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Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

Liron Frishman-Levy, Shai Izraeli
Central nervous system acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (CNS-ALL) is a major clinical problem. CNS-directed 'prophylactic' chemo- or radio - therapy is associated with significant early and long-term toxicity. Moreover, greater than a third of the relapses occur in the CNS. To design specific, more effective and less toxic therapy and for personalized precise adjustment of prophylactic therapy there is a need for better understanding of the biology of this disease. Specifically, the precise neurotropic mechanisms of ALL are currently unclear, as is the pathogenesis of CNS relapse...
October 21, 2016: British Journal of Haematology
Edwin D Hawkins, Delfim Duarte, Olufolake Akinduro, Reema A Khorshed, Diana Passaro, Malgorzata Nowicka, Lenny Straszkowski, Mark K Scott, Steve Rothery, Nicola Ruivo, Katie Foster, Michaela Waibel, Ricky W Johnstone, Simon J Harrison, David A Westerman, Hang Quach, John Gribben, Mark D Robinson, Louise E Purton, Dominique Bonnet, Cristina Lo Celso
It is widely accepted that complex interactions between cancer cells and their surrounding microenvironment contribute to disease development, chemo-resistance and disease relapse. In light of this observed interdependency, novel therapeutic interventions that target specific cancer stroma cell lineages and their interactions are being sought. Here we studied a mouse model of human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) and used intravital microscopy to monitor the progression of disease within the bone marrow at both the tissue-wide and single-cell level over time, from bone marrow seeding to development/selection of chemo-resistance...
October 17, 2016: Nature
Annapurna Saksena, Parul Gautam, Parth Desai, Naresh Gupta, A P Dubey, Tejinder Singh
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Flow cytometry is an important tool to diagnose acute leukaemia. Attempts are being made to find the minimal number of antibodies for correctly diagnosing acute leukaemia subtypes. The present study was designed to evaluate the analysis of side scatter (SSC) versus CD45 flow dot plot to distinguish acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), with minimal immunological markers. METHODS: One hundred consecutive cases of acute leukaemia were evaluated for blast cluster on SSC versus CD45 plots...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Alba Juan Juan, Noemi Caballero de García, Helena Masnou Ridaura, Marga Sala Llinas, M Rosa Morillas, Ramon Planas Vila
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
Amanda W Singer, Suzan L Carmichael, Steve Selvin, Cecilia Fu, Gladys Block, Catherine Metayer
Previous studies on maternal nutrition and childhood leukaemia risk have focused on the role of specific nutrients such as folate and have not considered broader measures of diet quality, which may better capture intake of diverse nutrients known to impact fetal development. We examined the relationship between maternal diet quality before pregnancy, as summarised by a diet quality index, and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in a case-control study in California...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Luca Trentin, Silvia Bresolin, Emanuela Giarin, Michela Bardini, Valentina Serafin, Benedetta Accordi, Franco Fais, Claudya Tenca, Paola De Lorenzo, Maria Grazia Valsecchi, Giovanni Cazzaniga, Geertruy Te Kronnie, Giuseppe Basso
To induce and sustain the leukaemogenic process, MLL-AF4+ leukaemia seems to require very few genetic alterations in addition to the fusion gene itself. Studies of infant and paediatric patients with MLL-AF4+ B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (BCP-ALL) have reported mutations in KRAS and NRAS with incidences ranging from 25 to 50%. Whereas previous studies employed Sanger sequencing, here we used next generation amplicon deep sequencing for in depth evaluation of RAS mutations in 36 paediatric patients at diagnosis of MLL-AF4+ leukaemia...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
Edyta Ulińska, Katarzyna Mycko, Elżbieta Sałacińska-Łoś, Agata Pastorczak, Alicja Siwicka, Wojciech Młynarski, Michał Matysiak
AIM OF THE STUDY: To characterise expression of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) in childhood B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), and to evaluate a possible link between mTOR and clinical characteristics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The examined group consisted of 21 consecutive patients, aged 1-18 years, diagnosed with B-cell ALL in 2010, and 10 relapsed B-cell ALL patients diagnosed for the first time between 2009 and 2011, who developed relapse before 2014...
