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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688782/effect-of-contact-time-on-variance-of-ground-reaction-forces-during-force-platform-gait-analysis-of-a-heterogeneous-sample-of-clinically-normal-dogs
#1
Christopher L Hoffman, Nicola J Volstad, Eric C Hans, Brett W Nemke, Peter Muir
OBJECTIVE To develop contact time (ConT) and withers height-normalized relative ConT (ConT*) for force platform gait analysis of dogs. ANIMALS 29 healthy client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES Height at the most dorsal aspect of the shoulders (withers) was measured with a framing square. Dogs were trotted across a force platform at their preferred velocity with controlled acceleration (± 0.5 m/s2 ). Ranges of ConT and ConT* centered on the population mean ConT were created. Variance effects on ground reaction forces (GRFs) for 4 thoracic limb and 4 pelvic limb ConT and associated ConT* ranges were examined...
May 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625411/joint-moment-strategies-during-stair-descent-in-patients-with-peripheral-arterial-disease-and-intermittent-claudication
#2
Stephanie L King, Natalie Vanicek, Thomas D O'Brien
OBJECTIVE: To determine the lower limb joint kinetic strategies during stair descent in claudicants with peripheral arterial disease (PAD-IC). DESIGN: Cross-sectional observation study. SETTING: University laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 22 participants; 10 healthy controls and 12 patients diagnosed with PAD-IC. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Between-group comparisons of ground reaction force (GRF) and, hip, knee and ankle kinetics during steady-state stair descent...
March 26, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620768/a-unified-model-of-grignard-reagent-formation
#3
Yunqi Shao, Zhen Liu, Pan Huang, Boping Liu
Grignard reagents are among the most fundamental reagents in organic synthesis, yet studies have hitherto failed to fully explain the selectivity and kinetics of Grignard reagent formation (GRF). The present study provides new insights into the intermediates and pathways of GRF using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Potential energy surfaces of RX dissociation along different directions reveal the origin of configuration retention of alkenyl and aromatic halides. Radical intermediates participate solely in the dissociation stage, and depend on the geometry of the reactant halide...
April 5, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610989/the-use-of-gait-analysis-in-the-assessment-of-patients-afflicted-with-spinal-disorders
#4
Ram Haddas, Kevin L Ju, Theodore Belanger, Isador H Lieberman
PURPOSE: Use gait analysis to establish and detail the clinically relevant components of normal human gait, analyze the gait characteristics for those afflicted with spinal pathology, and identify those aspects of human gait that correlate with pre- and postoperative patient function and outcomes. METHODS: Twenty patients with adult degenerative scoliosis (ADS), 20 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), and 15 healthy volunteers performed over-ground gait trials with a comfortable self-selected speed using video cameras to measure patient motion, surface electromyography (EMG) to record muscle activity, and force plates to record ground reaction force (GRF)...
April 2, 2018: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587391/nondestructive-estimation-of-muscle-contributions-to-sts-training-with-different-loadings-based-on-wearable-sensor-system
#5
Kun Liu, Yong Liu, Jianchao Yan, Zhenyuan Sun
Partial body weight support or loading sit-to-stand (STS) rehabilitation can be useful for persons with lower limb dysfunction to achieve movement again based on the internal residual muscle force and external assistance. To explicate how the muscles contribute to the kinetics and kinematics of STS performance by non-invasive in vitro detection and to nondestructively estimate the muscle contributions to STS training with different loadings, a wearable sensor system was developed with ground reaction force (GRF) platforms, motion capture inertial sensors and electromyography (EMG) sensors...
March 25, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579620/ground-reaction-forces-during-a-drop-vertical-jump-impact-of-external-load-training
#6
Jeffrey D Simpson, Brandon L Miller, Eric K O'Neal, Harish Chander, Adam C Knight
External load training (ELT) is a supplemental training method used to potentially improve high intensity task performance. However, biomechanical parameters such as ground reaction forces (GRF), ground contact time, and time to peak GRF during a drop vertical jump (DVJ) following an ELT intervention have yet to be examined. Therefore, this study investigated the impact of ELT on certain biomechanical parameters of a DVJ task. Well-trained females stratified into two groups (ELT = 9, Control = 10) completed a DVJ from a 45...
March 23, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578381/stride-length-the-impact-on-propulsion-and-bracing-ground-reaction-force-in-overhand-throwing
#7
Dan K Ramsey, Ryan L Crotin
Propulsion and bracing ground reaction force (GRF) in overhand throwing are integral in propagating joint reaction kinetics and ball velocity, yet how stride length effects drive (hind) and stride (lead) leg GRF profiles remain unknown. Using a randomised crossover design, 19 pitchers (15 collegiate and 4 high school) were assigned to throw 2 simulated 80-pitch games at ±25% of their desired stride length. An integrated motion capture system with two force plates and radar gun tracked each throw. Vertical and anterior-posterior GRF was normalised then impulse was derived...
