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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931250/minimally-invasive-transpalpebral-endoscopic-assisted-amygdalohippocampectomy
#1
Mauricio Mandel, Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo, Suzana Abramovicz Mandel, Rafael Tutihashi, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira
BACKGROUND: Although anterior temporal lobectomy may be a definitive surgical treatment for epileptic patients with mesial temporal sclerosis, it often results in verbal, visual, and cognitive dysfunction. Studies have consistently reported the advantages of selective procedures compared with a standard anterior temporal lobectomy, mainly in terms of neuropsychological outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To describe a new technique to perform a selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) through a transpalpebral approach with endoscopic assistance...
February 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931171/motivating-parent-support-for-physical-activity-the-role-of-framed-persuasive-messages
#2
Rebecca Bassett-Gunter, Rachael Stone, Jocelyn Jarvis, Amy Latimer-Cheung
Parent support for physical activity (PA) is a behavior unto itself that requires motivation. Persuasive messages may be one method for motivating parent support for their children's PA. Message framing is one strategy for optimizing the impact of messages. The current study examined the relative effectiveness of gain- versus loss-framed messages for encouraging parent support for children's PA. Regardless of message frame, parents had an increase in social cognitive antecedents (e.g. perceived behavioral control, intentions) and support for children's PA following message exposure...
October 1, 2017: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931038/hostile-and-energetic-anger-is-predicted-by-low-agreeableness-and-high-energetic-arousal
#3
Marcin Zajenkowski
A hypothesis that anger is related to high energetic arousal (EA), but only at a low level of agreeableness was tested. In the first two studies, the association between trait anger, agreeableness, and EA was explored. In the next two studies, the interactions of agreeableness with constructs conceptually and empirically close to EA, in predicting anger were tested. Study 3 revealed that anger was predicted by a low level of agreeableness and a high level of positive affect. In study 4 task engagement (construct containing an energetic component) was included in the context of cognitive performance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931035/neuroprotection-with-hypothermia-and-allopurinol-in-an-animal-model-of-hypoxic-ischemic-injury-is-it-a-gender-question
#4
Javier Rodríguez-Fanjul, Cristina Durán Fernández-Feijóo, Míriam Lopez-Abad, Maria Goretti Lopez Ramos, Rafael Balada Caballé, Soledad Alcántara-Horillo, Marta Camprubí Camprubí
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is one of the most important causes of neonatal brain injury. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is the standard treatment for term newborns after perinatal hypoxic ischemic injury (HI). Despite this, TH does not provide complete neuroprotection. Allopurinol seems to be a good neuroprotector in several animal studies, but it has never been tested in combination with hypothermia. Clinical findings show that male infants with (HI) fare more poorly than matched females in cognitive outcomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931011/individual-versus-group-decision-making-jurors-reliance-on-central-and-peripheral-information-to-evaluate-expert-testimony
#5
Jessica M Salerno, Bette L Bottoms, Liana C Peter-Hagene
To investigate dual-process persuasion theories in the context of group decision making, we studied low and high need-for-cognition (NFC) participants within a mock trial study. Participants considered plaintiff and defense expert scientific testimony that varied in argument strength. All participants heard a cross-examination of the experts focusing on peripheral information (e.g., credentials) about the expert, but half were randomly assigned to also hear central information highlighting flaws in the expert's message (e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930939/preventing-mistransfusions-an-evaluation-of-institutional-knowledge-and-a-response
#6
Nickolas MacDougall, Fanglong Dong, Latoya Broussard, Mark E Comunale
BACKGROUND: Blood product mistransfusions occur when a process error causes transfusion of incompatible blood products. These events are known sources of negative patient outcomes. One such event demonstrated an institutional knowledge gap and an opportunity to reduce this source of transfusion errors. The focus of this study was to evaluate the application of point of care cognitive aids to bridge potentially lethal knowledge gaps in blood product to patient compatibility. METHODS: A patient-donor ABO antigen compatibility grid for red blood cells (RBC) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) was developed for creation of a cognitive aid and a blood product safety quiz...
