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Martin I Bahl, Anne S Hammer, Tove Clausen, Anabelle Jakobsen, Søren Skov, Lars Andresen
Although it is well documented that the gut microbiota plays an important role in health and disease in mammalian species, this area has been poorly studied among carnivorous animals, especially within the mustelidae family. The gastrointestinal tract of carnivores is characterized by its short length and fast transit time, as compared to omnivores and herbivores, which is due to the low level of inherent fermentation. Mink represents an example of this, which have a GI tract only four times the length of the body and a transit time of approximately 4-5 hr...
January 16, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
Norberto Ruiz-Suárez, Yolanda Melero, Anna Giela, Luis A Henríquez-Hernández, Elizabeth Sharp, Luis D Boada, Michael J Taylor, María Camacho, Xavier Lambin, Octavio P Luzardo, Gill Hartley
Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) are highly toxic compounds that are exclusively used for the control of rodent pests. Despite their defined use, they are nonetheless found in a large number of non-target species indicating widespread penetration of wildlife. Attempts to quantify the scale of problem are complicated by non-random sampling of individuals tested for AR contamination. The American mink (Neovison vison) is a wide ranging, non-native, generalist predator that is subject to wide scale control efforts in the UK...
November 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
A H Farid, P P Rupasinghe
There is a growing interest among mink ranchers to select their stock for tolerance to the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are used to identify mink which have low anti-AMDV antibody titres and are expected to tolerate the AMDV infection. The objective of this study was to calculate the accuracy of three ELISA systems which were performed on blood or serum of AMDV-inoculated American mink (Neovison vison) at five laboratories in Canada, USA, Finland, the Netherlands and Denmark...
September 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
Laura Lupini, Felice Pepe, Manuela Ferracin, Chiara Braconi, Elisa Callegari, Sara Pagotto, Riccardo Spizzo, Barbara Zagatti, Paola Lanuti, Francesca Fornari, Reza Ghasemi, Renato Mariani-Costantini, Luigi Bolondi, Laura Gramantieri, George A Calin, Silvia Sabbioni, Rosa Visone, Angelo Veronese, Massimo Negrini
The miR-145-5p, which induces TP53-dependent apoptosis, is down-regulated in several tumors, including hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), but some HCCs show physiological expression of this miR. Here we demonstrate that in HCC cells carrying wild-type TP53 the steady activation of the miR-145 signaling selects clones resistant to apoptosis via up-regulation of the oncogenic miR-483-3p. Expression of the miR-145-5p and of the miR-483-3p correlated negatively in non-neoplastic liver (n=41; ρ=-0.342, P=0.028), but positively in HCCs (n=21; ρ=0...
May 24, 2016: Oncotarget
Lone Hymøller, Tove N Clausen, Søren K Jensen
A sufficient but balanced vitamin supplementation is a prerequisite for a satisfactory growth pattern and an effective immune system in mink and all other species. The fat-soluble vitamins are very sensitive to over- or under-supply because they interact with each other with respect to dose-response and chemical form. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of increasing the amount of retinol in combination with RRR-α-tocopherol or all-rac-α-tocopherol in the feed given to growing mink on their retinol, cholecalciferol and α-tocopherol concentrations in plasma and selected organs...
March 14, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Rossella Calò, Clementina M Visone, Laura Marabini
Many authors focused on the research of natural compounds in order to protect skin from indirect (UVA) and direct (UVB) ultraviolet radiation side effects. The aim of this study to evaluate the protective effect of a dry extract from T. vulgaris L. and of its major synthetic compound thymol (about 60%), against oxidative and genotoxic UVA- and UVB damage. Experiments were reproduced in a low differentiated keratinocytes cell line (NCTC 2544) Cells were pretreated for 1h, in serum-free medium, with thymol (1μg/mL) or T...
September 2015: Mutation Research. Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis
William R Folland, John L Newsted, Scott D Fitzgerald, Phyllis C Fuchsman, Patrick W Bradley, John Kern, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Matthew J Zwiernik
Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations reported in preferred prey and blubber of bottlenose dolphins from the Turtle-Brunswick River estuary (Georgia, USA) suggest the potential for adverse effects. However, PCBs in Turtle-Brunswick River estuary dolphins are primarily derived from Aroclor 1268, and predicting toxic effects of Aroclor 1268 is uncertain because of the mixture's unique composition and associated physiochemical characteristics. These differences suggest that toxicity benchmarks for other PCB mixtures may not be relevant to dolphins exposed to Aroclor 1268...
