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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689557/microrna-125b-affects-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-function-by-targeting-serum-response-factor
#1
Zhibo Chen, Mian Wang, Kai Huang, Qiong He, Honghao Li, Guangqi Chang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Increasing evidence links microRNAs to the pathogenesis of peripheral vascular disease. We recently found microRNA-125b (miR-125b) to be one of the most significantly down‑regulated microRNAs in human arteries with arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO) of the lower extremities. However, its function in the process of ASO remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the expression, regulatory mechanisms, and functions of miR-125b in the process of ASO. METHODS: Using the tissue explants adherent method, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were prepared for this study...
April 19, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689349/comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-reveals-the-mechanism-of-leech-environmental-adaptation
#2
Zichao Liu, Feng Zhao, Xiangrong Tong, Kaiqing Liu, Bin Wang, Lijiang Yang, Tiao Ning, Yanjie Wang, Fang Zhao, Dingkang Wang, Debin Wang
The medicinal leeches have been widely utilized in medical procedures for thousands of years. Recently, there were more and more transcriptomes of leech published online including the medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis) and some other leeches. However, leech's genetic backgrounds are still largely unknown. In this report, transcriptomes of three phylogenetically close leeches (Poecilobdella javanica, Whitmania pigra, and Haemadipsa cavatuses) were established by RNA-seq technique for studying their genetic mechanisms of environmental adaption...
April 21, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687731/sortilin-a-new-player-in-dementia-and-alzheimer-type-neuropathology
#3
Shu-Yin Xu, Juan Jiang, Aihua Pan, Yan Cai, Xiao-Xin Yan
Age-related dementias are now a major mortality factor among most human populations in the world, with Alzheimer's disease (AD) being the leading dementia-causing neurodegenerative disease. The pathogenic mechanism underlying dementia disorders, and AD in specific, remained largely unclear. Efforts to develop drugs targeting the major disease hallmark lesions, such as amyloid and tangle pathologies, have been unsuccessful so far. The vacuolar protein sorting 10p (Vps10p) family plays a critical role in membrane signal transduction and protein sorting and trafficking between intracellular compartments...
April 24, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687228/gene-expression-profiles-in-chemokine-c-c-motif-ligand-21-overexpressing-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#4
Kai Cui, Hongsheng Zou, Mingliang Shi, Yang Ou, Lu Han, Bo Zhang, Dawei Hu, Sheng Li
Chemokine (C-C Motif) ligand 21 (CCL21) plays an important role in tumor immunity. However, the molecular mechanisms by which CCL21 regulates tumor immunity remain largely unknown. In this study, we successfully generated a lentiviral vector expressing human CCL21 (Lenti-hCCL21), which was confirmed by biological assays. The Lenti-hCCL21 was transduced into PANC-1 cells, a chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 7 (CCR7)-positive human pancreatic cancer cell line. We used the scratch wound and transwell assays to measure cell migration of the CCL21-overexpressing PANC-1 cells...
April 23, 2018: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686468/autonomic-nervous-system-network-and-liver-regeneration
#5
REVIEW
Kenya Kamimura, Ryosuke Inoue, Takuro Nagoya, Norihiro Sakai, Ryo Goto, Masayoshi Ko, Yusuke Niwa, Shuji Terai
To date, various signal transducers, cytokines, growth factors, and hormones have been reported to play an important role in homeostasis of various organs. Various cells and organs are involved in the hepatic regeneration process, which proceeds as a result of the coordination of many factors. While these factors are well known to be involved in the liver regeneration after the liver injury, however, as the details of such mechanisms have not been sufficiently elucidated, the practical applicability of hepatic regeneration based on the action of these and cytokines growth factors is still unclear...
