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Mechanical Transduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108965/transcriptomic-and-hormone-analyses-reveal-mechanisms-underlying-petal-elongation-in-chrysanthemum-morifolium-jinba
#1
Jingjing Wang, Haibin Wang, Lian Ding, Aiping Song, Feng Shen, Jiafu Jiang, Sumei Chen, Fadi Chen
Auxin regulates chrysanthemum petal elongation by promoting cell elongation. Transcriptomic analysis shows that auxin signal transduction may connect with other transcription factors by TCPs to regulate chrysanthemum petal elongation. As an ornamental species, Chrysanthemum morifolium has high ornamental and economic value. Petal size is the primary factor that influences the ornamental value of chrysanthemum, but the mechanism underlying the development of C. morifolium petals remains unclear. In our study, we tracked the growth of petals and found that the basal region of 'Jinba' petals showed a higher elongation rate, exhibiting rapid cell elongation during petal growth...
January 20, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107427/serine-phosphorylation-of-slp76-is-dispensable-for-t-cell-development-but-modulates-helper-t-cell-function
#2
Victor H Navas, Céline Cuche, Andres Alcover, Vincenzo Di Bartolo
The adapter protein SLP76 is a key orchestrator of T cell receptor (TCR) signal transduction. We previously identified a negative feedback loop that modulates T cell activation, involving phosphorylation of Ser376 of SLP76 by the hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1 (HPK1). However, the physiological relevance of this regulatory mechanism was still unknown. To address this question, we generated a SLP76-S376A-expressing knock-in mouse strain and investigated the effects of Ser376 mutation on T cell development and function...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106797/the-complex-relationship-between-virulence-and-antibiotic-resistance
#3
REVIEW
Meredith Schroeder, Benjamin D Brooks, Amanda E Brooks
Antibiotic resistance, prompted by the overuse of antimicrobial agents, may arise from a variety of mechanisms, particularly horizontal gene transfer of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes, which is often facilitated by biofilm formation. The importance of phenotypic changes seen in a biofilm, which lead to genotypic alterations, cannot be overstated. Irrespective of if the biofilm is single microbe or polymicrobial, bacteria, protected within a biofilm from the external environment, communicate through signal transduction pathways (e...
January 18, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106765/quantitative-proteomic-profiling-of-tachyplesin-i-targets-in-u251-gliomaspheres
#4
Xuan Li, Jianguo Dai, Yongjun Tang, Lulu Li, Gang Jin
Tachyplesin I is a cationic peptide isolated from hemocytes of the horseshoe crab and its anti-tumor activity has been demonstrated in several tumor cells. However, there is limited information providing the global effects and mechanisms of tachyplesin I on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Here, by using two complementary proteomic strategies (2D-DIGE and dimethyl isotope labeling-based shotgun proteomics), we explored the effect of tachyplesin I on the proteome of gliomaspheres, a three-dimensional growth model formed by a GBM cell line U251...
January 18, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103235/real-time-multiplicative-memory-amplification-mediated-by-whole-cell-scaling-of-synaptic-response-in-key-neurons
#5
Iris Reuveni, Sourav Ghosh, Edi Barkai
Intense spiking response of a memory-pattern is believed to play a crucial role both in normal learning and pathology, where it can create biased behavior. We recently proposed a novel model for memory amplification where the simultaneous two-fold increase of all excitatory (AMPAR-mediated) and inhibitory (GABAAR-mediated) synapses in a sub-group of cells that constitutes a memory-pattern selectively amplifies this memory. Here we confirm the cellular basis of this model by validating its major predictions in four sets of experiments, and demonstrate its induction via a whole-cell transduction mechanism...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102581/molecular-mechanisms-and-ecological-function-of-far-red-light-signalling
#6
REVIEW
David J Sheerin, Andreas Hiltbrunner
Land plants possess the ability to sense and respond to far-red light (700-760 nm), which serves as an important environmental cue. Due to the nature of far-red light, it is not absorbed by chlorophyll and thus is enriched in canopy shade, and will also penetrate deeper into soil than other visible wavelengths. Far-red light responses include regulation of seed germination, suppression of hypocotyl growth, induction of flowering, and accumulation of anthocyanins, which depend on one member of the phytochrome photoreceptor family, phytochrome A (phyA)...
January 19, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102545/-rice-calcium-dependent-protein-kinase-oscpk17-targets-plasma-membrane-intrinsic-protein-and-sucrose-phosphate-synthase-and-is-required-for-a-proper-cold-stress-response
#7
M Cecília Almadanim, Bruno M Alexandre, Margarida T G Rosa, Helena Sapeta, António E Leitão, José C Ramalho, TuKiet T Lam, Sónia Negrão, Isabel A Abreu, M Margarida Oliveira
Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are involved in plant tolerance mechanisms to abiotic stresses. Although CDPKs are recognized as key messengers in signal transduction, the specific role of most members of this family remains unknown. Here we test the hypothesis that OsCPK17 plays a role in rice cold stress response by analyzing OsCPK17 knockout, silencing, and overexpressing rice lines under low temperature. Altered OsCPK17 gene expression compromises cold tolerance performance, without affecting the expression of key cold stress-inducible genes...
