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Mechanical Transduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527384/embracing-the-enemy-the-diversification-of-microbial-gene-repertoires-by-phage-mediated-horizontal-gene-transfer
#1
REVIEW
Marie Touchon, Jorge A Moura de Sousa, Eduardo Pc Rocha
Bacteriophages and archaeal viruses contribute, through lysogenic conversion or transduction, to the horizontal transfer of genetic material between microbial genomes. Recent genomics, metagenomics, and single cell studies have shown that lysogenic conversion is widespread and provides hosts with adaptive traits often associated with biotic interactions. The quantification of the evolutionary impact of transduction has lagged behind and requires further theoretical and experimental work. Nevertheless, recent studies suggested that generalized transduction plays a role in the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes and in the acquisition of novel genes during intra-specific bacterial competition...
May 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526728/genetic-subtraction-profiling-identifies-candidate-mirnas-involved-in-rice-female-gametophyte-abortion
#2
Liyu Yang, Ya Wu, Wenliang Wang, Bigang Mao, Bingran Zhao, Jianbo Wang
Female gametophyte is an important participant in sexual reproduction of plants. The molecular mechanism of its development has received much attention in recent years. As important regulators of gene expression, miRNAs have been certified to play a significant role in many biological processes of plants including sexual reproduction. In this study, to investigate the potential regulatory effects of miRNAs on rice female gametophytes abortion, we used the high-throughput sequencing method to compare the miRNA transcriptome in ovules of a high frequency female-sterile line (fsv1) and a rice wild-type line (Gui 99) during ovule development...
May 19, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526685/differences-in-molecular-mechanisms-of-k-clearance-in-the-auditory-sensory-epithelium-of-birds-and-mammals
#3
Viviane Wilms, Chris Söffgen, Hans Gerd Nothwang
Mechanoelectrical transduction in the vertebrate inner ear is a highly conserved mechanism depending on K(+) influx into hair cells. Here, we investigated the molecular underpinnings of subsequent K(+) recycling in the chicken basilar papilla and compared it with those in the mammalian auditory sensory epithelium. Like mammals, the avian auditory hair cell uses KCNQ4, KCNMA1, and KCNMB1 as K(+) efflux systems. Expression of KCNQ1 and KCNE1 suggests an additional efflux apparatus in avian hair cells. Marked differences were observed for K(+) clearance...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523007/transcriptomic-identification-of-drought-related-genes-and-ssr-markers-in-sudan-grass-based-on-rna-seq
#4
Yongqun Zhu, Xia Wang, Linkai Huang, Chaowen Lin, Xinquan Zhang, Wenzhi Xu, Jianhua Peng, Zhou Li, Haidong Yan, Fuxiang Luo, Xie Wang, Li Yao, Dandan Peng
Sudan grass (Sorghum sudanense) is an annual warm-season gramineous forage grass that is widely used as pasture, hay, and silage. However, drought stress severely impacts its yield, and there is limited information about the mechanisms of drought tolerance in Sudan grass. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the Sudan grass variety Wulate No.1, and we developed simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers associated with drought stress. From 852,543,826 raw reads, nearly 816,854,366 clean reads were identified and used for analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522862/expression-profiling-of-mrnas-and-long-non-coding-rnas-in-aged-mouse-olfactory-bulb
#5
Ming Wang, Wei Liu, Jian Jiao, Jingyun Li, Chengshuo Wang, Luo Zhang
Age-related decline in olfactory function affects the quality of life in elderly people and also potentially represents an early clinical symptom of neurodegenerative disorder. Olfactory bulb (OB) plays a central role in olfactory information transmitting and signal processing. The mechanisms underlying this impairment remain unclear. In the current study, microarray was used to investigate differentially expressed protein coding genes (PCGs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in OBs from three groups of mice of different ages (2 months-old young adults, 6 months-old mature adults and 20 months-old aged adults), for their potential roles in olfactory impairment...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520221/rap1b-is-an-effector-of-axin2-regulating-crosstalk-of-signaling-pathways-during-skeletal-development