March 26, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576960/effect-of-fatigue-and-gender-on-kinematics-and-ground-reaction-forces-variables-in-recreational-runners
#8
Bruno Bazuelo-Ruiz, Juan V Durá-Gil, Nicolás Palomares, Enrique Medina, Salvador Llana-Belloch
The presence of fatigue has been shown to modify running biomechanics. Overall in terms of gender, women are at lower risk than men for sustaining running-related injuries, although it depends on the factors taken into account. One possible reason for these differences in the injury rate and location might be the dissimilar running patterns between men and women. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of fatigue and gender on the kinematic and ground reaction forces (GRF) parameters in recreational runners...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567670/conserved-functional-control-but-distinct-regulation-of-cell-proliferation-in-rice-and-arabidopsis-leaves-revealed-by-comparative-analysis-of-grf-interacting-factor-1-orthologs
#9
Satomi Shimano, Ken-Ichiro Hibara, Tomoyuki Furuya, Shin-Ichi Arimura, Hirokazu Tsukaya, Jun-Ichi Itoh
Regulation of cell proliferation is critical for establishing the shape of plant leaves. We identified MAKIBA3 ( MKB3 ), a loss-of-function mutant of which in rice exhibited a narrowed- and rolled-leaf phenotype. MKB3 was found to be an ortholog of Arabidopsis ANGUSTIFOLIA3 ( AN3 ), which positively regulates cell proliferation. The reduced leaf size of mkb3 plants with enlarged cells and the increased size of MKB3- overexpressing leaves with normal-sized cells indicate that MKB3 is a positive regulator of leaf proliferation and that mkb3 mutation triggered a compensation syndrome, as in Arabidopsis an3...
March 22, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566675/development-of-the-great-recess-framework-observational-tool-to-measure-contextual-and-behavioral-components-of-elementary-school-recess
#10
William V Massey, Megan B Stellino, Sean P Mullen, Jennette Claassen, Megan Wilkison
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) remains the primary behavioral outcome associated with school recess, while many other potentially relevant indicators of recess remain unexamined. Few studies have assessed observations of teacher/student interactions, peer conflict, social interactions, or safety within the recess environment. Furthermore, a psychometrically-sound instrument does not exist to examine safety, resources, student engagement, adult engagement, pro-social/anti-social behavior, and student empowerment on the playground...
March 22, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563167/genome-wide-determinants-of-sequence-specific-dna-binding-of-general-regulatory-factors
#11
Matthew J Rossi, William K M Lai, B Franklin Pugh
General regulatory factors (GRFs), such as Reb1, Abf1, Rap1, Mcm1, and Cbf1, positionally organize yeast chromatin through interactions with a core consensus DNA sequence. It is assumed that sequence recognition via direct base readout suffices for specificity and that spurious nonfunctional sites are rendered inaccessible by chromatin. We tested these assumptions through genome-wide mapping of GRFs in vivo and in purified biochemical systems at near-base pair (bp) resolution using several ChIP-exo-based assays...
March 21, 2018: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562485/ground-reaction-force-spinal-kinematics-and-their-relationship-to-lower-back-pain-and-injury-in-cricket-fast-bowling-a-review
#12
Billy Senington, Raymond Y Lee, Jonathan Mark Williams
BACKGROUND: Fast bowlers display a high risk of lower back injury and pain. Studies report factors that may increase this risk, however exact mechanisms remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To provide a contemporary analysis of literature, up to April 2016, regarding fast bowling, spinal kinematics, ground reaction force (GRF), lower back pain (LBP) and pathology. METHOD: Key terms including biomechanics, bowling, spine and injury were searched within MEDLINE, Google Scholar, SPORTDiscuss, Science Citation Index, OAIster, CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, Science Direct and Scopus...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560829/the-mrna-and-mirna-transcriptomic-landscape-of-panax-ginseng-under-the-high-ambient-temperature
#13
Inuk Jung, Hyejin Kang, Jang Uk Kim, Hyeonsook Chang, Sun Kim, Woosuk Jung
BACKGROUND: Ginseng is a popular traditional herbal medicine in north-eastern Asia. It has been used for human health for over thousands of years. With the rise in global temperature, the production of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A.Meyer) in Korea have migrated from mid to northern parts of the Korean peninsula to escape from the various higher temperature related stresses. Under the high ambient temperature, vegetative growth was accelerated, which resulted in early flowering. This precocious phase change led to yield loss...