April 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686103/abscisic-acid-induced-degradation-of-arabidopsis-guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factor-requires-calcium-dependent-protein-kinases
#6
Zixing Li, Yohei Takahashi, Alexander Scavo, Benjamin Brandt, Desiree Nguyen, Philippe Rieu, Julian I Schroeder
Abscisic acid (ABA) plays essential roles in plant development and responses to environmental stress. ABA induces subcellular translocation and degradation of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor RopGEF1, thus facilitating ABA core signal transduction. However, the underlying mechanisms for ABA-triggered RopGEF1 trafficking/degradation remain unknown. Studies have revealed that RopGEFs associate with receptor-like kinases to convey developmental signals to small ROP GTPases. However, how the activities of RopGEFs are modulated is not well understood...
April 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685781/the-regulation-of-jaks-in-cytokine-signaling-and-its-breakdown-in-disease
#7
REVIEW
Henrik M Hammarén, Anniina T Virtanen, Juuli Raivola, Olli Silvennoinen
The JAK-STAT signal transduction pathway is responsible for mediating signals of over fifty cytokines, growth factors and hormones. Signaling through the JAK-STAT pathway is regulated on multiple levels, including intramolecular regulation by the JAK pseudokinase domain, and intermolecular regulation by a host of regulatory proteins. The advent of accessible genomic tools have provided a wealth of information on disease-associated mutations in the JAK-STAT pathway and its regulatory components. The vast number of these mutations in diseases ranging from immunodeficiencies and obesity to many cancers highlight the importance of correct regulation of JAK-STAT signaling for biological processes such as hematopoiesis, regulation of the immune system, metabolism, and growth...
April 20, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684163/experimental-evolution-of-yeast-for-high-temperature-tolerance
#8
Chih-Jen Huang, Mei-Yeh Lu, Ya-Wen Chang, Wen-Hsiung Li
Thermotolerance is a polygenic trait that contributes to cell survival and growth under unusually high temperatures. Although some genes associated with high temperature growth (Htg+) have been identified, how cells accumulate mutations to achieve prolonged thermotolerance is still mysterious. Here we conducted experimental evolution of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae laboratory strain with stepwise temperature increases for it to grow at 42 °C. Whole genome resequencing of 14 evolved strains and the parental strain revealed a total of 153 mutations in the evolved strains, including single nucleotide variants, small INDELs, and segmental duplication/deletion events...
April 19, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683367/insights-into-apoptotic-proteins-in-chemotherapy-quantification-techniques-and-informing-therapy-choice
#9
Janine Naß, Thomas Efferth
INTRODUCTION: Cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A hallmark of cancer is evasion of apoptosis leading to tumor progression and drug resistance. Biomarker research has become a sign of the times, and proteins involved in apoptosis may be used for clinical diagnostic or prognostic purposes in cancer treatment. The recent progress in proteomic technology has triggered an emerging number of researchers to study the molecular mechanisms that regulate the apoptotic signal transduction pathways in cancer...
April 23, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681455/the-structure-of-the-necrosome-ripk1-ripk3-core-a-human-hetero-amyloid-signaling-complex
#10
Miguel Mompeán, Wenbo Li, Jixi Li, Ségolène Laage, Ansgar B Siemer, Gunes Bozkurt, Hao Wu, Ann E McDermott
The RIPK1-RIPK3 necrosome is an amyloid signaling complex that initiates TNF-induced necroptosis, serving in human immune defense, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. RIPK1 and RIPK3 associate through their RIP homotypic interaction motifs with consensus sequences IQIG (RIPK1) and VQVG (RIPK3). Using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, we determined the high-resolution structure of the RIPK1-RIPK3 core. RIPK1 and RIPK3 alternately stack (RIPK1, RIPK3, RIPK1, RIPK3, etc.) to form heterotypic β sheets...
April 16, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681008/micromanaging-freeze-tolerance-the-biogenesis-and-regulation-of-neuroprotective-micrornas-in-frozen-brains
#11
Hanane Hadj-Moussa, Kenneth B Storey
When temperatures plummet below 0 °C, wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) can endure the freezing of up to ~ 65% of their body water in extracellular ice masses, displaying no measurable brain activity, no breathing, no movement, and a flat-lined heart. To aid survival, frogs retreat into a state of suspended animation characterized by global suppression of metabolic functions and reprioritization of energy usage to essential survival processes that is elicited, in part, by the regulatory controls of microRNAs...
