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mechanotransduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907146/glycocalyx-degradation-induces-a-proinflammatory-phenotype-and-increased-leukocyte-adhesion-in-cultured-endothelial-cells-under-flow
#1
Karli K McDonald, Scott Cooper, Lisa Danielzak, Richard L Leask
Leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium is an early step in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Effective adhesion requires the binding of leukocytes to their cognate receptors on the surface of endothelial cells. The glycocalyx covers the surface of endothelial cells and is important in the mechanotransduction of shear stress. This study aimed to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of the glycocalyx in leukocyte adhesion under flow. We performed experiments using 3-D cell culture models, exposing human abdominal aortic endothelial cells to steady laminar shear stress (10 dynes/cm2 for 24 hours)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896487/natural-compounds-as-occult-ototoxins-ginkgo-biloba-flavonoids-moderately-damage-lateral-line-hair-cells
#2
Sarah Neveux, Nicole K Smith, Anna Roche, Bruce E Blough, Wimal Pathmasiri, Allison B Coffin
Several drugs, including aminoglycosides and platinum-based chemotherapy agents, are well known for their ototoxic properties. However, FDA-approved drugs are not routinely tested for ototoxicity, so their potential to affect hearing often goes unrecognized. This issue is further compounded for natural products, where there is a lack of FDA oversight and the manufacturer is solely responsible for ensuring the safety of their products. Natural products such as herbal supplements are easily accessible and commonly used in the practice of traditional eastern and alternative medicine...
November 28, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894676/a-multiscale-biomechanical-model-of-platelets-correlating-with-in-vitro-results
#3
Peng Zhang, Li Zhang, Marvin J Slepian, Yuefan Deng, Danny Bluestein
Using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) combined with coarse grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) approaches, we developed a multiscale deformable platelet model to accurately describe the molecular-scale intra-platelet constituents and biomechanical properties of platelets in blood flow. Our model includes the platelet bilayer membrane, cytoplasm and an elaborate elastic cytoskeleton. Correlating numerical simulations with published in-vitro experiments, we validated the biorheology of the cytoplasm, the elastic response of membrane to external stresses, and the stiffness of the cytoskeleton actin filaments, resulting in an accurate representation of the molecular-level biomechanical microstructures of platelets...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893727/mechanosensory-hair-cells-express-two-molecularly-distinct-mechanotransduction-channels
#4
Zizhen Wu, Nicolas Grillet, Bo Zhao, Christopher Cunningham, Sarah Harkins-Perry, Bertrand Coste, Sanjeev Ranade, Navid Zebarjadi, Maryline Beurg, Robert Fettiplace, Ardem Patapoutian, Ulrich Müller
Auditory hair cells contain mechanotransduction channels that rapidly open in response to sound-induced vibrations. We report here that auditory hair cells contain two molecularly distinct mechanotransduction channels. One ion channel is activated by sound and is responsible for sensory transduction. This sensory transduction channel is expressed in hair cell stereocilia, and previous studies show that its activity is affected by mutations in the genes encoding the transmembrane proteins TMHS, TMIE, TMC1 and TMC2...
November 28, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891678/morphomechanics-of-dermis-a-method-for-non-destructive-testing-of-collagenous-tissues
#5
R G Shah, M C Pierce, F H Silver
BACKGROUND: Collagenous tissues store, transmit and dissipate elastic energy during mechanical deformation. In skin, mechanical energy is stored during loading and then is dissipated, which protects skin from mechanical failure. Thus, energy storage (elastic properties) and dissipation (viscous properties) are important characteristics of extracellular matrices (ECMs) that support the cyclic loading of ECMs without tissue failure. METHODS: Uniaxial stress-strain measurements on decellularized human dermis have been made and compared to results of a non-destructive technique involving optical coherence tomography (OCT) combined with vibrational analysis...
