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Yohei Shimokochi, Jatin P Ambegaonkar, Eric G Meyer
CONTEXT:  Ground reaction force (GRF) and tibiofemoral force magnitudes and directions have been shown to affect anterior cruciate ligament loading during landing. However, the kinematic and kinetic factors modifying these 2 forces during landing are unknown. OBJECTIVE:  To clarify the intersegmental kinematic and kinetic links underlying the alteration of the GRF and tibiofemoral force vectors secondary to changes in the sagittal-plane body position during single-legged landing...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
Xiaoxing Zhang, Lei Yu, Xiaoqing Wu, Weihua Hu
A gas sensor is used to detect SF6 decomposed gases, which are related to insulation faults, to accurately assess the insulated status of electrical equipment. Graphene films (GrF) modified with Au nanoparticles are used as an adsorbent for the detection of H2S and SOF2, which are two characteristic products of SF6 decomposed gases. Sensing experiments are conducted at room temperature. Results demonstrate that Au-modified GrF yields opposite responses to the tested gases and is thus considered a promising material for developing H2S- and SOF2-selective sensors...
November 2015: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Gaspare Pavei, Elena Seminati, Jorge Ll Storniolo, Leonardo A Peyré-Tartaruga
We compared running mechanics parameters determined from ground reaction force (GRF) measurements with estimated forces obtained from double differentiation of kinematic (K) data from motion analysis in a broad spectrum of running speeds (1.94-5.56 m·s(-1)). Data were collected through a force-instrumented treadmill and compared at different sampling frequencies (900 and 300 Hz for GRF, 300 and 100 Hz for K). Vertical force peak, shape, and impulse were similar between K methods and GRF. Contact time, flight time and vertical stiffness (kvert) obtained from K showed the same trend as GRF with differences <5%, whereas leg stiffness (kleg) was not correctly computed by kinematics...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Suzi Edwards, Hiram C Brooke, Jill L Cook
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore the differences in the magnitude of movement variability and strategies utilized during an unanticipated cut task between players with and without a history of groin pain. DESIGN: Cross-sectional design. SETTING: Biomechanics laboratory. PARTICIANTS: Male Australian football players with (HISTORY; n = 7) or without (CONTROL; n = 10) a history of groin pain. OUTCOME MEASURES: Three-dimensional ground reaction forces (GRF) and kinematics were recorded during 10 successful trials of an unanticipated cut task, and isokinetic hip adduction and abduction strength...
July 22, 2016: Physical Therapy in Sport
J Bruns, K Raabe, G Deuretzbacher
We analysed nine patients who had had a megaprosthesis implanted into the distal femur and knee joint for treatment of sarcomas. Data obtained from the leg operated on were compared with those from the contralateral side and healthy volunteers. Gait data, kinematics, ground reaction forces and the EMG from five muscles around the knee joint were analysed by means of a video-based analysis system recording data from reflection markers ; a Kistler-plate recorded the GRF and a ten channel surface EMG the muscle activity...
August 2016: Acta Orthopaedica Belgica
Lee A Bridgeman, Michael R McGuigan, Nicholas D Gill, Deborah Dulson
The aims of this study were to (A) investigate the acute effects of different drop jump (DJ) accentuated eccentric loading (AEL) protocols and (B) to investigate the effect of these AEL DJ protocols on subsequent countermovement jump (CMJ) performance. The subjects were 12 strength-trained athletes, initially, baseline CMJ performance was assessed and individual optimal DJ drop height identified. In subsequent weeks subjects completed 1 set of 5 DJ's with no additional load or an AEL of 10, 20 or 30% of their individual body mass (BM) utilising dumbbells to provide the extra load...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Cynthia J Wright, Shelley W Linens, Mary Spencer Cain
CONTEXT: There is minimal patient-oriented evidence regarding the effectiveness of interventions targeted to reduce symptoms associated with chronic ankle instability (CAI). Additionally, clinicians aiming to prioritize care by implementing only the most effective components of a rehabilitative program have very little evidence on comparative efficacy. OBJECTIVE: To assess the comparative efficacy of two common ankle rehabilitation techniques [wobble board (WB) balance training and ankle strengthening using resistance tubing (RT)] using patient-oriented outcomes...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Ram Haddas, Steven F Sawyer, Phillip S Sizer, Toby Brooks, Ming-Chien Chyu, C Roger James
