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Mechanical Transduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212658/c-met-expression-and-activity-in-urogenital-cancers-novel-aspects-of-signal-transduction-and-medical-implications
#1
REVIEW
Ralf Hass, Susanne Jennek, Yuanyuan Yang, Karlheinz Friedrich
C-Met is a receptor tyrosine kinase with multiple functions throughout embryonic development, organogenesis and wound healing and is expressed in various epithelia. The ligand of c-Met is Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) which is secreted among others by mesenchymal stroma/stem (MSC) cells.Physiological c-Met functions are centred around processes that underly cellular motility and invasive growth. Aberrant c-Met expression and activity is observed in numerous cancers and makes major contributions to cell malignancy...
February 17, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208683/plasma-gelsolin-induced-glomerular-fibrosis-via-the-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smads-signal-transduction-pathway-in-iga-nephropathy
#2
Lei Zhang, Changsong Han, Fei Ye, Yan He, Yinji Jin, Tianzhen Wang, Yiqi Wu, Yang Jiang, Fengmin Zhang, Xiaoming Jin
Glomerular fibrosis has been shown to be closely related to the progression and prognosis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). However, mechanism underlying IgAN glomerular fibrosis remains unclear. Recently, our study showed that plasma gelsolin (pGSN) was decreased in the serum of an IgAN mouse model and that pGSN deposition was found in the glomeruli. Another cytokine, TGF-β1, which is closely related to glomerular fibrosis, was also found to be highly expressed in the glomeruli. In the present study, we report that pGSN induces glomerular fibrosis through the TGF-β1/Smads signal transduction pathway...
February 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204960/sites-and-functional-consequence-of-alkylphenol-anesthetic-binding-to-kv1-2-channels
#3
Weiming Bu, Qiansheng Liang, Lianteng Zhi, Lina Maciunas, Patrick J Loll, Roderic G Eckenhoff, Manuel Covarrubias
Inhalational general anesthetics, such as sevoflurane and isoflurane, modulate a subset of brain Kv1 potassium channels. However, the Kv1.2 channel is resistant to propofol, a commonly used intravenous alkylphenol anesthetic. We hypothesize that propofol binds to a presumed pocket involving the channel's S4-S5 linker, but functional transduction is poor and, therefore, propofol efficacy is low. To test this hypothesis, we used a photoactive propofol analog (meta-aziPropofol = AziPm) to directly probe binding and electrophysiological and mutational analyses in Xenopus oocytes to probe function...
February 15, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203298/prolyl-isomerase-pin1-and-neurotrophins-a-loop-that-may-determine-the-fate-of-cells-in-cancer-and-neurodegeneration
#4
REVIEW
Francesco Angelucci, Jakub Hort
Increased survival, differentiation, and apoptotic death are common mechanisms relevant for both cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Although these disorders are characterized by different manifestations, it appears that a common mechanism may be present which directs the fate of a cell to either degeneration or proliferation. There are two classes of proteins that have been extensively investigated in these diseases but their possible interaction during signal transduction has not been studied. Prolyl isomerase Pin1 is an enzyme which translates Ser/Thr-Pro phosphorylation into conformational changes able to modify the activities of its substrates...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202678/stress-induced-o-glcnacylation-an-adaptive-process-of-injured-cells
#5
REVIEW
Marissa R Martinez, Thiago Braido Dias, Peter S Natov, Natasha E Zachara
In the 30 years, since the discovery of nucleocytoplasmic glycosylation, O-GlcNAc has been implicated in regulating cellular processes as diverse as protein folding, localization, degradation, activity, post-translational modifications, and interactions. The cell co-ordinates these molecular events, on thousands of cellular proteins, in concert with environmental and physiological cues to fine-tune epigenetics, transcription, translation, signal transduction, cell cycle, and metabolism. The cellular stress response is no exception: diverse forms of injury result in dynamic changes to the O-GlcNAc subproteome that promote survival...
