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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421097/development-of-incompletely-fused-carpels-in-maize-ovary-revealed-by-mirna-target-gene-and-phytohormone-analysis
#1
Hongping Li, Ting Peng, Qun Wang, Yufeng Wu, Jianfeng Chang, Moubiao Zhang, Guiliang Tang, Chaohai Li
Although the molecular basis of carpel fusion in maize ovary development remains largely unknown, increasing evidence suggests a critical role of microRNAs (miRNAs). In this study, a combination of miRNA sequencing, degradome and physiological analyses was used to characterize carpel fusion development in maize ovaries showing incompletely (IFC) and completely fused carpels (CFC). A total of 162 known miRNAs distributed across 33 families were identified, of which 20 were differentially expressed. In addition, 53 miRNA candidates were identified, of which 10 were differentially expressed in the IFC and CFC ovaries...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400494/uv-b-inhibits-leaf-growth-through-changes-in-growth-regulating-factors-and-gibberellin-levels
#2
Julieta Fina, Romina Casadevall, Hamada AbdElgawad, Els Prinsen, Marios Nektarios Markakis, Gerrit T S Beemster, Paula Casati
UV-B radiation affects leaf growth in a wide range of species. In this work, we demonstrate that UV-B levels present in solar radiation inhibits maize leaf growth without causing any other visible stress symptoms, including accumulation of DNA damage. We conducted kinematic analyses of cell division and expansion to understand the impact of UV-B radiation on these cellular processes. Our results demonstrate that the decrease in leaf growth in UV-B irradiated leaves is a consequence of a reduction in cell production, and a shortened growth zone (GZ)...
April 11, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399873/influence-of-functional-task-oriented-mental-practice-on-the-gait-of-transtibial-amputees-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#3
Rodrigo Gontijo Cunha, Paulo José Guimarães Da-Silva, Clarissa Cardoso Dos Santos Couto Paz, Ana Carolina da Silva Ferreira, Carlos Julio Tierra-Criollo
BACKGROUND: Mental practice (MP) through motor imagery is a cognitive training strategy used to improve locomotor skills during rehabilitation programs. Recent works have used MP tasks to investigate the neurophysiology of human gait; however, its effect on functional performance has not been evaluated. In the present study, the influence of gait-oriented MP tasks on the rehabilitation process of gait in transtibial amputees was investigated by assessing the vertical (V), anterior-posterior (AP), and medio-lateral (ML) ground reaction forces (GRFs) and the time duration of the support phase of the prosthetic limb...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394742/side-to-side-differences-in-lower-extremity-biomechanics-during-multi-directional-jump-landing-in-volleyball-athletes
#4
Komsak Sinsurin, Sarun Srisangboriboon, Roongtiwa Vachalathiti
Side-to-side differences of lower extremities may influence the likelihood of injury. Moreover, adding the complexity of jump-landing direction would help to explain lower extremity control during sport activities. The aim was to determine the effects of limb dominance and jump-landing direction on lower extremity biomechanics. Nineteen female volleyball athletes participated. Both dominant limbs (DLs) and non-dominant limbs (NLs) were examined in single-leg jump-landing tests in four directions, including forward (0°), diagonal (30° and 60°), and lateral (90°) directions...
April 10, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385562/shoe-cushioning-reduces-impact-and-muscle-activation-during-landings-from-unexpected-but-not-self-initiated-drops
#5
Weijie Fu, Ying Fang, Yaodong Gu, Lingyan Huang, Li Li, Yu Liu
OBJECTIVES: To date, few rigorous scientific studies have been conducted to understand the impact mechanics and muscle activation characteristics of different landing tasks and the influence of shoe properties. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of shoe cushioning on impact biomechanics and muscular responses during drop landings. DESIGN: A single-blinded and randomized design. METHODS: Twelve male collegiate basketball players performed bipedal landings from self-initiated and unexpected drops (SIDL and UDL) from a 60-cm height wearing highly-cushioned basketball shoes (Bball) and less cushioned control shoes (CC)...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373059/protective-properties-of-6-gingerol-rich-fraction-from-zingiber-officinale-ginger-on-chlorpyrifos-induced-oxidative-damage-and-inflammation-in-the-brain-ovary-and-uterus-of-rats
#6
Amos O Abolaji, Mercy Ojo, Tosin T Afolabi, Mary D Arowoogun, Darlinton Nwawolor, Ebenezer O Farombi
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphorus pesticide widely used in agricultural applications and household environments. 6-Gingerol-rich fraction from Zingiber officinale (Ginger, 6-GRF) has been reported to possess potent anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. Here, we investigated the protective properties of 6-GRF on CPF-induced oxidative damage and inflammation in the brain, ovary and uterus of rats. Five groups of rats containing 14 rats/group received corn oil (control), CPF (5 mg/kg), 6-GRF (100 mg/kg), CPF (5 mg/kg) + 6-GRF (50 mg/kg) and CPF (5 mg/kg) + 6-GRF (100 mg/kg) through gavage once per day for 35 days respectively...