April 21, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680738/inhibition-of-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway-by-apigenin-induces-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#12
Jiali Yang, Cuicui Pi, Guanghui Wang
Apigenin is a dietary flavonoid with known antioxidant and antitumor effects against several types of cancers by promoting cell death and inducing cell cycle arrest. Apigenin also regulates a variety of intracellular signal transduction pathways during apoptosis or autophagy. However, the precise mechanism underlying the anticancer effects of apigenin in liver cancer remains poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that apigenin has anticancer activity against hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Apigenin inhibited the cell growth and induced cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner in HepG2 cells...
April 19, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679717/stat-3-regulation-of-cxcr4-is-necessary-for-the-prenylflavonoid-icaritin-to-enhance-mesenchymal-stem-cell-proliferation-migration-and-osteogenic-differentiation
#13
R Z L Lim, L Li, E L Yong, N Chew
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. MSCs derived from osteoporotic subjects demonstrate significant impairment in proliferation, adhesion and chemotaxis, and osteogenic differentiation, leading to reduced functional bone-forming osteoblasts and ultimately nett bone loss and osteoporosis. Epimedium herbs and its active compound Icaritin (ICT) have been used in Chinese ethnopharmacology for the treatment of metabolic bone diseases. Using an in-vitro cell culture model, we investigated the benefits of ICT treatment in enhancing MSC proliferation, migration and osteogenic differentiation, and provide novel data to describe its mechanism of action...
April 18, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678849/effects-of-adenovirus-mediated-vegf165-gene-therapy-on-myocardial-infarction
#14
Chao Wang, Boya Zhang, Yu Lin, Yang Dong
AIM: To evaluate the role of adenovirus-mediated transduction human VEGF isoform 165 via direct myocardial injection in rats with an occluded circumflex coronary artery, and the possible underlying mechanism. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were induced myocardial infarction (MI) with ligation of the left coronary artery. Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: 1) the sham group; 2) the MI group; 3) the NS (normal saline) group and 4) the VEGF group. Direct myocardial injection of 0...
March 2018: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678326/the-effects-of-the-activation-of-the-inner-hair-cell-basolateral-k-channels-on-auditory-nerve-responses
#15
Alessandro Altoè, Ville Pulkki, Sarah Verhulst
The basolateral membrane of the mammalian inner hair cell (IHC) expresses large voltage and Ca2+ gated outward K+ currents. To quantify how the voltage-dependent activation of the K+ channels affects the functionality of the auditory nerve innervating the IHC, this study adopts a model of mechanical-to-neural transduction in which the basolateral K+ conductances of the IHC can be made voltage-dependent or not. The model shows that the voltage-dependent activation of the K+ channels (i) enhances the phase-locking properties of the auditory fiber (AF) responses; (ii) enables the auditory nerve to encode a large dynamic range of sound levels; (iii) enables the AF responses to synchronize precisely with the envelope of amplitude modulated stimuli; and (iv), is responsible for the steep offset responses of the AFs...
April 6, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678287/novel-mechanisms-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors-functions-at-1-angiotensin-receptor-acts-as-a-signaling-hub-and-focal-point-of-receptor-cross-talk
#16
REVIEW
András D Tóth, Gábor Turu, László Hunyady, András Balla
AT1 angiotensin receptor (AT1 R), a prototypical G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), is the main receptor, which mediates the effects of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). AT1 R plays a crucial role in the regulation of blood pressure and salt-water homeostasis, and in the development of pathological conditions, such as hypertension, heart failure, cardiovascular remodeling, renal fibrosis, inflammation, and metabolic disorders. Stimulation of AT1 R leads to pleiotropic signal transduction pathways generating arrays of complex cellular responses...
