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Ann Lowenfels, Mary Jo Pattison, Anne M Martin, Cindy Ferrari
Most Americans consume more than the recommended daily level of sodium, and tools are needed to assess and improve food practices related to sodium. We describe how the Sodium Practices Assessment Tool (SPAT) was developed and used in 19 hospitals and senior meal facilities in upstate New York. Initial results identified opportunities for improvement in food preparation, presentation, and purchasing practices to reduce sodium consumption. Pre-post comparison results showed significant increases in the use of herbs, spices, unsalted butter, fruits and vegetables, and in the availability of lower-sodium foods...
February 15, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
Fateme Akrami-Mohajeri, Zahra Derakhshan, Margherita Ferrantee, Negar Hamidiyan, Meysam Soleymani, Gea Oliveri Conti
Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen which its data in Iranian dairy products is limited. A total of 545 samples of traditional dairy products (raw milk, traditional cheese, traditional butter, traditional curd, and traditional ice cream) were collected from traditional dairy shops located in Yazd, Iran. L. monocytogenes was isolated, and positive samples were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Antibiotic sensitivity test was conducted to determine the antibiotic resistance. Listeria species were isolated from 11...
February 12, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Axel Linke, David Holzhey, Helge Möllmann, Ganesh Manoharan, Ulrich Schäfer, Christian Frerker, Stephen G Worthley, A J van Boven, Simon Redwood, Jan Kovac, Christian Butter, Lars Søndergaard, Alexander Lauten, Gerhard Schymik, Thomas Walther
BACKGROUND: The aim of the Portico TAVI (transcatheter aortic valve implantation) system study was to evaluate outcomes ≤1 year after implantation of a novel resheathable, self-expanding TAVI system in a multicenter patient population with severe aortic stenosis (AS). METHODS AND RESULTS: High-risk patients (n=222) with symptomatic severe AS (mean age, 83.0±4.6 years; 74.3% women) were enrolled across 12 centers in Europe and Australia. The study's primary end point was all-cause mortality at 30 days...
February 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions
Giuseppina Mandalari, Mary L Parker, Myriam M-L Grundy, Terri Grassby, Antonella Smeriglio, Carlo Bisignano, Roberto Raciti, Domenico Trombetta, David J Baer, Peter J Wilde
We have previously reported on the low lipid bioaccessibility from almond seeds during digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In the present study, we quantified the lipid released during artificial mastication from four almond meals: natural raw almonds (NA), roasted almonds (RA), roasted diced almonds (DA) and almond butter from roasted almonds (AB). Lipid release after mastication (8.9% from NA, 11.8% from RA, 12.4% from DA and 6.2% from AB) was used to validate our theoretical mathematical model of lipid bioaccessibility...
February 14, 2018: Nutrients
Robert M Park, Stephen J Gilbert, Christine Whittaker
OBJECTIVES: The butter flavoring additive, diacetyl (DA), can cause bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) by inhalation. A risk assessment was performed using data from a microwave popcorn manufacturing plant. METHODS: Current employees' medical history and pulmonary function tests together with air sampling over a 2.7 yr period were used to analyze FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. The exposure responses for declining pulmonary function and for possible early onset of BO were estimated using multiple regression methods...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
M S Nascimento, J A Carminati, I C R N Silva, D L Silva, A O Bernardi, M V Copetti
Due to recent foodborne outbreaks, peanuts have been considered a potential risk for Salmonella transmission. For this reason, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and contamination load of Salmonella, Escherichia coli and Enterobacteriaceae throughout the peanut supply chain in Brazil. Samples of peanuts and peanut-containing processed products from post-harvest (n=129), secondary processing (n=185) and retail market (n=100) were analyzed. The results showed high Enterobacteriaceae counts in the post-harvest samples...
March 2018: Food Research International
Solomon W Mwendia, Chris M Mwungu, Stanley Karanja Ng'ang'a, David Njenga, An Notenbaert
Despite the significant livestock contribution to households' nutrition and incomes in many African smallholder farms, milk productivity remains low. Inadequate feeding is the main reason for the underperformance. To contribute towards addressing this, an on-farm feeding trial was undertaken in Ol-joro-Orok Central Kenya. A feed basket using oat (Avena sativa) cv Conway and vetch (Vicia villosa) was compared to farmers practice. Milk production (kg) and quality parameters, including butterfat, protein, lactose, and density, were monitored, and cost-benefit analysis (CBA) undertaken...