March 31, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371610/short-exogenous-peptides-regulate-expression-of-cle-knox1-and-grf-family-genes-in-nicotiana-tabacum
#7
L I Fedoreyeva, T A Dilovarova, V V Ashapkin, Yu Ts Martirosyan, V Kh Khavinson, P N Kharchenko, B F Vanyushin
Exogenous short biologically active peptides epitalon (Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly), bronchogen (Ala-Glu-Asp-Leu), and vilon (Lys-Glu) at concentrations 10(-7)-10(-9) M significantly influence growth, development, and differentiation of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) callus cultures. Epitalon and bronchogen, in particular, both increase growth of calluses and stimulate formation and growth of leaves in plant regenerants. Because the regulatory activity of the short peptides appears at low peptide concentrations, their action to some extent is like that of the activity of phytohormones, and it seems to have signaling character and epigenetic nature...
April 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367368/external-kinetics-of-the-kettlebell-snatch-in-amateur-lifters
#8
James A Ross, Justin W L Keogh, Cameron J Wilson, Christian Lorenzen
BACKGROUND: Kettlebell lifting has gained increased popularity as both a form of resistance training and as a sport, despite the paucity of literature validating its use as a training tool. Kettlebell sport requires participants to complete the kettlebell snatch continuously over prolonged periods of time. Kettlebell sport and weightlifting involve similar exercises, however, their traditional uses suggest they are better suited to training different fitness qualities. This study examined the three-dimensional ground reaction force (GRF) and force applied to the kettlebell over a 6 min kettlebell snatch set in 12 kettlebell-trained males...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363779/genome-wide-analysis-and-expression-profiling-of-the-grf-gene-family-in-oilseed-rape-brassica-napus-l
#9
Jin-Qi Ma, Hong-Ju Jian, Bo Yang, Kun Lu, Ao-Xiang Zhang, Pu Liu, Jia-Na Li
Growth regulating-factors (GRFs) are plant-specific transcription factors that help regulate plant growth and development. Genome-wide identification and evolutionary analyses of GRF gene families have been performed in Arabidopsis thaliana, Zea mays, Oryza sativa, and Brassica rapa, but a comprehensive analysis of the GRF gene family in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) has not yet been reported. In the current study, we identified 35 members of the BnGRF family in B. napus. We analyzed the chromosomal distribution, phylogenetic relationships (Bayesian Inference and Neighbor Joining method), gene structures, and motifs of the BnGRF family members, as well as the cis-acting regulatory elements in their promoters...
March 28, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355209/coefficients-of-variation-of-ground-reaction-force-measurement-in-cats
#10
Eva Schnabl-Feichter, Alexander Tichy, Barbara Bockstahler
Gait analysis has been extensively performed in dogs and horses; however, very little is known about feline biomechanics. It was, therefore, the aim of this study to determine the coefficient of variation (CV) among three ground reaction force (GRF) measurements taken for 15 client-owned European shorthaired cats without a training period and a short acclimatisation time. Gait was measured as each cat walked across a pressure-sensitive walkway, and measurements were made three times over a multi-week period (range: 2 to 17 weeks)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345999/variance-associated-with-walking-velocity-during-force-platform-gait-analysis-of-a-heterogeneous-sample-of-clinically-normal-dogs
#11
Alexander M Piazza, Emily E Binversie, Lauren A Baker, Brett Nemke, Susannah J Sample, Peter Muir
OBJECTIVE To determine whether walking at specific ranges of absolute and relative (V*) velocity would aid efficient capture of gait trial data with low ground reaction force (GRF) variance in a heterogeneous sample of dogs. ANIMALS 17 clinically normal dogs of various breeds, ages, and sexes. PROCEDURES Each dog was walked across a force platform at its preferred velocity, with controlled acceleration within 0.5 m/s(2). Ranges in V* were created for height at the highest point of the shoulders (withers; WHV*)...
