/a-lagrange-based-generalised-formulation-for-the-equations-of-motion-of-simple-walking-models
#3
Michael McGrath, David Howard, Richard Baker
Simple 2D models of walking often approximate the human body to multi-link dynamic systems, where body segments are represented by rigid links connected by frictionless hinge joints. Performing forward dynamics on the equations of motion (EOM) of these systems can be used to simulate their movement. However, deriving these equations can be time consuming. Using Lagrangian mechanics, a generalised formulation for the EOM of n-link open-loop chains is derived. This can be used for single support walking models...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284567/the-analysis-of-three-dimensional-ground-reaction-forces-during-gait-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#4
C Z C Hasan, Rozita Jailani, N Md Tahir, Suryani Ilias
Minimal information is known about the three-dimensional (3D) ground reaction forces (GRF) on the gait patterns of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the 3D GRF components differ significantly between children with ASD and the peer controls. 15 children with ASD and 25 typically developing (TD) children had participated in the study. Two force plates were used to measure the 3D GRF data during walking. Time-series parameterization techniques were employed to extract 17 discrete features from the 3D GRF waveforms...
March 8, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283077/ground-reaction-forces-of-elite-dressage-horses-in-collected-trot-and-passage
#5
H M Clayton, H C Schamhardt, S J Hobbs
In this study, sagittal plane ground reaction forces (GRFs) in ridden elite dressage horses performing 'collected trot' and in 'passage' over ground were determined. In-ground force plates captured GRF data from four Dutch Warmblood and four Lusitano horses ridden by their trainers. At least three stance phases were analysed for forelimbs and hind limbs per horse. The variables extracted were vertical and longitudinal (braking, propulsive) force maxima, their times of occurrence and the respective impulses for forelimbs and hind limbs...
March 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282761/gait-variability-and-symmetry-in-world-class-senior-and-junior-race-walkers
#6
Catherine B Tucker, Brian Hanley
The aim of this study was to analyse gait variability and symmetry in race walkers. Eighteen senior and 17 junior athletes race walked on an instrumented treadmill (for 10 km and 5 km, respectively) at speeds equivalent to 103% of season's best time for 20 km and 10 km, respectively. Spatio-temporal and ground reaction force (GRF) data were recorded at 2.5 km, and at 4.5, 6.5 and 8.5 km for a subsection of athletes. Gait variability was measured using median absolute deviation (MAD) whereas inter-leg symmetry was measured using the symmetry angle...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275003/inverse-dynamic-modelling-of-jumping-in-the-red-legged-running-frog-kassina-maculata
#7
Laura B Porro, Amber J Collings, Enrico A Eberhard, Kyle P Chadwick, Christopher T Richards
Although the red-legged running frog Kassina maculata is secondarily a walker/runner, it retains the capacity for multiple locomotor modes, including jumping at a wide range of angles (nearly 70°). Using simultaneous hind limb kinematics and single-foot ground reaction forces, we performed inverse dynamics analyses to calculate moment arms and torques about the hind limb joints during jumping at different angles in K. maculata. We show that forward thrust is generated primarily at the hip and ankle, while body elevation is primarily driven by the ankle...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269352/fall-risk-factors-analysis-based-on-sample-entropy-of-plantar-kinematic-signal-during-stance-phase
#8
Shengyun Liang, Huiyu Jia, Zilong Li, Huiqi Li, Xing Gao, Zuchang Ma, Yingnan Ma, Guoru Zhao
Falls are a multi-causal phenomenon with a complex interaction. The aim of our research is to study the effect of multiple variables for potential risk of falls and construct an elderly fall risk assessment model based on demographics data and gait characteristics. A total of 101 subjects, whom belong to Malianwa Street, aged above 50 years old and participated in questionnaire survey. Participants were classified into three groups (high, medium and low risk group) according to the score of elderly fall risk assessment scale...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254065/biomechzoo-an-open-source-toolbox-for-the-processing-analysis-and-visualization-of-biomechanical-movement-data
#9
Philippe C Dixon, Jonathan J Loh, Yannick Michaud-Paquette, David J Pearsall
It is common for biomechanics data sets to contain numerous dependent variables recorded over time, for many subjects, groups, and/or conditions. These data often require standard sorting, processing, and analysis operations to be performed in order to answer research questions. Visualization of these data is also crucial. This manuscript presents biomechZoo, an open-source toolbox that provides tools and graphical user interfaces to help users achieve these goals. The aims of this manuscript are to (1) introduce the main features of the toolbox, including a virtual three-dimensional environment to animate motion data (Director), a data plotting suite (Ensembler), and functions for the computation of three-dimensional lower-limb joint angles, moments, and power and (2) compare these computations to those of an existing validated system...
