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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525760/snapshot-nucleo-cytoskeletal-interactions
#1
Cátia S Janota, Francisco J Calero-Cuenca, Judite Costa, Edgar R Gomes
The nucleus is connected to the cytoskeleton, and these connections are involved in multiple functions such as nuclear positioning, shape and stiffness, cytoskeleton organization, mechanotransduction, gene expression, chromosome positioning, DNA repair, and cell migration.
May 18, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515328/mechanotransmission-in-endothelial-cells-subjected-to-oscillatory-and-multi-directional-shear-flow
#2
Mahsa Dabagh, Payman Jalali, Peter J Butler, Amanda Randles, John M Tarbell
Local haemodynamics are linked to the non-uniform distribution of atherosclerosic lesions in arteries. Low and oscillatory (reversing in the axial flow direction) wall shear stress (WSS) induce inflammatory responses in endothelial cells (ECs) mediating disease localization. The objective of this study is to investigate computationally how the flow direction (reflected in WSS variation on the EC surface over time) influences the forces experienced by structural components of ECs that are believed to play important roles in mechanotransduction...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514142/non-monotonic-self-deformation-of-cell-nuclei-on-topological-surfaces-with-micropillar-array
#3
Xiangnan Liu, Ruili Liu, Yexin Gu, Jiandong Ding
Cells respond to the mechanical signals from their surroundings and integrate physiochemical signals to initiate intricate mechanochemical processes. While many studies indicate that topological features of biomaterials impact cellular behaviours profoundly, little research has focused on the nuclear response to a mechanical force generated by a topological surface. Here, we fabricated a polymeric micropillar array with an appropriate dimension to induce a severe self-deformation of cell nuclei and investigated how the nuclear shape changed over time...
May 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513889/mechanically-induced-bone-formation-is-not-sensitive-to-local-osteocyte-density-in-rat-vertebral-cancellous-bone
#4
Erin N Cresswell, Thu M Nguyen, Michael W Horsfield, Adrian J Alepuz, Thomas A Metzger, Glen L Niebur, Christopher J Hernandez
Osteocytes play an integral role in bone by sensing mechanical stimuli and releasing signaling factors that direct bone formation. The importance of osteocytes in mechanotransduction suggests that regions of bone tissue with greater osteocyte populations are more responsive to mechanical stimuli. To determine the effects of osteocyte population on bone functional adaptation we applied mechanical loads to the 8(th) caudal vertebra of skeletally mature female Sprague Dawley rats (6 months of age, n = 8 loaded, n = 8 sham controls)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513598/yap-taz-link-cell-mechanics-to-notch-signalling-to-control-epidermal-stem-cell-fate
#5
Antonio Totaro, Martina Castellan, Giusy Battilana, Francesca Zanconato, Luca Azzolin, Stefano Giulitti, Michelangelo Cordenonsi, Stefano Piccolo
How the behaviour of somatic stem cells (SCs) is influenced by mechanical signals remains a black-box in cell biology. Here we show that YAP/TAZ regulation by cell shape and rigidity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) dictates a pivotal SC decision: to remain undifferentiated and grow, or to activate a terminal differentiation programme. Notably, mechano-activation of YAP/TAZ promotes epidermal stemness by inhibition of Notch signalling, a key factor for epidermal differentiation. Conversely, YAP/TAZ inhibition by low mechanical forces induces Notch signalling and loss of SC traits...
May 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511648/a-mathematical-model-of-mechanotransduction-reveals-how-mechanical-memory-regulates-mesenchymal-stem-cell-fate-decisions
#6
Tao Peng, Linan Liu, Adam L MacLean, Chi Wut Wong, Weian Zhao, Qing Nie
BACKGROUND: Mechanical and biophysical properties of the cellular microenvironment regulate cell fate decisions. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) fate is influenced by past mechanical dosing (memory), but the mechanisms underlying this process have not yet been well defined. We have yet to understand how memory affects specific cell fate decisions, such as the differentiation of MSCs into neurons, adipocytes, myocytes, and osteoblasts. RESULTS: We study a minimal gene regulatory network permissive of multi-lineage MSC differentiation into four cell fates...
