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Huihui Sun, Naijun Wan, Xinli Wang, Liang Chang, Dazhi Cheng
18p deletion syndrome is a rare chromosomal disease caused by deletion of the short arm of chromosome 18. By using cytogenetic and SNP array analysis, we identified a girl with 18p deletion syndrome exhibiting craniofacial anomalies, intellectual disability, and short stature. G-banding analysis of metaphase cells revealed an abnormal karyotype 46,XX,del(18)(p10). Further, SNP array detected a 15.3-Mb deletion at 18p11.21p11.32 (chr18:12842-15375878) including 61 OMIM genes. Genotype-phenotype correlation analysis showed that clinical manifestations of the patient were correlated with LAMA1, TWSG1, and GNAL deletions...
March 16, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Tiffany Field
The increasing prevalence of postnatal anxiety highlights the need for summarizing the recent research on this condition to inform screening and intervention efforts. This narrative review of the literature was derived from a search on PubMed and PsycINFO for papers published since 2010. The demographic risk factors for postnatal anxiety include being a young mother, having more education and being employed. Childbirth risk factors include being primiparous in one sample and multiparous in another, caesarean delivery, fear of the birth and of death during delivery, lack of control during labor, low self-confidence for the delivery and the delivery staff, and premature delivery...
March 12, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Lucie Angel, Badiâa Bouazzaoui, Michel Isingrini, Séverine Fay, Laurence Taconnat, Sandrine Vanneste, Moïse Ledoux, Valérie Gissot, Caroline Hommet, Fréderic Andersson, Laurent Barantin, Jean-Philippe Cottier, Jérémy Pasco, Thomas Desmidt, Frédéric Patat, Vincent Camus, Jean-Pierre Remenieras
Aging is characterized by a cognitive decline of fluid abilities and is also associated with electrophysiological changes. The vascular hypothesis proposes that brain is sensitive to vascular dysfunction which may accelerate age-related brain modifications and thus explain age-related neurocognitive decline. To test this hypothesis, cognitive performance was measured in 39 healthy participants from 20 to 80 years, using tests assessing inhibition, fluid intelligence, attention and crystallized abilities. Brain functioning associated with attentional abilities was assessed by measuring the P3b ERP component elicited through an auditory oddball paradigm...
March 12, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Casey R Guillot, Heidemarie Blumenthal, Michael J Zvolensky, Norman B Schmidt
Anxiety sensitivity (AS)- fear of anxiety symptoms and their potential negative consequences-has been implicated in the development of substance use problems and motivation to use substances for coping with distress, though the AS components (physical, cognitive, and social concerns) have not been studied extensively in relation to alcohol- and cannabis-related variables. In a cross-sectional design, self-report measures of AS and alcohol and cannabis use, motives, and problems were administered to 364 treatment-seeking cigarette smokers with a history of alcohol and cannabis use...
March 8, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Linda D Cameron, Paul Carroll, W Kyle Hamilton
This phase II trial evaluated psychosocial and health outcomes of an intervention designed to improve emotion regulation skills in adults suffering from Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs). The study utilized a pretest-posttest design in which 92 adults enrolled in the community-based program completed pretest measures, attended either a faith-based or secular version of the 12-week ACE Overcomers program, and then completed posttest measures. The theory-guided program involved group sessions providing education and skills training to improve emotion regulation, self-awareness, resilience, and social functioning...
March 12, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Heida Maria Sigurdardottir, Liv Elisabet Fridriksdottir, Sigridur Gudjonsdottir, Árni Kristjánsson
Evidence of interdependencies of face and word processing mechanisms suggest possible links between reading problems and abnormal face processing. In two experiments we assessed such high-level visual deficits in people with a history of reading problems. Experiment 1 showed that people who were worse at face matching had greater reading problems. In experiment 2, matched dyslexic and typical readers were tested, and difficulties with face matching were consistently found to predict dyslexia over and above both novel-object matching as well as matching noise patterns that shared low-level visual properties with faces...