September 19, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930799/characterizing-the-interrelationships-of-prescription-opioid-and-benzodiazepine-drugs-with-worker-health-and-workplace-hazards
#7
Michele Kowalski-McGraw, Judith Green-McKenzie, Sudha P Pandalai, Paul A Schulte
OBJECTIVE: Prescription opioid and benzodiazepine drug use, which has risen significantly, can affect worker health. Exploration of the scientific literature assessed (1) interrelationships of such drug use, occupational risk factors, and illness and injury, and (2) occupational and personal risk factor combinations that can affect their use. METHODS: The scientific literature from 2000 to 2015 was searched to determine any interrelationships. RESULTS: Evidence for eight conceptual models emerged based on the search yield of 133 articles...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930785/patients-and-clinicians-views-of-the-psychological-components-of-tinnitus-treatment-that-could-inform-audiologists-usual-care-a-delphi-survey
#8
Dean M Thompson, John Taylor, Deborah A Hall, Dawn-Marie Walker, Mary McMurran, Amanda Casey, David Stockdale, Debbie Featherstone, Derek J Hoare
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine which components of psychological therapies are most important and appropriate to inform audiologists' usual care for people with tinnitus. DESIGN: A 39-member panel of patients, audiologists, hearing therapists, and psychologists completed a three-round Delphi survey to reach consensus on essential components of audiologist-delivered psychologically informed care for tinnitus. RESULTS: Consensus (≥80% agreement) was reached on including 76 of 160 components...
September 19, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930760/medical-education-and-health-care-delivery-a-call-to-better-align-goals-and-purposes
#9
David P Sklar, Paul A Hemmer, Steven J Durning
The transformation of the U.S. health care system is under way, driven by the needs of an aging population, rising health care spending, and the availability of health information. However, the speed and effectiveness of the transformation of health care delivery will depend, in large part, upon engagement of the health professions community and changes in clinicians' practice behaviors. Current efforts to influence practice behaviors emphasize changes in the health payment system with incentives to move from fee-for-service to alternative payment models...
September 14, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930751/dementia-predicting-cognitive-risk-score-and-its-correlation-with-cortical-thickness-in-parkinson-disease
#10
Byoung Seok Ye, Seun Jeon, Jee Hyun Ham, Jae Jung Lee, Jong Min Lee, Hye Sun Lee, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H Sohn
BACKGROUND: We developed a risk score system to predict risks of developing dementia in individual Parkinson disease (PD) patients using baseline neuropsychological tests. METHODS: A total of 216 nondemented PD patients underwent a baseline neuropsychological evaluation and were followed up for a mean of 2.7 (±1.1) years. Univariate Cox regression models controlled for age, gender, and education selected neuropsychological tests individually predicting dementia risk...
September 21, 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930705/how-we-become-who-we-are-ashley-carla-and-the-rest-of-us
#11
Jamie Lindemann Nelson
Lisa Freitag and Joan Liaschenko's thoughtful and important article goes directly to the under-examined heart of Ashley's case, namely to what sustains her in a habitable and intelligible identity. Though quite sympathetic with their conclusion and line of argument, I try to trouble their proceedings a bit, largely by wondering how having a specific such identity, out of several that may be in-principle available, matters to someone with Ashley's cognitive scope. I do this not simply to be contrary, but because their article also seems to me to raise issues in the ethics of bioethics-in particular, what I call the dilemma of ethical endeavor: How ought one publicly pursue deeply important and complex issues, the very raising of which may offend interlocutors who indeed have grounds for resentment...
2017: Journal of Clinical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930703/nine-lessons-from-ashley-and-her-parents
#12
Edmund G Howe
Parents' love for their child, even a child who has severe impairments, may give them much joy and quality in their life. This is also the case for caregivers of adults with severe cognitive impairments, such as end-stage dementia. How can clinicians work with these parents and caregivers and help them?