November 27, 2016: Skin Research and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891384/bioresorbable-scaffolds-current-evidences-in-the-treatment-of-coronary-artery-disease
#6
REVIEW
Bhargav Dave
Percutaneous coronary revascularization strategies have gradually progressed over a period of last few decades. The advent of newer generation drug-eluting stents has significantly improved the outcomes of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) by substantially reducing in-stent restenosis and stent thrombosis. However, vascular inflammation, restenosis, thrombosis, and neoatherosclerosis due to the permanent presence of a metallic foreign body within the artery limit their usage in complex Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889666/yap-dependent-mechanotransduction-is-required-for-proliferation-and-migration-on-native-like-substrate-topography
#7
Shamik Mascharak, Patrick L Benitez, Amy C Proctor, Christopher M Madl, Kenneth H Hu, Ruby E Dewi, Manish J Butte, Sarah C Heilshorn
Native vascular extracellular matrices (vECM) consist of elastic fibers that impart varied topographical properties, yet most in vitro models designed to study the effects of topography on cell behavior are not representative of native architecture. Here, we engineer an electrospun elastin-like protein (ELP) system with independently tunable, vECM-mimetic topography and demonstrate that increasing topographical variation causes loss of endothelial cell-cell junction organization. This loss of VE-cadherin signaling and increased cytoskeletal contractility on more topographically varied ELP substrates in turn promote YAP activation and nuclear translocation, resulting in significantly increased endothelial cell migration and proliferation...
November 16, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887728/novel-multi-functional-fluid-flow-device-for-studying-cellular-mechanotransduction
#8
James S Lyons, Shama R Iyer, Richard M Lovering, Christopher W Ward, Joseph P Stains
Cells respond to their mechanical environment by initiating multiple mechanotransduction signaling pathways. Defects in mechanotransduction have been implicated in a number of pathologies; thus, there is need for convenient and efficient methods for studying the mechanisms underlying these processes. A widely used and accepted technique for mechanically stimulating cells in culture is the introduction of fluid flow on cell monolayers. Here, we describe a novel, multifunctional fluid flow device for exposing cells to fluid flow in culture...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885188/-mechanisms-of-vascular-dynamic-homeostasis
#9
Kimiko Yamamoto, Joji Ando
Vascular endothelial cells(ECs)play a critical role in controlling a variety of vascular functions including maintenance of the vascular tone, blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, and selective permeability of proteins. It has recently become apparent that ECs respond to hemodynamic forces, namely, shear stress and stretch, by altering their morphology, functions and gene expression profile. These responses also play important roles in maintaining normal circulatory system functions and homeostasis, and their impairment leads to various vascular diseases, including hypertension, aneurysm and atherosclerosis...
2016: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885187/-role-of-hippo-yap-taz-signaling-pathway-in-mechanotransduction
#10
Erika Ishihara, Hiroshi Nishina
Transcriptional coactivators YAP(yes associated protein)and TAZ(transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif)regulate gene expression through binding to transcription factors. Recently, some studies showed that YAP/TAZ activity responded to mechanical inputs such as stiffness of the extracellular matrix and the mechanical regulation of YAP/TAZ controlled cell proliferation or differentiation. Additionally, we revealed important roles of YAP in tissue formation and homeostasis through cellular tension and pressure...
2016: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885184/-mechanotransduction-and-mechanical-control-of-gene-expression
#11
Kota Miyasaka, Atsushi Kubo, Toshihiko Ogura
Cells change gene expression when they differentiate into different cell lineages. Cells also change their gene expression profiles to adapt to altering milieus. Even physical forces(for example, forces evoked by muscle contraction or exercise)change gene expression dramatically, although the molecular mechanisms of this physico-genetic link are largely unknown. Here, we summarize several works published recently, trying to highlight the physical force as an essential parameter of gene expression and maintenance of homeostasis...
2016: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885182/-cartilage-metabolism-and-mechanobioscience
#12
Song Ho, Sakae Tanaka
Joint cartilage is under exposure to repetitive mechanical stress. It is well known fact that the mechanical stress is a major cause of joint disorders such as osteoarthritis. However the molecular mechanisms of cartilage under mechanical stress remain unclear. In recent years, some notable mechanosensor or signal cascades relating to mechanotransduction had been identified, which might be promising targets for treatment of joint disorders.
2016: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885177/-response-to-mechanical-stimulus-and-cardiovascular-homeostasis
#13
Ken Takahashi, Keiji Naruse
Response to mechanical stimulus, including blood pressure regulation as a typical example, is essential for cardiovascular homeostasis. Traditionally, mechanism of blood pressure regulation can be divided into two categories:short term neural regulation via arterial baroreceptor reflex and long term humoral regulation via renin-angiotensin system. Recent studies have revealed that sensitivity of baroreceptor reflex is impaired in metabolic syndrome and aging. Moreover, it is suggested that the baroreceptor reflex is involved in long term blood pressure regulation...
