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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646093/emerging-roles-of-mechanical-forces-in-chromatin-regulation
#1
REVIEW
Yekaterina A Miroshnikova, Michele M Nava, Sara A Wickström
Cells are constantly subjected to a spectrum of mechanical cues, such as shear stress, compression, differential tissue rigidity and strain, to which they adapt by engaging mechanisms of mechanotransduction. While the central role of cell adhesion receptors in this process is established, it has only recently been appreciated that mechanical cues reach far beyond the plasma membrane and the cytoskeleton, and are directly transmitted to the nucleus. Furthermore, changes in the mechanical properties of the perinuclear cytoskeleton, nuclear lamina and chromatin are critical for cellular responses and adaptation to external mechanical cues...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643869/mechanotransduction-properties-of-the-cytoplasmic-tail-of-pecam-1
#2
Jessica L Snyder, Elena McBeath, Tamlyn N Thomas, Yi Jen Chiu, Robert L Clark, Keigi Fujiwara
BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) are a well-known cell system used in the study of mechanobiology. Using cultured ECs, we found that platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1, CD31), a cell adhesion protein localized to regions of EC-EC contact, was rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated in ECs exposed to shear or cyclic stretch. Src-homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2) binds phosphorylated PECAM-1 and activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling cascade, a known flow-activated signaling pathway...
June 23, 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641092/nuclear-mechanotransduction-sensing-the-force-from-within
#3
REVIEW
Avathamsa Athirasala, Nivi Hirsch, Amnon Buxboim
The cell nucleus is a hallmark of eukaryotic evolution, where gene expression is regulated and the genome is replicated and repaired. Yet, in addition to complex molecular processes, the nucleus has also evolved to serve physical tasks that utilize its optical and mechanical properties. Nuclear mechanotransduction of externally applied forces and extracellular stiffness is facilitated by the physical connectivity of the extracellular environment, the cytoskeleton and the nucleoskeletal matrix of lamins and chromatin...
June 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636246/stretchable-electrochemical-sensor-for-inducing-and-monitoring-cell-mechanotransduction-in-real-time
#4
Yan-Ling Liu, Yu Qin, Zi-He Jin, Xue-Bo Hu, Miao-Miao Chen, Rong Liu, Christian Amatore, Wei-Hua Huang
Existing methods offer little direct and real-time information about stretch-triggered biochemical responses during cell mechanotransduction. Herein, we report a novel stretchable electrochemical sensor that takes advantage of a hierarchical percolation network of carbon nanotubes and gold nanotubes (CNTs- Au NTs). This hybrid nano-structure provides the sensor with excellent time-reproducible mechanical and electrochemical performances while granting very good cellular compatibility, making it perfectly apt to induce and monitor simultaneously transient biochemical signals...
June 21, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634452/establishing-the-basis-for-mechanobiology-based-physical-therapy-protocols-to-potentiate-cellular-healing-and-tissue-regeneration
#5
REVIEW
Joanna L Ng, Mariana E Kersh, Sharon Kilbreath, M Knothe Tate
Life is mechanobiological: mechanical stimuli play a pivotal role in the formation of structurally and functionally appropriate body templates through mechanobiologically-driven cellular and tissue re/modeling. The body responds to mechanical stimuli engendered through physical movement in an integrated fashion, internalizing and transferring forces from organ, through tissue and cellular length scales. In the context of rehabilitation and therapeutic outcomes, such mechanical stimuli are referred to as mechanotherapy...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633977/vascular-endothelial-cell-mechanosensing-new-insights-gained-from-biomimetic-microfluidic-models
#6
REVIEW
Kelsey M Gray, Kimberly M Stroka
In vivo, cells of the vascular system are subjected to various mechanical stimuli and have demonstrated the ability to adapt their behavior via mechanotransduction. Recent advances in microfluidic and "on-chip" techniques have provided the technology to study these alterations in cell behavior. Contrary to traditional in vitro assays such as transwell plates and parallel plate flow chambers, these microfluidic devices (MFDs) provide the opportunity to integrate multiple mechanical cues (e.g. shear stress, confinement, substrate stiffness, vessel geometry and topography) with in situ quantification capabilities...
June 17, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632027/shc-and-the-mechanotransduction-of-cellular-anchorage-and-metastasis
#7
Lance S Terada
Tissue cells continually monitor anchorage conditions by gauging the physical properties of their underlying matrix and surrounding environment. The Rho and Ras GTPases are essential components of these mechanosensory pathways. These molecular switches control both cytoskeletal as well as cell fate responses to anchorage conditions and are thus critical to our understanding of how cells respond to their physical environment and, by extension, how malignant cells gainsay these regulatory pathways. Recent studies indicate that 2 proteins produced by the SHC1 gene, thought for the most part to functionally oppose each other, collaborate in their ability to respond to mechanical force by initiating respective Rho and Ras signals...
