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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728130/superficial-plantar-cutaneous-sensation-does-not-trigger-barefoot-running-adaptations
#1
M A Thompson, K M Hoffman
It has long been proposed that the gait alterations associated with barefoot running are mediated by alterations in sensory feedback, yet there has been no data to support this claim. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the role of superficial plantar cutaneous feedback in barefoot and shod running. METHODS: 10 healthy active subjects (6 male, 4 female); mass: 65.2+9.7kg; age: 27+7.1years participated in this study. 10 over-ground running trials were completed in each of the following conditions: barefoot (BF), shod (SHOD), anesthetized barefoot (ANEST BF) and anesthetized shod (ANEST SHOD)...
June 27, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721454/intra-individual-variation-in-hand-postures-during-terrestrial-locomotion-in-japanese-macaques-macaca-fuscata
#2
Yasuo Higurashi, Ryosuke Goto, Hiroo Kumakura
The primate hand adopts a variety of postures during locomotion. Habitually terrestrial cercopithecine primates are known to use a palmigrade posture at faster speeds to possibly mitigate stresses on the hand skeleton; however, it is unclear whether arboreal or semi-terrestrial species use a similar strategy for adjusting hand posture. Here, we explored intra-individual variation in hand contact patterns during terrestrial locomotion in the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata), a semi-terrestrial cercopithecine primate...
July 18, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720182/ground-reaction-forces-during-reduced-gravity-running-in-parabolic-flight
#3
Peter Cavanagh, Andrea Rice, Molly Glauberman, Amanda Sudduth, Arien Cherones, Shane Davis, Michael Lewis, Andrea Hanson, Grier Wilt
BACKGROUND: Treadmills have been employed as both a form of exercise and a countermeasure to prevent changes in the musculoskeletal system on almost all NASA missions and many Russian missions since the early Space Shuttle flights. It is possible that treadmills may also be part of exercise programs on future Mars missions and that they may be a component of exercise facilities in lunar or Martian habitats. METHODS: In order to determine if the ambient gravity on these destinations will provide osteogenic effects while performing exercise on a treadmill, ground reactions forces (GRFs) were measured on eight subjects (six women and two men) running at 6 mph during parabolic flight in Martian and lunar gravity conditions...
August 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712544/the-effect-of-leg-dominance-and-landing-height-on-acl-loading-among-female-athletes
#4
Hossein Mokhtarzadeh, Katie Ewing, Ina Janssen, Chen-Hua Yeow, Nicholas Brown, Peter Vee Sin Lee
Female athletes are more prone to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. A neuromuscular imbalance called leg dominance may provide a biomechanical explanation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the side-to-side lower limb differences in movement patterns, muscle forces and ACL forces during a single-leg drop-landing task from two different heights. We hypothesized that there will be significant differences in lower limb movement patterns (kinematics), muscle forces and ACL loading between the dominant and non-dominant limbs...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711361/does-crutch-length-influence-gait-parameters-after-total-hip-replacement-surgery
#5
Marco Freddolini, Francesco Esposito, Massimiliano Marcucci, Andrea Corvi, Palmina Braccio, Leonardo Latella
After total hip replacement surgery, crutches are often prescribed to enable patients to walk independently. Purpose of this study was to evaluate possible crutch length influence on gait performance and symmetry, including spatiotemporal and kinetics parameters. Thirty patients were randomly assigned to elbow flexed (EF) or elbow extended (EE) crutch setup. Subjects were asked to walk on the laboratory path, instrumented with motion tracking system and force platforms. Spatiotemporal gait parameters and ground reaction force (GRF) parameters for both limbs and crutch support were evaluated...
