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Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149345/predictive-indicators-to-identify-high-risk-paediatric-febrile-neutropenia-in-paediatric-oncology-patients-in-a-middle-income-country
#1
Lindy-Lee Green, Pierre Goussard, Anel van Zyl, Martin Kidd, Mariana Kruger
Purpose: To validate a clinical risk prediction score (Ammann score) to predict adverse events (AEs) in paediatric febrile neutropenia (FN). Patients and methods: Patients <16 years of age were enrolled. A risk prediction score (based on haemoglobin ≥ 9 g/dl, white cell count (WCC) < 0.3 G/l, platelet count <50 G/l and chemotherapy more intensive than acute lymphoblastic leukaemia maintenance therapy) was calculated and AEs were documented. Results: In total, 100 FN episodes occurred in 52 patients, male:female ratio was 1...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145456/regulation-of-the-bone-marrow-microenvironment-by-g-csf-effects-of-g-csf-on-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia
#2
Jordan Basnett, Vicki Xie, Adam Cisterne, Ken Bradstock, Linda Bendall
It has been suggested that disruption of the lymphoid niche by G-CSF may be of therapeutic benefit to patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. We used a xenograft model to determine the effect of G-CSF on ALL progression in a minimal residual disease setting. Consistent with the effects on normal murine B cell progenitors, G-CSF slowed disease in the majority of ALL xenografts tested, suggesting that G-CSF may provide benefits beyond neutrophil recovery for ALL patients. However, two of eight xenografts demonstrated accelerated disease progression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120027/humanised-mouse-models-for-haematopoiesis-and-infectious-diseases
#3
Veronika Lysenko, Donal McHugh, Lena Behrmann, Mary-Aude Rochat, Christian Matthias Wilk, Larisa Kovtonyuk, Jean-Pierre Bourquin, Christian Münz, Markus Gabriel Manz, Roberto Speck, Alexandre Theocharides
"Humanised" mouse models have emerged over past years as powerful tools for investigating human haematopoiesis and immunity. They allowed the identification of key factors for the maintenance and function of normal and leukaemic human haematopoietic stem cells. These findings have been widely used to dissect the pathogenesis of multiple myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms, such as acute myeloid leukaemia and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Furthermore, these models can serve as a stepping-stone to clinical trials by testing novel drugs that target leukaemic stem cells...
November 9, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115416/annexin-a2-and-cancer-a-systematic-review
#4
Maria V Christensen, Claus K Høgdall, Kirsten M Jochumsen, Estrid V S Høgdall
Annexin A2 is a 36-kDa protein interfering with multiple cellular processes especially in cancer progression. The present review aimed to show the relations between Annexin A2 and cancer. A systematic search for studies investigating cancer and Annexin A2 expression was conducted using PubMed. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, acute promyelocytic leukaemia, clear cell renal cell carcinoma, breast, cervical, colorectal, endometrial, gastric cancer, glioblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, lung, multiple myeloma, oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, ovarian cancer, pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma, prostate cancer and urothelial carcinoma were evaluated...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106702/hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-hpa-axis-suppression-after-treatment-with-glucocorticoid-therapy-for-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia
#5
REVIEW
Niki Rensen, Reinoud Jbj Gemke, Elvira C van Dalen, Joost Rotteveel, Gertjan Jl Kaspers
BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoids play a major role in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). However, supraphysiological doses can suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. HPA axis suppression resulting in reduced cortisol response may cause an impaired stress response and an inadequate host defence against infection, which remain a cause of morbidity and death. Suppression commonly occurs in the first days after cessation of glucocorticoid therapy, but the exact duration is unclear...
November 6, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101342/a-protease-resistant-escherichia-coli-asparaginase-with-outstanding-stability-and-enhanced-anti-leukaemic-activity-in-vitro
#6
Maristella Maggi, Steven D Mittelman, Jean Hugues Parmentier, Giorgio Colombo, Massimiliano Meli, Jeannette Marie Whitmire, D Scott Merrell, Julian Whitelegge, Claudia Scotti
L-Asparaginases (ASNases) have been used as first line drugs for paediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL) treatment for more than 40 years. Both the Escherichia coli (EcAII) and Erwinia chrysanthemi (ErAII) type II ASNases currently used in the clinics are characterized by high in vivo instability, short half-life and the requirement of several administrations to obtain a pharmacologically active concentration. Moreover, they are sensitive to proteases (cathepsin B and asparagine endopeptidase) that are over-expressed by resistant leukaemia lymphoblasts, thereby impairing drug activity and pharmacokinetics...
November 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095161/structure-and-function-of-the-thermostable-l-asparaginase-from-thermococcus-kodakarensis
#7
Jingxu Guo, Alun R Coker, Steve P Wood, Jonathan B Cooper, Shahid Mahmood Chohan, Naeem Rashid, Muhummad Akhtar
L-Asparaginases catalyse the hydrolysis of asparagine to aspartic acid and ammonia. In addition, L-asparaginase is involved in the biosynthesis of amino acids such as lysine, methionine and threonine. These enzymes have been used as chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and other haematopoietic malignancies since the tumour cells cannot synthesize sufficient L-asparagine and are thus killed by deprivation of this amino acid. L-Asparaginases are also used in the food industry and have potential in the development of biosensors, for example for asparagine levels in leukaemia...