February 8, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202392/sophisticated-regulation-of-transcriptional-factors-by-the-bacterial-phosphoenolpyruvate-sugar-phosphotransferase-system
#6
REVIEW
Anne Galinier, Josef Deutscher
The phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a carbohydrate transport and phosphorylation system present in bacteria of all different phyla and in archaea. It is usually composed of three proteins or protein complexes, enzyme I, HPr and enzyme II, which are phosphorylated at histidine or cysteine residues. However, in many bacteria, HPr can also be phosphorylated at a serine residue. The PTS functions not only as carbohydrate transporter, but also regulates numerous cellular processes by either phosphorylating its target proteins or by interacting with them in a phosphorylation-dependent manner...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201982/transcriptome-profile-of-rat-genes-in-injured-spinal-cord-at-different-stages-by-rna-sequencing
#7
Ling-Ling Shi, Nan Zhang, Xiu-Mei Xie, Yue-Juan Chen, Rui Wang, Lin Shen, Jian-Sheng Zhou, Jian-Guo Hu, He-Zuo Lü
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in fatal damage and currently has no effective treatment. The pathological mechanisms of SCI remain unclear. In this study, genome-wide transcriptional profiling of spinal cord samples from injured rats at different time points after SCI was performed by RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq). The transcriptomes were systematically characterized to identify the critical genes and pathways that are involved in SCI pathology. RESULTS: RNA-Seq results were obtained from total RNA harvested from the spinal cords of sham control rats and rats in the acute, subacute, and chronic phases of SCI (1 day, 6 days and 28 days after injury, respectively; n = 3 in every group)...
February 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199410/ultrasensitive-detection-of-hiv-1-p24-antigen-by-a-hybrid-nanomechanical-optoplasmonic-platform-with-potential-for-detecting-hiv-1-at-first-week-after-infection
#8
Priscila M Kosaka, Valerio Pini, Montserrat Calleja, Javier Tamayo
Early detection of HIV infection is the best way to prevent spread of the disease and to improve the efficiency of the antiretroviral therapy. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) have become the gold-standard for detecting low-concentrations of the virus in blood. However, these methods are technically demanding and cost-prohibitive in developing countries. Immunoassays are more affordable and can be more easily adapted for point-of-care diagnosis. However, the sensitivity so far of these methods has been too low...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197924/sumoylation-as-an-integral-mechanism-in-bacterial-infection-and-disease-progression
#9
Chittur V Srikanth, Smriti Verma
Post translational modification pathways regulate fundamental processes of cells and thus govern vital functions. Among these, particularly the modification with Small Ubiquitin-like Modifiers (SUMO) is being recognized as a pathway crucial for cell homeostasis and health. Understandably, bacterial pathogens intervene with the SUMO pathway of the host for ensuring successful infection. Among the bacterial pathogens known to target host sumoylation varied points of intervention are utilized. Majority of them including Salmonella Typhimurium, Shigella flexneri and Listeria monocytogenes target the E2 conjugating enzyme Ubc9...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197300/long-term-treatment-of-native-ldl-induces-senescence-of-cultured-human-endothelial-cells
#10
Sung-Tack Oh, Hoon Park, Hyun Joong Yoon, Sung Yeul Yang
The study aimed to evaluate whether the treatment of primary cultured human endothelial cells with native low-density lipoprotein (nLDL) could induce their senescence and to uncover some of the putative mechanisms involved. For this purpose, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were subcultured and/or continuously cultured with nLDL (0, 2, 5, and 10 μg protein/mL), for up to 9 days. The results indicated that nLDL inhibited the proliferation of HUVECs by arresting the cell cycle at G1 phase. The G1-arrested cells showed increase in cytosolic senescence-associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) activity, a biomarker of cellular senescence...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197170/glutathionylation-of-pea-chloroplast-2-cys-prx-and-mitochondrial-prx-iif-affects-their-structure-and-peroxidase-activity-and-sulfiredoxin-deglutathionylates-only-the-2-cys-prx