INTRODUCTION: Recurrent LBP (rLBP) and neuromuscular fatigue are independently thought to increase the risk of lower extremity (LE) injury. Volitional preemptive abdominal contraction (VPAC) is thought to improve lumbar spine and pelvis control in individuals with rLBP. The effects of VPAC on fatigued landing performance in individuals with rLBP are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of VPAC and LE fatigue on landing performance in a rLBP population. DESIGN: Cross-sectional pretest-posttest cohort control design...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Bastiaan Breine, Philippe Malcolm, Ine Van Caekenberghe, Pieter Fiers, Edward C Frederick, Dirk De Clercq
This study assessed kinematic differences between different foot strike patterns and their relationship with peak vertical instantaneous loading rate (VILR) of the ground reaction force (GRF). Fifty-two runners ran at 3.2 m · s(-1) while we recorded GRF and lower limb kinematics and determined foot strike pattern: Typical or Atypical rearfoot strike (RFS), midfoot strike (MFS) of forefoot strike (FFS). Typical RFS had longer contact times and a lower leg stiffness than Atypical RFS and MFS. Typical RFS showed a dorsiflexed ankle (7...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Duncan P Fransz, Arnold Huurnink, Vosse A de Boode, Idsart Kingma, Jaap H van Dieën
The single leg drop jump landing test may assess dynamic and static balance abilities in different phases of the landing. However objective definitions of different phases following landing and associated reliability are lacking. Therefore, we determined the existence of possible distinct phases of single leg drop jump landing on a force plate in 82 elite youth soccer players. Three outcome measures were calculated over moving windows of five sizes: center of pressure (COP) speed, COP sway and horizontal ground reaction force (GRF)...
September 4, 2016: Gait & Posture
Shalaya Kipp, Paolo Taboga, Rodger Kram
Athletes in the 3,000 m steeplechase track and field event negotiate unmovable hurdles and waterjumps. Ground reaction forces (GRF) in the steeplechase were quantified to elucidate injury risks / mechanisms and to inform coaches. Five male and five female steeplechasers participated. GRF were measured during treadmill running, and using specially mounted force platforms, during hurdle and waterjump takeoffs and landings at 5.54 m/s (males) or 5.00 m/s (females). Results are presented as: male mean ± SD / female mean ± SD...
September 5, 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Tracey Jones-Hughes, Tristan Snowsill, Marcela Haasova, Helen Coelho, Louise Crathorne, Chris Cooper, Ruben Mujica-Mota, Jaime Peters, Jo Varley-Campbell, Nicola Huxley, Jason Moore, Matt Allwood, Jenny Lowe, Chris Hyde, Martin Hoyle, Mary Bond, Rob Anderson
BACKGROUND: End-stage renal disease is a long-term irreversible decline in kidney function requiring renal replacement therapy: kidney transplantation, haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. The preferred option is kidney transplantation, followed by immunosuppressive therapy (induction and maintenance therapy) to reduce the risk of kidney rejection and prolong graft survival. OBJECTIVES: To review and update the evidence for the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of basiliximab (BAS) (Simulect(®), Novartis Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd) and rabbit anti-human thymocyte immunoglobulin (rATG) (Thymoglobulin(®), Sanofi) as induction therapy, and immediate-release tacrolimus (TAC) (Adoport(®), Sandoz; Capexion(®), Mylan; Modigraf(®), Astellas Pharma; Perixis(®), Accord Healthcare; Prograf(®), Astellas Pharma; Tacni(®), Teva; Vivadex(®), Dexcel Pharma), prolonged-release tacrolimus (Advagraf(®) Astellas Pharma), belatacept (BEL) (Nulojix(®), Bristol-Myers Squibb), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) (Arzip(®), Zentiva; CellCept(®), Roche Products; Myfenax(®), Teva), mycophenolate sodium (MPS) (Myfortic(®), Novartis Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd), sirolimus (SRL) (Rapamune(®), Pfizer) and everolimus (EVL) (Certican(®), Novartis) as maintenance therapy in adult renal transplantation...
August 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Helena Baptista, Jorge M Mendes, Ying C MacNab, Miguel Xavier, José Caldas-de-Almeida
Conditionally specified Gaussian Markov random field (GMRF) models with adjacency-based neighbourhood weight matrix, commonly known as neighbourhood-based GMRF models, have been the mainstream approach to spatial smoothing in Bayesian disease mapping. In the present paper, we propose a conditionally specified Gaussian random field (GRF) model with a similarity-based non-spatial weight matrix to facilitate non-spatial smoothing in Bayesian disease mapping. The model, named similarity-based GRF, is motivated for modelling disease mapping data in situations where the underlying small area relative risks and the associated determinant factors do not vary systematically in space, and the similarity is defined by "similarity" with respect to the associated disease determinant factors...