#6
Takamitsu Maruyama, Ming Jiang, Alycia Abbott, H-M Ivy Yu, Qirong Huang, Magdalena Chrzanowska-Wodnicka, Emily I Chen, Wei Hsu
Recent identification and isolation of suture stem cells capable of long term self-renewal, clonal expanding and differentiating demonstrate their essential role in calvarial bone development, homeostasis and injury repair. These bona fide stem cells express high level of Axin2 and are able to mediate bone regeneration and repair in a cell autonomous fashion. The importance of Axin2 is further demonstrated by its genetic inactivation in mice causing skeletal deformities resembling craniosynostosis in humans...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515735/time-course-transcriptome-analysis-of-compatible-and-incompatible-pollen-stigma-interactions-in-brassica-napus-l
#7
Tong Zhang, Changbin Gao, Yao Yue, Zhiquan Liu, Chaozhi Ma, Guilong Zhou, Yong Yang, Zhiqiang Duan, Bing Li, Jing Wen, Bin Yi, Jinxiong Shen, Jinxing Tu, Tingdong Fu
Brassica species exhibit both compatible and incompatible pollen-stigma interactions, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, RNA-seq technology was applied in a comprehensive time-course experiment (2, 5, 10, 20, and 30 min) to explore gene expression during compatible/incompatible pollen-stigma interactions in stigma. Moderate changes of gene expression were observed both in compatible pollination (PC) and incompatible pollination (PI) within 10 min, whereas drastic changes showed up by 30 min, especially in PI...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514442/architecture-of-the-human-interactome-defines-protein-communities-and-disease-networks
#8
Edward L Huttlin, Raphael J Bruckner, Joao A Paulo, Joe R Cannon, Lily Ting, Kurt Baltier, Greg Colby, Fana Gebreab, Melanie P Gygi, Hannah Parzen, John Szpyt, Stanley Tam, Gabriela Zarraga, Laura Pontano-Vaites, Sharan Swarup, Anne E White, Devin K Schweppe, Ramin Rad, Brian K Erickson, Robert A Obar, K G Guruharsha, Kejie Li, Spyros Artavanis-Tsakonas, Steven P Gygi, J Wade Harper
The physiology of a cell can be viewed as the product of thousands of proteins acting in concert to shape the cellular response. Coordination is achieved in part through networks of protein-protein interactions that assemble functionally related proteins into complexes, organelles, and signal transduction pathways. Understanding the architecture of the human proteome has the potential to inform cellular, structural, and evolutionary mechanisms and is critical to elucidating how genome variation contributes to disease...
May 17, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513565/epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-cell-proliferation-signaling-pathways
#9
REVIEW
Ping Wee, Zhixiang Wang
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is commonly upregulated in cancers such as in non-small-cell lung cancer, metastatic colorectal cancer, glioblastoma, head and neck cancer, pancreatic cancer, and breast cancer. Various mechanisms mediate the upregulation of EGFR activity, including common mutations and truncations to its extracellular domain, such as in the EGFRvIII truncations, as well as to its kinase domain, such as the L858R and T790M mutations, or the exon 19 truncation...
May 17, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512713/matairesinol-suppresses-neuroinflammation-and-migration-associated-with-src-and-erk1-2-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-activating-bv2-microglia
#10
Peng Xu, Meng-Wei Huang, Chen-Xi Xiao, Fen Long, Ying Wang, Si-Yu Liu, Wan-Wan Jia, Wei-Jun Wu, Di Yang, Jin-Feng Hu, Xin-Hua Liu, Yi-Zhun Zhu
Chronic neuroinflammation is a pathological feature of neurodegenerative diseases. Inhibition of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation might be a potential strategy for neurodegeneration. Matairesinol, a dibenzylbutyrolactone plant lignan, presents in a wide variety of foodstuffs. It has been found to possess anti-angiogenic, anti-oxidative, anti-cancer and anti-fungal activities. In the present study, we investigated the anti-neuroinflammation effects of matairesinol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV2 microglia cells and the related molecular mechanisms...
