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Myung-Ku Kim, Jung-Ro Yoon, Se-Hyun Yang, Young-Soo Shin
PURPOSE: Gait analysis is a valuable instrument for measuring function objectively after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). However, most gait analysis studies have reported conflicting results for functional assessment after UKA. This meta-analysis compared the gait patterns of UKA patients and healthy controls during level walking. METHODS: Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they recorded vertical ground reaction force (GRF), flexion at initial contact, flexion at loading response, extension at mid-stance, flexion at swing, walking speed, cadence, and stride length in UKA patients or healthy controls...
February 15, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Dan Zhang, Wei Sun, Renee Singh, Yuanyuan Zheng, Zheng Cao, Manfei Li, China Lunde, Sarah Hake, Zuxin Zhang
Plant architecture results from a balance of indeterminate and determinate cell fates. Cells with indeterminate fates are located in meristems, comprising groups of pluripotent cells that produce lateral organs. Meristematic cells are also found in intercalary stem tissue, which provides cells for internodes, and at leaf margins to contribute to leaf width. We identified a maize (Zea mays) mutant that has a defect in balancing determinacy and indeterminacy. The mutant has narrow leaves and short internodes, suggesting a reduction in indeterminate cells in the leaf and stem...
February 5, 2018: Plant Cell
Meng Li, Jianhao Yan, Shumei Li, Tianyue Wang, Hua Wen, Yi Yin, Shishun Fu, Luxian Zeng, Junzhang Tian, Guihua Jiang
Previous neuroimaging studies have reported brain morphological alterations and the occurrence of mental disorders in primary insomnia (PI) patients. However, studies of the effect of disrupted sleep on brain structure have showed inconsistent results. In this study, DARTEL-VBM was used to evaluate the changes in gray matter volume from 60 PI patients and 53 controls. Voxel-wise statistics was performed in two ways. One is a more liberal statistical analysis using an uncorrected P < 0. 001 with 25 voxels, and the other one is a more conservative approach using a threshold of P < 0...
February 6, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Derek N Pamukoff, Melissa M Montgomery, Kevin Choe, Tyler J Moffit, Michael N Vakula
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) on running biomechanics in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). DESIGN: Single-blind randomized crossover trial. SETTING: Research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: 20 individuals with unilateral ACLR (age=22.3 (3.3) years; mass=71.8 (15.3) kg; time since ACLR=44.9 (22.8) months; 15 females, 10 patellar tendon autograft, 7 hamstrings autograft, 3 allograft; International Knee Documentation Committee Score=83...
January 30, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Keiji Koyama, Junichiro Yamauchi
This study was to investigate the acute effects of wearing shoes on lower limb kinetics, kinematics and muscle activation during a drop jump. Eighteen healthy men performed a drop jump under barefoot and shod conditions. Vertical ground reaction force (GRF) was measured on a force plate during the contact phase of a drop jump, and GRF valuables were calculated for each condition. The angles of the knee and ankle joints, and the foot strike angle (the angle between the plantar surface of the foot and the ground during ground contact) as well as the electromyography of 7 muscles were measured...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Jennifer A Lockhart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2018: Plant Cell
Sean J Maloney, Joanna Richards, Iain M Fletcher
The current study sought to compare vertical stiffness during bilateral and unilateral drop jumping. Specifically, the inter-session reliabilities and force-deformation profiles associated with each task were to be examined. On three occasions, following familiarisation, fourteen healthy males (age: 22 ± 2 years; height: 1.77 ± 0.08 m; body mass: 73.5 ± 8.0 kg) performed three bilateral, left leg and right leg drop jumps. All jumps were performed from a drop height of 0.18 m on to a dual force plate system...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Yunfeng Lin, Liping Bai, Steven Cupello, Md Akram Hossain, Bradley Deem, Melissa McLeod, Jude Raj, Shan Yan
As the most common type of DNA damage, DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) are primarily repaired by the SSB repair mechanism. If not repaired properly or promptly, unrepaired SSBs lead to genome stability and have been implicated in cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. However, it remains unknown how unrepaired SSBs are recognized by DNA damage response (DDR) pathway, largely because of the lack of a feasible experimental system. Here, we demonstrate evidence showing that an ATR-dependent checkpoint signaling is activated by a defined plasmid-based site-specific SSB structure in Xenopus HSS (high-speed supernatant) system...
January 19, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Tung-Chou Li, Keng-Hua Tu, Huei-Sheng Shiue, Mau-Roung Lin
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of cane use and cane positions on the sit-to-stand (STS) performance of stroke patients. DESIGN: In a crossover study, 30 stroke patients performed STS test in seven situations in a random sequence: without a cane, three positions with a regular cane (parallel to the ankle, parallel to the 5th toe, and 10 cm in front of the 5th toe), and the same three positions with a quad cane. The peak vertical ground reaction force (GRF) and maximum vertical cane support force during STS were recorded...
January 23, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
María Florencia Ercoli, Antonella Ferela, Juan M Debernardi, Ana Paula Perrone, Ramiro E Rodriguez, Javier Fernando Palatnik
In the root meristem, the quiescent center (QC) is surrounded by stem cells, which in turn generate the different cell types of the root. QC cells rarely divide under normal conditions but can replenish damaged stem cells. In the proximal meristem, the daughters of stem cells, which are referred to as transit amplifying cells, undergo additional rounds of cell division prior to differentiation. Here, we describe the functions of GRF-INTERACTING FACTORs (GIFs), including ANGUSTIFOLIA3 (AN3), in Arabidopsis thaliana roots...
