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Gregory Simchick, Amelia Yin, Hang Yin, Qun Zhao
PURPOSE: To explore, at a high field strength of 7T, the performance of various fat spectral models on the quantification of triglyceride composition and proton density fat fraction (PDFF) using chemical-shift encoded MRI (CSE-MRI). METHODS: MR data was acquired from CSE-MRI experiments for various fatty materials, including oil and butter samples and in vivo brown and white adipose mouse tissues. Triglyceride composition and PDFF were estimated using various a priori 6- or 9-peak fat spectral models...
June 18, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Ksenia Derina, Elena Korotkova, Yekaterina Taishibekova, Lyazat Salkeeva, Bohumil Kratochvil, Jiri Barek
The treatment of some inborn metabolism errors requires cholesterol substitution therapy. Cholesterol plays a vital role in the human body. Therefore, the majority of cholesterol determination techniques are targeted to blood and blood serum. Nevertheless, cholesterol determination in food is important as well. In this paper, cholesterol determination using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) in dairy products (e.g., milk, clotted cream, yogurt, butter, etc.) is reported with a novel nonenzymatic sensor based on diphosphonic acid of 1,4-diacetylglycoluril (DPADGU) as an electrode surface modifier...
June 16, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Bruce A Griffin, Julie A Lovegrove
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
L Bava, J Bacenetti, G Gislon, L Pellegrino, P D'Incecco, A Sandrucci, A Tamburini, M Fiala, M Zucali
The dairy sector is recognised as one of the most impacting agricultural activities. In Italy approximately 24% of cow's milk is destined to Grana Padano, a Protected Designation of Origin long ripening cheese. The Grana Padano production has increased by 10% in the last decade and approximately reached 183,000 t in 2015. Around 38% of this production is exported to Germany, US, France and to the rest of the world. This study evaluated the environmental impact of production of Grana Padano, through a "cradle to cheese factory gate" Life Cycle Assessment...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Petra C Vinke, Eva Corpeleijn, Louise H Dekker, David R Jacobs, Gerjan Navis, Daan Kromhout
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Many diet quality scores exist, but fully food-based scores based on contemporary evidence are scarce. Our aim was to develop a food-based diet score based on international literature and examine its discriminative capacity and socio-demographic determinants. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Between 2006 and 2013, dietary intake of 129,369 participants of the Lifelines Cohort (42% male, 45 ± 13 years (range 18-93)) was assessed with a 110-item food frequency questionnaire...
June 12, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Breanna M McArthur, Richard D Mattes, Robert V Considine
The low digestibility and high satiety effects of nuts have been partly attributed to mastication. This work examines chewing forces and the bolus particle size of nuts (walnuts, almonds, pistachios) varying in physical properties under different conditions (with and without water, juice, sweetened yogurt and plain yogurt) along with satiety sensations and gut hormone concentrations following walnut consumption (whole or butter). In a randomized, cross-over design with 50 adults (25 males, 25 females; Body Mass Index (BMI) 24...
June 1, 2018: Nutrients
Soek Sin Teh, Augustine Soon Hock Ong, Yuen May Choo, Siau Hui Mah
Saturated fats are commonly claimed to raise human blood cholesterols and contribute to cardiovascular disease. Previous literature data were highlighted that although palm oil is 50% saturated, it does not behave like a saturated fat. Human trials were conducted to compare the effects on serum cholesterol levels given by palm olein and monounsaturated oils. It was postulated that saturation/unsaturation of the fatty acids situated at sn-2 positions of triglycerides in the fat molecules determine the induced blood lipid levels but not the overall saturation of oils...
