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Epicardial adipose tissue measurement

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140808/randomized-trial-evaluating-the-effect-of-aged-garlic-extract-with-supplements-versus-placebo-on-adipose-tissue-surrogates-for-coronary-atherosclerosis-progression
#1
Irfan Zeb, Naser Ahmadi, Ferdinand Flores, Matthew J Budoff
AIMS: Increased epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), pericardial adipose tissue (PAT), periaortic adipose tissue (PaAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) are mediators of metabolic risk, and are associated with the severity of coronary artery calcium (CAC). Aged garlic extract (AGE) has been shown to reduce the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. This study evaluates the effect of AGE with supplements (AGE+S) on EAT, PAT, SAT, and PaAT. METHODS: Sixty asymptomatic participants participated in a randomized trial evaluating the effect of AGE+S versus placebo on coronary atherosclerosis progression, and underwent CAC at baseline and after 12 months of treatment...
November 14, 2017: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115433/adiponectin-promotes-preadipocyte-differentiation-via-the-ppar%C3%AE-pathway
#2
Wenkai Yang, Chunli Yang, Jun Luo, Yutao Wei, Wenying Wang, Yingmei Zhong
According to the results of a preliminary study, it was hypothesized that the effects of adiponectin (APN) on the improvement of atherosclerosis may be associated with adipocyte differentiation and peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γ (PPARγ). The present study simulated the inflammatory environment of epicardial adipose tissue by stimulating mature adipocytes with lipopolysaccharide (LPS); subsequently, the differentiation of 3T3‑L1 preadipocytes was observed. 3T3‑L1 preadipocytes were infected with an adenovirus containing the human adiponectin gene apM1 (Ad‑apM1) and were co‑cultured with mature adipocytes stimulated with LPS...
October 26, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098638/epicardial-adipose-tissue-volume-estimation-by-postmortem-computed-tomography-of-eviscerated-hearts
#3
Louise Hindsø, Lykke S Jakobsen, Christina Jacobsen, Niels Lynnerup, Jytte Banner
Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) may play a role in the development of coronary artery disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a method based on postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) for the estimation of EAT volume. We PMCT-scanned the eviscerated hearts of 144 deceased individuals, who underwent a medicolegal autopsy. Using Mimics® we performed segmentation of the images and obtained the volumes of EAT and myocardium. Total heart volume was calculated by adding the volumes of EAT and myocardium...
December 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050981/evolutional-change-in-epicardial-fat-and-its-correlation-with-myocardial-diffuse-fibrosis-in-heart-failure-patients
#4
Cho-Kai Wu, Hao-Yuan Tsai, Mao-Yuan M Su, Yi-Fan Wu, Juey-Jen Hwang, Jiunn-Lee Lin, Lian-Yu Lin, Jien-Jiun Chen
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize the characteristics of epicardial fat (EAT) in different stage heart failure (HF) patients and its relationship between cardiac fibrosis. BACKGROUND: EAT is visceral adipose tissue that possesses inflammatory properties. Inflammation and obesity are associated with cardiac fibrosis, but the relationship between cardiac fibrosis and EAT is unknown. METHODS: EAT volume was measured using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in 180 subjects: 58 patients with systolic HF, 63 patients with HF and preserved ejection fraction, and 59 patients without HF...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038352/differential-relationships-of-hepatic-and-epicardial-fat-to-body-composition-in-hiv
#5
Lindsay T Fourman, Michael T Lu, Hang Lee, Kathleen V Fitch, Travis R Hallett, Jakob Park, Natalia Czerwonka, Julian Weiss, Takara L Stanley, Janet Lo, Steven K Grinspoon
HIV-infected patients commonly experience changes in central and peripheral fat content as well as ectopic fat accumulation. However, whether hepatic and epicardial fat stores relate differentially to body composition or how these associations are modified by HIV status has not been well explored. A previously recruited sample of 124 HIV-infected patients and 58 healthy controls had undergone dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and computed tomography (CT) from which body composition measures, liver-spleen ratio, and epicardial fat volume were obtained...