July 10, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705487/amputee-locomotion-frequency-content-of-prosthetic-vs-intact-limb-vertical-ground-reaction-forces-during-running-and-the-effects-of-filter-cut-off-frequency
#6
Dovin Kiernan, Ross H Miller, Brian S Baum, Hyun Joon Kwon, Jae Kun Shim
Compared to intact limbs, running-specific prostheses have high resonance non-biologic materials and lack active tissues to damp high frequencies. These differences may lead to ground reaction forces (GRFs) with high frequency content. If so, ubiquitously applying low-pass filters to prosthetic and intact limb GRFs may attenuate veridical high frequency content and mask important and ecologically valid data from prostheses. To explore differences in frequency content between prosthetic and intact limbs we divided signal power from transtibial unilateral amputees and controls running at 2...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694817/tissue-specific-regulation-of-gma-mir396-family-on-coordinating-development-and-low-water-availability-responses
#7
Weican Liu, Yonggang Zhou, Xiaowei Li, Xingchao Wang, Yuanyuan Dong, Nan Wang, Xiuming Liu, Huan Chen, Na Yao, Xiyan Cui, Aysha Jameel, Fawei Wang, Haiyan Li
Previously, it was reported that miR396s interact with growth-regulating factors (GRFs) to modulate plant growth, development, and stress resistance. In soybean, 11 gma-miR396 precursors (Pre-miR396a-k) were found, and 24 GmGRFs were predicted as targets of seven mature gma-miR396s (gma-miR396a/b/c/e/h/i/k). To explore the roles of the miR396-GRF module in low water availability response of soybean, we analyzed the expression of Pre-miR396a-k, and found that Pre-miR396a/i/bdgk/e/h were up-regulated in leaves and down-regulated in roots; on the contrary, GmGRF5/6/7/8/15/17/21 were down-regulated in leaves and GmGRF1/2/17/18/19/20/21/22/23/24 were up-regulated in roots of low water potential stressed soybean...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684196/force-transmission-through-the-wrist-during-performance-of-push-ups-on-a-hyperextended-and-a-neutral-wrist
#8
Olga Polovinets, Alon Wolf, Ronit Wollstein
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional cohort. INTRODUCTION: Push-ups are used ubiquitously to evaluate and strengthen the upper body. They are usually performed in 1 of 2 main ways: with the wrist in hyperextension and with the wrist in a neutral position. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The purpose of our study was to compare the dynamic forces in the wrist during the 2 push-up styles. METHODS: Fourteen volunteers performed push-ups in 2 different patterns: on a hyperextended wrist and a neutral wrist (NW)...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680890/phase-specific-ground-reaction-force-analyses-of-bilateral-and-unilateral-jumps-in-patients-with-acl-reconstruction
#9
Christian Baumgart, Matthias W Hoppe, Jürgen Freiwald
BACKGROUND: In patients who have undergone anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, there is a weak correlation between subjective evaluation of knee function on questionnaires and clinical or biomechanical test results. HYPOTHESIS: Patients with lower subjective knee function will demonstrate lower ground-reaction forces (GRFs) in the operated leg and greater GRF asymmetries in both phase-specific and functional data analysis (FDA) approaches compared with patients with higher subjective knee function...
June 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679843/restricted-vision-increases-sensorimotor-cortex-involvement-in-human-walking
#10
Anderson S Oliveira, Bryan R Schlink, William David Hairston, Peter Konig, Daniel Perry Ferris
This study aimed to determine if there are electrocortical evidence of augmented participation of sensory brain areas on walking modulation during walking with eyes closed. Healthy subjects (n=10) walked on a treadmill at 1 m/s while alternating 5 minutes walking with the eyes open or closed while we recorded ground reaction forces (GRF) and high-density scalp electroencephalography (EEG). We applied independent component analysis to parse EEG signals into maximally independent component (IC) processes and then computed equivalent current dipoles for each IC...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679544/risk-prediction-modeling-on-family-based-sequencing-data-using-a-random-field-method
#11
Yalu Wen, Alexandra Burt, Qing Lu
Family-based design is one of the most popular designs in genetic studies and has many unique features for risk prediction research. It is more robust against genetic heterogeneity, and the relatedness among family members can be informative for predicting individuals' risk for disease with polygenic and shared environmental components of risk. Despite these strengths, family-based designs have been used infrequently in current risk prediction studies, and their related statistical methods have been much less developed...
July 5, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663135/use-of-a-tibial-accelerometer-to-measure-ground-reaction-force-in-running-a-reliability-and-validity-comparison-with-force-plates
#12
Damian P Raper, Jeremy Witchalls, Elissa J Philips, Emma Knight, Michael K Drew, Gordon Waddington
OBJECTIVES: The use of microsensor technologies to conduct research and implement interventions in sports and exercise medicine has increased recently. The objective of this paper was to determine the validity and reliability of the ViPerform as a measure of load compared to vertical ground reaction force (GRF) as measured by force plates. DESIGN: Absolute reliability assessment, with concurrent validity. METHODS: 10 professional triathletes ran 10 trials over force plates with the ViPerform mounted on the mid portion of the medial tibia...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660438/lower-material-stiffness-in-rupture-repaired-achilles-tendon-during-walking-transmission-mode-ultrasound-for-post-surgical-tendon-evaluation
#13
Mathias Wulf, Mihir Shanker, Michael Schuetz, Michael Lutz, Christian M Langton, Sue L Hooper, James E Smeathers, Torsten Brauner, Scott C Wearing
PURPOSE: This cross-sectional study used transmission-mode ultrasound to evaluate dynamic tendon properties during walking in surgically repaired and contralateral Achilles tendon (AT), with a median (range) post-operative period of 22 (4-58) months. It was hypothesised that the axial transmission speed of ultrasound (TSOU) during walking would be slower, indicating lower material stiffness in repaired compared with contralateral AT. METHODS: Ten patients [median (range) age 47 (37-69) years; height 180 (170-189) cm; weight 93 (62-119) kg], who had undergone open surgical repair of the AT and were clinically recovered according to their treating clinicians, walked barefoot on a treadmill at self-selected speed (1...