May 17, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511789/salicylic-acid-mediated-growth-physiological-and-proteomic-responses-in-two-wheat-varieties-under-drought-stress
#11
Marisha Sharma, Sunil K Gupta, Baisakhi Majumder, Vivek K Maurya, Farah Deeba, Afroz Alam, Vivek Pandey
Salicylic acid (SA) induced drought tolerance can be a key trait for increasing and stabilizing wheat production. These SA induced traits were studied in two Triticum aestivum L. varieties; drought tolerant, Kundan and drought sensitive, Lok1 under two different water deficit regimes: and rehydration at vegetative and flowering stages. SA alleviated the negative effects of water stress on photosynthesis more in Kundan. SA induced defense responses against drought by increasing antioxidative enzymes and osmolytes (proline and total soluble sugars)...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510506/signaling-at-the-crossroads-matrix-derived-proteoglycan-and-reactive-oxygen-species-signaling
#12
Madalina-Viviana Nastase, Andrea Janicova, Malgorzata Wygrecka, Liliana Schaefer
SIGNIFICANCE: Proteoglycans (PGs), besides their structural contribution, have emerged as dynamic components that mediate a multitude of cellular events. The various roles of PGs are attributed to their structure, spatial localization, and ability to act as ligands and receptors. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are small mediators, which are generated in physiological and pathological conditions. Besides their reactivity and ability to induce oxidative stress, a growing body of data suggests that ROS signaling is more relevant than direct radical damage in development of human pathologies...
May 16, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509555/differential-phosphoproteomic-analysis-of-recombinant-chinese-hamster-ovary-cells-following-temperature-shift
#13
Michael Henry, Martin Power, Prashant Kaushik, Orla Coleman, Martin Clynes, Paula Meleady
Phosphorylation is one of the most important post-translational modifications, playing a crucial role in regulating many cellular processes including transcription, cytoskeletal rearrangement, cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and signal transduction. However, to date little work has been carried out on the phosphoproteome in CHO cells. In this study we have carried out a large scale differential phosphoproteomic analysis of recombinant CHO cells following a reduction of culture temperature (temperature shift)...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508865/an-allosteric-site-in-the-t-cell-receptor-c%C3%AE-domain-plays-a-critical-signalling-role
#14
Kannan Natarajan, Andrew C McShan, Jiansheng Jiang, Vlad K Kumirov, Rui Wang, Huaying Zhao, Peter Schuck, Mulualem E Tilahun, Lisa F Boyd, Jinfa Ying, Ad Bax, David H Margulies, Nikolaos G Sgourakis
The molecular mechanism through which the interaction of a clonotypic αβ T-cell receptor (TCR) with a peptide-loaded major histocompatibility complex (p/MHC) leads to T-cell activation is not yet fully understood. Here we exploit a high-affinity TCR (B4.2.3) to examine the structural changes that accompany binding to its p/MHC ligand (P18-I10/H2-D(d)). In addition to conformational changes in complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of the TCR seen in comparison of unliganded and bound X-ray structures, NMR characterization of the TCR β-chain dynamics reveals significant chemical shift effects in sites removed from the MHC-binding site...