March 19, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550963/predicting-athlete-ground-reaction-forces-and-moments-from-motion-capture
#14
William R Johnson, Ajmal Mian, Cyril J Donnelly, David Lloyd, Jacqueline Alderson
An understanding of athlete ground reaction forces and moments (GRF/Ms) facilitates the biomechanist's downstream calculation of net joint forces and moments, and associated injury risk. Historically, force platforms used to collect kinetic data are housed within laboratory settings and are not suitable for field-based installation. Given that Newton's Second Law clearly describes the relationship between a body's mass, acceleration, and resultant force, is it possible that marker-based motion capture can represent these parameters sufficiently enough to estimate GRF/Ms, and thereby minimize our reliance on surface embedded force platforms? Specifically, can we successfully use partial least squares (PLS) regression to learn the relationship between motion capture and GRF/Ms data? In total, we analyzed 11 PLS methods and achieved average correlation coefficients of 0...
March 17, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533358/kinetic-analysis-of-horizontal-plyometric-exercise-intensity
#15
Andrew J Kossow, Tyler G DeChiara, Steve M Neahous, William P Ebben
Plyometric exercises are frequently performed as part of a strength and conditioning program. Most studies assessed the kinetics of plyometric exercises primarily performed in the vertical plane. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the multi-planar kinetic characteristics of a variety of plyometric exercises, which have a significant horizontal component. This study also sought to assess sex differences in the intensity progression of these exercises. Ten men and ten women served as subjects. The subjects performed a variety of plyometric exercises including the double leg hop, standing long jump, single leg standing long jump, bounding, skipping, power skipping, cone hops, and 45...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529545/vertical-ground-reaction-force-in-stationary-running-in-water-and-on-land-a-study-with-a-wide-range-of-cadences
#16
Heiliane de Brito Fontana, Caroline Ruschel, Elisa Dell'Antonio, Alessandro Haupenthal, Gustavo Soares Pereira, Helio Roesler
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of cadence, immersion level as well as body density on the vertical component (Fymax ) of ground reaction force (GRF) during stationary running (SR). METHODS: In a controlled, laboratory study, thirty-two subjects ran at a wide range of cadences (85-210 steps/min) in water, immersed to the hip and to the chest, and on dry land. Fymax. was verified by a waterproof force measurement system and predicted based on a statistical model including cadence, immersion ratio and body density...
March 9, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525240/estimation-of-unmeasured-ground-reaction-force-data-based-on-the-oscillatory-characteristics-of-the-center-of-mass-during-human-walking
#17
Hansol X Ryu, Sukyung Park
To enhance the wearability of portable motion-monitoring devices, the size and number of sensors are minimized, but at the expense of quality and quantity of data collected. For example, owing to the size and weight of low-frequency force transducers, most currently available wearable gait measurement systems provide only limited, if any, elements of ground reaction force (GRF) data. To obtain the most GRF information possible with a minimal use of sensors, we propose a GRF estimation method based on biomechanical knowledge of human walking...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524851/gait-strategies-to-reduce-the-dynamic-joint-load-in-the-lower-limbs-during-a-loading-response-in-young-healthy-adults
#18
Toshiki Tajima, Hiroshige Tateuchi, Yumiko Koyama, Tome Ikezoe, Noriaki Ichihashi
Reducing external joint moments during gait can lead to a reduction in dynamic joint load. There has yet to be a detailed investigation of gait strategies that can reduce external joint moments by decreasing the magnitude of ground reaction force (GRF) without reducing the walking speed. The objectives of this study were to verify whether it is possible to reduce external joint moments by decreasing the GRF magnitude without reducing the walking speed and to identify the alternative walking strategy involved in young healthy adults...
March 7, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510857/shoulder-joint-loadings-in-post-total-hip-replacement-surgery-patients-during-assisted-walking-the-influence-of-the-crutch-setup
#19
Marco Freddolini, Francesco Esposito, Leonardo Latella, Massimiliano Marcucci, Andrea Corvi
A crutch is prescribed to permit the patient to walk safely and independently immediately after total hip replacement (THR) surgery. Purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of the crutch setup on upper limbs biomechanics, including shoulder joint kinematics and kinetics parameters that will be evaluated to detect possible differences related to the crutch length. Thirty patients were randomly assigned to elbow flexed (EF) or elbow extended (EE) forearm crutch setup. Subjects were asked to walk on the laboratory path, instrumented with motion tracking system and force platforms...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492341/a-simple-method-of-equine-limb-force-vector-analysis-and-its-potential-applications
#20
Sarah Jane Hobbs, Mark A Robinson, Hilary M Clayton
Background: Ground reaction forces (GRF) measured during equine gait analysis are typically evaluated by analyzing discrete values obtained from continuous force-time data for the vertical, longitudinal and transverse GRF components. This paper describes a simple, temporo-spatial method of displaying and analyzing sagittal plane GRF vectors. In addition, the application of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) is introduced to analyse differences between contra-lateral fore and hindlimb force-time curves throughout the stance phase...
2018: PeerJ
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