March 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Jianjun Zhao, Ning Shi, Yangang Sun, Vito Martella, Veljko Nikolin, Chunsheng Zhu, Hailing Zhang, Bo Hu, Xue Bai, Xijun Yan
Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a broad range of carnivores and causes a highly contagious disease with severe immunosuppression. The disease severity markedly varies in different species. To investigate the pathogenesis of CDV in raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), fox (Vulpes vulpes) and mink (Neovison vison) species, three groups of CDV sero-negative animals were infected with CDV strain LN(10)1. This CDV strain belongs to the Asia-1 genotype, which is epidemiologically predominant in carnivores in China...
October 2015: Antiviral Research
A Hossain Farid, Irshad Hussain, Irin Arju
Early detection of infection by the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV; Carnivore amdoparvovirus 1) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) has important ramifications in virus eradication programs. A spleen homogenate containing a local isolate of AMDV was injected intraperitoneally into black (n = 44) and sapphire (n = 12) American mink (Neovison vison). Animals were euthanized 10 days postinoculation and anti-AMDV antibodies and AMDV DNA were tested in plasma and 7 organs by CIEP and PCR, respectively...
May 2015: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Xuezhuang Wu, Zhi Liu, Jungang Guo, Chunmeng Wan, Tietao Zhang, Hu Cui, Fuhe Yang, Xiuhua Gao
An experiment was conducted in a 3 × 3 (Cu × Zn) factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design to evaluate the effects of dietary copper and zinc on apparent mineral retention and serum biochemical indicators in young male mink on a corn-fish meal based diet. Animals were fed basal diets supplemented with Cu from copper sulfate (CuSO4) and Zn from zinc sulfate (ZnSO4). Supplemental Cu levels were 0, 15, and 30 mg/kg copper, respectively, while supplemental Zn levels were 0, 150, and 300 mg/kg, respectively...
May 2015: Biological Trace Element Research
Kim Jensen, Stephen J Simpson, Vivi H Nielsen, John Hunt, David Raubenheimer, David Mayntz
Balancing of macronutrient intake has only recently been demonstrated in predators. In particular, the ability to regulate carbohydrate intake is little studied in obligate carnivores, as carbohydrate is present at very low concentrations in prey animal tissue. In the present study, we determined whether American mink (Neovison vison) would compensate for dietary nutritional imbalances by foraging for complementary macronutrients (protein, lipid and carbohydrate) when subsequently given a dietary choice. We used three food pairings, within which two macronutrients differed relative to each other (high v...
October 14, 2014: British Journal of Nutrition
Surya Prakash Singh, G D Sharma
Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells have been the subject of intensive academic interest over the past two decades, and significant commercial effort has been directed towards this area with the vison of developing the next generation of low cost solar cells. Materials development has played a vital role in the dramatic improvement of both DSSC and BHJ solar cell performance in the recent years. Organic conjugated polymers and small molecules that absorb solar light in the visible and near infrared (NIR) regions represent a class of emering materials and show a great potential for the use of different optoelectronic devices such as DSSCs and BHJ solar cells...
June 2014: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
Connie Frank Matthiesen, Maria Arantzazu Aguinaga Casañas, Anne-Helene Tauson
The nutrient provision to pregnant females has high impact on the growth and metabolism of their offspring. The objective was to investigate if the expression of hepatic enzymes regulating the fat metabolism was affected in foetuses and adult female mink born by dams fed either a low or an adequate level of protein during late gestation. The relative abundances of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT1) mRNA were determined by qualitative polymerase chain reaction in the livers of F₀- and F₁-generation dams and in F₁-generation foetuses...