April 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336950/dual-regulation-of-water-retention-and-cell-growth-by-a-stress-associated-protein-sap-gene-in-prunus
#12
Alba Lloret, Ana Conejero, Carmen Leida, César Petri, Francisco Gil-Muñoz, Lorenzo Burgos, María Luisa Badenes, Gabino Ríos
We have identified a gene (PpSAP1) of Prunus persica coding for a stress-associated protein (SAP) containing Zn-finger domains A20 and AN1. SAPs have been described as regulators of the abiotic stress response in plant species, emerging as potential candidates for improvement of stress tolerance in plants. PpSAP1 was highly expressed in leaves and dormant buds, being down-regulated before bud dormancy release. PpSAP1 expression was moderately induced by water stresses and heat in buds. In addition, it was found that PpSAP1 strongly interacts with polyubiquitin proteins in the yeast two-hybrid system...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332603/the-arabidopsis-mir396-mediates-pathogen-associated-molecular-pattern-triggered-immune-responses-against-fungal-pathogens
#13
Mauricio Soto-Suárez, Patricia Baldrich, Detlef Weigel, Ignacio Rubio-Somoza, Blanca San Segundo
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a pivotal role in regulating gene expression during plant development. Although a substantial fraction of plant miRNAs has proven responsive to pathogen infection, their role in disease resistance remains largely unknown, especially during fungal infections. In this study, we screened Arabidopsis thaliana lines in which miRNA activity has been reduced using artificial miRNA target mimics (MIM lines) for their response to fungal pathogens. Reduced activity of miR396 (MIM396 plants) was found to confer broad resistance to necrotrophic and hemibiotrophic fungal pathogens...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324752/vertical-ground-reaction-force-during-standing-and-walking-are-they-related-to-bone-mineral-density-left-right-asymmetries
#14
Marina Brozgol, Mira Arbiv, Anat Mirelman, Talia Herman, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Nachum Vaisman
Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease that is characterized by reduced bone mass, deterioration of bone tissue and skeletal fragility. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether asymmetrical femur bone mineral density (BMD) is associated with asymmetrical gait and standing. We compared measures of gait and standing asymmetry in subjects with (n=38) and without (n=11) significant left-right differences in BMD. Participants walked for 72m at their comfortable speed and stood quietly for 60s while outfitted with pressure-sensitive insoles...
March 7, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284668/a-lagrange-based-generalised-formulation-for-the-equations-of-motion-of-simple-walking-models
#15
Michael McGrath, David Howard, Richard Baker
Simple 2D models of walking often approximate the human body to multi-link dynamic systems, where body segments are represented by rigid links connected by frictionless hinge joints. Performing forward dynamics on the equations of motion (EOM) of these systems can be used to simulate their movement. However, deriving these equations can be time consuming. Using Lagrangian mechanics, a generalised formulation for the EOM of n-link open-loop chains is derived. This can be used for single support walking models...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284567/the-analysis-of-three-dimensional-ground-reaction-forces-during-gait-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#16
C Z C Hasan, Rozita Jailani, N Md Tahir, Suryani Ilias
Minimal information is known about the three-dimensional (3D) ground reaction forces (GRF) on the gait patterns of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the 3D GRF components differ significantly between children with ASD and the peer controls. 15 children with ASD and 25 typically developing (TD) children had participated in the study. Two force plates were used to measure the 3D GRF data during walking. Time-series parameterization techniques were employed to extract 17 discrete features from the 3D GRF waveforms...
March 8, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283077/ground-reaction-forces-of-elite-dressage-horses-in-collected-trot-and-passage
#17
H M Clayton, H C Schamhardt, S J Hobbs
In this study, sagittal plane ground reaction forces (GRFs) in ridden elite dressage horses performing 'collected trot' and in 'passage' over ground were determined. In-ground force plates captured GRF data from four Dutch Warmblood and four Lusitano horses ridden by their trainers. At least three stance phases were analysed for forelimbs and hind limbs per horse. The variables extracted were vertical and longitudinal (braking, propulsive) force maxima, their times of occurrence and the respective impulses for forelimbs and hind limbs...
March 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282761/gait-variability-and-symmetry-in-world-class-senior-and-junior-race-walkers
#18
Catherine B Tucker, Brian Hanley
The aim of this study was to analyse gait variability and symmetry in race walkers. Eighteen senior and 17 junior athletes race walked on an instrumented treadmill (for 10 km and 5 km, respectively) at speeds equivalent to 103% of season's best time for 20 km and 10 km, respectively. Spatio-temporal and ground reaction force (GRF) data were recorded at 2.5 km, and at 4.5, 6.5 and 8.5 km for a subsection of athletes. Gait variability was measured using median absolute deviation (MAD) whereas inter-leg symmetry was measured using the symmetry angle...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275003/inverse-dynamic-modelling-of-jumping-in-the-red-legged-running-frog-kassina-maculata
#19
Laura B Porro, Amber J Collings, Enrico A Eberhard, Kyle P Chadwick, Christopher T Richards
Although the red-legged running frog Kassina maculata is secondarily a walker/runner, it retains the capacity for multiple locomotor modes, including jumping at a wide range of angles (nearly 70°). Using simultaneous hind limb kinematics and single-foot ground reaction forces, we performed inverse dynamics analyses to calculate moment arms and torques about the hind limb joints during jumping at different angles in K. maculata. We show that forward thrust is generated primarily at the hip and ankle, while body elevation is primarily driven by the ankle...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269352/fall-risk-factors-analysis-based-on-sample-entropy-of-plantar-kinematic-signal-during-stance-phase
#20
Shengyun Liang, Huiyu Jia, Zilong Li, Huiqi Li, Xing Gao, Zuchang Ma, Yingnan Ma, Guoru Zhao
Falls are a multi-causal phenomenon with a complex interaction. The aim of our research is to study the effect of multiple variables for potential risk of falls and construct an elderly fall risk assessment model based on demographics data and gait characteristics. A total of 101 subjects, whom belong to Malianwa Street, aged above 50 years old and participated in questionnaire survey. Participants were classified into three groups (high, medium and low risk group) according to the score of elderly fall risk assessment scale...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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