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Mechanical Transduction

John Wood, Margaret Chui Ling Tse, Xiuying Yang, Daniel Brobst, Zhixue Liu, Brian Pak Shing Pang, Wing Suen Chan, Aung Moe Zaw, Billy K C Chow, Keqiang Ye, Chi Wai Lee, Chi Bun Chan
BACKGROUND: 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) is a small molecular weight compound that mimics the functions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The current study aims to elucidate the molecular mechanism of 7,8-DHF-induced body weight regulation. METHODS: Obese female C57/BL6 (20-week-old) mice that have been fed with high fat diet for 13 weeks were treated with 7,8-DHF for 9 weeks. Various biochemical and molecular analyses were performed to examine the signal transduction pathway, metabolite content, and mitochondrial mass in the animals...
June 20, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Pengfei Xue, Xiaojuan Liu, Yiming Shen, Yuanyuan Ju, Xiongsong Lu, Jinlong Zhang, Guanhua Xu, Yuyu Sun, Jiajia Chen, Haiyan Gu, Zhiming Cui, Guofeng Bao
E3 ubiquitin ligase c-Caritas B cell lymphoma (c-cbl) is associated with negative regulation of receptor tyrosine kinases, signal transduction of antigens and cytokine receptors, and immune response. However, the expression and function of c-cbl in the regulation of neuropathic pain after chronic constriction injury (CCI) are unknown. In rat CCI model, c-cbl inhibited the activation of spinal cord microglia and the release of pro-inflammatory factors including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), which alleviated mechanical and heat pain through down-regulating extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway...
June 22, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Mónica Zuzarte, Jorge M Alves-Silva, Melissa Alves, Carlos Cavaleiro, Lígia Salgueiro, Maria Teresa Cruz
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Thymus camphoratus and T. carnosus are widely used in Portugal for the treatment of inflammatory-related conditions, such as inflammation of the respiratory tract, being the later also used as an antitussive. AIM OF THE STUDY: Bearing in mind the lack of scientific studies focused on the pharmacological activity of Thymus camphoratus and T. carnosus, this work was designed to validate the anti-inflammatory properties ascribed to these traditional species and concomitantly to unveil both the putative molecular mechanisms behind their bioactivity as well as the safety profile of their essential oils and major compounds...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Shicheng Li, Xiao Sun, Shuncheng Miao, Tong Lu, Yuanyong Wang, Jia Liu, Wenjie Jiao
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence has demonstrated that circular RNAs (circRNAs) may play an important role in oncogenesis and tumor development; however, their role in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) remains unclear. We identified the differentially expressed circRNAs in LUAD and investigated the potential mechanisms for cancer progression. METHODS: We examined differentially expressed circRNAs in LUAD and paired normal tissues using downloaded circRNA microarrays from the Gene Expression Omnibus...
June 22, 2018: Thoracic Cancer
Bin Liu, Eve Kaurilind, Yifan Jiang, Ülo Niinemets
Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a long-distance signal transduction chemical that plays an important role in plant responses to abiotic stress and herbivore and pathogen attacks. However, it is unclear how photosynthesis and elicitation of plant volatile organic compounds (VOC) from different metabolic pathways respond to the dose of MeSA. We applied different MeSA concentrations (0-50 mM) to study how exogenous MeSA alters VOC profiles of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) leaves from application through recovery (0...
