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Retinal disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349656/correlations-among-multifocal-electroretinography-and-optical-coherence-tomography-findings-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Metin Unlu, Duygu Gulmez Sevim, Murat Gultekin, Cagatay Karaca
To assess the correlation between functional and anatomical evaluations with multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). This cross-sectional study involved 116 eyes of 58 patients with PD and 30 age- and sex-matched control subjects. All study participants underwent a comprehensive neuro-ophthalmic examination, retinal single-layer thicknesses and volumes, and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) measurements with SD-OCT, and the patients' mfERG recordings were evaluated...
January 18, 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346243/pars-plana-vitrectomy-with-anterior-chamber-versus-gore-tex-sutured-posterior-chamber-intraocular-lens-placement-long-term-outcomes
#2
M Ali Khan, Omesh P Gupta, Kasim Pendi, Allen Chiang, James Vander, Carl D Regillo, Jason Hsu
PURPOSE: To compare clinical outcomes of combined pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with anterior chamber intraocular lens (ACIOL) placement versus scleral fixation of a posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL) using Gore-Tex suture. METHODS: Retrospective, interventional case series of eyes undergoing combined PPV and IOL placement for retained lens material, aphakia, or dislocated IOL. Eyes with history of amblyopia, corneal opacity, retinal, or optic nerve disease were excluded...
January 16, 2018: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345014/human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-models-of-retinitis-pigmentosa
#3
REVIEW
Ana Artero Castro, Dunja Lukovic, Pavla Jendelova, Slaven Erceg
Hereditary retinal dystrophies, specifically retinitis pigmentosa (RP) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous diseases affecting primarily retinal cells and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells with blindness as a final outcome. Understanding the pathogenicity behind these diseases has been largely precluded by the unavailability of affected tissue from patients, large genetic heterogeneity and animal models that do not faithfully represent some human diseases. A landmark discovery of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) permitted the derivation of patient-specific cells...
January 18, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344481/choroidal-melanoma-mimicker-a-case-of-metastatic-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#4
Chris B Komanski, Shaina M Rubino, Jacob C Meyer, Craig M Greven
Choroidal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy, yet metastatic disease remains the most common malignancy of the eye. Differentiating these entities is essential as treatment, systemic associations, and prognosis vary dramatically between the two. Established diagnostic criteria are accurate for the diagnosis of uveal melanoma. Yet, metastatic disease may be misdiagnosed as a uveal melanoma in rare cases. We report a case of metastatic clear-cell renal cell carcinoma masquerading as uveal melanoma...
November 2017: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344334/collective-adhesion-and-displacement-of-retinal-progenitor-cells-upon-extracellular-matrix-substrates-of-transplantable-biomaterials
#5
Ankush Thakur, Shawn Mishra, Juan Pena, Jing Zhou, Stephen Redenti, Robert Majeska, Maribel Vazquez
Strategies to replace retinal photoreceptors lost to damage or disease rely upon the migration of replacement cells transplanted into sub-retinal spaces. A significant obstacle to the advancement of cell transplantation for retinal repair is the limited migration of transplanted cells into host retina. In this work, we examine the adhesion and displacement responses of retinal progenitor cells on extracellular matrix substrates found in retina as well as widely used in the design and preparation of transplantable scaffolds...
January 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344070/diffuse-colour-discrimination-as-marker-of-afferent-visual-system-dysfunction-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#6
Lindsay Boven, Qin Li Jiang, Heather E Moss
Abnormalities of the inner and intermediate retinal structures in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been described using optical coherence tomography and histopathology. Colour vision is a potential marker of these structural changes. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that colour vision impairment is associated with ALS. Monocular (right eye) colour vision was assessed in subjects with definite or probable ALS (n = 25, aged 50-80 years) and control (n = 21, aged 46-89 years) subjects with corrected near visual acuity of at least 20/40 using the L'Anthony D15 color test (desaturated), scored by c-index, a measure of diffuse colour discrimination...
December 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344059/retinitis-pigmentosa-sine-pigmento-mimicking-a-chiasm-disease
#7
Francesco Pellegrini, Giovanni Prosdocimo, Francesco Romano, Emanuela Interlandi
A 75-year-old woman presented to her ophthalmologist complaining of visual loss for several years. The ophthalmic examination was remarkable for a bitemporal visual field defect. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the brain was normal without evidence of chiasm compression. Neuro-ophthalmic examination was consistent with a retinal rather than a chiasmal disease. Retinal multimodal imaging helped in the correct diagnosis of retinitis pigmentosa, later confirmed by genetic testing.
