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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718435/agrin-to-yap-in-cancer-and-neuromuscular-junctions
#1
Wen-Cheng Xiong, Lin Mei
Agrin is utilized by motor neurons to stimulate the LRP4-MuSK receptor in muscles for neuromuscular junction (NMJ) formation. Recent studies of cancer have identified novel functions of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4-muscle-specific kinase (LRP4-MuSK) pathway. Agrin may act as a mechanotransduction signal in the extracellular matrix (ECM) to coordinate the cross-talk between the LRP4-MuSK pathway and integrin-focal adhesion pathway. Ensuing Yes-associated protein (YAP) activation promotes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
April 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715714/actomyosin-contractility-and-collective-migration-may-the-force-be-with-you
#2
REVIEW
Pahini Pandya, Jose L Orgaz, Victoria Sanz-Moreno
Collective cell migration is essential during physiological processes such as development or wound healing and in pathological conditions such as cancer dissemination. Cells migrating within multicellular tissues experiment different forces which play an intricate role during tissue formation, development and maintenance. How cells are able to respond to these forces depends largely on how they interact with the extracellular matrix. In this review, we focus on mechanics and mechanotransduction in collective migration...
July 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712573/ve-cadherin-phosphorylation-regulates-endothelial-fluid-shear-stress-responses-through-the-polarity-protein-lgn
#3
Daniel E Conway, Brian G Coon, Madhusuthan Budatha, Paul T Arsenovic, Fabrizio Orsenigo, Florian Wessel, Jiasheng Zhang, Zhenwu Zhuang, Elisabetta Dejana, Dietmar Vestweber, Martin A Schwartz
Fluid shear stress due to blood flow on the vascular endothelium regulates blood vessel development, remodeling, physiology, and pathology [1, 2]. A complex consisting of PECAM-1, VE-cadherin, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) that resides at endothelial cell-cell junctions transduces signals important for flow-dependent vasodilation, blood vessel remodeling, and atherosclerosis. PECAM-1 transduces forces to activate src family kinases (SFKs), which phosphorylate and transactivate VEGFRs [3-5]...
July 10, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708445/evaluation-of-yap-signaling-in-a-rat-tympanic-membrane-under-a-continuous-negative-pressure-load-and-in-human-middle-ear-cholesteatoma
#4
Naotaro Akiyama, Tomomi Yamamoto-Fukuda, Mamoru Yoshikawa, Hiromi Kojima
OBJECTIVES: Mechanotransduction plays an important role in cell-proliferative activities. Negative pressure in the middle ear is thought to be an important factor related to the etiology of acquired middle ear cholesteatoma. However, the correlation between negative pressure in the middle ear and the mechanism of middle ear cholesteatoma formation remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression of key molecules for mechanotransduction immunohistochemically. METHODS: An immunohistochemical analysis was performed using anti-Wnt5a (a marker of alternative Wnt signaling), -Yes-associated protein (YAP) (a marker of mechanosensing) and -pYAP (phosphorylated YAP at Ser 127: inactivated YAP) antibody in the tympanic membrane (TM) under a negative pressure load and in human middle ear cholesteatoma tissues...
July 14, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705727/the-piezo1-protein-ion-channel-functions-in-human-nucleus-pulposus-cell-apoptosis-by-regulating-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-signal-pathway
#5
Xiao-Fei Li, Ping Leng, Zhao Zhang, Hai-Ning Zhang
The Piezo1 protein ion channel is a novel mechanical stretch-activated ion channel (SAC) closely related to mechanical signals. Mechanotransduction plays a crucial role in organ development and homeostasis. Previous studies identified Piezo1 and demonstrated that it is distinct from other ion channels with well-established roles in lower organisms. Mechanical stretch-activated ion channels from other organisms are not conserved in mammals or do not act as mechanically activated channels in mammals. In the current study, we explored the role of the Piezo1 ion channel in human nucleus pulposus cell (NP cell) apoptosis through mechanical force-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress...
July 10, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705044/the-genetics-of-hair-cell-function-in-zebrafish
#6
Teresa Nicolson
Our ears are remarkable sensory organs, providing the important senses of balance and hearing. The complex structure of the inner ear, or 'labyrinth', along with the assorted neuroepithelia, have evolved to detect head movements and sounds with impressive sensitivity. The rub is that the inner ear is highly vulnerable to genetic lesions and environmental insults. According to National Institute of Health estimates, hearing loss is one of the most commonly inherited or acquired sensorineural diseases. To understand the causes of deafness and balance disorders, it is imperative to understand the underlying biology of the inner ear, especially the inner workings of the sensory receptors...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702845/regulation-of-cardiac-ca-2-and-ion-channels-by-shear-mechanotransduction
#7
REVIEW
Joon-Chul Kim, Min-Jeong Son, Jun Wang, Sun-Hee Woo
Cardiac contraction is controlled by a Ca(2+) signaling sequence that includes L-type Ca(2+) current-gated opening of Ca(2+) release channels (ryanodine receptors) in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Local Ca(2+) signaling in the atrium differs from that in the ventricle because atrial myocytes lack transverse tubules and have more abundant corbular SR. Myocardium is subjected to a variety of forces with each contraction, such as stretch, shear stress, and afterload, and adapts to those mechanical stresses...