2018: Journal of Oleo Science
Yusuf Yakubu, Abdulmalik Bello Shuaibu, Aliyu Musawa Ibrahim, Ummukulthum Lawal Hassan, Raymond Junior Nwachukwu
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an enteric foodborne pathogen associated with life threatening disease conditions. The enterobacteria are frequently found in cattle gastrointestinal tract with high potential of contaminating animal products such as meat, milk, and cheese. A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in milk products sold within Sokoto metropolis. Two hundred and sixty (260) samples (comprising 160 raw and 100 fermented milk samples) were collected from different sources within the study area...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Akhlaq A Farooqui, Tahira Farooqui, Anil Madan, Jolin Hwee-Jing Ong, Wei-Yi Ong
Ayurvedic medicine is a personalized system of traditional medicine native to India and the Indian subcontinent. It is based on a holistic view of treatment which promotes and supports equilibrium in different aspects of human life: the body, mind, and soul. Popular Ayurvedic medicinal plants and formulations that are used to slow down brain aging and enhance memory include Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) , Turmeric (Curcuma longa) , Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) , Shankhpushpi ( Convolvulus pluricaulis, Evolvulus alsinoides , and other species), gotu kola (Centella asiatica) , and guggulu ( Commiphora mukul and related species) and a formulation known as Brāhmī Gh ṛ ita, containing Brahmi, Vacā (Acorus calamus) , Ku ṣṭ ha (Saussurea lappa) , Shankhpushpi, and Purāṇa Gh ṛ ita (old clarified butter/old ghee)...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Nicole Kiweler, Boris Brill, Matthias Wirth, Ines Breuksch, Teresa Laguna, Cornelia Dietrich, Susanne Strand, Günter Schneider, Bernd Groner, Falk Butter, Thorsten Heinzel, Walburgis Brenner, Oliver H Krämer
Novel therapies are required for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), which is associated with inoperable disease and patient death. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are epigenetic modifiers and potential drug targets. Additional information on molecular pathways that are altered by histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) in RCC cells is warranted. It should equally be delineated further which individual members of the 18 mammalian HDACs determine the survival and tumor-associated gene expression programs of such cells...
May 29, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
B Barhouchi, S Aouadi, A Abdi
OBJECTIVE: The use of preparations based on minerals extracts of Calicotome villosa and butter is born from the misuse of drugs without specific microbiological analyzes. Seventeen different preparations were performed. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were determined on five bacteria and two fungi strains respectively. MATERIAL AND METHODS: C.villosa ashes are obtained by incineration of roots plant at 498°C for 4hours. They are analyzed to determine the shape of the particles and the mineral constituents by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) techniques respectively...
May 24, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Zhi-Yong Huang, Chen-Chou Wu, Lian-Jun Bao, Xiao-Ping Wang, Derek Muir, Eddy Y Zeng
Biomass fuels remain main energy sources in many remote rural regions, but potential health hazards from exposure to biomass combustion fumes have not been adequately assessed. Combustion of biomass fuels generates abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); hence residential exposure to PAHs can be used to evaluate the potential health risk to remote rural populations. The present study selected rural Tibetans to address the above-mentioned issue. Samples of indoor air and dust, human urine and local foods (Tsampa flour and buttered tea) were collected from five rural households in Langkazi County, an agricultural and pasturing region in Tibet of China in the summer season, which represented the best-case scenario as no heating was required...
May 24, 2018: Environment International
M Pedrotti, I Khomenko, L Cappellin, M Fontana, M Somenzi, L Falchero, M Arveda, V Fogliano, F Biasioli
In this study, Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS), coupled with a time-of-flight mass analyzer and a multipurpose automatic sampler, was evaluated as a rapid and non-destructive tool for the quality control (QC) of anhydrous milk fat (AMF). AMFs packed in cardboard and bag-in-box were compared during refrigerated shelf-life at 4°C for 9 months. AMF samples were taken at 120, 180 and 240 days and measured by PTR-MS during storage at 50°C for 11 days. Univariate and multivariate data analysis were performed in order to classify samples according to the packaging type and compare aromatic profiles...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Virginia Signal, Stephanie Huang, Diana Sarfati, James Stanley, Katherine A McGlynn, Jason K Gurney
Dairy consumption has been studied extensively in terms of its relationship with testicular cancer (TC), yet this relationship remains unclear. In this systematic review, we aimed to answer whether TC development is associated with (a) high amounts of dairy product consumption, (b) the type of dairy product consumed, (c) increasing levels of dairy product consumption, and (d) dairy consumption during certain periods during the lifecourse. Following a systematic review of the literature, eight studies (all case-control studies) were included in our review...