August 2016: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
María de Los Ángeles Stefanelli, María Teresa Valenzuela, Marcela Cárcamo, Cinthya Urquidi, Gabriel Cavada, Pamela San Martín P
BACKGROUND: The global fertility rate (GFR) is defined as the mean number of children that a woman could have in a hypothetical cohort, not exposed to death during the fertile period. GFR has fallen from 3.4 to 1.9 children per women in the period 1970-2010. AIM: To explore the relationship between the fall in GFR and the incorporation of women to work in the period 1960-2011. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from the National Statistics Institute was used...
May 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
David Zahradnik, Daniel Jandacka, Roman Farana, Jaroslav Uchytil, Joseph Hamill
Landing with a low knee flexion angle after volleyball block jumps may be associated with an increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The aim of the present study was to identify the types of volleyball landings after blocks where the knee flexion angle is found to be under a critical knee flexion angle value of 30° at the instant of the first peak of the ground reaction force (GRF). Synchronized kinematic and kinetic data were collected for each trial. T-tests were used to determine if each knee flexion angle at the instant of the peak GRF was significantly different from the critical value of 30°...
August 22, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
M Salihu, B O Ajayi, I A Adedara, D de Souza, J B T Rocha, E O Farombi
This study evaluated the protective effects of 6-gingerol-rich fraction (6-GRF) from Zingiber officinale on carbendazim (CBZ)-induced reproductive toxicity in rats. Adult male rats were treated with either CBZ (50 mg/kg) alone or in combination with 6-GRF (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis revealed that 6-GRF consists of ten bioactive chemical components with 6-gingerol being the most abundant (30.76%). Administration of 6-GRF significantly (p < ...
August 22, 2016: Andrologia
Kevin Roy, Jason Gabunilas, Abigail Gillespie, Duy Ngo, Guillaume F Chanfreau
RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription termination by the Nrd1p-Nab3p-Sen1p (NNS) pathway is critical for the production of stable noncoding RNAs and the control of pervasive transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae To uncover determinants of NNS termination, we mapped the 3'-ends of NNS-terminated transcripts genome-wide. We found that nucleosomes and specific DNA-binding proteins, including the general regulatory factors (GRFs) Reb1p, Rap1p, and Abf1p, and Pol III transcription factors enhance the efficiency of NNS termination by physically blocking Pol II progression...
October 2016: Genome Research
Yang Qin, Chengzhen Liu, Suisui Jiang, Jinmiao Cao, Liu Xiong, Qingjie Sun
Glutinous rice flour (GRF) and glutinous rice starch (GRS) were modified by dry-heat treatment and their rheological, thermal properties and freeze-thaw stability were evaluated. Compared with the native GRF and GRS, the water-holding ability of modified GRF and GRS were enhanced. Both the onset and peak temperatures of the modified samples increased while the endothermic enthalpy change decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, dry heating remarkably increased the apparent viscosities of both GRF and GRS...
2016: PloS One
Kai Gui, Dingguo Zhang
This paper investigates the relationship of biomechanical subtasks, and muscle synergies with various locomotion speeds. Ground reaction force (GRF) of eight healthy subjects is measured synchronously by force plates of treadmill at five different speeds ranging from 0.5m/s to 1.5m/s. Four basic biomechanical subtasks, body support, propulsion, swing, and heel strike preparation, are identified according to GRF. Meanwhile, electromyography (EMG) data, used to extract muscle synergies, are collected from lower limb muscles...
October 2016: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Su-Bin Joo, Seung Eel Oh, Joung Hwan Mun
In this study, we describe a method to predict 6-axis ground reaction forces based solely on plantar pressure (PP) data obtained from insole type measurement devices free of space limitations. Because only vertical force is calculable from PP data, a wavelet neural network derived from a non-linear mapping function was used to obtain 3-axis ground reaction force in medial-lateral (GRFML), anterior-posterior (GRFAP) and vertical (GRFV) and 3-axis ground reaction moment in sagittal (GRFS), frontal (GRFF) and transverse (GRFT) data for the remaining axes and planes...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
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