#11
Aingeru Calderón, Alfonso Lázaro-Payo, Iván Iglesias-Baena, Daymi Camejo, Juan J Lázaro, Francisca Sevilla, Ana Jiménez
Together with thioredoxins (Trxs), plant peroxiredoxins (Prxs), and sulfiredoxins (Srxs) are involved in antioxidant defense and redox signaling, while their regulation by post-translational modifications (PTMs) is increasingly regarded as a key component for the transduction of the bioactivity of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Among these PTMs, S-glutathionylation is considered a protective mechanism against overoxidation, it also modulates protein activity and allows signaling. This study explores the glutathionylation of recombinant chloroplastic 2-Cys Prx and mitochondrial Prx IIF from Pisum sativum...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196886/replication-of-vibrio-cholerae-classical-ctx-phage
#12
Eun Jin Kim, Hyun Jin Yu, Je Hee Lee, Jae-Ouk Kim, Seung Hyun Han, Cheol-Heui Yun, Jongsik Chun, G Balakrish Nair, Dong Wook Kim
The toxigenic classical and El Tor biotype Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 strains are generated by lysogenization of host-type-specific cholera toxin phages (CTX phages). Experimental evidence of the replication and transmission of an El Tor biotype-specific CTX phage, CTX-1, has explained the evolution of V. cholerae El Tor biotype strains. The generation of classical biotype strains has not been demonstrated in the laboratory, and the classical biotype-specific CTX phage, CTX-cla, is considered to be defective with regard to replication...
February 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196864/mechanistic-understanding-of-n-glycosylation-in-ebola-virus-glycoprotein-maturation-and-function
#13
Bin Wang, Yujie Wang, Dylan A Frabutt, Xihe Zhang, Xiaoyu Yao, Dan Hu, Zhuo Zhang, Chaonan Liu, Shimin Zheng, Shi-Hua Xiang, Yong-Hui Zheng
The Ebola virus (EBOV) trimeric envelope glycoprotein (GP) precursors are cleaved into the receptor-binding GP1 and the fusion-mediating GP2 subunits and incorporated into virions to initiate infection. GP1 and GP2 form heterodimers, which have 15 or 2 N-glycosylation sites (NGSs), respectively. Here, we investigated the mechanism of how N-glycosylation contributes to GP expression, maturation, and function. As reported before, we found that although GP1 NGSs are not critical, the two GP2 NGSs, N563 and N618, are essential to the GP function...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195946/g-protein-coupled-receptor-mediated-transactivation-of-extracellular-proteases
#14
Allison E Schafer, Burns C Blaxall
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise the largest family of receptors in humans. Traditional activation of GPCRs involves binding of a ligand to the receptor, activation of heterotrimeric G proteins and induction of subsequent signaling molecules. It is now known that GPCR signaling occurs through G protein-independent pathways including signaling through β-arrestin as well as transactivation of other receptor types. Generally, transactivation occurs when activation of one receptor leads to the activation of another receptor(s)...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194444/adipocyte-jak2-mediates-growth-hormone-induced-hepatic-insulin-resistance
#15
Kevin C Corbit, João Paulo G Camporez, Jennifer L Tran, Camella G Wilson, Dylan A Lowe, Sarah M Nordstrom, Kirthana Ganeshan, Rachel J Perry, Gerald I Shulman, Michael J Jurczak, Ethan J Weiss
For nearly 100 years, growth hormone (GH) has been known to affect insulin sensitivity and risk of diabetes. However, the tissue governing the effects of GH signaling on insulin and glucose homeostasis remains unknown. Excess GH reduces fat mass and insulin sensitivity. Conversely, GH insensitivity (GHI) is associated with increased adiposity, augmented insulin sensitivity, and protection from diabetes. Here, we induce adipocyte-specific GHI through conditional deletion of Jak2 (JAK2A), an obligate transducer of GH signaling...