2016: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
Kiki M G J Wigny, Wendy van Dorp, Anne-Lotte L F van der Kooi, Yolanda B de Rijke, Andrica C H de Vries, Marij Smit, Saskia M F Pluijm, Erica L T van den Akker, Rob Pieters, Joop S E Laven, Marry M van den Heuvel-Eibrink
STUDY QUESTION: Are Inhibin B and testosterone levels reduced in boys with newly diagnosed cancer prior to therapy? SUMMARY ANSWER: Pretreatment serum levels of Inhibin B and testosterone are significantly reduced in boys with newly diagnosed cancer, compared to reference values. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN: Disease-related gonadal impairment has been demonstrated in girls and young women diagnosed with cancer, prior to therapy. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: We conducted a descriptive study in boys newly diagnosed with cancer between January 2006 and February 2014...
September 28, 2016: Human Reproduction
Maria A Karalexi, Margarita Baka, Anton Ryzhov, Anna Zborovskaya, Nadya Dimitrova, Snezana Zivkovic, Sultan Eser, Luis Antunes, Mario Sekerija, Tina Zagar, Joana Bastos, Anna Demetriou, Domenic Agius, Margareta Florea, Daniela Coza, Sophia Polychronopoulou, Eftichia Stiakaki, Maria Moschovi, Emmanuel Hatzipantelis, Maria Kourti, Stelios Graphakos, Maria S Pombo-de-Oliveira, Hans Olov Adami, Eleni Th Petridou
AIM: To assess trends in survival and geographic disparities among children (0-14 years) with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) before and after the introduction of molecular therapy, namely tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in Southern-Eastern European (SEE) countries and the USA. METHODS: We calculated survival among children with CML, acute lymphoblastic (ALL) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in 14 SEE (1990-2014) cancer registries and the U.S. Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER, 1990-2012)...
November 2016: European Journal of Cancer
Lu Qian, Wanggang Zhang, Bo Lei, Aili He, Lianhong Ye, Xingzhou Li, Xin Dong
The present study aimed to investigate the role of microRNA (miR)-101 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia progression and chemoresistance. Furthermore, a novel target gene of miR-101 was identified. Here, we confirmed that miR-101 was significantly downregulated in the blood samples of patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) compared with the healthy controls, as determined by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RTqPCR) analysis. The in vitro experiments demonstrated that miR-101 significantly repressed the proliferation and invasion, and induced potent apoptosis in Jurkat cells, as determined by CCK-8, flow cytometer and cell invasion assays...
September 21, 2016: Oncology Reports
Yin Ting Cheung, Noah D Sabin, Wilburn E Reddick, Deepa Bhojwani, Wei Liu, Tara M Brinkman, John O Glass, Scott N Hwang, Deokumar Srivastava, Ching-Hon Pui, Leslie L Robison, Melissa M Hudson, Kevin R Krull
BACKGROUND: Leukoencephalopathy is observed in some children undergoing chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, although its effects on long-term outcomes is unknown. This study examines the associations between acute leukoencephalopathy and neurobehavioural, neurocognitive, and brain white matter imaging outcomes in long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treated with chemotherapy without cranial radiation. METHODS: In this longitudinal analysis, we used data of children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia at St Jude Children's Research Hospital (Memphis, TN, USA) who had been treated between June 1, 2000, and Oct 31, 2010...
October 2016: Lancet Haematology
T Arpaci, E Kilicarslan Toruner
Significant physical and psychosocial problems and related symptoms are observed in cancer survivors after treatment as well as during the treatment period. This study was aimed to assess problems and symptoms in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) survivors. Study was applied in three hospitals in Ankara/Turkey with 91 children who were diagnosed and treated with ALL and with their family. Data were collected using the data collection form developed by the researchers. The variables were investigated using the Mann-Whitney U and chi-square test...