March 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253861/small-rna-profiling-and-degradome-analysis-reveal-regulation-of-microrna-in-peanut-embryogenesis-and-early-pod-development
#10
Chao Gao, Pengfei Wang, Shuzhen Zhao, Chuanzhi Zhao, Han Xia, Lei Hou, Zheng Ju, Ye Zhang, Changsheng Li, Xingjun Wang
BACKGROUND: As a typical geocarpic plant, peanut embryogenesis and pod development are complex processes involving many gene regulatory pathways and controlled by appropriate hormone level. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play indispensable roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Recently, identification and characterization of peanut miRNAs has been described. However, whether miRNAs participate in the regulation of peanut embryogenesis and pod development has yet to be explored...
March 2, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236273/developmental-processes-and-responses-to-hormonal-stimuli-in-tea-plant-camellia-sinensis-leaves-are-controlled-by-grf-and-gif-gene-families
#11
Zhi-Jun Wu, Wen-Li Wang, Jing Zhuang
Tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) is an important leaf-type woody crop used for producing of non-alcoholic beverages worldwide. The GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR (GRF) transcription factors cooperated with GRF-INTERACTING FACTOR (GIF) transcriptional coactivators positively regulate leaf development. In the present study, six GRF and two GIF genes were identified and characterized in the leaf transcriptome of C. sinensis, respectively. The alignment results showed that the feature structures of the predicted homologous GRF and GIF proteins of C...
February 24, 2017: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227594/fall-risk-factors-analysis-based-on-sample-entropy-of-plantar-kinematic-signal-during-stance-phase
#12
Shengyun Liang, Huiyu Jia, Zilong Li, Huiqi Li, Xing Gao, Zuchang Ma, Yingnan Ma, Guoru Zhao, Shengyun Liang, Huiyu Jia, Zilong Li, Huiqi Li, Xing Gao, Zuchang Ma, Yingnan Ma, Guoru Zhao, Shengyun Liang, Huiqi Li, Huiyu Jia, Xing Gao, Zuchang Ma, Guoru Zhao, Yingnan Ma, Zilong Li
Falls are a multi-causal phenomenon with a complex interaction. The aim of our research is to study the effect of multiple variables for potential risk of falls and construct an elderly fall risk assessment model based on demographics data and gait characteristics. A total of 101 subjects, whom belong to Malianwa Street, aged above 50 years old and participated in questionnaire survey. Participants were classified into three groups (high, medium and low risk group) according to the score of elderly fall risk assessment scale...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168959/the-bending-stiffness-of-shoes-is-beneficial-to-running-energetics-if-it-does-not-disturb-the-natural-mtp-joint-flexion
#13
Keonyoung Oh, Sukyung Park
A local minimum for running energetics has been reported for a specific bending stiffness, implying that shoe stiffness assists in running propulsion. However, the determinant of the metabolic optimum remains unknown. Highly stiff shoes significantly increase the moment arm of the ground reaction force (GRF) and reduce the leverage effect of joint torque at ground push-off. Inspired by previous findings, we hypothesized that the restriction of the natural metatarsophalangeal (MTP) flexion caused by stiffened shoes and the corresponding joint torque changes may reduce the benefit of shoe bending stiffness to running energetics...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167819/growth-inducing-effects-of-argon-plasma-on-soybean-sprouts-via-the-regulation-of-demethylation-levels-of-energy-metabolism-related-genes
#14
Jiao Jiao Zhang, Jin Oh Jo, Do Luong Huynh, Raj Kumar Mongre, Mrinmoy Ghosh, Amit Kumar Singh, Sang Baek Lee, Young Sun Mok, Park Hyuk, Dong Kee Jeong
This study was conducted to determine the effects of argon plasma on the growth of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] sprouts and investigate the regulation mechanism of energy metabolism. The germination and growth characteristics were modified by argon plasma at different potentials and exposure durations. Upon investigation, plasma treatment at 22.1 kV for 12 s maximized the germination and seedling growth of soybean, increasing the concentrations of soluble protein, antioxidant enzymes, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as well as up-regulating ATP a1, ATP a2, ATP b1, ATP b2, ATP b3, target of rapamycin (TOR), growth-regulating factor (GRF) 1-6, down-regulating ATP MI25 mRNA expression, and increasing the demethylation levels of the sequenced region of ATP a1, ATP b1, TOR, GRF 5, and GRF 6 of 6-day-old soybean sprouts...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155677/finite-element-analysis-of-the-valgus-knee-joint-of-an-obese-child
#15
Jun Sun, Songhua Yan, Yan Jiang, Duo Wai-Chi Wong, Ming Zhang, Jizhou Zeng, Kuan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Knee valgus and varus morbidity is at the second top place in children lower limb deformity diseases. It may cause abnormal stress distribution. The magnitude and location of contact forces on tibia plateau during gait cycle have been indicated as markers for risk of osteoarthritis. So far, few studies reported the contact stress and force distribution on tibial plateau of valgus knee of children. METHODS: To estimate the contact stresses and forces on tibial plateau of an 8-year old obese boy with valgus knee and a 7-year old healthy boy, three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of their left knee joints were developed...
