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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092213/cellular-and-molecular-factors-influencing-tendon-repair
#1
Sushmitha Durgam, Matthew Stewart
Tendons are complex, hierarchically organized connective tissues that transmit tensile forces between muscles and tendons. Tendon injuries are among the most common orthopedic problems with long-term disability as a frequent consequence due to prolonged healing time. Further, the repair tissue is of inferior quality, predisposing patients to high rates of recurrence following initial injury. Co-ordinated cellular processes and biological factors under the influence of mechanical loading are involved in tendon healing and our understanding of these events lags behind other musculoskeletal tissues...
January 16, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091965/deformability-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-is-dependent-on-vimentin-intermediate-filaments
#2
Poonam Sharma, Zachary T Bolten, Diane R Wagner, Adam H Hsieh
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are being studied extensively due to their potential as a therapeutic cell source for many load-bearing tissues. Compression of tissues and the subsequent deformation of cells are just one type physical strain MSCs will need to withstand in vivo. Mechanotransduction by MSCs and their mechanical properties are partially controlled by the cytoskeleton, including vimentin intermediate filaments (IFs). Vimentin IF deficiency has been tied to changes in mechanosensing and mechanical properties of cells in some cell types...
January 13, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089517/hypoxia-induces-a-hif-1-dependent-transition-from-collective-to-amoeboid-dissemination-in-epithelial-cancer-cells
#3
Steffi Lehmann, Veronika Te Boekhorst, Julia Odenthal, Roberta Bianchi, Sjoerd van Helvert, Kristian Ikenberg, Olga Ilina, Szymon Stoma, Jael Xandry, Liying Jiang, Reidar Grenman, Markus Rudin, Peter Friedl
Cancer metastases arise from a multi-step process that requires metastasizing tumor cells to adapt to signaling input from varying tissue environments [1]. As an early metastatic event, cancer cell dissemination occurs through different migration programs, including multicellular, collective, and single-cell mesenchymal or amoeboid migration [2-4]. Migration modes can interconvert based on changes in cell adhesion, cytoskeletal mechanotransduction [5], and/or proteolysis [6], most likely under the control of transcriptional programs such as the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) [7, 8]...
January 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089422/low-magnitude-mechanical-signals-and-the-spine-a-review-of-current-and-future-applications
#4
REVIEW
Martin H Pham, Zorica Buser, Jeffrey C Wang, Frank L Acosta
Animal and human studies demonstrate the anabolic properties of low-magnitude mechanical stimulation (LMMS) in its ability to improve bone formation by enhancing the proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells and their subsequent commitment down an osteoblastic lineage. Response to mechanical strains as low as 10μɛ have been seen, illustrating the sensitivity of mechanosensory cells to mechanotransduction pathways. Applications to the spine include treatment of osteoporosis in preparation for instrumented fusion, fracture reduction in spinal cord injury patients to slow bone mineral density loss, and bone tissue engineering and enhancement of bone-implant osseointegration for pseudarthrosis and hardware failure...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079507/do-micrornas-have-a-key-epigenetic-role-in-osteoarthritis-and-in-mechanotransduction
#5
REVIEW
Anna De Palma, Sara Cheleschi, Nicola Antonio Pascarelli, Sara Tenti, Mauro Galeazzi, Antonella Fioravanti
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common degenerative disease affecting joint tissues. The pathogenesis of OA is complex and poorly understood, as well as the multiple factors contributing to its development and progression. Accumulating evidence has suggested that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role as regulators of cartilage biology and in the pathogenesis of OA. It has been demonstrated that mechanical loading, important for the regulation of cartilage metabolism, affects miRNAs expression. Furthermore, miRNAs present in human plasma and in synovial fluid could represent promising biological markers for OA...
January 4, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068612/bacterial-mechanotransduction
#6
REVIEW
Alexandre Persat
Bacteria rapidly adapt to changes in their environment by leveraging sensing systems that permanently probe their surroundings. One common assumption is that such systems are responsive to signals that are chemical in nature. Yet, bacteria frequently experience changes in mechanical forces, for example as they transition from planktonic to sessile states. Do single bacteria actively sense and respond to mechanical forces? I here briefly review evidence indicating that bacteria actively respond to mechanical stimuli, and along concisely describe their intricate machinery enabling the transduction of force into biochemical activity...
January 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063006/therapeutic-value-of-nerve-growth-factor-in-promoting-neural-stem-cell-survival-and-differentiation-and-protecting-against-neuronal-hearing-loss
#7
Zhao Han, Cong-Pin Wang, Ning Cong, Yu-Yan Gu, Rui Ma, Fang-Lu Chi
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophic factor that modulates survival and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs). We investigated the function of NGF in promoting growth and neuronal differentiation of NSCs isolated from mouse cochlear tissue, as well as its protective properties against gentamicin (GMC) ototoxicity. NSCs were isolated from the cochlea of mice and cultured in vitro. Effect of NGF on survival, neurosphere formation, and differentiation of the NSCs, as well as neurite outgrowth and neural excitability in the subsequent in vitro neuronal network, was examined...