February 9, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194157/comparative-phosphoproteomic-analysis-under-high-nitrogen-fertilizer-reveals-central-phosphoproteins-promoting-wheat-grain-starch-and-protein-synthesis
#16
Shoumin Zhen, Xiong Deng, Ming Zhang, Gengrui Zhu, Dongwen Lv, Yaping Wang, Dong Zhu, Yueming Yan
Nitrogen (N) is a macronutrient important for plant growth and development. It also strongly influences starch and protein synthesis, closely related to grain yield and quality. We performed the first comparative phosphoproteomic analysis of developing wheat grains in response to high-N fertilizer. Physiological and biochemical analyses showed that application of high-N fertilizer resulted in significant increases in leaf length and area, chlorophyll content, the activity of key enzymes in leaves such as nitrate reductase (NR), and in grains such as sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), sucrose synthase (SuSy), and ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192458/transcriptome-analysis-of-hexaploid-hulless-oat-in-response-to-salinity-stress
#17
Bin Wu, Yani Hu, Pengjie Huo, Qian Zhang, Xin Chen, Zongwen Zhang
BACKGROUND: Oat is a cereal crop of global importance used for food, feed, and forage. Understanding salinity stress tolerance mechanisms in plants is an important step towards generating crop varieties that can cope with environmental stresses. To date, little is known about the salt tolerance of oat at the molecular level. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying salt tolerance in oat, we investigated the transcriptomes of control and salt-treated oat using RNA-Seq. RESULTS: Using Illumina HiSeq 4000 platform, we generated 72,291,032 and 356,891,432 reads from non-stressed control and salt-stressed oat, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192402/loss-of-klf4-and-consequential-downregulation-of-smad7-exacerbate-oncogenic-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-in-and-promote-progression-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#18
H Sun, Z Peng, H Tang, D Xie, Z Jia, L Zhong, S Zhao, Z Ma, Y Gao, L Zeng, R Luo, K Xie
Hyperactivation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway is a common feature of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression. However, the driver factors leading to enhanced TGF-β activity are not well characterized. Here, we explore the mechanisms that loss of Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) exacerbates oncogenic TGF-β signaling in human HCC. The expression of KLF4 and TGF-β signaling components in primary HCC and their clinicopathologic relevance and significance was evaluated by using tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry...
February 13, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192301/dynamic-interaction-between-actin-and-nesprin2-maintain-the-cell-nucleus-in-a-prestressed-state
#19
Abhishek Kumar, G V Shivashankar
Mechanical coupling between the nucleus and the cytoskeleton is indispensable for direct force transduction from the extra cellular matrix (ECM) to the chromatin. Although this physical coupling has been shown to be crucial for nuclear positioning and its function, the quantification of nuclear-cytoskeleton interaction has been lacking. In this paper, using various quantitative fluorescence spectroscopy techniques, we investigate the nature of this connection. High-resolution 3D imaging shows that nesprin2G forms short linear structures along actin stress fibers (ASFs) in the apical region of the nucleus...
November 11, 2016: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189057/itraq-reveals-proteomic-changes-during-intestine-regeneration-in-the-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus
#20
Lina Sun, Dongxue Xu, Qinzeng Xu, Jingchun Sun, Lili Xing, Libin Zhang, Hongsheng Yang
Sea cucumbers have a striking capacity to regenerate most of their viscera after evisceration, which has drawn the interest of many researchers. In this study, the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) was utilized to investigate protein abundance changes during intestine regeneration in sea cucumbers. A total of 4073 proteins were identified, and 2321 proteins exhibited significantly differential expressions, with 1100 upregulated and 1221 downregulated proteins. Our results suggest that intestine regeneration constitutes a complex life activity regulated by the cooperation of various biological processes, including cytoskeletal changes, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and ECM-receptor interactions, protein synthesis, signal recognition and transduction, energy production and conversion, and substance transport and metabolism...
February 4, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
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