January 19, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102304/local-melatonin-application-induces-cold-tolerance-in-distant-organs-of-citrullus-lanatus-l-via-long-distance-transport
#8
Hao Li, Jingjing Chang, Junxian Zheng, Yuchuan Dong, Qiyan Liu, Xiaozhen Yang, Chunhua Wei, Yong Zhang, Jianxiang Ma, Xian Zhang
Melatonin is a ubiquitous chemical substance that regulates plant growth and responses to stress. Several recent studies show that exogenous melatonin confers cold tolerance to plants; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we report that melatonin application at optimal dose, either on the leaves or the roots, not only induced cold stress tolerance in the site of application, but also systemically induced cold tolerance in untreated distant parts. Foliar or rhizospheric treatment with melatonin increased the melatonin levels in untreated roots or leaves, respectively, under both normal and cold stress conditions, whereas rhizospheric melatonin treatment increased the melatonin exudation rates from the xylem...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101936/quantitative-itraq-based-proteomic-analysis-of-rice-grains-to-assess-high-night-temperature-stress
#9
Hong-Yu Zhang, Gang Lei, Hui-Wen Zhou, Chao He, Jiang-Lin Liao, Ying-Jin Huang
Rice yield and quality are adversely affected by increasing global surface temperature, and are strongly attributed to high night temperature (HNT) than high daytime temperature. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the heat-tolerant characteristics of rice remains unclear. In the present study, we compared the proteomes of heat-tolerant and -sensitive lines of rice at early milky stage using an iTRAQ method. We have identified 38 differentially expressed proteins between the two lines, of which 32 proteins have been functionally annotated in NCBI and/or the UniProt database...
January 19, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101190/ror2-inhibits-the-proliferation-of-gastric-carcinoma-cells-via-activation-of-non-canonical-wnt-signaling
#10
Likun Yan, Qingguo Du, Jianfeng Yao, Ruiting Liu
Gastric carcinoma is one of the most common human cancers and has a poor prognosis. Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (ROR2), which is a non-canonical receptor of the Wnt signaling pathway, has been reported to be deregulated in numerous types of human cancers, including gastric carcinoma. However, the exact role of ROR2 in the regulation of the malignant phenotypes of gastric carcinoma, as well as the underlying molecular mechanism, remains largely unclear. The present study demonstrated that ROR2 was recurrently downregulated in gastric carcinoma tissues, as compared with their matched adjacent normal tissues...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100771/janus-kinase-2-jak2-dissociates-hepatosteatosis-from-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-mice
#11
Sally Yu Shi, Stephanie A Schroer, Cynthia T Luk, Min Jeong Kim, David W Dodington, Lauren Lin, Tharini Sivasubramaniyam, Erica P Cai, Shun-Yan Lu, Kay-Uwe Wagner, Richard P Bazinet, Minna Woo
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an end-stage complication of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Inflammation plays a critical role in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. However, whether steatosis per se promotes liver cancer and the molecular mechanisms that control the progression in this disease spectrum remain largely elusive. The Janus kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway mediates signal transduction by numerous cytokines that regulate inflammation and may contribute to hepatocarcinogenesis...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100053/the-grateful-infrared-sequential-protein-structural-changes-resolved-by-infrared-difference-spectroscopy
#12
Tilman Kottke, Víctor A Lórenz-Fonfría, Joachim Heberle
The catalytic activity of proteins is a function of structural changes. Very often these are as minute as protonation changes, hydrogen bonding changes, and amino acid side chain reorientations. To resolve these, a methodology is afforded that not only provides the molecular sensitivity but allows for tracing the sequence of these hierarchical reactions at the same time. This feature article showcases results from time-resolved IR spectroscopy on channelrhodopsin (ChR), light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domain protein, and cryptochrome (CRY)...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098899/analysis-of-gene-expression-profiles-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-at-different-stages-reveals-significantly-altered-biological-functions-and-candidate-genes
#13
Jin Wang, Jianxiang Song, Zhengya Gao, Xudong Huo, Yajun Zhang, Wencai Wang, Jianwei Qi, Shiying Zheng
We attempt to dissect the pathology of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients at different stages and discover the novel candidate genes. Microarray data (GSE21933) were retrieved from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The differential expression profiles of lung tumor tissues during different stages were analyzed. The significantly altered functions and pathways were assessed and the key nodes in a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network were screened out. Then, the coexpression gene pairs and tumor-related genes were assessed...