May 16, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507534/stress-and-alterations-in-bones-an-interdisciplinary-perspective
#7
REVIEW
Pia-Maria Wippert, Michael Rector, Gisela Kuhn, Karin Wuertz-Kozak
Decades of research have demonstrated that physical stress (PS) stimulates bone remodeling and affects bone structure and function through complex mechanotransduction mechanisms. Recent research has laid ground to the hypothesis that mental stress (MS) also influences bone biology, eventually leading to osteoporosis and increased bone fracture risk. These effects are likely exerted by modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, resulting in an altered release of growth hormones, glucocorticoids and cytokines, as demonstrated in human and animal studies...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507138/stem-cell-migration-and-mechanotransduction-on-linear-stiffness-gradient-hydrogels
#8
William J Hadden, Jennifer L Young, Andrew W Holle, Meg L McFetridge, Du Yong Kim, Philip Wijesinghe, Hermes Taylor-Weiner, Jessica H Wen, Andrew R Lee, Karen Bieback, Ba-Ngu Vo, David D Sampson, Brendan F Kennedy, Joachim P Spatz, Adam J Engler, Yu Suk Choi
The spatial presentation of mechanical information is a key parameter for cell behavior. We have developed a method of polymerization control in which the differential diffusion distance of unreacted cross-linker and monomer into a prepolymerized hydrogel sink results in a tunable stiffness gradient at the cell-matrix interface. This simple, low-cost, robust method was used to produce polyacrylamide hydrogels with stiffness gradients of 0.5, 1.7, 2.9, 4.5, 6.8, and 8.2 kPa/mm, spanning the in vivo physiological and pathological mechanical landscape...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504928/the-murine-catecholamine-methyltransferase-mtomt-is-essential-for-mechanotransduction-by-cochlear-hair-cells
#9
Christopher L Cunningham, Zizhen Wu, Aria Jafari, Bo Zhao, Kat Schrode, Sarah Harkins-Perry, Amanda Lauer, Ulrich Mueller
Hair cells of the cochlea are mechanosensors for the perception of sound. Mutations in the LRTOMT gene, which encodes a protein with homology to the catecholamine methyltransferase COMT that is linked to schizophrenia, cause deafness. Here we show that Tomt/Comt2, the murine ortholog of LRTOMT, has an unexpected function in the regulation of mechanotransduction by hair cells. The role of mTOMT in hair cells is independent of mTOMT methyltransferase function and mCOMT cannot substitute for mTOMT function. Instead, mTOMT binds to putative components of the mechanotransduction channel in hair cells and is essential for the transport of some of these components into the mechanically sensitive stereocilia of hair cells...
May 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502789/supported-lipid-bilayer-platforms-to-probe-cell-mechanobiology
#10
REVIEW
Roxanne Glazier, Khalid Salaita
Mammalian and bacterial cells sense and exert mechanical forces through the process of mechanotransduction, which interconverts biochemical and physical signals. This is especially important in contact-dependent signaling, where ligand-receptor binding occurs at cell-cell or cell-ECM junctions. By virtue of occurring within these specialized junctions, receptors engaged in contact-dependent signaling undergo oligomerization and coupling with the cytoskeleton as part of their signaling mechanisms. While our ability to measure and map biochemical signaling within cell junctions has advanced over the past decades, physical cues remain difficult to map in space and time...
May 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494966/mechanotransduction-dynamics-at-the-cell-matrix-interface
#11
Seth H Weinberg, Devin B Mair, Christopher A Lemmon
The ability of cells to sense and respond to mechanical cues from the surrounding environment has been implicated as a key regulator of cell differentiation, migration, and proliferation. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is an oft-overlooked component of the interface between cells and their surroundings. Cells assemble soluble ECM proteins into insoluble fibrils with unique mechanical properties that can alter the mechanical cues a cell receives. In this study, we construct a model that predicts the dynamics of cellular traction force generation and subsequent assembly of fibrils of the ECM protein fibronectin (FN)...
May 9, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490543/molecular-regulation-of-exercise-induced-muscle-fiber-hypertrophy
#12
Marcas M Bamman, Brandon M Roberts, Gregory R Adams
Skeletal muscle hypertrophy is a widely sought exercise adaptation to counteract the muscle atrophy of aging and disease, or to improve athletic performance. While this desired muscle enlargement is a well-known adaptation to resistance exercise training (RT), the mechanistic underpinnings are not fully understood. The purpose of this review is thus to provide the reader with a summary of recent advances in molecular mechanisms-based on the most current literature-that are thought to promote RT-induced muscle hypertrophy...
May 10, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474270/stenosis-hemodynamics-disrupt-the-endothelial-cell-glycocalyx-by-mmp-activity-creating-a-proinflammatory-environment
#13
S Cooper, K McDonald, D Burkat, Richard L Leask
Hemodynamic forces are known to be able to induce an inflammatory phenotype in endothelial cells (ECs). The EC glycocalyx (GCX) is a dynamic structure which is regulated in response to different stimuli and hypothesized as an important contributor to the mechanotransduction of wall shear stresses (WSS). In this work, we used a three dimensional in vitro EC culture model with a 50% asymmetric stenosis to investigate degradation of the GCX by increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in regions of WSS gradients and how this degradation might create a proinflammatory environment...