January 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062850/cellular-strain-avoidance-is-mediated-by-a-functional-actin-cap-observations-in-an-lmna-deficient-cell-model
#8
Chiara Tamiello, Maurice Halder, Miriam A F Kamps, Frank P T Baaijens, Jos L V Broers, Carlijn V C Bouten
In adherent cells the relevance of a physical mechanotransduction pathway provided by the perinuclear actin cap stress fibers has recently emerged. Here, we investigate the impact of a functional actin cap on the cellular adaptive response to topographical cues and uniaxial cyclic strain. Lmna-deficient fibroblasts are used as a model system because they do not develop an intact actin cap, but predominantly form a basal layer of actin stress fibers underneath the nucleus. We observe that topographical cues induce alignment in both normal and lmna-deficient fibroblasts, suggesting that topographical signal transmission occurs independently of the integrity of the actin cap...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062183/%C3%AE-arrestin-is-critical-for-early-shear-stress-induced-akt-enos-activation-in-human-vascular-endothelial-cells
#9
Ana Paula Carneiro, Miriam Helena Fonseca-Alaniz, Luís Alberto Oliveira Dallan, Ayumi Aurea Miyakawa, Jose Eduardo Krieger
Recent evidence suggests that β-arrestins, which are involved in G protein-coupled receptors desensitization, may influence mechanotransduction. Here, we observed that nitric oxide (NO) production was abrogated in human saphenous vein endothelial cells (SVECs) transfected with siRNA against β-arrestin 1 and 2 subjected to shear stress (SS, 15 dynes/cm(2), 10 min). The downregulation of β-arrestins 1/2 in SVECs cells also prevented the SS-induced rise in levels of phosphorylation of Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, Serine 1177)...
January 3, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062046/recent-advances-in-biological-single-molecule-applications-of-optical-tweezers-and-fluorescence-microscopy
#10
M Hashemi Shabestari, A E C Meijering, W H Roos, G J L Wuite, E J G Peterman
Over the past two decades, single-molecule techniques have evolved into robust tools to study many fundamental biological processes. The combination of optical tweezers with fluorescence microscopy and microfluidics provides a powerful single-molecule manipulation and visualization technique that has found widespread application in biology. In this combined approach, the spatial (~nm) and temporal (~ms) resolution, as well as the force scale (~pN) accessible to optical tweezers is complemented with the power of fluorescence microscopy...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056047/combining-targeted-metabolomic-data-with-a-model-of-glucose-metabolism-toward-progress-in-chondrocyte-mechanotransduction
#11
Daniel Salinas, Cody A Minor, Ross P Carlson, Carley N McCutchen, Brendan M Mumey, Ronald K June
Osteoarthritis is a debilitating disease likely involving altered metabolism of the chondrocytes in articular cartilage. Chondrocytes can respond metabolically to mechanical loads via cellular mechanotransduction, and metabolic changes are significant because they produce the precursors to the tissue matrix necessary for cartilage health. However, a comprehensive understanding of how energy metabolism changes with loading remains elusive. To improve our understanding of chondrocyte mechanotransduction, we developed a computational model to calculate the rate of reactions (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043968/tissue-mechanics-regulate-brain-development-homeostasis-and-disease
#12
REVIEW
J Matthew Barnes, Laralynne Przybyla, Valerie M Weaver
All cells sense and integrate mechanical and biochemical cues from their environment to orchestrate organismal development and maintain tissue homeostasis. Mechanotransduction is the evolutionarily conserved process whereby mechanical force is translated into biochemical signals that can influence cell differentiation, survival, proliferation and migration to change tissue behavior. Not surprisingly, disease develops if these mechanical cues are abnormal or are misinterpreted by the cells - for example, when interstitial pressure or compression force aberrantly increases, or the extracellular matrix (ECM) abnormally stiffens...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030585/organ-of-corti-and-stria-vascularis-is-there-an-interdependence-for-survival
#13
Huizhan Liu, Yi Li, Lei Chen, Qian Zhang, Ning Pan, David H Nichols, Weiping J Zhang, Bernd Fritzsch, David Z Z He
Cochlear hair cells and the stria vascularis are critical for normal hearing. Hair cells transduce mechanical stimuli into electrical signals, whereas the stria is responsible for generating the endocochlear potential (EP), which is the driving force for hair cell mechanotransduction. We questioned whether hair cells and the stria interdepend for survival by using two mouse models. Atoh1 conditional knockout mice, which lose all hair cells within four weeks after birth, were used to determine whether the absence of hair cells would affect function and survival of stria...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026149/arctigenin-protects-against-neuronal-hearing-loss-by-promoting-neural-stem-cell-survival-and-differentiation
#14
Xinghua Huang, Mo Chen, Yan Ding, Qin Wang
Neuronal hearing loss has become a prevalent health problem. This study focused on the function of arctigenin (ARC) in promoting survival and neuronal differentiation of mouse cochlear neural stem cells (NSCs), and its protection against gentamicin (GMC) induced neuronal hearing loss. Mouse cochlea was utilized to isolate NSCs, which were subsequently cultured in vitro. The effects of ARC on NSC survival, neurosphere formation, differentiation of NSCs, neurite outgrowth and neural excitability in neuronal network in vitro were examined...