November 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076142/donor-derived-cd19-targeted-t-cell-infusion-induces-minimal-residual-disease-negative-remission-in-relapsed-b-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia-with-no-response-to-donor-lymphocyte-infusions-after-haploidentical-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#8
Yuhong Chen, Yifei Cheng, Pan Suo, Chenhua Yan, Yu Wang, Yao Chen, Wei Han, Lanping Xu, Xiaohui Zhang, Kaiyan Liu, Lungji Chang, Lei Xiao, Xiaojun Huang
Relapse is a common cause of failure in patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL) after haploidentical haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT), and non-responders to donor lymphoblastic infusion after HSCT have a very poor prognosis. Although donor-derived CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor-modified (CAR) T cells can potentially cure leukaemia, their effectiveness and safety have not been confirmed in relapsed B-ALL cases after haplo-HSCT. Between January 2015 and January 2017, two and four patients each received one and two infusions of CAR T cells from haplo-HSCT donors...
October 26, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076138/current-challenges-and-opportunities-in-treating-adult-patients-with-philadelphia-negative-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia
#9
REVIEW
Ofir Wolach, Irina Amitai, Daniel J DeAngelo
Significant advances have been made in recent years in the field of Philadelphia-negative acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). New insights into the biology and genetics of ALL as well as novel clinical observations and new drugs are changing the way we diagnose, risk-stratify and treat adult patients with ALL. New genetic subtypes and alterations refine risk stratification and uncover new actionable therapeutic targets. The incorporation of more intensive, paediatric and paediatric-inspired approaches for young adults seem to have a positive impact on survival in this population...
October 26, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066351/the-downregulation-of-mir-3173-in-b-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia-promotes-cell-invasion-via-ptk2
#10
Lijun Tian, Junhua Cao, Qiang Ji, Chuanling Zhang, Tong Qian, Xianchuan Song, Baoshan Huang, Xinyi Tian
MicroRNAs are important regulators of the pathogenesis of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL). In this study, we identified miR-3173 and its predicted target gene PTK2 were correspondingly differentially expressed in B-ALL patients. In B-ALL cell lines, CCK-8 proliferation assay revealed that miR-3173 could inhibit the cell proliferation. Moreover, transwell assay revealed that miR-3173 could also inhibit cell migration and invasion in B-ALL cell lines. Luciferase assays revealed that miR-3173 directly bound to the 3'untranslated region of PTK2, and western blotting showed that miR-3173 suppressed the expression of PTK2 at the protein level...
October 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065105/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-association-between-childhood-infections-and-the-risk-of-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia
#11
Jeremiah Hwee, Christopher Tait, Lillian Sung, Jeffrey C Kwong, Rinku Sutradhar, Jason D Pole
BACKGROUND: To determine whether childhood infections were associated with the development of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). METHODS: We included studies that assessed any infection in childhood prior to the diagnosis of ALL in children aged 0-19 years compared to children without cancer. The primary analysis synthesised any infection against the odds of ALL, and secondary analyses assessed the frequency, severity, timing of infections, and specific infectious agents against the odds of ALL...
October 24, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064485/differential-impact-of-drugs-on-the-outcome-of-etv6-runx1-positive-childhood-b-cell-precursor-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia-results-of-the-eortc-clg-58881-and-58951-trials
#12
C Piette, S Suciu, E Clappier, Y Bertrand, S Drunat, S Girard, K Yakouben, G Plat, N Dastugue, F Mazingue, N Grardel, N van Roy, A Uyttebroeck, V Costa, O Minckes, N Sirvent, P Simon, P Lutz, A Ferster, C Pluchart, M Poirée, C Freycon, M-F Dresse, F Millot, C Chantrain, J van der Werff Ten Bosch, K Norga, C Gilotay, P-S Rohrlich, Y Benoit, H Cavé
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057425/cutaneous-chronic-graft-versus-host-disease-following-allogeneic-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-children-a-retrospective-study
#13
Rony Shreberk-Hassidim, Michal Neumark, Shoshana Greenberger, Gal Goldstein, Ayal Hassidim, Yuval Dukler, Alexander Maly, Polina Stepensky, Vered Molho-Pessach
Chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) is a complication of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The aim of this study was to clinically characterize childhood cutaneous cGVHD. A retrospective study of children treated with HSCT at 2 tertiary medical centres in Israel between 2011 and 2014 was performed. A total of 112 children were included. Cutaneous cGVHD developed in 18% of subjects. Risk factors were older age, HSCT from peripheral blood and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. The eruption was lichenoid in 90% of subjects, of whom one-third progressed to sclerosis...