February 17, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626362/nanoporous-gold-biointerfaces-modifying-nanostructure-to-control-neural-cell-coverage-and-enhance-electrophysiological-recording-performance
#8
Christopher A R Chapman, Ling Wang, Hao Chen, Joshua Garrison, Pamela J Lein, Erkin Seker
Nanostructured neural interface coatings have significantly enhanced recording fidelity in both implantable and in vitro devices. As such, nano-porous gold (np-Au) has shown promise as a multifunctional neural interface coating due, in part, to its ability to promote nanostructure-mediated reduction in astrocytic surface coverage while not affecting neuronal coverage. The goal of this study is to provide insight into the mechanisms by which the np-Au nanostructure drives the differential response of neurons versus astrocytes in an in vitro model...
January 19, 2017: Advanced Functional Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620941/endothelial-mechanotransduction-proteins-and-vascular-function-are-altered-by-dietary-sucrose-supplementation-in-healthy-young-male-subjects
#9
Lasse Gliemann, Nicolai Rytter, Mads Lindskrog, Martina H Lundberg Slingsby, Thorbjörn Åkerström, Lykke Sylow, Erik A Richter, Ylva Hellsten
Endothelial mechanotransduction is important for vascular function but alterations and activation of vascular mechanosensory proteins have not been investigated in humans. In endothelial cell culture, simple sugars effectively impair mechanosensor proteins. To study mechanosensor- and vascular function in humans, twelve young healthy male subjects supplemented their diet with 3 × 75 g sucrose day(-1) for 14 days in a randomized cross-over design. Before and after the intervention period, the hyperemic response to passive lower leg movement and active knee extensor exercise was determined by ultrasound doppler...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616323/the-emerging-role-of-yap-taz-in-mechanotransduction
#10
EDITORIAL
Zahra Mohri, Armando Del Rio Hernandez, Rob Krams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610943/stretch-induced-actomyosin-contraction-in-epithelial-tubes-mechanotransduction-pathways-for-tubular-homeostasis
#11
REVIEW
Kriti Sethi, Erin J Cram, Ronen Zaidel-Bar
Many tissues in our body have a tubular shape and are constantly exposed to various stresses. Luminal pressure imposes tension on the epithelial and myoepithelial or smooth muscle cells surrounding the lumen of the tubes. Contractile forces generated by actomyosin assemblies within these cells oppose the luminal pressure and must be calibrated to maintain tube diameter homeostasis and tissue integrity. In this review, we discuss mechanotransduction pathways that can lead from sensation of cell stretch to activation of actomyosin contractility, providing rapid mechanochemical feedback for proper tubular tissue function...
June 10, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607130/s1pr1-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-1-signaling-regulates-blood-flow-and-pressure
#12
Anna Cantalupo, Antonella Gargiulo, Elona Dautaj, Catherine Liu, Yi Zhang, Timothy Hla, Annarita Di Lorenzo
Nitric oxide is one of the major endothelial-derived vasoactive factors that regulate blood pressure (BP), and the bioactive lipid mediator S1P (sphingosine-1-phosphate) is a potent activator of endothelial nitric oxide synthase through G protein-coupled receptors. Endothelial-derived S1P and the autocrine/paracrine activation of S1PR (S1P receptors) play an important role in preserving vascular functions and BP homeostasis. Furthermore, FTY720 (fingolimod), binding to 4 out of 5 S1PRs recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat autoimmune conditions, induces a modest and transient decrease in heart rate in both animals and humans, suggesting that drugs targeting sphingolipid signaling affect cardiovascular functions in vivo...
June 12, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592291/tightly-controlled-mrtf-a-activity-regulates-epithelial-differentiation-during-formation-of-mammary-acini
#13
Anja Seifert, Guido Posern
BACKGROUND: Myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTF) A and B link actin dynamics and mechanotransduction to gene expression. In mice, MRTF-A is involved in mammary gland differentiation, but its role in human mammary epithelial cells remains unclear. METHODS: Three-dimensional cultures of human mammary epithelial MCF10A cells were used to model acinar morphogenesis. Stable MRTF-A knockdown, MRTF-A/B rescue and MRTF-A/B overexpression was established to characterize the functional role during morphogenesis using confocal microscopy and expression analysis...