June 20, 2018: Tree Physiology
Shampa Chatterjee
The endothelium that lines the interior of blood vessels is directly exposed to blood flow. The shear stress arising from blood flow is "sensed" by the endothelium and is "transduced" into biochemical signals that eventually control vascular tone and homeostasis. Sensing and transduction of physical forces occur via signaling processes whereby the forces associated with blood flow are " sensed" by a mechanotransduction machinery comprising of several endothelial cell elements. Endothelial " sensing " involves converting the physical cues into cellular signaling events such as altered membrane potential and activation of kinases, which are " transmission" signals that cause oxidant production...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
S Jiang, J Zeng, X Zhou, Y Li
Growing evidence suggests the existence of new antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Recent studies have revealed that quorum-quenching enzymes, such as MacQ, are involved in both antibiotic resistance and cell-cell communication. Furthermore, some small bacterial regulatory RNAs, classified into RNA attenuators and small RNAs, modulate the expression of resistance genes. For example, small RNA sprX, can shape bacterial resistance to glycopeptide antibiotics via specific downregulation of protein SpoVG. Moreover, some bacterial lipocalins capture antibiotics in the extracellular space, contributing to severe multidrug resistance...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Fumihisa Nakamura, Ichiro Tsukamoto, Shinji Inoue, Kazuhiko Hashimoto, Masao Akagi
Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) appears to have a mechanosensing function in a number of cell types. The purpose of this study was to examine whether AT1R expressed in articular chondrocytes is involved in osteoarthritis (OA) progression in vivo and whether cyclic compressive loading activates the AT1R and stimulates hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes in vitro . The relationships between the modified Mankin score for cartilage degeneration and the expression of AT1R and type X collagen (Col X) were studied in mouse knees with OA induced using the destabilization-of-medial-meniscus model...
June 2018: FEBS Open Bio
Lu Zhang, Cuihua Feng, Yamin Zhou, Qiong Zhou
The present study aimed to identify bladder cancer-associated microRNAs (miRNAs) and target genes, and further analyze the potential molecular mechanisms involved in bladder cancer. The mRNA and miRNA expression profiling dataset GSE40355 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The Limma package in R was used to identify differential expression levels. The Human microRNA Disease Database was used to identify bladder cancer-associated miRNAs and Target prediction programs were used to screen for miRNA target genes...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
Diego Fernández-Fernández, Alba Cadaveira-Mosquera, Lola Rueda-Ruzafa, Salvador Herrera-Pérez, Emma L Veale, Antonio Reboreda, Alistair Mathie, J Antonio Lamas
Two-pore domain potassium channels (K2P) constitute major candidates for the regulation of background potassium currents in mammalian cells. Channels of the TREK subfamily are also well positioned to play an important role in sensory transduction due to their sensitivity to a large number of physiological and physical stimuli (pH, mechanical, temperature). Following our previous report describing the molecular expression of different K2P channels in the vagal sensory system, here we confirm that TREK channels are functionally expressed in neurons from the mouse nodose ganglion (mNG)...
2018: PloS One
Reiji Kannagi, Bi-He Cai, Hsiang-Chi Huang, Chia-Chun Chao, Keiichiro Sakuma
Tumor-associated gangliosides play important roles in regulation of signal transduction induced by growth-factor receptors including EGFR, FGFR, HGF and PDGFR in a specific microdomain called glycosynapse in the cancer cell membranes, and in interaction with glycan recognition molecules involved in cell adhesion and immune regulation including selectins and siglecs. As the genes involved in the synthesis and degradation of tumor-associated gangliosides were identified, biological functions became clearer from the experimental results employing forced overexpression and/or knockdown/knockout of the genes...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Xiaojian Zhou, Xiaozhu Wu, Tongjian Li, Mingliang Jia, Xinshen Liu, Yulan Zou, Zixia Liu, Feng Wen
Auxin response factors (ARFs) are one type of essential family of transcription factors that bind with auxin response elements (AuxRE), and play vital roles in variety of plant development and physiological processes. Brachypodium distachyon, related to the major cereal grain species, were recently developed to be a good model organism for functional genomics research. So far, genome-wide overview of the ARF gene family in B. distachyon was not available. Here, a systemic analysis of ARF gene family members in B...