July 12, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698049/tensins-bridging-amp-activated-protein-kinase-with-integrin-activation
#8
REVIEW
Maria Georgiadou, Johanna Ivaska
Integrin activation is essential for cell adhesion and for connecting the extracellular matrix to the actin cytoskeleton. Thus, inappropriate integrin activation has been linked to several diseases, including cancer. Recent insights demonstrate that the main fibrillar adhesion component tensin maintains β1-integrin active in these mature adhesions. Depletion or silencing of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the energy sensor involved in maintaining the energy balance of the cell, enhances integrin activity by increasing the expression of tensin and thereby promoting cell adhesion, matrix formation, and mechanotransduction...
July 8, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697754/life-behind-the-wall-sensing-mechanical-cues-in-plants
#9
REVIEW
Olivier Hamant, Elizabeth S Haswell
There is increasing evidence that all cells sense mechanical forces in order to perform their functions. In animals, mechanotransduction has been studied during the establishment of cell polarity, fate, and division in single cells, and increasingly is studied in the context of a multicellular tissue. What about plant systems? Our goal in this review is to summarize what is known about the perception of mechanical cues in plants, and to provide a brief comparison with animals.
July 11, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690548/optimization-of-variable-ventilation-for-physiology-immune-response-and-surfactant-enhancement-in-preterm-lambs
#10
Erzsébet Bartolák-Suki, Peter B Noble, Samer Bou Jawde, Jane J Pillow, Béla Suki
Preterm infants often require mechanical ventilation due to lung immaturity including reduced or abnormal surfactant. Since cyclic stretch with cycle-by-cycle variability is known to augment surfactant release by epithelial cells, we hypothesized that such in vivo mechanotransduction improves surfactant maturation and hence lung physiology in preterm subjects. We thus tested whether breath-by-breath variability in tidal volume (VT) in variable ventilation (VV) can be tuned for optimal performance in a preterm lamb model...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687864/stressed-podocytes-mechanical-forces-sensors-signaling-and-response
#11
REVIEW
Karlhans Endlich, Felix Kliewe, Nicole Endlich
Increased glomerular capillary pressure (glomerular hypertension) and increased glomerular filtration rate (glomerular hyperfiltration) have been proven to cause glomerulosclerosis in animal models and are likely to be operative in patients. Since podocytes cover the glomerular basement membrane, they are exposed to tensile stress due to circumferential wall tension and to fluid shear stress arising from filtrate flow through the narrow filtration slits and through Bowman's space. In vitro evidence documents that podocytes respond to tensile stress as well as to fluid shear stress...
July 7, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687667/membrane-tension-controls-adhesion-positioning-at-the-leading-edge-of-cells
#12
Bruno Pontes, Pascale Monzo, Laurent Gole, Anabel-Lise Le Roux, Anita Joanna Kosmalska, Zhi Yang Tam, Weiwei Luo, Sophie Kan, Virgile Viasnoff, Pere Roca-Cusachs, Lisa Tucker-Kellogg, Nils C Gauthier
Cell migration is dependent on adhesion dynamics and actin cytoskeleton remodeling at the leading edge. These events may be physically constrained by the plasma membrane. Here, we show that the mechanical signal produced by an increase in plasma membrane tension triggers the positioning of new rows of adhesions at the leading edge. During protrusion, as membrane tension increases, velocity slows, and the lamellipodium buckles upward in a myosin II-independent manner. The buckling occurs between the front of the lamellipodium, where nascent adhesions are positioned in rows, and the base of the lamellipodium, where a vinculin-dependent clutch couples actin to previously positioned adhesions...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683303/cellular-changes-of-stem-cells-in-3-dimensional-culture
#13
Matthew P Green, Bo Hou
PURPOSE: During various operations and procedures, such as distraction osteogenesis and orthodontics, skeletal tissues use mechanotransduction. Mechanotransduction is important for maintaining bone health and converting mechanical forces into biochemical signals. We hypothesized that cells put under mechanical stress would adapt and change morphologically and respond with a decrease in cellular proliferation to accommodate the stress differences. These differences will be measured at the molecular and genetic level...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679638/actin-based-adhesion-modules-mediate-cell-interactions-with-the-extracellular-matrix-and-neighboring-cells
#14
REVIEW
Alexia I Bachir, Alan Rick Horwitz, W James Nelson, Julie M Bianchini
Cell adhesions link cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and to each other and depend on interactions with the actin cytoskeleton. Both cell-ECM and cell-cell adhesion sites contain discrete, yet overlapping, functional modules. These modules establish physical associations with the actin cytoskeleton, locally modulate actin organization and dynamics, and trigger intracellular signaling pathways. Interplay between these modules generates distinct actin architectures that underlie different stages, types, and functions of cell-ECM and cell-cell adhesions...