January 17, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098356/mechano-chemo-transduction-in-cardiac-myocytes
#14
Ye Chen-Izu, Leighton T Izu
The heart has the ability to adjust to changing mechanical loads. The Frank-Starling law and the Anrep effect describe exquisite intrinsic mechanisms the heart has for autoregulating the force of contraction to maintain cardiac output under preload and afterload. Although these mechanisms have been known for more than a century, their cellular and molecular underpinnings are still debated. How does the cardiac myocyte sense a change in preload or afterload? How does the myocyte adjust its response to compensate for such changes? In cardiac myocytes Ca(2+) is a crucial regulator of contractile force and in this review we compare and contrast recent results from different labs that address two important questions...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097817/revisiting-regulation-of-potassium-homeostasis-in-escherichia-coli-the-connection-to-phosphate-limitation
#15
Hannah Schramke, Vera Laermann, Halina E Tegetmeyer, Andreas Brachmann, Kirsten Jung, Karlheinz Altendorf
Two-component signal transduction constitutes the predominant strategy used by bacteria to adapt to fluctuating environments. The KdpD/KdpE system is one of the most widespread, and is crucial for K(+) homeostasis. In Escherichia coli, the histidine kinase KdpD senses K(+) availability, whereas the response regulator KdpE activates synthesis of the high-affinity K(+) uptake system KdpFABC. Here we show that, in the absence of KdpD, kdpFABC expression can be activated via phosphorylation of KdpE by the histidine kinase PhoR...
January 17, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097424/analysis-of-the-spleen-proteome-of-chickens-infected-with-reticuloendotheliosis-virus
#16
Mei Xue, Yan Zhao, Shunlei Hu, Xingming Shi, Hongyu Cui, Yunfeng Wang
Infection with reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), a gammaretrovirus in the family Retroviridae, can result in immunosuppression and subsequent increased susceptibility to secondary infections. In the present study, we identified differentially expressed proteins in the spleens of chickens infected with the REV-A HLJ07I strain, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis on samples from time points coinciding with different phases of the REV life cycle. Differentially expressed proteins were identified using one-dimensional liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (1D LC ESI MS/MS)...
January 17, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095989/prolonged-k-deficiency-increases-intracellular-atp-cell-cycle-arrest-and-cell-death-in-renal-tubular-cells
#17
Kedsarin Fong-Ngern, Nardtaya Ausakunpipat, Nilubon Singhto, Kanyarat Sueksakit, Visith Thongboonkerd
BACKGROUND: Chronic potassium (K(+)) deficiency can cause renal damage namely hypokalemic nephropathy with unclear pathogenic mechanisms. In the present study, we investigated expression and functional alterations in renal tubular cells induced by prolonged K(+) deficiency. METHODS: MDCK cells were maintained in normal-K(+) (CNK) (K(+)=5.3mmol/L), low-K(+) (CLK) (K(+)=2.5mmol/L), or K(+)-depleted (CKD) (K(+)=0mmol/L) medium for 10days (n=5 independent cultures/condition)...
January 4, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095661/molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-a-p38-like-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-from-echinococcus-granulosus
#18
Guodong Lü, Jing Li, Chuanshan Zhang, Liang Li, Xiaojuan Bi, Chaowang Li, Jinliang Fan, Xiaomei Lu, Dominique A Vuitton, Hao Wen, Renyong Lin
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) treatment urgently requires a novel drug. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a family of Ser/Thr protein kinases, but still have to be characterized in Echinococcus granulosus. We identified a 1,107 bp cDNA encoding a 368 amino acid MAPK protein (Egp38) in E. granulosus. Egp38 exhibits 2 distinguishing features of p38-like kinases: a highly conserved T-X-Y motif and an activation loop segment. Structural homology modeling indicated a conserved structure among Egp38, EmMPK2, and H...
December 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095607/heat-shock-protein-70-promotes-coxsackievirus-b3-translation-initiation-and-elongation-via-akt-mtorc1-pathway-depending-on-activation-of-p70s6k-and-cdc2
#19
Fengping Wang, Ye Qiu, Huifang M Zhang, Paul Hanson, Xin Ye, Guangze Zhao Ronald Xie, Lei Tong, Decheng Yang
We previously demonstrated that coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection upregulated heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and promoted CVB3 multiplication. Here, we report the underlying mechanism by which Hsp70 enhances viral RNA translation. By using an Hsp70-overexpressing cell line infected with CVB3, we found that Hsp70 enhanced CVB3 VP1 translation at two stages. First, Hsp70 induced upregulation of VP1 translation at the initiation stage via upregulation of IRES trans-acting factor La protein and activation of eIF4E binding protein 1, a cap-dependent translation suppressor...
January 17, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094958/magnetic-nanoparticle-based-mechanical-stimulation-for-restoration-of-mechano-sensitive-ion-channel-equilibrium-in-neural-networks
#20
Andy Tay, Dino Di Carlo
Techniques offering remote control of neural activity with high spatiotemporal resolution and specificity are invaluable for deciphering the physiological roles of different classes of neurons in brain development and disease. Here, we first confirm that micro-fabricated substrates with enhanced magnetic field gradients allow for wireless stimulation of neural circuits dosed with magnetic nanoparticles using calcium indicator dyes. We also investigate the mechanism of mechano-transduction in this system and identify that N-type mechano-sensitive calcium ion channels play a key role in signal generation in response to magnetic force...
January 17, 2017: Nano Letters
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