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Mechanical Transduction

Sunil Nath
As the chief energy source of eukaryotic cells, it is important to determine the thermodynamic efficiency of ATP synthesis in oxidative phosphorylation (OX PHOS). Previous estimates of the thermodynamic efficiency of this vital process have ranged from Lehninger's original back-of-the-envelope calculation of 38% to the often quoted value of 55-60% in current textbooks of biochemistry, to high values of 90% from recent information theoretic considerations, and reports of realizations of close to ideal 100% efficiencies by single molecule experiments...
October 15, 2016: Biophysical Chemistry
Zhen Lei, Abdul Sami Shaikh, Wenshuai Zheng, Xiao Yu, Jingui Yu, Jingxin Li
Itch, the unpleasant sensation that evokes a desire to scratch, accompanies numerous skin and nervous system disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms of itch are unclear. Acid sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) is a sensor of acidic and primary inflammatory pain. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to determine the effect of Chloroquine (CQ)on ASICs currents in primary sensory neurons or the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with rat-ASIC1a or- ASIC3. Site-directed mutagenesis of plasmid was performed...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Adrian Fischer, Wilfried Weber, Bettina Warscheid, Gerald Radziwill
Scaffold proteins are hubs for the coordination of intracellular signaling networks. The scaffold protein CNK1 promotes several signal transduction pathway. Here we demonstrate that sterile motif alpha (SAM) domain-dependent oligomerization of CNK1 stimulates CNK1-mediated signaling in growth factor-stimulated cells. We identified Ser22 located within the SAM domain as AKT-dependent phosphorylation site triggering CNK1 oligomerization. Oligomeric CNK1 increased the affinity for active AKT indicating a positive AKT feedback mechanism...
October 19, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Hongwu Wang, Kun Li, Xiaojiao Hu, Zhifang Liu, Yujin Wu, Changling Huang
BACKGROUND: Plant digestibility of silage maize (Zea mays L.) has a large influence on nutrition intake for animal feeding. Improving forage quality will enhance the utilization efficiency and feeding value of forage maize. Dissecting the genetic basis of forage quality will improve our understanding of the complex nature of cell wall biosynthesis and degradation, which is also helpful for breeding good quality silage maize. RESULTS: Acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of stalk were evaluated in a diverse maize population, which is comprised of 368 inbred lines and planted across seven environments...
October 21, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Carlota Saldanha
Nitric oxide (NO) produced by endothelial cells interacts with erythrocyte through band 3 protein, being scavenged by haemoglobin. A signal transduction mechanism involving protein Gi and protein band 3 stimulates erythrocyte NO efflux when acetylcholine (ACh) binds to erythrocyte membrane acetylcholinesterase. Binding of normal plasma fibrinogen (Fib) levels, to erythrocyte membrane CD47 decreases the NO efflux. When high Fib concentration and ACh were present the efflux of NO from erythrocytes was normalized...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Catarina Duarte, Patrícia Napoleão, Teresa Freitas, Carlota Saldanha
INTRODUCTION: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is located on outer surface of erythrocyte membrane. Gender-related differences in erythrocyte AChE enzyme activity had been verified in young adults. It is also known that binding of acetylcholine (ACh) with AChE on erythrocyte membrane initiates a signal transduction mechanism that stimulates nitric oxide (NO) efflux. AIMS: This ex vivo study was done to compare the amount of NO efflux obtained from erythrocytes of healthy donors in males and females...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Yuji Kaneko, Colleen Pappas, Naoki Tajiri, Cesar V Borlongan
Oxytocin protects against ischemia-induced inflammation and oxidative stress, and is associated with GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid, an inhibitory neurotransmitter) signaling transduction in neurons. However, the molecular mechanism by which oxytocin affords neuroprotection, especially the interaction between oxytocin receptor and GABAA receptor (GABAAR), remains to be elucidated. Primary rat neural cells were exposed to oxytocin before induction of experimental acute stroke model via oxygen-glucose deprivation-reperfusion (OGD/R) injury...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Mengjie Lu, Beili Wu
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise the largest membrane protein family. These receptors sense a variety of signaling molecules, activate multiple intracellular signal pathways, and act as the targets of over 40% of marketed drugs. Recent progress on GPCR structural studies provides invaluable insights into the structure-function relationship of the GPCR superfamily, deepening our understanding about the molecular mechanisms of GPCR signal transduction. Here, we review recent breakthroughs on GPCR structure determination and the structural features of GPCRs, and take the structures of chemokine receptor CCR5 and purinergic receptors P2Y1 R and P2Y12 R as examples to discuss the importance of GPCR structures on functional studies and drug discovery...