March 12, 2018: Cognition
Michael J Zvolensky, Andrew H Rogers, Kara Manning, Julianna B D Hogan, Daniel J Paulus, Julia D Buckner, Nubia A Mayorga, Gerald Hallford, Norman B Schmidt
Cannabis is among the most widely used psychoactive substances in the United States, and rates of cannabis use and cannabis-related problems are increasing. Anxiety sensitivity, or the fear of aversive interoceptive sensations, may be relevant to better understanding cannabis use problems and other significant cannabis use processes (e.g., beliefs about quitting). Previous research has primarily focused on the global anxiety sensitivity construct; however, anxiety sensitivity lower-order facets (Cognitive Concerns, Physical Concerns, and Social Concerns) tend to be differentially related to substance use processes in non-cannabis specific studies...
March 5, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Michela Balconi, Laura Gatti, Maria Elide Vanutelli
Cooperation behavior is a core question of study on social neuroscience. In the present study, inter-brain functional connectivity and cognitive performance were considered during joint which was failing. The cognitive performance and the EEG (brain oscillations from delta to beta) underlying the execution of joint-actions were recorded when dyads of participants executed synchronicity game and received reinforcing negative feedbacks A pre-feedback condition (cooperation) and a control condition (individual task, T0) were provided as well as a check for possible learning effect (time series analysis)...
March 12, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
M Austin Coker, Carrie E Huisingh, Gerald McGwin, Russell W Read, Mark W Swanson, Laura E Dreer, Dawn K DeCarlo, Lindsay Gregg, Cynthia Owsley
Importance: The prevalence of irreversible vision impairment in the United States is expected to increase by 2050. Vision rehabilitation is the primary treatment option. Clinical trials have established its efficacy in improving quality of life. Yet studies indicate that patients experience many barriers to accessing low-vision care. Objectives: To examine the rate of referral for low-vision rehabilitation services by resident and attending ophthalmologists for adults with irreversible vision impairment and to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of patients about vision rehabilitation...
March 15, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Mai Ishimiya, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Yutaka Kobayashi, Moeko Noguchi-Shinohara, Chiemi Abe, Chiaki Dohmoto, Yoshihisa Ikeda, Kahori Tokuno, Kazuhiro Ooi, Masami Yokokawa, Kazuo Iwasa, Kiyonobu Komai, Shuichi Kawashiri, Masahito Yamada
Although several studies have demonstrated a potential correlation of dietary patterns with cognitive function, the relationship between tooth loss and dietary patterns and cognitive function have not been identified. In this cross-sectional study, we used a reduced rank regression (RRR) analysis, a technique used previously to observe dietary patterns based on the intakes of nutrients or levels of biomarkers associated with the condition of interest, to identify tooth loss-related dietary patterns and investigate the associations of such patterns with cognitive impairment in 334 community-dwelling Japanese subjects aged ≥ 60 years...
2018: PloS One
Jeroen Gielen, Wietse Wiels, Jeroen Van Schependom, Jorne Laton, Wim Van Hecke, Paul M Parizel, Marie Beatrice D'hooghe, Guy Nagels
INTRODUCTION: The paced serial addition test (PSAT) is regularly used to assess cognitive deficits in various neuropsychiatric conditions. Being a complex test, it reflects the status of multiple cognitive domains such as working memory, information processing speed and executive functioning. Two versions of the PSAT exist. One uses auditory stimuli through spoken numbers and is known as the PASAT, while the other one presents patients with visual stimuli and is called PVSAT. The PASAT is considered more frustrating by patients, and hence the visual version is usually preferred...
2018: PloS One
LaDonya Jackson, Wael Eldahshan, Susan C Fagan, Adviye Ergul
For many years, modulators of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) have been trusted by clinicians for the control of essential hypertension. It was recently demonstrated that these modulators have other pleiotropic properties independent of their hypotensive effects, such as enhancement of cognition. Within the brain, different components of the RAS have been extensively studied in the context of neuroprotection and cognition. Interestingly, a crosstalk between the RAS and other systems such as cholinergic, dopaminergic and adrenergic systems have been demonstrated...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Vanessa Lin Lin Lee, Brandon Kar Meng Choo, Yin-Sir Chung, Uday P Kundap, Yatinesh Kumari, Mohd Farooq Shaikh
Metabolic epilepsy is a metabolic abnormality which is associated with an increased risk of epilepsy development in affected individuals. Commonly used antiepileptic drugs are typically ineffective against metabolic epilepsy as they do not address its root cause. Presently, there is no review available which summarizes all the treatment options for metabolic epilepsy. Thus, we systematically reviewed literature which reported on the treatment, therapy and management of metabolic epilepsy from four databases, namely PubMed, Springer, Scopus and ScienceDirect...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Young Hak Roh, Young Do Koh, Jong Oh Kim, Kyu Ho Lee, Hyun Sik Gong, Goo Hyun Baek
BACKGROUND: Postoperative pillar pain (deep-seated wrist pain worsened by leaning on the heel of the hand) sometimes occurs after carpal tunnel release (CTR), leading to weakness in the hand and delayed return to work. Increased pain sensitivity has been found to be associated with worse symptoms and poorer treatment response in a number of chronic musculoskeletal conditions, but few studies have investigated the association of pain sensitization with pillar pain after CTR. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Is preoperative pain sensitization in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) associated with increased severity of pillar pain after open CTR? (2) What other demographic, electrophysiological, or preoperative clinical characteristics are associated with pillar pain after CTR? METHODS: Over a 35-month period, one surgeon performed 162 open carpal tunnel releases...