August 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344005/biological-clocks-their-relevance-to-immune-allergic-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Roberto Paganelli, Claudia Petrarca, Mario Di Gioacchino
The 2017 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, awarded for the discoveries made in the past 15 years on the genetic and molecular mechanisms regulating many physiological functions, has renewed the attention to the importance of circadian rhythms. These originate from a central pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the brain, photoentrained via direct connection with melanopsin containing, intrinsically light-sensitive retinal ganglion cells, and it projects to periphery, thus creating an inner circadian rhythm...
2018: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343940/prescreening-whole-exome-sequencing-results-from-patients-with-retinal-degeneration-for-variants-in-genes-associated-with-retinal-degeneration
#9
Laura Bryant, Olga Lozynska, Albert M Maguire, Tomas S Aleman, Jean Bennett
Background: Accurate clinical diagnosis and prognosis of retinal degeneration can be aided by the identification of the disease-causing genetic variant. It can confirm the clinical diagnosis as well as inform the clinician of the risk for potential involvement of other organs such as kidneys. It also aids in genetic counseling for affected individuals who want to have a child. Finally, knowledge of disease-causing variants informs laboratory investigators involved in translational research...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342845/anesthetic-preconditioning-as-endogenous-neuroprotection-in-glaucoma
#10
Tsung-Han Chou, Ganeswara Rao Musada, Giovanni Luca Romano, Elizabeth Bolton, Vittorio Porciatti
Blindness in glaucoma is the result of death of Retinal Ganglion Cells (RGCs) and their axons. RGC death is generally preceded by a stage of reversible dysfunction and structural remodeling. Current treatments aimed at reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) are ineffective or incompletely effective in management of the disease. IOP-independent neuroprotection or neuroprotection as adjuvant to IOP lowering in glaucoma remains a challenge as effective agents without side effects have not been identified yet. We show in DBA/2J mice with spontaneous IOP elevation and glaucoma that the lifespan of functional RGCs can be extended by preconditioning RGCs with retrobulbar lidocaine in one eye at four months of age that temporary blocks RGC axonal transport...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341996/retinal-arterio-arterial-collaterals-in-susac-syndrome
#11
Robert A Egan, Guy Jirawuthiworavong, Norah S Lincoff, John J Chen, Courtney E Francis, Jacqueline A Leavitt
BACKGROUND: The ophthalmic findings of Susac syndrome (SS) consist of visual field defects related to branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO), and fluorescein angiography (FA) reveals a unique staining pattern. To date, retinal arterial collateral development has been described only in a single patient. Given that the immunopathological process in SS induces retinal ischemia, it is conceivable that abnormal blood vessel development may occur in affected individuals. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341445/automated-detection-of-preserved-photoreceptor-on-optical-coherence-tomography-in-choroideremia-based-on-machine-learning
#12
Zhuo Wang, Acner Camino, Ahmed M Hagag, Jie Wang, Richard G Weleber, Paul Yang, Mark E Pennesi, David Huang, Dengwang Li, Yali Jia
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can demonstrate early deterioration of the photoreceptor integrity caused by inherited retinal degeneration diseases (IRD). A machine learning method based on random forests was developed to automatically detect continuous areas of preserved ellipsoid zone structure (an easily recognizable part of the photoreceptors on OCT) in sixteen eyes of patients with choroideremia (a type of IRD). Pseudopodial extensions protruding from the preserved ellipsoid zone areas are detected separately by a local active contour routine...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340646/visual-fixation-instability-in-multiple-sclerosis-measured-using-slo-oct
#13
Robert M Mallery, Pieter Poolman, Matthew J Thurtell, Jan M Full, Johannes Ledolter, Dorlan Kimbrough, Elliot M Frohman, Teresa C Frohman, Randy H Kardon
Purpose: Precise measurements of visual fixation and its instability were recorded during optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a marker of neural network dysfunction in multiple sclerosis (MS), which could be used to monitor disease progression or response to treatment. Methods: A total of 16 MS patients and 26 normal subjects underwent 30 seconds of scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO)-based eye tracking during OCT scanning of retinal layer thickness. Study groups consisted of normal eyes, MS eyes without prior optic neuritis (MS wo ON), and MS eyes with prior optic neuritis (MS + ON)...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340169/autoimmune-retinopathy-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Aristófanes Mendonça Canamary, Walter Yukihiko Takahashi, Juliana Maria Ferraz Sallum
Autoimmune retinopathy (AIR) is a rare and still poorly understood immune-mediated disease that may cause inflammation from circulating autoantibodies against the retina. It may be related to history of autoimmune disease in the patient or in a family member or the presence of neoplastic disease in the individual. The disease may be subdivided into paraneoplastic and non-paraneoplastic AIR. When related to melanoma, it is referred to as MAR, and when related to other cancers, it is called CAR. The exact prevalence of AIR is unknown...