February 9, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Yanling Wang, Haineng Xu, Tianrun Liu, Menggui Huang, Param-Puneet Butter, Chunsheng Li, Lin Zhang, Gary D Kao, Yanqing Gong, Amit Maity, Constantinos Koumenis, Yi Fan
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) - known to be resistant to genotoxic radiation and chemotherapy - are fundamental to therapy failure and cancer relapse. Here, we reveal that glioma CSCs are hypersensitive to radiation, but a temporal DNA repair mechanism converts the intrinsic sensitivity to genomic instability and treatment resistance. Transcriptome analysis identifies DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) as a predominant DNA repair enzyme in CSCs. Notably, DNA-PK activity is suppressed after irradiation when ROS induce the dissociation of DNA-PKcs with Ku70/80, resulting in delayed DNA repair and radiosensitivity; subsequently, after ROS clearance, the accumulated DNA damage and robust activation of DNA-PK induce genomic instability, facilitated by Rad50-mediated cell-cycle arrest, leading to enhanced malignancy, CSC overgrowth, and radioresistance...
February 8, 2018: JCI Insight
Jie Shen, Wei Jiang, Yaosheng Luo, Qiuyue Cai, Zhangfang Li, Zhiyi Chen, Shidi Hu, Lei Tang
OBJECTIVE: Effective management of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) requires precise identification of the disease activity period as it is responsive to immunosuppressive treatment. Quantitative evaluations of orbital soft tissue is useful for analysing disease stages. We aimed to establish a method for orbital soft tissue volume calculation based on MRI data using 3D reconstruction technology. Further, we validated the accuracy and precision of this method and investigated volume differences between patients with TAO and healthy individuals...
February 7, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Aimilia Lydia Kalafateli, Daniel Vallöf, Elisabet Jerlhag
Alcohol expresses its reinforcing properties by activating areas of the mesolimbic dopamine system, which consists of dopaminergic neurons projecting from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens. The findings that reward induced by food and addictive drugs involve common mechanisms raise the possibility that gut-brain hormones, which control appetite, such as amylin, could be involved in reward regulation. Amylin decreases food intake, and despite its implication in the regulation of natural rewards, tenuous evidence support amylinergic mediation of artificial rewards, such as alcohol...
February 6, 2018: Addiction Biology
Cristiano de Silva Souza, Jane Mara Block
The effect of the partial replacement of cocoa butter (CB) by cocoa butter equivalent (CBE) in the release of volatile compounds in dark chocolate was studied. The fatty acid profile, triacylglyceride composition, solid fat content (SFC) and melting point were determined in CB and CBE. Chocolate with CB (F1) and with different content of CBE (5 and 10%-F2 and F3, respectively) were prepared. Plastic viscosity and Casson flow limit, particle size distribution and release of volatile compounds using a solid phase microextraction with gas chromatography (SMPE-GC) were determined in the chocolate samples...
February 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Diogo N de Oliveira, Ana C B Camargo, Carlos F O R Melo, Rodrigo R Catharino
Chocolate is a popular food bearing a number of different classifications that are differentiated by proportions of cocoa solids, milk and cocoa butter. Literature brings evidence that chocolates with a high percentage of cocoa solids contribute to good health maintenance due to the presence of phenolic compounds. On the other hand, it is known that the productive process, including pre-processing, may influence the level of these substances in the finished product. Thus, accurate strategies to measure the levels of this class of molecules that can be highly adaptable throughout the manufacturing process are important to ensure high-quality products...
January 2018: Food Research International
Thomas Ochando, Jean-Roch Mouret, Anne Humbert-Goffard, Jean-Marie Sablayrolles, Vincent Farines
Vicinal diketones produced during wine fermentation influence the organoleptic qualities of wine. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione are well known for their contribution to butter or butterscotch-like flavours. We developed an analysis method to quantify vicinal diketones and their precursors, α-acetolactate and α-acetohydroxybutyrate, under oenological conditions. Five-fold dilution of the sample in a phosphate-citrate buffer (pH7.0) strongly attenuated matrix effects between the beginning and end of alcoholic fermentation and protected the sample from spontaneous precursor decarboxylation...
