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Andrea Pica, Giuseppe Graziano
Cononsolvency refers to the experimental finding that poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), PNIPAM, has a coil conformation in both pure water and pure methanol, at 20 °C and 1 atm, but assumes a globule conformation in methanol-water solutions, over the 0.1 ≤ X(MeOH) ≤ 0.4 methanol molar fraction. This strange phenomenon has recently been rationalized by claiming that: (a) MeOH molecules are able to bind two distant monomers in the chain, driving collapse [Nat. Commun., 2014, 5, 4882]; (b) the preferential binding of MeOH stabilizes globule conformations due to a conformational entropy gain of the chain [J...
September 14, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Ondra Petr, Alena Sejkorová, Ondřej Bradáč, Waleed Brinjikji, Giuseppe Lanzino
INTRODUCTION: We conducted a systematic review of the literature to evaluate the safety and efficacy of treatment strategies for PICA aneurysms. METHODS: A systematic search of Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, and Web of Science was done for studies published through November 2015. We included studies that described treatment of PICA aneurysms with ≥10 patients. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to pool the following outcomes: complete occlusion, technical success, periprocedural morbidity/mortality, stroke rates, aneurysm recurrence/rebleed, CN palsies rates, and long-term neurological morbidity/mortality...
October 7, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
Daperno Marco, Comberlato Michele, Bossa Fabrizio, Alessandro Armuzzi, Biancone Livia, Bonanomi G Andrea, Cosintino Rocco, Lombardi Giovanni, Mangiarotti Roberto, Papa Alfredo, Pica Roberta, Luca Grassano, Pagana Guido, D'Incà Renata, Orlando Ambrogio, Rizzello Fernando
BACKGROUNDS AND AIMS: Endoscopic outcomes are increasingly used in clinical trials and in routine practice for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in order to reach more objective patient evaluations than using only clinical features. However reproducibility of endoscopic scoring systems used to categorize endoscopic activity was reported to be suboptimal.Aim of this study was to analyse the inter-rated agreement of non-dedicated Gastroenterologists on IBD endoscopic scoring systems, and to explore the effects of a dedicated training programme on agreement...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Caterina Borgna-Pignatti, Sara Zanella
Pica is the compulsive eating of non-nutritive substances. It is often associated with iron deficiency but its pathophysiology is unknown. Areas covered: We searched the literature using the keywords listed below. Our aim was to describe the phenomenon in its various aspects, to touch briefly on the historical and cultural background, and to examine in more detail the studies that tried to analyze the relative roles of iron deficiency and pica. Expert commentary: Pica is an intriguing symptom known for centuries...
October 4, 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
Wandee Thiangtum, J Thomas Schonewille, Martin Wa Verstegen, Supot Arsawakulsudhi, Theera Rukkwamsuk, Wouter H Hendriks
BACKGROUND: Factorial determination of the sodium (Na) requirement of heat stressed lactating cows is hindered by accurate estimates of the Na losses through sweat. Direct studies, therefore, may be needed requiring information on the time course of healthy animals to become Na depleted and the subsequent rate of repletion. The rate of Na depletion and subsequent rate of Na repletion with two levels of dietary Na to lactating dairy cows housed under tropical conditions was investigated using the salivary Na/K...
October 3, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
T Gregg Davis
The ability to assess the potential for gastrointestinal adverse events in a preclinical setting is a challenge in the development of new drugs, as the vast majority of in vivo research is conducted in rodent species lacking a vomiting reflex. The use of higher species capable of emesis is often limited by cost, technical experience, and relevant efficacy models to define a therapeutic index. Additionally, investigators should be mindful of ethical considerations when using more sentient species when an alternative in lower species is available...