July 5, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674014/e-cadherin-and-lgn-align-epithelial-cell-divisions-with-tissue-tension-independently-of-cell-shape
#15
Kevin C Hart, Jiongyi Tan, Kathleen A Siemers, Joo Yong Sim, Beth L Pruitt, W James Nelson, Martijn Gloerich
Tissue morphogenesis requires the coordinated regulation of cellular behavior, which includes the orientation of cell division that defines the position of daughter cells in the tissue. Cell division orientation is instructed by biochemical and mechanical signals from the local tissue environment, but how those signals control mitotic spindle orientation is not fully understood. Here, we tested how mechanical tension across an epithelial monolayer is sensed to orient cell divisions. Tension across Madin-Darby canine kidney cell monolayers was increased by a low level of uniaxial stretch, which oriented cell divisions with the stretch axis irrespective of the orientation of the cell long axis...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670605/expression-and-analysis-of-flow-regulated-ion-channels-in-xenopus-oocytes
#16
Shujie Shi, Marcelo D Carattino
Mechanically-gated ion channels play key roles in mechanotransduction, a process that translates physical forces into biological signals. Epithelial and endothelial cells are exposed to laminar shear stress (LSS), a tangential force exerted by flowing fluids against the wall of vessels and epithelia. The protocol outlined herein has been used to examine the response of ion channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes to LSS (Hoger et al., 2002; Carattino et al., 2004; Shi et al., 2006). The Xenopus oocyte is a reliable system that allows for the expression and chemical modification of ion channels and regulatory proteins (George et al...
April 20, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670382/stretch-activated-channel-piezo1-is-up-regulated-in-failure-heart-and-cardiomyocyte-stimulated-by-angii
#17
Jianlin Liang, Boshui Huang, Guiyi Yuan, Ying Chen, Fasheng Liang, Huayuan Zeng, Shaoxin Zheng, Liang Cao, Dengfeng Geng, Shuxian Zhou
Mechanotransduction is the conversion of extracellular mechanical stimuli into intracellular biochemical signals, and plays an important role in heart responses to its own mechanical environment. Piezo1 as a distinct stretch-activated channel (SAC) in mammal involves in not only vascular remodeling during embryonic development but also arterial remodeling upon to hypertension at adult stage. In the present study, the expression of Piezo1 was up-regulated in failure heart induced by myocardial infarction (MI) by real-time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668930/cell-scientist-to-watch-jacky-goetz
#18
(no author information available yet)
Jacky Goetz graduated in pharmacology and cell biology from the University of Strasbourg in France and moved to Canada to the laboratory of Ivan Robert Nabi at the University of Montreal and later the University of British Columbia, to work on the interaction between the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, as well as the glycosylation of membrane proteins. In 2007, he received his PhD from both the University of Montreal and the University of Strasbourg. For his postdoc, Jacky moved to the Spanish national centre for cardiovascular research (CNIC) in Madrid and the laboratory of Miguel Angel del Pozo to study the tumour microenvironment...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666629/ageing-and-ocular-tissue-stiffness-in-glaucoma
#19
REVIEW
Baiyun Liu, Sara McNally, Jason I Kilpatrick, Suzanne P Jarvis, Colm J O'Brien
Glaucoma is a progressive and chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterised by damage to the inner layers of the retina and deformation of the optic nerve head. The degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons results in an irreversible loss of vision and is correlated with increasing age. Extracellular matrix (ECM) changes related to natural ageing generates a stiffer extracellular environment throughout the body. Altered age-associated ocular tissue stiffening plays a major role in a significant number of ophthalmic pathologies...
June 27, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663585/cib2-interacts-with-tmc1-and-tmc2-and-is-essential-for-mechanotransduction-in-auditory-hair-cells
#20
Arnaud P J Giese, Yi-Quan Tang, Ghanshyam P Sinha, Michael R Bowl, Adam C Goldring, Andrew Parker, Mary J Freeman, Steve D M Brown, Saima Riazuddin, Robert Fettiplace, William R Schafer, Gregory I Frolenkov, Zubair M Ahmed
Inner ear hair cells detect sound through deflection of stereocilia, the microvilli-like projections that are arranged in rows of graded heights. Calcium and integrin-binding protein 2 is essential for hearing and localizes to stereocilia, but its exact function is unknown. Here, we have characterized two mutant mouse lines, one lacking calcium and integrin-binding protein 2 and one carrying a human deafness-related Cib2 mutation, and show that both are deaf and exhibit no mechanotransduction in auditory hair cells, despite the presence of tip links that gate the mechanotransducer channels...
June 29, 2017: Nature Communications
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