December 28, 2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102023/6-gingerol-rich-fraction-prevents-disruption-of-histomorphometry-and-marker-enzymes-of-testicular-function-in-carbendazim-treated-rats
#16
M Salihu, B O Ajayi, I A Adedara, E O Farombi
Previous investigations demonstrated that 6-gingerol-rich fraction (6-GRF) prevented testicular toxicity via inhibition of oxidative stress and endocrine disruption in CBZ-treated rats. The influence of 6-GRF on alterations in histomorphometry and marker enzymes of testicular function in CBZ-treated rats which hitherto has not been reported was investigated in this study. The animals were orally administered either CBZ (50 mg/kg) alone or in combination with 6-GRF (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days...
January 19, 2017: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090004/difference-in-dynamic-body-balance-between-forward-and-lateral-single-leg-hop-landing
#17
Yukiko Kawakami, Issei Ogasawara, Yasukazu Yonetani, Rikio Takao, Tatsuo Mae, Ken Nakata, Shuji Horibe
Since the loss of balance can result in falls or lower extremity injuries during sports or daily activities, quantitative evaluation of one's ability to maintain balance with changes in the direction of motion is crucial. The present study aimed to assess whether the trajectory length of the center of pressure (COP) and peak values of the ground reaction force (GRF) following a single-leg hop landing differ when hopping forward or laterally, and to ascertain disparities in balance characteristics due to differences in hop direction...
January 16, 2017: Kurume Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057348/lower-extremity-control-during-turns-initiated-with-and-without-hip-external-rotation
#18
Antonia M Zaferiou, Henryk Flashner, Rand R Wilcox, Jill L McNitt-Gray
The pirouette turn is often initiated in neutral and externally rotated hip positions by dancers. This provides an opportunity to investigate how dancers satisfy the same mechanical objectives at the whole-body level when using different leg kinematics. The purpose of this study was to compare lower extremity control strategies during the turn initiation phase of pirouettes performed with and without hip external rotation. Skilled dancers (n=5) performed pirouette turns with and without hip external rotation...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042857/estimation-of-ground-reaction-forces-and-moments-during-gait-using-only-inertial-motion-capture
#19
Angelos Karatsidis, Giovanni Bellusci, H Martin Schepers, Mark de Zee, Michael S Andersen, Peter H Veltink
Ground reaction forces and moments (GRF&M) are important measures used as input in biomechanical analysis to estimate joint kinetics, which often are used to infer information for many musculoskeletal diseases. Their assessment is conventionally achieved using laboratory-based equipment that cannot be applied in daily life monitoring. In this study, we propose a method to predict GRF&M during walking, using exclusively kinematic information from fully-ambulatory inertial motion capture (IMC). From the equations of motion, we derive the total external forces and moments...
December 31, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028224/ape2-zf-grf-facilitates-3-5-resection-of-dna-damage-following-oxidative-stress
#20
Bret D Wallace, Zachary Berman, Geoffrey A Mueller, Yunfeng Lin, Timothy Chang, Sara N Andres, Jessica L Wojtaszek, Eugene F DeRose, C Denise Appel, Robert E London, Shan Yan, R Scott Williams
The Xenopus laevis APE2 (apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 2) nuclease participates in 3'-5' nucleolytic resection of oxidative DNA damage and activation of the ATR-Chk1 DNA damage response (DDR) pathway via ill-defined mechanisms. Here we report that APE2 resection activity is regulated by DNA interactions in its Zf-GRF domain, a region sharing high homology with DDR proteins Topoisomerase 3α (TOP3α) and NEIL3 (Nei-like DNA glycosylase 3), as well as transcription and RNA regulatory proteins, such as TTF2 (transcription termination factor 2), TFIIS, and RPB9...
January 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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