October 23, 2017: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056538/the-role-of-ras-mutations-in-mll-rearranged-leukaemia-a-path-to-intervention
#14
REVIEW
Marcela B Mansur, Anthony M Ford, Mariana Emerenciano
Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) with MLL rearrangement (MLL-r) is an aggressive disease still associated with a high mortality rate. Recent investigations have identified co-operating mutations in the RAS pathway and although the functional consequences of these mutations are not yet fully understood, aberrant regulation of RAS pathway signalling at both transcriptional and protein levels is observed. Studies investigating the efficacy of specific inhibitors of this pathway, e.g. MEK-inhibitors, have also achieved encouraging results...
October 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050690/how-should-we-treat-the-aya-patient-with-newly-diagnosed-all
#15
REVIEW
Nicolas Boissel
Adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) are recognized as a unique population with specific characteristics and needs. In adolescents aged 15-20 years old, the use of full paediatric protocols is supported by many comparative studies of paediatric and adult cooperative groups. In young adults, growing evidence suggests that paediatric-inspired approaches may also improve outcomes and lead to long-term survival rates of almost 70%. In the last decade, better knowledge of ALL oncogenic landscape, age distribution, and minimal residual disease prognostic impact have improved risk stratification...
September 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047122/the-presence-of-philadelphia-chromosome-does-not-confer-poor-prognosis-in-adult-pre-b-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia-in-the-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-era-a-surveillance-epidemiology-and-end-results-database-analysis
#16
Igwe J Igwe, Dongyun Yang, Akil Merchant, Noah Merin, George Yaghmour, Kevin Kelly, Giridharan Ramsingh
The BCR-ABL1 fusion gene is caused by a translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22, resulting in an abnormal chromosome 22 (Philadelphia chromosome; Ph). Prior to the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), the presence of BCR-ABL1 conferred a poor prognosis in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). We compared the survival of Ph+ and Ph-ALL during the period when TKIs were universally available in the US for Ph+ALL, using a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Database analysis...
October 18, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037480/linking-energy-sensing-to-suppression-of-jak-stat-signalling-a-potential-route-for-repurposing-ampk-activators
#17
REVIEW
Claire Speirs, Jamie J L Williams, Kirsten Riches, Ian P Salt, Timothy M Palmer
Exaggerated Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signalling is key to the pathogenesis of pro-inflammatory disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and cardiovascular diseases. Mutational activation of JAKs is also responsible for several haematological malignancies, including myeloproliferative neoplasms and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Accumulating evidence links adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor and regulator of organismal and cellular metabolism, with the suppression of immune and inflammatory processes...
October 13, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984546/mycobacterium-grossiae-sp-nov-a-rapidly-growing-scotochromogenic-species-isolated-from-human-clinical-respiratory-and-blood-culture-specimens
#18
Alberto Enrique Paniz-Mondolfi, Alexander L Greninger, Lynn Ladutko, Barbara A Brown-Elliott, Ravikiran Vasireddy, Wesley Jakubiec, Sruthi Vasireddy, Richard J Wallace, Keith E Simmon, Bruce E Dunn, Gary Jackoway, Surabhi B Vora, Kevin K Quinn, Xuan Qin, Sheldon Campbell
A previously undescribed, rapidly growing, scotochromogenic species of the genus Mycobacterium (represented by strains PB739(T) and GK) was isolated from two clinical sources - the sputum of a 76-year-old patient with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, history of tuberculosis exposure and Mycobacterium avium complex isolated years prior; and the blood of a 15-year-old male with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia status post bone marrow transplant. The isolates grew as dark orange colonies at 25-37 °C after 5 days, sharing features in common with other closely related species...
October 6, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982824/are-survival-and-mortality-rates-associated-with-recruitment-to-clinical-trials-in-teenage-and-young-adult-patients-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia-a-retrospective-observational-analysis-in-england
#19
Rachael Hough, Sabrina Sandhu, Maria Khan, Anthony Moran, Richard Feltbower, Charles Stiller, Mike C G Stevens, Clare Rowntree, Ajay Vora, Martin G McCabe
OBJECTIVE: Participation rates in clinical trials are low in teenagers and young adults (TYA) with cancer. Whilst the importance of clinical trials in informing best practice is well established, data regarding individual patient benefit are scarce. We have investigated the association between overall survival and trial recruitment in TYA patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). DESIGN: Retrospective. SETTING: National (England) TYA patients treated for ALL...
October 5, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981557/increasing-incidence-and-recurrence-rate-of-venous-thromboembolism-in-paediatric-oncology-patients-in-one-single-centre-over-25-years
#20
C Heleen Van Ommen, Irene L M Klaassen, Anne L van Els, Marianne D van de Wetering, C Heleen Van Ommen
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious complication in paediatric oncology patients. To identify the incidence, risk factors and recurrence rate of VTE in paediatric oncology patients, an observational, retrospective cohort study of all consecutive children (≦18 years) with malignancies, treated at the Emma Children's Hospital Academic Medical Centre between January 1989 and December 2013, was done. A matched case-control study in children with lymphomas was performed, to identify thrombotic risk factors...
October 4, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
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