October 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037197/human-epicardial-adipose-tissue-derived-and-circulating-secreted-frizzled-related-protein-4-sfrp4-levels-are-increased-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#6
Qingwei Ji, Jianwei Zhang, Yu Du, Enjun Zhu, Zhijian Wang, Bin Que, Huangtai Miao, Shutian Shi, Xiuchuan Qin, Yingxin Zhao, Yujie Zhou, Fangjun Huang, Shaoping Nie
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (SFRP4) is associated with impaired glucose and triglyceride metabolism in patients with stable coronary artery disease. In the present study, we investigated human epicardial adipose tissue (EAT)-derived and circulating SFRP4 levels in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Plasma samples and adipose biopsies from EAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were collected from patients with CAD (n = 40) and without CAD (non-CAD, n = 30) during elective cardiac surgery...
October 16, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016744/novel-effects-of-dapagliflozin-on-epicardial-adipose-tissue-with-insulin-resistance-high-levels-of-inflammatory-chemokines-production-and-low-differentiation-ability
#7
Esther Díaz-Rodríguez, Rosa M Agra, Ángel L Fernández, B Adrio, Tomás García-Caballero, José R González-Juanatey, Sonia Eiras
Aims: In patients with cardiovascular disease, epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is characterized by insulin resistance, high pro-inflammatory chemokines and low differentiation ability. Since dapagliflozin reduces body fat and cardiovascular events in diabetic patients, we wanted to know its effect on EAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Methods and results: Adipose samples were obtained from 52 patients undergoing heart surgery. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) expression was determined by real time PCR (n = 20), Western blot and immunohistochemistry...
September 11, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986055/gender-differences-in-the-association-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue-and-coronary-artery-calcification-epicheart-study-eat-and-coronary-calcification-by-gender
#8
Jennifer Mancio, Marilia Pinheiro, Wilson Ferreira, Monica Carvalho, Antonio Barros, Nuno Ferreira, Luis Vouga, Vasco Gama Ribeiro, Adelino Leite-Moreira, Ines Falcao-Pires, Nuno Bettencourt
BACKGROUND: The association of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) seems to differ by gender. However, few studies have controlled for body size, and the ideal method for body size indexing has not been explored. OBJECTIVES: To analyse the effect of gender related-body size and-body fat differences on the association of EAT with CAC. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort of 371 severe aortic stenosis patients (77±8...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974326/relationships-between-periventricular-epicardial-adipose-tissue-accumulation-coronary-microcirculation-and-left-ventricular-diastolic-dysfunction
#9
Koki Nakanishi, Shota Fukuda, Atsushi Tanaka, Kenichiro Otsuka, Haruyuki Taguchi, Kenei Shimada
BACKGROUND: Obesity is related to left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction, although its pathophysiological mechanism remains unclear. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is an ectopic fat with paracrine effects on coronary circulation and myocardium. We hypothesized that left ventricle-specific (periventricular) EAT may deteriorate diastolic function by impairing coronary microcirculation. METHODS: In protocol 1, 74 patients without obstructive narrowing of the left anterior descending artery on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) underwent coronary flow reserve (CFR) examination to evaluate the relationship between EAT and coronary microcirculation...
November 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939053/association-between-endothelial-dysfunction-epicardial-fat-and-sub-clinical-atherosclerosis-during-menopause
#10
Julio Oscar Cabrera-Rego, Daisy Navarro-Despaigne, Liudmila Staroushik-Morel, Karel Díaz-Reyes, Marcos M Lima-Martínez, Gianluca Iacobellis
BACKGROUND: Menopausal transition is critical for the development of early, subclinical vascular damage. Multiple factors, such as atherosclerosis, increased epicardial fat, and endothelial dysfunction can play a role. Hence, the objective of this study was the comparison of epicardial adipose tissue and carotid intima media thickness in order to establish the best predictor of carotid stiffness in middle-aged women with endothelial dysfunction. METHODS: A total of 43 healthy women aged 40-59 years old with endothelial dysfunction previously demonstrated by flow mediated dilation were recruited to have anthropometric, biochemical, hormonal and ultrasound determinations of carotid intima media thickness and epicardial fat thickness...