June 28, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657790/magnitude-and-spatial-distribution-of-impact-intensity-under-the-foot-relates-to-initial-foot-contact-pattern
#14
Bastiaan Breine, Philippe Malcolm, Veerle Segers, Joeri Gerlo, Rud Derie, Todd Pataky, Edward C Frederick, Dirk De Clercq
In running, foot contact patterns (rear-, mid- or forefoot contact) influence impact intensity and initial ankle and foot kinematics. The aim of the study was to compare impact intensity and its spatial distribution under the foot between different foot contact patterns. Forty-nine subjects ran at 3.2 m·s(-1) over a level runway while ground reaction forces (GRF) and shoe-surface pressures were recorded and foot contact pattern was determined. A four-zone footmask (forefoot, midfoot, medial and lateral rearfoot) assessed the spatial distribution of the vertical GRF under the foot...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641036/modelling-error-distribution-in-the-ground-reaction-force-during-an-induced-acceleration-analysis-of-running-in-rear-foot-strikers
#15
Sekiya Koike, Seigo Nakaya, Hiroto Mori, Tatsuya Ishikawa, Alexander P Willmott
The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a methodology for quantifying the contributions of modelling error terms, as well as individual joint torque, gravitational force and motion-dependent terms, to the generation of ground reaction force (GRF), whose true value can be measured with high accuracy using a force platform. Dynamic contributions to the GRF were derived from the combination of (1) the equations of motion for the individual segments, (2) the equations for constraint conditions arising from the connection of adjacent segments at joints, and (3) the equations for anatomical constraint axes at certain joints...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623677/incidence-of-cognitively-defined-late-onset-alzheimer-s-dementia-subgroups-from-a-prospective-cohort-study
#16
Paul K Crane, Emily Trittschuh, Shubhabrata Mukherjee, Andrew J Saykin, R Elizabeth Sanders, Eric B Larson, Susan M McCurry, Wayne McCormick, James D Bowen, Thomas Grabowski, Mackenzie Moore, Julianna Bauman, Alden L Gross, C Dirk Keene, Thomas D Bird, Laura E Gibbons, Jesse Mez
INTRODUCTION: There may be biologically relevant heterogeneity within typical late-onset Alzheimer's dementia. METHODS: We analyzed cognitive data from people with incident late-onset Alzheimer's dementia from a prospective cohort study. We determined individual averages across memory, visuospatial functioning, language, and executive functioning. We identified domains with substantial impairments relative to that average. We compared demographic, neuropathology, and genetic findings across groups defined by relative impairments...
June 15, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598121/-regional-homogeneity-changes-in-patients-with-social-anxiety-disorders-after-cognitive-behavioral-therapy
#17
Min-Lan Yuan, Zheng-Jia Ren, Hong-Ru Zhu, Yan Zhang, Ya-Jing Meng, Wei Zhang
OBJECTIVES: To examine the altered spontaneous brain activity in patients with social anxiety disorders (SAD) before and after cognitive behavior therapy (CBT),and determine the neuromechanism of formation,treatment and recovery of SAD. METHODS: Fifteen SAD patients were treated with an eight-week group CBT.The patients underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at resting state before and after the treatments.Eighteen healthy controls (HC) were recruited and underwent a baseline fMRI scan...
November 2016: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559427/effects-of-altered-sagittal-trunk-orientation-on-kinetic-pattern-in-able-bodied-walking-on-uneven-ground
#18
Soran Aminiaghdam, Christian Rode
Studies of disturbed human locomotion often focus on the dynamics of the gait when either posture, movement or surface is perturbed. Yet, the interaction effects of variation of trunk posture and ground level on kinetic behaviour of able-bodied gait have not been explored. For 12 participants we investigated the kinetic behaviour, as well as velocity and contact time, across four steps including an unperturbed step on level ground, pre-perturbation, perturbation (10-cm drop) and post-perturbation steps while walking with normal speed with four postures: regular erect, with 30°, 50° and maximal sagittal trunk flexion (70°)...
July 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512701/estimation-of-3d-ground-reaction-force-using-nanocomposite-piezo-responsive-foam-sensors-during-walking
#19
Parker G Rosquist, Gavin Collins, A Jake Merrell, Noelle J Tuttle, James B Tracy, Evan T Bird, Matthew K Seeley, David T Fullwood, William F Christensen, Anton E Bowden
This paper describes a method for the estimation of the 3D ground reaction force (GRF) during human walking using novel nanocomposite piezo-responsive foam (NCPF) sensors. Nine subjects (5 male, 4 female) walked on a force-instrumented treadmill at 1.34 m/s for 120 s each while wearing a shoe that was instrumented with four NCPF sensors. GRF data, measured via the treadmill, and sensor data, measured via the NCPF inserts, were used in a tenfold cross validation process to calibrate a separate model for each individual...
May 16, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505092/molecular-characterization-and-expression-profiling-of-tomato-grf-transcription-factor-family-genes-in-response-to-abiotic-stresses-and-phytohormones
#20
Khadiza Khatun, Arif Hasan Khan Robin, Jong-In Park, Ujjal Kumar Nath, Chang Kil Kim, Ki-Byung Lim, Ill Sup Nou, Mi-Young Chung
Growth regulating factors (GRFs) are plant-specific transcription factors that are involved in diverse biological and physiological processes, such as growth, development and stress and hormone responses. However, the roles of GRFs in vegetative and reproductive growth, development and stress responses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) have not been extensively explored. In this study, we characterized the 13 SlGRF genes. In silico analysis of protein motif organization, intron-exon distribution, and phylogenetic classification confirmed the presence of GRF proteins in tomato...
May 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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