2016: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883138/characterization-of-size-dependent-mechanical-properties-of-tip-growing-cells-using-a-lab-on-chip-device
#14
Chengzhi Hu, Gautam Munglani, Hannes Vogler, Tohnyui Ndinyanka Fabrice, Naveen Shamsudhin, Falk K Wittel, Christoph Ringli, Ueli Grossniklaus, Hans J Herrmann, Bradley J Nelson
Quantification of mechanical properties of tissues, living cells, and cellular components is crucial for the modeling of plant developmental processes such as mechanotransduction. Pollen tubes are tip-growing cells that provide an ideal system to study the mechanical properties at the single cell level. In this article, a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device is developed to quantitatively measure the biomechanical properties of lily (Lilium longiflorum) pollen tubes. A single pollen tube is fixed inside the microfluidic chip at a specific orientation and subjected to compression by a soft membrane...
November 24, 2016: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878999/experimental-evaluation-of-multiscale-tendon-mechanics
#15
REVIEW
Fei Fang, Spencer P Lake
Tendon's primary function is a mechanical link between muscle and bone. The hierarchical structure of tendon and specific compositional constituents are believed to be critical for proper mechanical function. With increased appreciation for tendon importance and the development of various technological advances, this review paper summarizes recent experimental approaches that have been used to study multiscale tendon mechanics, includes an overview of studies that have evaluated the role of specific tissue constituents, and also proposes challenges/opportunities facing tendon study...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876751/cell-mechanotransduction-stretch-to-express
#16
Tyler J Kirby, Jan Lammerding
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2016: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876470/mechanotransduction-via-the-nuclear-envelope-a-distant-reflection-of-the-cell-surface
#17
REVIEW
Julien Aureille, Néjma Belaadi, Christophe Guilluy
As the largest and stiffest organelle in the cell, the nucleus can be subjected to significant forces generated by the cytoskeleton to adjust its shape and position, and accommodate the cellular machinery during cell migration, differentiation or division. As it was anticipated, recent work showed that mechanosensitive mechanisms exist in the nucleus and regulate its structure and function in response to mechanical force. While the molecular mechanisms that mediate this response are only beginning to be elucidated, the nuclear envelope seems to play a central role in this process...
October 26, 2016: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874267/human-digital-meissner-corpuscles-display-immunoreactivity-for-the-multifunctional-ion-channels-trpc6-and-trpv4
#18
P Alonso-González, R Cabo, I San José, A Gago, I C Suazo, O García-Suárez, J Cobo, J A Vega
Ion channels are at the basis of the sensory processes including mechanosensing. Some members of the transient receptor (TRP) ion channel superfamily have been proposed as mechanosensors, but their putative role in mechanotransduction is controversial. Among them there are TRP canonical 6 (TRPC6) and TRP vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) ion channels, which are known to cooperate in mechanical hyperalgesia. Here we investigated the occurrence, distribution and possible co-localization of TRPC6 and TRPV4 in human digital Meissner sensory corpuscles using immunohistochemistry and double immunofluorescence (associate with markers for specific corpuscular constituents)...
November 22, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872252/integrin-mediated-mechanotransduction
#19
REVIEW
Zhiqi Sun, Shengzhen S Guo, Reinhard Fässler
Cells can detect and react to the biophysical properties of the extracellular environment through integrin-based adhesion sites and adapt to the extracellular milieu in a process called mechanotransduction. At these adhesion sites, integrins connect the extracellular matrix (ECM) with the F-actin cytoskeleton and transduce mechanical forces generated by the actin retrograde flow and myosin II to the ECM through mechanosensitive focal adhesion proteins that are collectively termed the "molecular clutch." The transmission of forces across integrin-based adhesions establishes a mechanical reciprocity between the viscoelasticity of the ECM and the cellular tension...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865480/biofluids-cell-mechanics-and-epigenetics-flow-induced-epigenetic-mechanisms-of-endothelial-gene-expression
#20
Peter F Davies, Elisabetta Manduchi, Juan M Jiménez, Yi-Zhou Jiang
Epigenetics is the regulation of gene expression (transcription) in response to changes in the cell environment through genomic modifications that largely involve the non-coding fraction of the human genome and that cannot be attributed to modification of the primary DNA sequence. Epigenetics is dominant in establishing cell fate and positioning during programmed embryonic development. However the same pathways are used by mature postnatal and adult mammalian cells during normal physiology and are implicated in disease mechanisms...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
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