September 20, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Care
Laura A Janzen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Lisa M Jacola, Kim Edelstein, Wei Liu, Ching-Hon Pui, Robert Hayashi, Nina S Kadan-Lottick, Deokumar Srivastava, Tara Henderson, Wendy Leisenring, Leslie L Robison, Gregory T Armstrong, Kevin R Krull
BACKGROUND: Survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) are at risk for neurocognitive deficits that affect development in adolescence and young adulthood, and influence educational attainment and future independence. We examined a large and diverse cohort of survivors to identify risk predictors and modifiers of these outcomes. METHODS: In this cohort study, cognitive and behaviour symptoms were assessed via a standardised parent questionnaire for 1560 adolescent survivors of ALL diagnosed between 1970 and 1999...
October 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Laurence Rozen, Denis Noubouossie, Laurence Dedeken, Sophie Huybrechts, Phu Quoc Lê, Alina Ferster, Anne Demulder
BACKGROUND: Asparaginase (Asp) and corticosteroid (CS) treatment in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is associated with an increased risk of thrombotic events. OBJECTIVE: Characterization of global haemostatic phenotypes of patients with ALL during Asp therapy. PROCEDURE: Thrombin generation (TG) was monitored in platelet-poor plasma of 56 children treated for a B lineage ALL (36 with native, 20 with PEG Asp) using 1 pM tissue factor and 4 μM phospholipids, with and without thrombomodulin...
September 8, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Sultan Alqahtani, Pawika Promtong, Anthony W Oliver, Xiaotong T He, Thomas D Walker, Andrew Povey, Lynne Hampson, Ian N Hampson
Human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) sequences make up ~8% of the human genome and increased expression of some HERV proteins has been observed in various pathologies including leukaemia and multiple sclerosis. However, little is known about the function of these HERV proteins or environmental factors which regulate their expression. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used very extensively as antimicrobials and antivirals in numerous consumer products although their effect on the expression of HERV gene products is unknown...
August 30, 2016: Mutagenesis
Fabienne Marquant, Stéphanie Goujon, Laure Faure, Sandra Guissou, Laurent Orsi, Denis Hémon, Brigitte Lacour, Jacqueline Clavel
BACKGROUND: Socio-economic status is related to many life style and environmental factors, some of which have been suggested to influence the risk of childhood cancer. Studies requiring subject participation are usually hampered by selection of more educated parents. To prevent such bias, we used unselected nationwide Geographical Information System (GIS)-based registry data, to investigate the influence of socio-economic disparities on the risk of childhood cancer. METHODS: The Geocap study included all French residents diagnosed with cancer aged up to 15 years over the period 2002-2010 (15 111 cases) and 45 000 contemporaneous controls representative of the childhood population...
August 24, 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
G Bogdanovic, C Pou, M Barrientos-Somarribas, A Bjerkner, E Honkaniemi, T Allander, B Andersson, B Gustafsson
BACKGROUND: Some childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemias (ALL) can be traced back to a prenatal origin, where a virus infection could be involved in the first pre-leukaemic clone development. The DNA virome of 95 children who later developed ALL was characterised from neonatal blood spots (NBS) using unbiased next-generation sequencing (NGS) and compared with the virome of 95 non-ALL controls. METHODS: DNA was individually extracted from the ALL-patients and controls, pooled, randomly amplified and sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq Sequencing System...
October 11, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Jennifer E Cohen, Claire E Wakefield, Richard J Cohn
BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer survivors are at a higher risk of developing health conditions such as osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease than their peers. Health-promoting behaviour, such as consuming a healthy diet, could lessen the impact of these chronic issues, yet the prevalence rate of health-protecting behaviour amongst survivors of childhood cancer is similar to that of the general population. Targeted nutritional interventions may prevent or reduce the incidence of these chronic diseases...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Emad Uddin Siddiqui, Sayyeda Ghazala Kazi, Muhammad Irfan Habib, Khalid Mehmood Ahmed Khan, Nukhba Zia
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency, site and time to relapse from diagnosis, and to see the relationship of relapse with important prognostic factors. METHODS: The prospective descriptive observational study was conducted at the National Institute of Child Health, Karachi, June 2005 to May 2007, and comprised newly-diagnosed cases of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Bone marrow aspiration was done on reappearance of blast cells in peripheral smear and cerebrospinal fluid...
August 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
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