October 3, 2016: Current Protocols in Neuroscience
Serena Leone, Andrea Pica, Antonello Merlino, Filomena Sannino, Piero Andrea Temussi, Delia Picone
Sweet proteins are a family of proteins with no structure or sequence homology, able to elicit a sweet sensation in humans through their interaction with the dimeric T1R2-T1R3 sweet receptor. In particular, monellin and its single chain derivative (MNEI) are among the sweetest proteins known to men. Starting from a careful analysis of the surface electrostatic potentials, we have designed new mutants of MNEI with enhanced sweetness. Then, we have included in the most promising variant the stabilising mutation E23Q, obtaining a construct with enhanced performances, which combines extreme sweetness to high, pH-independent, thermal stability...
2016: Scientific Reports
Seong Ho Lee, Jae Sung Park, Young Hwan Ahn
OBJECTIVE: Microvascular decompression (MVD) for hemifacial spasm (HFS) involving the vertebral artery (VA) can be technically challenging. We investigated the therapeutic effects of a bioglue-coated Teflon sling technique on the VA during MVD in 42 cases. METHODS: A bioglue-coated Teflon sling was crafted by the surgeon and applied to patients in whom neurovascular compression was caused by the VA. The radiologic data, intra-operative findings with detailed introduction of the procedure, and the clinical outcomes of each patient were reviewed and analyzed...
September 2016: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
Freda Dzifa Intiful, Edwin Kwame Wiredu, George Awuku Asare, Matilda Asante, David Nana Adjei
INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy during the adolescent period is challenging mainly because of the nutritional demands of both the adolescent and pregnancy period. The risk for anaemia increases especially in developing countries such as Ghana where malaria is endemic and the practice of pica is common. In this study, we sought to determine the prevalence of anaemia, pica practice and malaria infection among pregnant adolescent girls and assess the extent to which these factors are associated...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Yasuhiko Kaku, Hiroaki Takei, Masafumi Miyai, Kentarou Yamashita, Jouji Kokuzawa
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cerebral revascularization strategies may become necessary in select patients who present with challenging cerebral aneurysms. In this study, we present the techniques of a moderate-flow extra-intracranial bypass using a short interposition vein graft and concurrent aneurysm management. METHODS: The short interposition vein graft was used for the reconstruction of complex cerebral aneurysms in nine patients. In eight of them, the superficial temporal artery (STA) main trunk was used as a donor site for the anastomosis of a short interposition vein graft, and an extracranial vertebral artery (VA) was used in one case...
2016: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
P Vaněk, Ondřej Bradáč, P de Lacy, R Konopková, J Lacman, V Beneš
There are numerous indications for stabilization using instrumentation of the upper cervical spine. This area is comprised of sophisticated anatomy. There is no study describing bony and vascular anomalies of this area in the middle European population. The main aim of this study was to investigate prevalence of any vertebral artery (VA) variations and osseous anomalies in the region of the craniocervical junction in a large sample of Czech patients based on three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (3D CTA)...
September 13, 2016: Neurosurgical Review
Claudio Cassieri, Roberta Pica, Eleonora V Avallone, Maddalena Zippi, Pietro Crispino, Daniela De Nitto, Paolo Paoluzi, Giovanni Brandimarte, Piera Giuseppina Lecca, Walter Elisei, Marcello Picchio, Antonio Tursi
BACKGROUND: Diverticulosis of the colon is an acquired condition that results from herniation of the mucosa and submucosa through defects in the muscular layer. The true prevalence of colonic diverticulosis is difficult to measure because most individuals are asymptomatic. In particularly, in literature, there are few studies about the prevalence of colonic diverticulosis in patients affected by ulcerative colitis (UC). GOALS: To investigate the prevalence of colonic diverticulosis in UC and in adult patients referred in a single center...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Abdulai Abubakari, Albrecht Jahn
BACKGROUND: Adequate maternal nutrition is a key factor for achieving good pregnancy outcomes. Moreover, inadequate dietary intake during pregnancy is considered an important contributor to maternal malnutrition in developing countries. Although some studies have examined the effect of the entire diet on birth outcome, most studies have been very narrow because they considered the effect of single nutrient. The single nutrient approach is a major setback because usually several nutrient deficiencies are more likely to occur than single deficiencies especially in low-income settings...