2017: Journal of Clinical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930592/choline-the-brain-and-neurodegeneration-insights-from-epigenetics
#13
Rola A Bekdash
  Neurodegenerative disorders are a major public health problem worldwide with huge socioeconomic effect. Recent evidence suggests that neurodegeneration is not only caused by genetic factors but also affected by environmental factors including nutrients. Environmental influences have been shown to cause epigenetic modifications in the brain with long-lasting effects on behavior if they occur in early life. It has been suggested that early nutritional intervention that includes choline, betaine, VitB6, VitB12 and/or folic acid could attenuate decline in cognitive functions...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930544/neural-signatures-of-attention-insights-from-decoding-population-activity-patterns
#14
Panagiotis Sapountzis, Georgia G Gregoriou
Understanding brain function and the computations that individual neurons and neuronal ensembles carry out during cognitive functions is one of the biggest challenges in neuroscientific research. To this end, invasive electrophysiological studies have provided important insights by recording the activity of single neurons in behaving animals. To average out noise, responses are typically averaged across repetitions and across neurons that are usually recorded on different days. However, the brain makes decisions on short time scales based on limited exposure to sensory stimulation by interpreting responses of populations of neurons on a moment to moment basis...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930532/neuroprotective-role-of-asiatic-acid-in-aluminium-chloride-induced-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Mashoque Ahmad Rather, Arokiasamy Justin Thenmozhi, Thamilarasan Manivasagam, Mathiyazahan Dhivya Bharathi, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Gilles J Guillemin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, characterized by memory loss, cognitive impairment and personality disorders accompanied by diffuse structural abnormalities in the brain of elderly people. The current investigation explored the neuroprotective potential of asiatic acid (AA), a natural triterpene of Centella asiatica on aluminium chloride (AlCl3) induced rat model of AD. Oral administration of AlCl3 (100 mg/kg b.w.) for 42 days significantly elevated the levels of Al, activity of acetyl cholinesterase and expressions of amyloid precursor protein, amyloid beta1-42, beta and gamma secretases, glial fibrillary acidic protein, ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1, interleukins -1β, 6, 4, 2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor- k beta and cyclooxygenase-2 in the hippocampus and cortex  compared to the control group...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930284/effects-of-intranasal-oxytocin-on-the-blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-signal-in-food-motivation-and-cognitive-control-pathways-in-overweight-and-obese-men
#16
Franziska Plessow, Dean A Marengi, Sylvia K Perry, Julia M Felicione, Rachel Franklin, Tara M Holmes, Laura M Holsen, Nikolaos Makris, Thilo Deckersbach, Elizabeth A Lawson
Recent research indicates that the hypothalamic neuropeptide hormone oxytocin is a key central nervous system factor in the regulation of food intake and weight. However, the mechanisms underlying the anorexigenic effects of oxytocin in humans are unknown and critical to study in order to consider oxytocin as a neurohormonal weight loss treatment. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study with single-dose intranasal oxytocin (24 IU) in ten overweight or obese, otherwise healthy men...
September 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930228/interaction-of-plant-extracts-with-central-nervous-system-receptors
#17
REVIEW
Kenneth Lundstrom, Huyen Thanh Pham, Long Doan Dinh
Background: Plant extracts have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various maladies including neurological diseases. Several central nervous system receptors have been demonstrated to interact with plant extracts and components affecting the pharmacology and thereby potentially playing a role in human disease and treatment. For instance, extracts from Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort) targeted several CNS receptors. Similarly, extracts from Piper nigrum, Stephania cambodica, and Styphnolobium japonicum exerted inhibition of agonist-induced activity of the human neurokinin-1 receptor...
February 23, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930219/qigong-in-cancer-care-theory-evidence-base-and-practice
#18
Penelope Klein
Background: The purpose of this discussion is to explore the theory, evidence base, and practice of Qigong for individuals with cancer. Questions addressed are: What is qigong? How does it work? What evidence exists supporting its practice in integrative oncology? What barriers to wide-spread programming access exist? Methods: Sources for this discussion include a review of scholarly texts, the Internet, PubMed, field observations, and expert opinion. Results: Qigong is a gentle, mind/body exercise integral within Chinese medicine...
January 12, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929999/effects-of-cognitive-training-on-cognitive-performance-of-healthy-older-adults
#19
Mariana Teles Santos Golino, Carmen Flores Mendoza, Hudson Fernandes Golino
The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects of cognitive training on healthy older adults and verify the transfer effects of targeted and non-targeted abilities. The design consisted of a semi-randomized clinical controlled trial. The final sample was composed of 80 volunteers recruited from a Brazilian community (mean age = 69.69; SD = 7.44), which were separated into an intervention group (N = 47; mean age = 69.66, SD = 7.51) and a control group (N = 33; mean age = 69.73, SD = 7.45). Intervention was characterized by adaptive cognitive training with 12 individual training sessions of 60 to 90 minutes (once a week)...
September 20, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929971/medisyn-uncertainty-aware-visualization-of-multiple-biomedical-datasets-to-support-drug-treatment-selection
#20
Chen He, Luana Micallef, Zia-Ur-Rehman Tanoli, Samuel Kaski, Tero Aittokallio, Giulio Jacucci
BACKGROUND: Dispersed biomedical databases limit user exploration to generate structured knowledge. Linked Data unifies data structures and makes the dispersed data easy to search across resources, but it lacks supporting human cognition to achieve insights. In addition, potential errors in the data are difficult to detect in their free formats. Devising a visualization that synthesizes multiple sources in such a way that links between data sources are transparent, and uncertainties, such as data conflicts, are salient is challenging...
September 13, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
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