May 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508346/testosterone-insulin-like-effects-an-in-vitro-study-on-the-short-term-metabolic-effects-of-testosterone-in-human-skeletal-muscle-cells
#15
C Antinozzi, F Marampon, C Corinaldesi, E Vicini, P Sgrò, G B Vannelli, A Lenzi, C Crescioli, L Di Luigi
PURPOSE: Testosterone by promoting different metabolic pathways contributes to short-term homeostasis of skeletal muscle, the largest insulin-sensitive tissue and the primary site for insulin-stimulated glucose utilization. Despite evidences indicate a close relationship between testosterone and glucose metabolism, the molecular mechanisms responsible for a possible testosterone-mediated insulin-like effects on skeletal muscle are still unknown. METHODS: Here we used undifferentiated proliferating or differentiated human fetal skeletal muscle cells (Hfsmc) to investigate the short-term effects of testosterone on the insulin-mediated biomolecular metabolic machinery...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508151/tunable-and-nontoxic-fluorescent-probes-based-on-carbon-dots-for-imaging-of-indole-propionic-acid-receptor-in-plant-tissues-in-situ
#16
Bixia Lin, Ying Yu, Fangfei Liu, Yujuan Cao, Manli Guo
Indole propionic acid (IPA) is one of the important plant growth hormones for promoting rooting and fruiting. Labeling IPA receptor in plant tissues is able to further track the signal transduction processes of IPA and uncover the function mechanism of IPA on crop productions. In this paper, a tunable and nontoxic fluorescent probe for IPA receptors was designed and synthetized base on carbon dots (C dots). Firstly carboxyl-modified carbon dots were prepared by high temperature cracking of citric acid. The fluorescence emission wavelengths of C dots varied with the excitation wavelengths change...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507245/conformational-changes-of-inter-domain-linker-mediate-mechanical-signal-transmission-in-sensor-kinase-bvgs
#17
Elodie Lesne, Elian Dupré, Camille Locht, Rudy Antoine, Françoise Jacob-Dubuisson
The whooping cough agent, Bordetella pertussis, controls the expression of its large virulence regulon in a coordinated manner through the two-component system BvgAS. BvgS is a dimeric, multi-domain sensor-kinase. Each monomer comprises in succession tandem periplasmic Venus flytrap (VFT) domains, a transmembrane segment, a cytoplasmic Per-ArnT-Sim (PAS) domain, a kinase module and additional phosphorelay domains. BvgS shifts between kinase and phosphatase modes of activity in response to chemical modulators that modify the clamshell motions of the VFT domains...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504961/wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-in-arrhythmogenic-cardiomyopathy
#18
REVIEW
Alessandra Lorenzon, Martina Calore, Giulia Poloni, Leon J De Windt, Paola Braghetta, Alessandra Rampazzo
Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays essential roles in heart development as well as cardiac tissue homoeostasis in adults. Abnormal regulation of this signaling pathway is linked to a variety of cardiac disease conditions, including hypertrophy, fibrosis, arrhythmias, and infarction. Recent studies on genetically modified cellular and animal models document a crucial role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the molecular pathogenesis of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC), an inherited disease of intercalated discs, typically characterized by ventricular arrhythmias and progressive substitution of the myocardium with fibrofatty tissue...
April 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504716/vegfa-links-self-renewal-and-metastasis-by-inducing-sox2-to-repress-mir-452-driving-slug
#19
M Kim, K Jang, P Miller, M Picon-Ruiz, T M Yeasky, D El-Ashry, J M Slingerland
Cancer stem cells (CSC) appear to have increased metastatic potential, but mechanisms underlying this are poorly defined. Here we show that VEGFA induction of Sox2 promotes EMT and tumor metastasis. In breast lines and primary cancer culture, VEGFA rapidly upregulates SOX2 expression, leading to SNAI2 induction, EMT, increased invasion and metastasis. We show Sox2 downregulates miR-452, which acts as a novel metastasis suppressor to directly target the SNAI2 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR). VEGFA stimulates Sox2- and Slug-dependent cell invasion...
May 15, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504641/helical-jackknives-control-the-gates-of-the-double-pore-k-uptake-system-ktrab
#20
Marina Diskowski, Ahmad Reza Mehdipour, Dorith Wunnicke, Deryck J Mills, Vedrana Mikusevic, Natalie Bärland, Jan Hoffmann, Nina Morgner, Heinz-Jürgen Steinhoff, Gerhard Hummer, Janet Vonck, Inga Haenelt
Ion channel gating is essential for cellular homeostasis and is tightly controlled. In some eukaryotic and most bacterial ligand-gated K(+) channels, RCK domains regulate ion fluxes. Until now, a single regulatory mechanism has been proposed for all RCK-regulated channels, involving signal transduction from the RCK domain to the gating area. Here we present an inactive ADP-bound structure of KtrAB from Vibrio alginolyticus, determined by cryo-electron microscopy, which, combined with EPR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations, uncovers a novel regulatory mechanism for ligand-induced action at a distance...
May 15, 2017: ELife
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