2016: PloS One
Aneta Michalska, Natalia Szejko, Andrzej Jakubczyk, Marcin Wojnar
AIM: The aim of this paper was to characterise nonspecific eating disorders (other than anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa). METHOD: The Medline database was searched for articles on nonspecific eating disorders. The following disorders were described: binge eating disorder (BED), pica, rumination disorder, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, night eating syndrome (NES), sleep-related eating disorder (SRED), bigorexia, orthorexia, focusing on diagnosis, symptoms, assessment, comorbidities, clinical implications and treatment...
2016: Psychiatria Polska
Sergio Carmona, Carlos Martínez, Guillermo Zalazar, Marcela Moro, Angel Batuecas-Caletrio, Leonel Luis, Carlos Gordon
The head impulse, nystagmus type, test of skew (HINTS) protocol set a new paradigm to differentiate peripheral vestibular disease from stroke in patients with acute vestibular syndrome (AVS). The relationship between degree of truncal ataxia and stroke has not been systematically studied in patients with AVS. We studied a group of 114 patients who were admitted to a General Hospital due to AVS, 72 of them with vestibular neuritis (based on positive head impulse, abnormal caloric tests, and negative MRI) and the rest with stroke: 32 in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) territory (positive HINTS findings, positive MRI) and 10 in the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) territory (variable findings and grade 3 ataxia, positive MRI)...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Dao Pei Zhang, Qian Kun Ma, Jie Wen Zhang, Shu Ling Zhang, Gui Feng Lu, Suo Yin
Vertebral artery hypoplasia (VAH) has been considered a risk factor of posterior circulation infarction (PCI), especially in the territory of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). But whether VAH is an independent risk factor for PCI remains uncertain and how VAH participates in the evolvement of PCI is still not clear either. Therefore, this study aims to examine whether VAH is an independent risk factor for PCI and evaluate the effect of VAH on the cerebral perfusion in the territory of the PICA detected by perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) semiquantitatively...
September 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Stefania Puce, Daniela Pica, Stefano Schiaparelli, Enrico Negrisolo
Stylasteridae is a hydroid family including 29 worldwide-distributed genera, all provided with a calcareous skeleton. They are abundant in shallow and deep waters and represent an important component of marine communities. In the present paper, we studied the evolution of ten morphological characters, currently used in stylasterid taxonomy, using a phylogenetic approach. Our results indicate that stylasterid morphology is highly plastic and that many events of independent evolution and reversion have occurred...
2016: PloS One
Collin M Torok, Raul G Nogueira, Albert J Yoo, Thabele M Leslie-Mazwi, Joshua A Hirsch, Christopher J Stapleton, Aman B Patel, James D Rabinov
PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to present a case series of transarterial venous sinus occlusion for dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) of the transverse and sigmoid sinuses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2006 to 2012, 11 patients with DAVF of the transverse and sigmoid sinuses were treated with transarterial closure of the affected venous sinus using ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (ONYX). The consecutive retrospective cohort included six female and five male patients with an age range of 30-79...
August 16, 2016: Interventional Neuroradiology
John F Magnotti, Anthony A Wright, Kevin Leonard, Jeffrey S Katz, Debbie M Kelly
relational concepts depend upon relationships between stimuli (e.g., same vs. different) and transcend features of the training stimuli. Recent evidence shows that learning abstract concepts is shared across a variety species including birds. Our recent work with a highly-skilled food-storing bird, Clark's nutcracker, revealed superior same/different abstract-concept learning compared to rhesus monkeys, capuchin monkeys, and pigeons. Here we test a more social, but less reliant on food-storing, corvid species, the Black-billed magpie (Pica hudsonia)...
August 8, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Abdullah Cakir, Massimo Pica Ciamarra
We investigate the emergence of the continuum elastic limit from the atomistic description of matter at zero temperature considering how locally defined elastic quantities depend on the coarse graining length scale. Results obtained numerically investigating different model systems are rationalized in a unifying picture according to which the continuum elastic limit emerges through a process determined by two system properties, the degree of disorder, and a length scale associated to the transverse low-frequency vibrational modes...
August 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
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