December 27, 2016: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026126/recapitulating-the-micromechanical-behavior-of-tension-and-shear-in-a-biomimetic-hydrogel-for-controlling-tenocyte-response
#15
Dharmesh Patel, Sadhana Sharma, Stephanie J Bryant, Hazel R C Screen
A fiber composite system is presented which recapitulates the fiber-composite-like nature of tissues and generates similar modes of shear and tension. The shear/tension ratio can be customized during composite manufacture and incorporates viable cells. The system is a valuable tool for mechanotransduction research, providing a platform with physiologically relevant conditions for investigating cell behavior in different tissue types.
December 27, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013181/platelets-modulate-endothelial-cell-response-to-dynamic-shear-stress-through-pecam-1
#16
Daphne Meza, Saravan K Shanmugavelayudam, Arielys Mendoza, Coralys Sanchez, David A Rubenstein, Wei Yin
INTRODUCTION: Both vascular endothelial cells and platelets are sensitive to blood flow induced shear stress. We have recently reported that platelet-endothelial cell interaction could greatly affect platelet activation under flow. In the present study, we aimed to investigate how platelet-endothelial cell interaction affected endothelial cell inflammatory responses under flow. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human coronary artery endothelial cells were exposed to normal or low pulsatile shear stress with or without the presence of platelets...
December 7, 2016: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012199/who-or-what-controls-tendon
#17
Dianne Little
There are many ways that the tendon phenotype within an individual animal responds to the loading and host environment to which it is subjected, and none occur as an isolated process; rather through integration of mechanotransduction, complex interactions between anabolic and catabolic protein-protein interactions; and through interplay between different RNA species to modulate gene and protein expression. These processes are generally considered to be the integrated response of the tendon organ to the local environment within the host, or 'The Who'...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008179/resolving-the-cadherin-f-actin-connection
#18
Mitchell K L Han, Johan de Rooij
Cadherin adhesion complexes have recently emerged as sensors of tissue tension that regulate key developmental processes. Super-resolution microscopy experiments now unravel the spatial organization of the interface between cadherins and the actin cytoskeleton and reveal how vinculin, a central component in cadherin mechanotransduction, is regulated by mechanical and biochemical signals.
December 23, 2016: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002412/piezo2-senses-airway-stretch-and-mediates-lung-inflation-induced-apnoea
#19
Keiko Nonomura, Seung-Hyun Woo, Rui B Chang, Astrid Gillich, Zhaozhu Qiu, Allain G Francisco, Sanjeev S Ranade, Stephen D Liberles, Ardem Patapoutian
Respiratory dysfunction is a notorious cause of perinatal mortality in infants and sleep apnoea in adults, but the mechanisms of respiratory control are not clearly understood. Mechanical signals transduced by airway-innervating sensory neurons control respiration; however, the physiological significance and molecular mechanisms of these signals remain obscured. Here we show that global and sensory neuron-specific ablation of the mechanically activated ion channel Piezo2 causes respiratory distress and death in newborn mice...
December 21, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997855/actin-based-motility-and-cell-to-cell-spread-of-bacterial-pathogens
#20
REVIEW
Rebecca L Lamason, Matthew D Welch
Subversion of the host actin cytoskeleton is a critical virulence mechanism used by a variety of intracellular bacterial pathogens during their infectious life cycles. These pathogens manipulate host actin to promote actin-based motility and coordinate motility with cell-to-cell spread. Growing evidence suggests that the tactics employed by pathogens are surprisingly diverse. Here, we review recent advances suggesting that bacterial surface proteins exhibit divergent biochemical mechanisms of actin polymerization and recruit distinct host protein networks to drive motility, and that bacteria deploy secreted effector proteins that alter host cell mechanotransduction pathways to enable spread...
December 17, 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
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