2018: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339962/three-new-pax2-gene-mutations-in-patients-with-papillorenal-syndrome
#15
Alberto Galvez-Ruiz, Anthony J Lehner, Alicia Galindo-Ferreiro, Patrik Schatz
Papillorenal syndrome (PAPRS; Mendelian Inheritance in Man [MIM] 120330) is an autosomal dominant disease characterised by the presence of congenital renal and optic nerve abnormalities associated with mutations of the PAX2 gene. In this article, the authors present four patients with PAPRS who are carriers of three new PAX2 mutations, as well as another patient with a possible non-pathogenic variant of the PAX2 gene. All patients were given a full neurophthalmological examination, and all patients underwent a genetic test for PAX2...
October 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339917/association-of-treatment-adherence-with-real-life-va-outcomes-in-amd-dme-and-brvo-patients
#16
Christoph Ehlken, Mandy Helms, Daniel Böhringer, Hansjürgen T Agostini, Andreas Stahl
Purpose: Real-life clinical outcomes of patients treated with anti-VEGF drugs for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD), diabetic macular edema (DME), or macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) are often inferior to results from randomized clinical trials. This observational cohort study investigates treatment adherence and real-life clinical outcomes within the first year of treatment. Patients and methods: A total of 708 treatment-naïve patients (466 nAMD, 134 DME, and 108 BRVO) were included...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339644/changes-in-central-macular-thickness-and-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-thickness-in-eyes-with-vogt-koyanagi-harada-disease-a-2-year-follow-up-study
#17
Yong-Seop Han, Kyung-Sup Shin, Woo-Hyuk Lee, Jung-Yeul Kim
PURPOSE: To investigate the central macular thickness (CMT) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in eyes with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease associated with optic disc swelling and serous retinal detachment through a 24-month follow-up period. METHODS: We prospectively investigated 28 eyes of 14 treatment-naïve patients with acute VKH disease associated with optic disc swelling and serous retinal detachment and 30 eyes of 15 normal individuals to compare changes in the CMT and average RNFL thickness...
January 16, 2018: Ophthalmologica. Journal International D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339146/microspheres-as-intraocular-therapeutic-tools-in-chronic-diseases-of-the-optic-nerve-and-retina
#18
Irene Bravo-Osuna, Vanessa Andrés-Guerrero, Alicia Arranz-Romera, Sergio Esteban-Pérez, Irene T Molina-Martínez, Rocío Herrero-Vanrell
Pathologies affecting the optic nerve and the retina are one of the major causes of blindness. These diseases include age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic Retinopathy (DR) and glaucoma, among others. Also, there are genetic disorders that affect the retina causing visual impairment. The prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases of the posterior segment are increased as most of them are related with the elderly. Even with the access to different treatments, there are some challenges in managing patients suffering retinal diseases...
January 12, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339063/evolution-of-intravitreal-therapy-for-retinal-diseases-from-cmv-to-cnv-the-lxxiv-edward-jackson-memorial-lecture
#19
Daniel F Martin
PURPOSE: To present the evolution of intravitreal therapy for retinal diseases and its impact on clinical practice. DESIGN: Retrospective literature review and personal perspective. METHODS: Retrospective literature review and personal perspective. RESULTS: Pharmacotherapeutic advances in retinal disease have been remarkable over the last 25 years. Almost all of the new drugs developed have required intravitreal administration to be highly effective, leading to an exponential increase in the annual number of intravitreal injections given...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338134/retinal-oximetry-is-affected-in-multiple-sclerosis
#20
Anna Bryndis Einarsdottir, Olof Birna Olafsdottir, Haukur Hjaltason, Sveinn Hakon Hardarson
PURPOSE: Structural and physiological abnormalities have been reported in the retina in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Retinal oximetry has recently detected changes in retinal oxygen metabolism in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Our goal was to determine whether oxygen saturation in retinal blood vessels of patients with patients is different from that of a healthy population. METHODS: Oxygen saturation of haemoglobin was measured in retinal blood vessels, using imaging with spectrophotometric noninvasive retinal oximeter...
January 16, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
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