April 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Mohammed Saji Salahudeen, Prasad S Nishtala
OBJECTIVE: To summarize studies that used the international Resident Assessment home care instrument (interRAI HC) to examine study outcomes for older people. METHODS: A comprehensive systematic search was performed to identify relevant studies, using five databases from 1990 until October 2016. The Cochrane Risk-Bias assessment tool and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess the quality of RCTs and non-RCTs, respectively. RESULTS: Based on the full-text analysis, 40 studies met the inclusion criteria out of 506 total records...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Gerontologist
Tzu-I Tsai, Shoou-Yih D Lee, Wen-Ry Yu
We evaluated the effectiveness of a problem-based learning (PBL) health literacy program aimed to improve health literacy, health empowerment, navigation efficacy, and health care utilization among immigrant women in Taiwan. We employed a quasi-experimental design that included surveys at the baseline, immediately after the intervention, and 6 months after the intervention. The intervention group participated in a 10-session PBL health literacy program and the comparison group did not. Results showed that 6 months after the intervention, the intervention group had significantly fewer ER visits and hospitalizations than the comparison group...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Health Communication
Jiyoung Hwang, Lisa Wang, Jodi Siever, Talia Del Medico, Charlotte A Jones
OBJECTIVES: Loneliness and social isolation (L&SI) are associated with physical and cognitive decline in older adults. Walk 'n' Talk for your Life (WTL) is a community-based program of socialization, health education, falls prevention exercise and walking for community-dwelling older adults. This qualitative study was done to gain further insight into the experience and impacts of the WTL on seniors' L&SI. METHODS: One-on-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with sixteen participants who had completed the WTL ...
March 15, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Tine K Jensen, Tonje Holt, Silje Mørup Ormhaug, Krister W Fjermestad, Tore Wentzel-Larsen
Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are associated with serious impairments in psychological, social, and academic functioning in youth. The aim of this study was to investigate whether changes in posttraumatic cognitions mediate treatment effects. Participants were multitraumatized youth (N = 156, mean age = 15.1 years, range = 10-18; 79.5% girls) randomly assigned to receive trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) or treatment-as-usual (TAU). Mixed-effects models were applied to investigate the impact of treatment conditions on posttraumatic cognitions...
March 2018: Journal of Counseling Psychology
Alex S Holdaway, Stephen P Becker
Although sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is associated with poorer peer functioning, no study has examined SCT in relation to student-teacher relationship quality. The current study examined whether SCT, as rated by both teachers and children, was uniquely associated with poorer student-teacher relationship quality above and beyond child demographics and other mental health symptoms (i.e., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder [ODD/CD], anxiety/depression)...
March 15, 2018: School Psychology Quarterly
Daniel Weintraub, Alexander I Tröster, Connie Marras, Glenn Stebbins
The focus on cognitive impairment in neurodegenerative diseases, including PD, is shifting from the dementia stage to earlier stages of impairment, including mild cognitive impairment. This shift is driven primarily by the desire to improve long-term outcomes by delivering therapeutic interventions earlier in the clinical course, even presymptomatically in those at highest risk, and at the initial stage in the pathophysiological cascade that underpins common dementia syndromes. This article focuses on key findings and challenges in studying earliest stages of cognitive decline in PD, including a detailed examination of neuropsychological testing, cognitive performance in early and prodromal PD, epidemiological research for PD mild cognitive impairment to date, and expert recommendations for assessment...
March 15, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
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