October 20, 2016: IUBMB Life
N C N Perera, G I Godahewa, Jehee Lee
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is involved in the regulation of cellular events by mediating signal transduction pathways. MAPK1 is a member of the extracellular-signal regulated kinases (ERKs), playing roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, and development. This is mainly in response to growth factors, mitogens, and many environmental stresses. In the current study, we have characterized the structural features of a homolog of MAPK1 from disk abalone (AbMAPK1). Further, we have unraveled its expressional kinetics against different experimental pathogenic infections or related chemical stimulants...
October 17, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Mu He, Stephanie Agbu, Kathryn V Anderson
The mammalian Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is required for development and for maintenance of adult stem cells, and overactivation of the pathway can cause tumorigenesis. All responses to Hh family ligands in mammals require the primary cilium, an ancient microtubule-based organelle that extends from the cell surface. Genetic studies in mice and humans have defined specific functions for cilium-associated microtubule motor proteins: they act in the construction and disassembly of the primary cilium, they control ciliary length and stability, and some have direct roles in mammalian Hh signal transduction...
October 17, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
Bin Shen, Yu Zhang, Wei Dai, Yupo Ma, Yongping Jiang
BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic CD34(+) stem cells are widely used in the clinical therapy of complicated blood diseases. Stem cell factor Sall4B is a zinc finger transcription factor that plays a vital role in hematopoietic stem cell expansion. The purpose of our current study is to further evaluate how Sall4B might affect the expansion of CD34(+) cells derived from nonhuman primates. METHODS: Sall4B was overexpressed in nonhuman primate bone marrow-derived CD34(+) cells via a lentiviral transduction system...
October 20, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Xiaoli Wang, Xiaofeng Cai, Chenxi Xu, Quanhua Wang, Shaojun Dai
Plant drought tolerance is a complex trait that requires a global view to understand its underlying mechanism. The proteomic aspects of plant drought response have been extensively investigated in model plants, crops and wood plants. In this review, we summarize recent proteomic studies on drought response in leaves to reveal the common and specialized drought-responsive mechanisms in different plants. Although drought-responsive proteins exhibit various patterns depending on plant species, genotypes and stress intensity, proteomic analyses show that dominant changes occurred in sensing and signal transduction, reactive oxygen species scavenging, osmotic regulation, gene expression, protein synthesis/turnover, cell structure modulation, as well as carbohydrate and energy metabolism...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Caiyun He, Guori Gao, Jianguo Zhang, Aiguo Duan, Hongmei Luo
BACKGROUND: Low temperature is one of the crucial environmental factors limiting the productivity and distribution of plants. Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.), a well recognized multipurpose plant species, live successfully in in cold desert regions. But their molecular mechanisms underlying cold tolerance are not well understood. METHODS: Physiological and biochemical responses to low-temperature stress were studied in seedlings of sea buckthorn. Differentially expressed protein spots were analyzed using multiplexing fluorescent two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight/time-of-flight (TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry (MS), the concentration of phytohormone was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and a spectrophotometric assay was used to measure enzymatic reactions...