2014: Archives of Animal Nutrition
Morag F Dick, Jennifer Hurford, Sha Lei, Anne-Mari Mustonen, Petteri Nieminen, Kirsti Rouvinen-Watt
BACKGROUND: Rapid body fat mobilization, obesity, and an inadequate supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been suggested to play roles in the etiology of fatty liver in the American mink (Neovison vison). This study examined the effects of feeding intensity and dietary fat source on fatty liver induced by fasting. In a multi-factorial design, 3 different fat sources (herring oil, rich in n-3 PUFA, soya oil, rich in n-6 PUFA, and canola oil, rich in n-9 monounsaturated fatty acids) were fed to mink at a low and high feeding intensity for 10 weeks, followed by an overnight or a 5-day fasting treatment to induce fatty liver...
2014: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
María Díez-León, Jeff Bowman, Steve Bursian, Hélène Filion, David Galicia, Jeannette Kanefsky, Angelo Napolitano, Rupert Palme, Albrecht Schulte-Hostedde, Kim Scribner, Georgia Mason
Wild carnivores in zoos, conservation breeding centres, and farms commonly live in relatively small, unstimulating enclosures. Under these captive conditions, in a range of species including giant pandas, black-footed ferrets, and European mink, male reproductive abilities are often poor. Such problems have long been hypothesized to be caused by these animals' housing conditions. We show for the first time that rearing under welfare-improving (i.e., highly valued and stress-reducing) environmental enrichments enhances male carnivores' copulatory performance: in mate choice competitions, enriched male American mink (Neovison vison) mated more often than non-enriched males...
2013: PloS One
Sara Persson, Anna Rotander, Anna Kärrman, Bert van Bavel, Ulf Magnusson
This study investigates the influence of biological and environmental factors on the concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in a top predator; the American mink. Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) with C8-C13 perfluorinated carbon chains were analyzed in livers from wild male mink liver (n=101) from four areas in Sweden representing two inland environments (rural and highly anthropogenic, respectively) and two different coastal environments...
September 2013: Environment International
K Vesterdorf, D Blache, A Harrison, C F Matthiesen, A-H Tauson
Low protein provision in utero and post-partum may induce metabolic disorders in adulthood. Studies in mink have mainly focused on short-term consequences of low protein provision in utero whereas the long-term responses to low protein (LP) provision in metabolically programmed mink are unknown. We investigated whether low protein provision in utero affects the long-term response to adequate (AP) or LP provision after weaning in male mink. Eighty-six male mink were exposed to low (19% of ME from CP; crude protein) or adequate (31% of ME from CP) protein provision in utero, and to LP (~20% of ME from CP) or AP (30-42% of ME from CP) provision post-weaning...
April 2014: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Sara Persson, Anna Rotander, Bert van Bavel, Björn Brunström, Britt-Marie Bäcklin, Ulf Magnusson
The wild mink has gained acceptance as a sentinel species in environmental monitoring. However, only limited data are available in the literature on factors driving variability in concentrations of organic pollutants in this species. This study characterizes the differences in contaminant concentrations in subcutaneous fat of male mink from four different areas in Sweden and demonstrates how age, season and body condition influence concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners (including methoxylated forms, MeO-PBDEs), as well as the pesticides dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), chlordane and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)...
February 2013: Chemosphere
Mette Skou Hedemann, Birthe Marie Damgaard
Metabolite profiling may elucidate changes in metabolic pathways under various physiological or nutritional conditions. In the present study two groups of female mink characterised as having a high (16 mink) or low (14 mink) residual feed intake were investigated during restrictive and ad libitum feeding. Blood samples were collected three times during the experimental period; during restrictive feeding, and four days and three weeks after the change to ad libitum feeding. Plasma samples were subjected to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry non-targeted metabolomics...
December 2012: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
Peter Stuart, Annetta Zintl, Theo De Waal, Grace Mulcahy, Conall Hawkins, Colin Lawton
Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite, primarily associated with bovine abortion. The only definitive hosts discovered to date are carnivores. This study aimed to identify the role of mammalian carnivores in the epidemiology of bovine neosporosis. A sample bank of serum, fecal and brain samples was established: American mink (Mustela vison), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), pine martens (Martes martes), badgers (Meles meles), stoats (Mustela erminea), otters (Lutra lutra) and feral ferrets (Mustela putorius). Approximately 1% of mink and 1% of fox samples were positive by IFAT...
March 2013: Parasitology
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