May 4, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473753/mechanical-strain-promotes-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-by-global-changes-of-gene-expression
#14
Anna Jagielska, Alexis L Lowe, Ekta Makhija, Liliana Wroblewska, Jochen Guck, Robin J M Franklin, G V Shivashankar, Krystyn J Van Vliet
Differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) to oligodendrocytes and subsequent axon myelination are critical steps in vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) development and regeneration. Growing evidence supports the significance of mechanical factors in oligodendrocyte biology. Here, we explore the effect of mechanical strains within physiological range on OPC proliferation and differentiation, and strain-associated changes in chromatin structure, epigenetics, and gene expression. Sustained tensile strain of 10-15% inhibited OPC proliferation and promoted differentiation into oligodendrocytes...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469768/the-mtor-fak-mechanotransduction-signaling-axis-for-focal-adhesion-maturation-and-cell-proliferation
#15
Fan-Yen Lee, Yen-Yi Zhen, Chun-Man Yuen, Raymond Fan, Yen-Ta Chen, Jiunn-Jye Sheu, Yi-Ling Chen, Ching-Jen Wang, Cheuk-Kwan Sun, Hon-Kan Yip
BACKGROUND: Mechanotransduction (MTD) is an important physiopathological signalling pathway associated with cardiovascular disease such as hypertension. Phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a MTD-sensing protein. This study tested the hypothesis that mTOR-FAK MTD signaling axis was crucial for focal adhesion (FA) maturation and cell proliferation. METHODS: Shock-wave was adopted as a tool for MTD and mTOR-FAK signaling. RESULTS: After demonstrating a failure in FAK phosphorylation after microfilament depolymerization, we attempted to identify the upstream regulator out of three kinases known to be activated in pressure-stimulated MTD [i...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458610/integrating-concepts-of-material-mechanics-ligand-chemistry-dimensionality-and-degradation-to-control-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#16
Matthew G Haugh, Sarah C Heilshorn
The role of substrate mechanics in guiding mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) fate has been the focus of much research over the last decade. More recently, the complex interplay between substrate mechanics and other material properties such as ligand chemistry and substrate degradability to regulate MSC differentiation has begun to be elucidated. Additionally, there are several changes in the presentation of these material properties as the dimensionality is altered from two- to three-dimensional substrates, which may fundamentally alter our understanding of substrate-induced mechanotransduction processes...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Solid State & Materials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457943/actin-cytoskeleton-mediates-bmp2-smad-signaling-via-calponin-1-in-preosteoblast-under-simulated-microgravity
#17
Hongjie Xu, Feng Wu, Hongyu Zhang, Chao Yang, Kai Li, Hailong Wang, Honghui Yang, Yue Liu, Bai Ding, Yingjun Tan, Ming Yuan, Yinghui Li, Zhongquan Dai
Microgravity influences the activity of osteoblast, induces actin microfilament disruption and leads to bone loss during spaceflight. Mechanical stress such as gravity, regulates cell function, response and differentiation through dynamic cytoskeleton changes, but the mechanotransduction mechanism remains to be fully elucidated. Previous, we demonstrated actin microfilament mediated osteoblast Cbfa1 responsiveness to BMP2 under simulated microgravity (SMG). Here, we explored a potential molecular and its detailed mechanism of actin cytoskeleton functioning on BMP2-Smad signaling in MC3T3-E1 under SMG...
April 27, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455711/role-for-mechanotransduction-in-macrophage-and-dendritic-cell-immunobiology
#18
Svenja F B Mennens, Koen van den Dries, Alessandra Cambi
Tissue homeostasis is not only controlled by biochemical signals but also through mechanical forces that act on cells. Yet, while it has long been known that biochemical signals have profound effects on cell biology, the importance of mechanical forces has only been recognized much more recently. The types of mechanical stress that cells experience include stretch, compression, and shear stress, which are mainly induced by the extracellular matrix, cell-cell contacts, and fluid flow. Importantly, macroscale tissue deformation through stretch or compression also affects cellular function...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447290/regulation-of-cardiomyocyte-t-tubular-structure-opportunities-for-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Ornella Manfra, Michael Frisk, William E Louch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Membrane invaginations called t-tubules play an integral role in triggering cardiomyocyte contraction, and their disruption during diseases such as heart failure critically impairs cardiac performance. In this review, we outline the growing understanding of the malleability of t-tubule structure and function, and highlight emerging t-tubule regulators which may be exploited for novel therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: New technologies are revealing the nanometer scale organization of t-tubules, and their functional junctions with the sarcoplasmic reticulum called dyads, which generate Ca(2+) sparks...
April 26, 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432115/effects-of-exercise-on-vascular-function-structure-and-health-in-humans
#20
Daniel J Green, Kurt J Smith
Physical activity has profound impacts on the vasculature in humans. Acute exercise induces immediate changes in artery function, whereas repeated episodic bouts of exercise induce chronic functional adaptation and, ultimately, structural arterial remodeling. The nature of these changes in function and structure are dependent on the characteristics of the training load and may be modulated by other factors such as exercise-induced inflammation and oxidative stress. The clinical implications of these physiological adaptations are profound...
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
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