September 19, 2017: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931782/tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-gene-expression-in-epicardial-adipose-tissue-is-related-to-coronary-atherosclerosis-assessed-by-computed-tomography
#11
Toshiro Kitagawa, Hideya Yamamoto, Takuya Hattori, Kazuhiro Sentani, Shinya Takahashi, Atsuhiro Senoo, Yumiko Kubo, Wataru Yasui, Taijiro Sueda, Yasuki Kihara
AIMS: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α reportedly has key pro-inflammatory properties in both atherosclerosis and adipocytes. To further investigate the biologic impact of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) on coronary atherosclerosis, we evaluated the relationship between TNF-α gene expression in EAT and clinically-assessed coronary atherosclerosis on computed tomography (CT). METHODS: We studied 47 patients before cardiac surgery (coronary artery bypass grafting [CABG], n=26; non-CABG, n=21), assessing visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area, EAT volume, coronary calcium score (CCS), and the presence of non- and/or partially-calcified coronary plaque (NCP) on CT angiography...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922364/association-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue-with-serum-level-of-cystatin-c-in-type-2-diabetes
#12
Tomomi Murai, Noriko Takebe, Kan Nagasawa, Yusuke Todate, Riyuki Nakagawa, Rieko Nakano, Mari Hangai, Yutaka Hasegawa, Yoshihiko Takahashi, Kunihiro Yoshioka, Yasushi Ishigaki
OBJECTIVE: Accumulation of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is considered to be a cardiovascular risk factor independent from visceral adiposity, obesity, hypertension and diabetes. We explored the parameters related to EAT accumulation, aiming to clarify the novel pathophysiological roles of EAT in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). METHODS: We examined the laboratory values, including cystatinC, and surrogate markers used for evaluating atherosclerosis. EAT was measured as the sum of the adipose tissue area, obtained by plain computed tomography scans in 208 subjects with T2DM but no history of coronary artery disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919601/relationship-between-echocardiographic-epicardial-adipose-tissue-eat-thickness-and-angiographically-detected-coronary-artery-disease
#13
G R Bhuiyan, G C Roy, M A Siddique, M Rahman, K Ahmed, F Nahar
Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a particular form of visceral adipose tissue deposited around the heart and there is growing evidence about the physiological and metabolic importance of EAT, especially in the association of cardiovascular risk profiles and the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. This observational, cross sectional study was done to determine the relationship between echocardiographic epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness and coronary artery disease (CAD). Total 123 patients with established or suspected coronary artery disease admitted for coronary angiogram in the department of Cardiology of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) from November 2010 to the end of April 2011 were included in this study...
July 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895502/characterization-of-the-epicardial-adipose-tissue-in-decellularized-human-scaled-whole-hearts-implications-for-the-whole-heart-tissue-engineering
#14
Payam Akhyari, Fabian Oberle, Joern Huelsmann, Hans Heid, Stefan Lehr, Andreas Barbian, Sentaro Nakanishi, Hug Aubin, Alexander Jenke, Artur Lichtenberg
Whole-organ engineering is an innovative field of regenerative medicine with growing translational perspectives. Recent reports suggest the feasibility of decellularization and repopulation of entire human size hearts. However, little is known about the susceptibility of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) to decellularization. Here, human size hearts of ovine donors were subjected to perfusion-based decellularization using detergent solutions. Upon basic histological evaluation and total DNA measurement myocardial regions prove largely decellularized while EAT demonstrated cellular remnants, further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy...
September 12, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852208/assessing-genetic-and-environmental-influences-on-epicardial-and-abdominal-adipose-tissue-quantities-a-classical-twin-study
#15
A L Jermendy, M Kolossvary, Z D Drobni, A D Tarnoki, D L Tarnoki, J Karady, S Voros, H J Lamb, B Merkely, G Jermendy, P Maurovich-Horvat
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Various adipose tissue compartments play an important role in the development of cardiometabolic diseases. The quantity of different fat compartments is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The aim of our study was to evaluate the magnitude of genetic and environmental effects on epicardial, subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (EAT, SAT and VAT) quantities in a cohort of adult twin pairs. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In this cross-sectional study we investigated adult twins (57 monozygotic [MZ] and 33 dizygotic [DZ] same-gender twin pairs; 180 twin subjects)...