2016: Proteome Science
Lingling Chen, Quanzhu Chen, Yanqiao Zhu, Longyu Hou, Peisheng Mao
Flower development, pollination, and fertilization are important stages in the sexual reproduction process of plants; they are also critical steps in the control of seed formation and development. During alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seed production, some distinct phenomena such as a low seed setting ratio, serious flower falling, and seed abortion commonly occur. However, the causes of these phenomena are complicated and largely unknown. An understanding of the mechanisms that regulate alfalfa flowering is important in order to increase seed yield...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xiao-Pei Yang, Ji-Yang Fu, Rui-Cheng Yang, Wen-Tong Liu, Tao Zhang, Bo Yang, Ling Miao, Bei-Bei Dou, Chen Tan, Huan-Chun Chen, Xiang-Ru Wang
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) is an important zoonotic bacterial pathogen in both humans and animals, which can cause high morbidity and mortality. Meningitis is one of the major clinical manifestations of SS2 infection. However, the specific process of SS2 meningitis and its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been reported to initiate transduction of intracellular signals and regulate host inflammatory responses. Whether and how EGFR contributes to the development of S...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Shazia Nafis, Kalaiarasan Ponnusamy, Mohammad Husain, R K Brojen Singh, Rameshwar N K Bamezai
An experimentally validated set of apoptosis-regulatory proteins was subjected to network analysis, depicting a scale-free hierarchical fractal network. The power-law distribution of the various topological properties of the network revealed the fractal nature of the network, a signature of self-organization of the network where the network maintained the democratic constitution of nodes at various levels and showed the absence of the centrality-lethality control system. Even though network breakdown under the absence of the centrality-lethality rule of hub removal did not happen, the change in the topological properties of the network could be observed...
October 18, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Yi Yang, Na Wu, Zhiyong Wang, Fei Zhang, Ran Tian, Wei Ji, Xiubao Ren, Ruifang Niu
The emergence of multidrug resistance is always associated with more rapid tumor recurrence and metastasis. P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which is a well-known multidrug-efflux transporter, confers enhanced invasion ability in drug-resistant cells. Previous studies have shown that P-gp probably exerts its tumor-promoting function via protein-protein interaction. These interactions were implicated in the activation of intracellular signal transduction. We previously showed that P-gp binds to Anxa2 and promotes the invasiveness of multidrug-resistant (MDR) breast cancer cells through regulation of Anxa2 phosphorylation...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Richard Wainford, Casey Carmichael, Kathryn Walsh
OBJECTIVE: We have demonstrated a critical role of CNS Gαi2 proteins in sodium homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. These studies tested the hypothesis that increased total body sodium activates the afferent renal afferent nerves to evoke sympathoinhibition to facilitate sodium homeostasis and normotension, via a PVN signal transduction pathway involving Gαi2 proteins, in the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat. DESIGN AND METHOD: Conscious SD rats, having undergone sham or renal afferent nerve denervation (Renal-CAP) underwent an IV volume expansion (VE; 5% BW), HR, MAP, natriuresis and PVN neuronal activation were assessed (N = 5/group)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Maurice Filo, Fadi Karameh, Mariette Awad
The cochlea is an indispensable preliminary processing stage in auditory perception that employs mechanical frequency-tuning and electrical transduction of incoming sound waves. Cochlear mechanical responses are shown to exhibit active nonlinear spatiotemporal response dynamics (e.g., otoacoustic emission). To model such phenomena, it is often necessary to incorporate cochlear fluid-membrane interactions. This results in both excessively high-order model formulations and computationally intensive solutions that limit their practical use in simulating the model and analyzing its response even for simple single-tone inputs...
October 17, 2016: Biological Cybernetics
Qiongshan Wang, Nian Liu, Xiyan Yang, Lili Tu, Xianlong Zhang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are one class of endogenous non-coding RNAs modulating the expression of target genes involved in plant development and stress tolerance, by degrading mRNA or repressing translation. In this study, small RNA and mRNA degradome sequencing were used to identify low- and high-temperature stress-responsive miRNAs and their targets in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Cotton seedlings were treated under different temperature conditions (4, 12, 25, 35, and 42 °C) and then the effects were investigated...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
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