May 21, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Miguel Vasconcelos Almeida, Sabrina Dietz, Stefan Redl, Emil Karaulanov, Andrea Hildebrandt, Christian Renz, Helle D Ulrich, Julian König, Falk Butter, René F Ketting
Argonaute proteins and their associated small RNAs (sRNAs) are evolutionarily conserved regulators of gene expression. Gametocyte-specific factor 1 (Gtsf1) proteins, characterized by two tandem CHHC zinc fingers and an unstructured C-terminal tail, are conserved in animals and have been shown to interact with Piwi clade Argonautes, thereby assisting their activity. We identified the Caenorhabditis elegans Gtsf1 homolog, named it gtsf-1 and characterized it in the context of the sRNA pathways of C. elegans We report that GTSF-1 is not required for Piwi-mediated gene silencing...
May 16, 2018: EMBO Journal
Isabel J Skypala, Rebecca McKenzie
Diet and nutrition play an important role in the development and management of food allergy. The diet of expectant mothers can have an effect on their offspring in terms of allergic outcomes. A host of confounding factors may influence this, with a maternal diet rich in fruits and vegetables, fish, vitamin D-rich foods associated with a lower risk of allergic disease in their children. More surprisingly, the consumption of milk and butter has also been shown to have a protective effect, especially in a farm environment...
May 15, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Lei Chen, Michaela Fakiola, Karen Staines, Colin Butter, Jim Kaufman
γδ T cells recognize a wide variety of ligands in mammals, among them members of the butyrophilin (BTN) family. Nothing is known about γδ T cell ligands in chickens, despite there being many such cells in blood and lymphoid tissues, as well as in mucosal surfaces. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of chickens was discovered because of polymorphic BG genes, part of the BTN family. All but two BG genes are located in the BG region, oriented head-to-tail so that unequal crossing-over has led to copy number variation (CNV) as well as hybrid (chimeric) genes, making it difficult to identify true alleles...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Wei Shuan Kimberly Tan, Wei Jie Kevin Tan, Shalini D/O Ponnalagu, Katie Koecher, Ravi Menon, Sze-Yen Tan, Christiani J Henry
A low-glycaemic-index (GI) breakfast has been shown to lower blood glucose levels throughout the day. A wide variety of breakfast foods are consumed, but their GI values are largely unknown, hence limiting consumers' ability to select healthier options. This study investigated the GI values of ten common breakfast (five Asian and five Western) foods in this region using a randomised, cross-over study design. Participants arrived after an overnight fast, and fasting blood sample was taken before participants consumed test foods...
May 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Harri Juhani Saarinen, Sari Husgafvel, Hanna Pohjantähti-Maaroos, Marja Wallenius, Ari Palomäki
Background: The aim of this study was to compare acute effects of turnip rapeseed oil rich with mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids and cream on postprandial triglyceride levels and post-glucose load measures of insulin sensitivity in population of men with metabolic syndrome. Methods: This open-label balanced crossover study included 37 men with metabolic syndrome. They underwent an oral glucose-fat tolerance test where they ingested 75 g of glucose with either 240 mL of cream or 84 mL of turnip rapeseed oil depending on the study arm...
2018: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
Mary-Jon Ludy, Sze-Yen Tan, Ryan J Leone, Amy L Morgan, Robin M Tucker
For university students, alterations in sleep and diet quality are common, and the propensity for weight gain is well established. The role of sleep duration during periods of rapid weight gain is understudied. This study explored the relationships between sleep duration, diet patterns, and body composition in first-year university students. Data collection occurred during the beginning of the fall (August) and spring semesters (January). Anthropometric measures included weight, height, and percent body fat (%BF)...
May 10, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
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