June 7, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587445/directing-stem-cell-differentiation-via-electrochemical-reversible-switching-between-nanotubes-and-nanotips-of-polypyrrole-array
#14
Yan Wei, Xiaoju Mo, Pengchao Zhang, Yingying Li, Jingwen Liao, Yongjun Li, Jinxing Zhang, Chengyun Ning, Shutao Wang, Xuliang Deng, Lei Jiang
Control of stem cell behaviors at solid biointerfaces is critical for stem-cell-based regeneration and generally achieved by engineering chemical composition, topography, and stiffness. However, the influence of dynamic stimuli at the nanoscale from solid biointerfaces on stem cell fate remains unclear. Herein, we show that electrochemical switching of a polypyrrole (Ppy) array between nanotubes and nanotips can alter surface adhesion, which can strongly influence mechanotransduction activation and guide differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)...
June 8, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585695/the-rhogap-myo9b-promotes-bone-growth-by-mediating-osteoblastic-responsiveness-to-igf-1
#15
Brooke K McMichael, Yong-Hoon Jeong, Justin A Auerbach, Cheol-Min Han, Ryan Sedlar, Vikram Shettigar, Martin Bähler, Sudha Agarwal, Do-Gyoon Kim, Beth S Lee
The RhoA subfamily of Rho GTPases regulates actin-based cellular functions in bone such as differentiation, migration, and mechanotransduction. Polymorphisms or genetic ablation of RHOA and some of its regulatory guanine exchange factors (GEFs) have been linked to poor bone health in humans and mice, but the effects of RhoA-specific GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) on bone quality have not yet been identified. Therefore, we examined the consequences of RhoGAP Myo9b gene knockout on bone growth, phenotype and cellular activity...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570464/analysis-of-mechanical-behavior-of-dermal-fibroblasts-obtained-from-various-anatomical-sites-in-human-to-explore-the-optimum-stretch-magnitude
#16
Quan-Chen Xu, Rui-Xia Kuang, Shu-Qiang Wei, Qin Kang, Juan-Juan Wang, Zhi-Guo Wang
PURPOSE: Facial skin fibroblasts imposed with cyclic stretch at 10% magnitude display considerable mechanotransduction properties and biochemical reactions in our previous study. However, it is poorly understood how these shared traits are fully parallel to the common features across all fibroblasts derived from different skin-based anatomical regions in response to cyclic stretch stimulation. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of various cyclic stretches on fibroblasts derived from multiple anatomical skin sites of human bodies, and the optimal stretch magnitude was defined based on the changes to cell mechanical behavior...
May 31, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561051/cell-forces-meet-cell-metabolism
#17
Tadamoto Isogai, Jin Suk Park, Gaudenz Danuser
Epithelial cells form energetically costly cell-cell adhesions in response to mechanical forces. How cells obtain their energy during this event is unclear. Activity of a key regulator of cell metabolism, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), is now shown to be mechanoresponsive, and thus can bridge adhesion mechanotransduction and energy homeostasis.
May 31, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561050/multiscale-force-sensing-in-development
#18
REVIEW
Nicoletta I Petridou, Zoltán Spiró, Carl-Philipp Heisenberg
The seminal observation that mechanical signals can elicit changes in biochemical signalling within cells, a process commonly termed mechanosensation and mechanotransduction, has revolutionized our understanding of the role of cell mechanics in various fundamental biological processes, such as cell motility, adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. In this Review, we will discuss how the interplay and feedback between mechanical and biochemical signals control tissue morphogenesis and cell fate specification in embryonic development...
May 31, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553939/linking-e-cadherin-mechanotransduction-to-cell-metabolism-through-force-mediated-activation-of%C3%A2-ampk
#19
Jennifer L Bays, Hannah K Campbell, Christy Heidema, Michael Sebbagh, Kris A DeMali
The response of cells to mechanical force is a major determinant of cell behaviour and is an energetically costly event. How cells derive energy to resist mechanical force is unknown. Here, we show that application of force to E-cadherin stimulates liver kinase B1 (LKB1) to activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a master regulator of energy homeostasis. LKB1 recruits AMPK to the E-cadherin mechanotransduction complex, thereby stimulating actomyosin contractility, glucose uptake and ATP production. The increase in ATP provides energy to reinforce the adhesion complex and actin cytoskeleton so that the cell can resist physiological forces...
June 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552413/microfluidic-co-culture-platform-for-investigating-osteocyte-osteoclast-signalling-during-fluid-shear-stress-mechanostimulation
#20
K Middleton, S Al-Dujaili, X Mei, A Günther, L You
Bone cells exist in a complex environment where they are constantly exposed to numerous dynamic biochemical and mechanical stimuli. These stimuli regulate bone cells that are involved in various bone disorders, such as osteoporosis. Knowledge of how these stimuli affect bone cells have been utilised to develop various treatments, such as pharmaceuticals, hormone therapy, and exercise. To investigate the role that bone loading has on these disorders in vitro, bone cell mechanotransduction studies are typically performed using parallel plate flow chambers (PPFC)...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
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