June 20, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Li-Jun Yin, Xiao-Hui Wang
Recently, there has been a growing interest in the roles of androgen in the development of obesity and obesity-related diseases such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis (AS), hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, as well as in the disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism. Androgen exerts its biological role mainly through binding to the androgen receptor (AR), one of the nuclear receptors widely expressed in multiple tissues such as the skeletal muscle, liver, adipose tissue and brain. Low testosterone and AR deficiency result in obesity, obesity-related diseases and metabolic disorders...
June 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Lachlan A Jolly, Ying Sun, Renée Carroll, Claire C Homan, Jozef Gecz
Lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) have been by far the most prevalent cell type used to study the genetics underlying normal and disease-relevant human phenotypic variation, across personal to epidemiological scales. In contrast, only few studies have explored the use of LCLs in functional genomics and mechanistic studies. Two major reasons are technical, as (1) interrogating the sub-cellular spatial information of LCLs is challenged by their non-adherent nature, and (2) LCLs are refractory to gene transfection...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
Heng Wang, Chongliang Bi, Yinjie Wang, Jun Sun, Xia Meng, Jianji Li
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) internalization into bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) is considered an important pathogenic mechanism for the establishment of mastitis. Given the interesting link between selenium (Se) status and mastitis, our objective was to prove that Se was essential to suppress pro-inflammatory mediators, in part, by modulation of Toll-like receptor2 (TLR2), nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathway in bMECs...
June 20, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Min Huang, Ya-Lin Cheng, Ji-Tao Zeng, Xiao-Ya Su, Hong Liu
Inhibin-α, a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF-β) superfamily, has been involved in bone turnover during the menopausal transition via endocrine effects, and it was previously reported that inhibins may antagonize the function of BMPs. Certainly, one of the most important functions of BMPs is to induce osteogenic differentiation. BMP9 as one of the most potent BMPs to induce osteogenic differentiation has gotten more and more attentions. Nonetheless, the effects of inhibin-α on osteogenesis remain unknown...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Michael L De Ieso, Andrea J Yool
Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, and its incidence is rising with numbers expected to increase 70% in the next two decades. The fact that current mainline treatments for cancer patients are accompanied by debilitating side effects prompts a growing demand for new therapies that not only inhibit growth and proliferation of cancer cells, but also control invasion and metastasis. One class of targets gaining international attention is the aquaporins, a family of membrane-spanning water channels with diverse physiological functions and extensive tissue-specific distributions in humans...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Takuma Sugi, Ryuji Igarashi, Masaki Nishimura
Physical forces are transduced into chemical reactions, thereby ultimately making a large impact on the whole-animal level phenotypes such as homeostasis, development and behavior. To understand mechano-chemical transduction, mechanical input should be quantitatively delivered with controllable vibration properties⁻frequency, amplitude and duration, and its chemical output should be noninvasively quantified in an unconstrained animal. However, such an experimental system has not been established so far. Here, we develop a noninvasive and unconstrained mechanochemical imaging microscopy...
June 19, 2018: Materials
Justin Zonneville, Alfiya Safina, Alexander M Truskinovsky, Carlos L Arteaga, Andrei V Bakin
BACKGROUND: The breast cancer microenvironment promotes tumor vascularization through the complex interactions involving tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAFs). Emerging data indicate that TAFs increase production and signaling by TGF-β cytokines, while the role of TGF-β signaling in the regulation of tumor blood vessels is not fully understood. The current study presents evidence that TAFs enhance the organization of tumor blood capillaries, and TGF-β signaling plays an important role in this response...
June 19, 2018: BMC Cancer
Maor Matzrafi
Pesticide efficacy is strongly associated with environmental conditions. Conditional resistance defined as a reduction in pesticide sensitivity under changed environmental conditions has been widely detected under climatic changes such as elevated temperatures and CO2 enrichment. Given the effects of environmental conditions on pesticide sensitivity, many of the putative resistance reports made by farmers may be due to pesticide application followed by non-optimal environmental conditions rather than the evolution of resistance...
June 19, 2018: Pest Management Science
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