April 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677535/betulinic-acid-attenuates-dexamethasone-induced-oxidative-damage-through-the-jnk-p38-mapk-signaling-pathway-in-mice
#17
Lijuan Zhu, Xianglian Yi, Jing Zhao, Zhihang Yuan, Lixin Wen, Blazej Pozniak, Bozena Obminska-Mrukowicz, Yanan Tian, Zhuliang Tan, Jing Wu, Jine Yi
Dexamethasone (Dex), a potent anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressive agent, has been shown to induce oxidative stress. Betulinic acid (BA) is a pentacyclic lupane triterpene with a potent antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effect and underlying mechanisms of BA on Dex-induced oxidative damage. Mice were pretreated with BA orally (0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg) daily for 14 days, and then a single dose of Dex (25 mg/kg body weight) was administered intraperitoneally 8 h after the last administration of BA to induce oxidative stress...
April 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676772/functional-roles-of-eriocalyxin-b-in-zebrafish-revealed-by-transcriptome-analysis
#18
Xunian Zhou, Cyanne Ye Cao, Angel Tsz-Yau Wan, Grace Gar-Lee Yue, Frankie Hin-Fai Kwok, Kwok-Pui Fung, Handong Sun, Clara Bik-San Lau, Pema-Tenzin Puno, Stephen Kwok-Wing Tsui
BACKGROUND: Eriocalyxin B (EriB) is a natural ent-kaurane diterpenoid obtained from Isodon eriocalyx var. laxiflora (family Lamiaceae), which has multiple biological activities (e.g. anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory) via the alteration of gene expression and signaling transduction. Recently, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has been developed as a dynamic transcriptome approach to analyze the transcriptional profile and in addition use such gene expression profiles to identify novel candidate genes in a zebrafish model...
April 20, 2018: Molecular omics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676638/identification-of-novel-targets-for-lung-cancer-therapy-using-an-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-model
#19
Vivek Shukla, Mahadev Rao, Hongen Zhang, Jeanette Beers, Darawalee Wangsa, Danny Wangsa, Floryne O Buishand, Yonghong Wang, Zhiya Yu, Holly Stevenson, Emily Reardon, Kaitlin C McLoughlin, Andrew Kaufman, Eden Payabyab, Julie A Hong, Mary Zhang, Sean R Davis, Daniel C Edelman, Guokai Chen, Markku Miettinen, Nicholas Restifo, Thomas Ried, Paul S Meltzer, David S Schrump
RATIONALE: Despite extensive studies, the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that mediate initiation and progression of lung cancers have not been fully elucidated. Previously, we have demonstrated that via complementary mechanisms, including DNA methylation, polycomb repressive complexes, and noncoding RNAs, cigarette smoke induces stem-like phenotypes that coincide with progression to malignancy in normal respiratory epithelia as well as enhanced growth and metastatic potential of lung cancer cells...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674125/deciphering-the-role-of-dimer-interface-in-intrinsic-dynamics-and-allosteric-pathways-underlying-the-functional-transformation-of-dnmt3a
#20
Zhongjie Liang, Junchi Hu, Wenying Yan, Hualiang Jiang, Guang Hu, Cheng Luo
BACKGROUND: DNMT3A, as de novo DNA methyltransferase, is essential for regulating gene expression through cellular development and differentiation. The functions of DNMT3A rely on its oligomeric states and allosteric regulations between its catalytic domain and binding partners. Despite recent resolution of autoinhibitory and active DNMT3A/3L crystal structures, the mechanism of their functional motions and interdomain allostery in regulating the activity remains to be established. METHODS: The hybrid approach, comprising Elastic Network Models coupled with information theory, Protein Structure Network, and sequence evolution analysis was employed to investigate intrinsic dynamics and allosteric properties of DNMT3A resolved in autoinhibitory and active states...
April 16, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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