August 30, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843368/echocardiographic-epicardial-adipose-tissue-thickness-is-associated-with-symptomatic-coronary-vasospasm-during-provocative-testing
#16
Susumu Nishio, Kenya Kusunose, Hirotsugu Yamada, Yukina Hirata, Takayuki Ise, Koji Yamaguchi, Shusuke Yagi, Takeshi Soeki, Tetsuzo Wakatsuki, Michio Shimabukuro, Masataka Sata
BACKGROUND: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is the ectopic visceral fat surrounding the heart, which plays an important role in atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries via endothelial damage. Several studies have also suggested that vasospasm with angina (VSA) causes endothelial dysfunction in the coronary arteries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the thickness of EAT in the anterior interventricular groove (EAT-AIG) using echocardiography in patients who had no obstructive coronary artery disease and were suspected of having VSA...
October 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838916/association-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue-and-high-risk-plaque-characteristics-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Nitesh Nerlekar, Adam J Brown, Rahul G Muthalaly, Andrew Talman, Thushan Hettige, James D Cameron, Dennis T L Wong
BACKGROUND: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is hypothesized to alter atherosclerotic plaque composition, with potential development of high-risk plaque (HRP). EAT can be measured by volumetric assessment (EAT-v) or linear thickness (EAT-t). We performed a systematic review and random-effects meta-analysis to assess the association of EAT with HRP and whether this association is dependent on the measurement method used. METHODS AND RESULTS: Electronic databases were systematically searched up to October 2016...
August 23, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837682/cardiac-computed-tomography-derived-epicardial-fat-volume-and-attenuation-independently-distinguish-patients-with-and-without-myocardial-infarction
#18
Amir Abbas Mahabadi, Bastian Balcer, Iryna Dykun, Michael Forsting, Thomas Schlosser, Gerd Heusch, Tienush Rassaf
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume is associated with coronary plaque burden and adverse events. We aimed to determine, whether CT-derived EAT attenuation in addition to EAT volume distinguishes patients with and without myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 94 patients with confirmed or suspected coronary artery disease (aged 66.9±14.7years, 61%male) undergoing cardiac CT imaging as part of clinical workup, EAT volume was retrospectively quantified from non-contrast cardiac CT by delineation of the pericardium in axial images...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817459/relation-between-epicardial-fat-and-subclinical-atherosclerosis-in-asymptomatic-individuals
#19
Rami M Abazid, Osama A Smettei, Mohammad Obadah Kattea, Sawsan Sayed, Hanaa Saqqah, Adel M Widyan, Maksymilian P Opolski
PURPOSE: Excessive quantity of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is considered a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). There are limited data, however, on the relationship between the quality of EAT and CAD. We investigated the association between the density and volume of EAT and subclinical CAD defined by positive coronary artery calcification (CAC), using computed tomography (CT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed 609 consecutive CT scans of patients with a mild to moderate risk for CAD to assess the EAT volume, which was measured manually by tracing the parietal pericardial sac on axial images...
November 2017: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810263/association-between-c1q-tnf-related-protein-1-levels-in-human-plasma-and-epicardial-adipose-tissues-and-congestive-heart-failure
#20
Ying Yang, Si Liu, Rong-Yi Zhang, Hui Luo, Ling Chen, Wen-Feng He, Rong Lei, Mu-Rong Liu, Hou-Xiang Hu, Mao Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: C1q and tumour necrosis factor-related protein 1 (CTRP1) possesses anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. This study investigated whether the CTRP1 levels in the plasma and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) were associated with congestive heart failure (CHF) and to disclose possible molecular mechanisms. METHODS: Plasma and tissue samples were obtained from subjects with or without CHF. Plasma levels of CTRP1 were measured by ELISA. The mRNA levels of CTRP1 and inflammatory cytokines were detected by RT-PCR...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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