January 2018: Food Research International
Angela Filipa Damaso, Martina Velasova, Steven Van Winden, Yu-Mei Chang, Javier Guitian
This study describes the occurrence of preterm calving in Great Britain and evaluates its associations with subsequent milk production and reproductive performances and survival on farm of dairy cows. A total of 53 British dairy farms and 5759 animals with detailed breeding and milk recording data available were used to form two study groups: preterm calving (calving occurring between days 266 and 277 of gestation) and full-term calving (calving occurring at 278 days of gestation and over). Mixed effects models were implemented to compare milk production, clinical cases of mastitis and number of services per conception between groups...
2018: Veterinary Record Open
Victoria Awuni, Martha Wunnam Alhassan, Francis Kweku Amagloh
Refining food recipes with orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) has the potential to improve dietary intake of vitamin A. The objectives of this study were to utilize OFSP in the development of two composite bread types and to assess their contribution to dietary intake of vitamin A using the dietary reference intake of lactating mothers. Two composite OFSP-wheat flour bread recipes-vita butter bread and vita tea bread-were developed by incorporating 46% OFSP puree in existing 100% wheat flour bread recipes consumed by Ghanaians...
January 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Md Koushikul Islam, Mårten Strand, Michael Saleeb, Richard Svensson, Pawel Baranczewski, Per Artursson, Göran Wadell, Clas Ahlm, Mikael Elofsson, Magnus Evander
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne hemorrhagic fever virus affecting both humans and animals with severe morbidity and mortality and is classified as a potential bioterror agent due to the possible aerosol transmission. At present there is no human vaccine or antiviral therapy available. Thus, there is a great need to develop new antivirals for treatment of RVFV infections. Benzavir-2 was previously identified as potent inhibitor of human adenovirus, herpes simplex virus type 1, and type 2. Here we assess the anti-RVFV activity of benzavir-2 together with four structural analogs and determine pre-clinical pharmacokinetic parameters of benzavir-2...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
Helena Reis, Marie Schwebs, Sabrina Dietz, Christian J Janzen, Falk Butter
During its life cycle, Trypanosoma brucei shuttles between a mammalian host and the tsetse fly vector. In the mammalian host, immune evasion of T. brucei bloodstream form (BSF) cells relies on antigenic variation, which includes monoallelic expression and periodic switching of variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes. The active VSG is transcribed from only 1 of the 15 subtelomeric expression sites (ESs). During differentiation from BSF to the insect-resident procyclic form (PCF), the active ES is transcriptionally silenced...
January 29, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Nouf M Al-Enazi, Amani S Awaad, Saleh I Alqasoumi, Metab F Alwethairi
The biological activities; antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer, of the red algae Galaxaura rugosa and Liagora hawaiiana were determined. The total ethanol, lipoidal matters, chloroform, n-butanol, aqueous extracts and powder of both algae showed and bacterial and antifungal activities. However, the chloroform extract of Galaxaura rugosa showed antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae (24 mm, 0.15 mg/ml) higher than gentamycin (23 mm, 0.49 mg/ml). Moreover, the total ethanol, lipoidal matter and chloroform extracts showed antifungal activity (21, 22 and 25 mm, 1...
January 2018: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Hannah D Holscher, Andrew M Taylor, Kelly S Swanson, Janet A Novotny, David J Baer
BACKGROUND: Almond processing has been shown to differentially impact metabolizable energy; however, the effect of food form on the gastrointestinal microbiota is under-investigated. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the interrelationship of almond consumption and processing on the gastrointestinal microbiota. DESIGN: A controlled-feeding, randomized, five-period, crossover study with washouts between diet periods was conducted in healthy adults (n = 18)...
January 26, 2018: Nutrients
Yongjun Wei, David Bergenholm, Michael Gossing, Verena Siewers, Jens Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) is the main raw material for chocolate production, but CB supply is insufficient due to the increased chocolate demand and limited CB production. CB is mainly composed of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP, C16:0-C18:1-C16:0), 1-palmitoyl-3-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POS, C16:0-C18:1-C18:0) and 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS, C18:0-C18:1-C18:0). In general, Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces TAGs as storage lipids, which consist of C16 and C18 fatty acids...
January 25, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
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