January 18, 2018: Plant Cell
Jenniffer Bustillos, Cheng Zhang, Benjamin Boesl, Arvind Agarwal
The adhesion of ice severely compromises the aerodynamic performance of aircrafts operating under critically low-temperature conditions to their surfaces. In this study, highly thermally and electrically conductive graphene foam polymer composite is fabricated. GrF - polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) deicing composite exhibit superior deicing efficiency of 477 % and electrical conductivities of 500 S∙m-1 with only 0.1 vol. % Graphene foam addition as compared to other nanocarbon - based deicing systems. The three-dimensional interconnected architecture of GrF allows the effective deicing of surfaces by employing low power densities (0...
January 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jae P Yom, Tane Owens, Scott Arnett, Justin Beebe, Veronica Son
Unanticipated direction to cut after landing may alter the lower extremity landing biomechanics when performing landing motions. These alterations may potentially increase the risk of ACL injury. The purpose of this study was to determine if an unanticipated side-cut affects lower extremity landing biomechanics in females. Eighteen recreational female athletes participated in two blocks of testing: the first block of testing consisted of three acceptable trials of anticipated dominant limb and non-dominant limb 45-degree diagonal cutting after landing, which were performed in a counterbalanced order...
January 16, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Seung-Hyun Hyun, Che-Cheong Ryew
The aim of this study is to compare and analyze the components of ground reaction force (GRF) relative to the foothold heights during downward step of 16-t truck. Adult males (n= 10) jumped downward from each 1st, 2nd, 3rd foothold step and driver's seat orderly using hand rail. Sampling rate of force components of 3 axis (medial-lateral [ML] GRF, anterior-posterior [AP] GRF, peak vertical force [PVF]), variables (COPx, COPy, COP area) of center of pressure (COP), loading rate, and stability index (ML, AP, vertical, and dynamic postural stability index [DPSI]) processed from GRF system was cut off at 1,000 Hz...
December 2017: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Jeffrey D Simpson, Hunter DeBusk, Christopher Hill, Adam Knight, Harish Chander
BACKGROUND: Ankle sprains are a common orthopedic injury in military populations, which may be attributed to occupational demands and footwear. Minimalist military boots have become popular, but their influence on ground reaction force (GRF) attenuation capabilities during an ankle inversion perturbation are unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine potential differences in GRFs during an ankle inversion perturbation in a standard issue (STN) and minimalist military boot (MIN) before and after a simulated military workload...
November 22, 2017: Foot
Mitsuo Otsuka, Toshiyuki Kurihara, Tadao Isaka
PURPOSE: Unilateral leg stiffness is a key contributor to sprint running speed, thereby great bilateral deficit (BLD) of leg stiffness would be expected to be observed in sprinters. However, it remains clear only BLD of leg stiffness at the preferred hopping frequency in non-sprinters. The purpose of this study was to clarify the BLD of spring-like behaviour in hopping at various frequencies and the effect of chronic adaptation via sprint running experience on BLD during the hopping. METHODS: Fifteen male experienced sprinters and 12 male novices participated in this study...
December 20, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Yanfei Guan, Li Guo, Nana Wu, Lingli Zhang, Darren E R Warburton
For fencing, speed of the lunge is considered critical to success. The aim of this study is to investigate determinants of lunge speed based on biomechanics. Ground reaction force (GRF) and three-dimensional kinematic data were collected from 7 elite fencers and 12 intermediate-level fencers performing maximum-effort lunges. The results showed that elite fencers acquired a higher horizontal peak velocity of the centre of gravity (HPV) and concomitantly a higher horizontal peak GRF exerted by rear leg (PGRF) than intermediate-level fencers (P < ...
December 17, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
Di Wu, Chao Zheng, Ji Wu, Longfeng Wang, Xiang Wei, Lizheng Wang
INTRODUCTION: Knee injuries are common among paratroopers and skydivers during landing maneuvers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dropping height and the use of protective knee braces on parachute landing biomechanics. METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 30 male elite paratroopers with formal parachute landing training and more than 2 yr of parachute jumping experience. Each participant was instructed to jump off a platform at two different heights (40 and 80 cm, respectively) and land on force plates in a half-squat posture...
January 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Arinori Kamono, Mizuki Kato, Naomichi Ogihara
Clarifying the biomechanics of cane-assisted gait in elderly individuals and patients with gait disorders is important for developing better therapeutic interventions in the fields of rehabilitation and orthopedics. However, if the foot and the cane in the ipsilateral hand are placed on the same force plate simultaneously, the force plate cannot separate the forces as it records the sum of the forces. To overcome this indeterminacy problem of the ground reaction force (GRF) and the center of pressure (COP) in cane-assisted gait analysis, a method to partition the GRF and COP using an instrumented cane with a force transducer has been proposed...
November 28, 2017: Gait & Posture
Rong Li, Wei Liao, Yangyang Yu, Heng Chen, Xiaonan Guo, Ye-Lei Tang, Huafu Chen
Benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) is characterized by abnormal (static) functional interactions among cortical and subcortical regions, regardless of the active or chronic epileptic state. However, human brain connectivity is dynamic and associated with ongoing rhythmic activity. The dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) of the distinct striato-cortical circuitry associated with or without interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) are poorly understood in BECTS. Herein, we captured the pattern of dFC using sliding window correlation of putamen subregions in the BECTS (without IEDs, n = 23; with IEDs, n = 20) and sex- and age-matched healthy controls (HCs, n = 28) during rest...
December 5, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
M C Erlandson, S Hounjet, T Treen, J L Lanovaz
Weight bearing (WB) activity is important for healthy skeletal development. The magnitude of loading during WB activities, especially upper limb impacts, has yet to be quantified in children. This study quantifies ground reaction forces (GRF) experienced by children performing WB activities and examines the contribution of body weight (BW) to GRF. Fifty children, aged 8-12 were recruited (34 males). GRF were measured using force plates during 20 upper and lower limb activities (such as landing on the feet and hands)...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
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