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Anatomy and physiology, biochemistry,

Michael Gochfeld
Sex, the states of being female or male, potentially interacts with all xenobiotic exposures, both inadvertent and deliberate, and influences their toxicokinetics (TK), toxicodynamics, and outcomes. Sex differences occur in behavior, exposure, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and genetics, accounting for female-male differences in responses to environmental chemicals, diet, and pharmaceuticals, including adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Often viewed as an annoying confounder, researchers have studied only one sex, adjusted for sex, or ignored it...
November 28, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
Puja Dulloo, Neeraj Vedi, Achleshwar Gandotra
INTRODUCTION: Health field per se requires mental, physical and psychological steadiness and wellbeing. In modern times decline in psychological and physical health has been observed in student after admission in health education program. Factors like perfectionism, self-esteem, personal and professional consequence have affected their academic score directly or indirectly. Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) instrument measures optimism in relation to self-esteem of individual. A better score will show more confidence level of the student...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
H R Ahmad, F M Arain, N A Khan
The objectives of Master of Philosophy (MPhil) in Physiological Sciences are: 1) to describe the new ways in which anatomy, biochemistry and physiology on one hand, and microbiology, pathology and pharmacology on other hand meet their functional requirements through multidisciplinary integrated concepts; 2) to elucidate relationships between cell biology, molecular biology and molecular genetics by connecting dots of how cell functions are driven by molecules and being controlled by genes. This forms the basis of cell, molecular and genetics [CMG] module upon which 7 multidisciplinary modules of Physiological Sciences follow; 3) these 24 credit hours provide the physiological basis for PhD studies as well as faculty development to enhance learning abilities of medical student; 4) the modules constitute Cardio- Respiratory Physiological Sciences, GI and Renal Physiological Sciences, Neurosciences, Endo-Reproductive Physiological Sciences...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Rajani Santhakumari Nagothu, Yogananda Reddy Indla, Rajesh Paluru
BACKGROUND: Students who took admission in first year MBBS course used to study physiology, anatomy and biochemistry for one and half years. Since a decade the first year course duration was reduced to one year unaltering the syllabus in the three basic subjects. So students are focusing on the easy ways to clear the university exams by accepting the concise books, which is dampening the real quality of the subject knowledge. This study is aimed at understanding the best methods of physiology teaching in the lecture gallery, from the student's perspective...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Clinical Anatomy and Physiology
Robert T Furbank
The year 2016 marks 50 years since the publication of the seminal paper by Hatch and Slack describing the biochemical pathway we now know as C4 photosynthesis. This review provides insight into the initial discovery of this pathway, the clues which led Hatch and Slack and others to these definitive experiments, some of the intrigue which surrounds the international activities which led up to the discovery, and personal insights into the future of this research field. While the biochemical understanding of the basic pathways came quickly, the role of the bundle sheath intermediate CO2 pool was not understood for a number of years, and the nature of C4 as a biochemical CO2 pump then linked the unique Kranz anatomy of C4 plants to their biochemical specialization...
July 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Curtis Colleton, David Brewster, Anne Chester, David O Clarke, Peter Heining, Andrew Olaharski, Michael Graziano
The use of minipigs in preclinical safety testing of pharmaceuticals is considered an alternative to the more traditional dog and nonhuman primate (NHP) nonrodent species. Substantial evidence exists to suggest that the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of minipigs are similar enough to humans to consider them as valid nonrodent models for pharmaceutical safety testing. Since the utilization of minipigs was last assessed over 5 years ago, the Preclinical Safety Leadership Group (DruSafe) of the International Consortium for Innovation and Quality in Pharmaceutical Development conducted this survey to provide an updated assessment of the utility, perceived value, and impediments to the use of minipigs in preclinical safety testing...
April 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
August Heidland, Eberhard Ritz, Florian Lang
The joint Society of Nephrology in Germany, Switzerland and Austria was founded on April 10th, 1961 in Wiesbaden. Board members were Hans Sarre, Kurt Kramer, Klaus Rother, Francois Reubi, Bruno Watschinger, Wolfgang Dutz, Ernst Wollheim and Karl Ullrich. The mission of the society was an intensive interaction between basic science of the kidney (anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology, biochemistry and molecular biology) and clinical research in nephrology and hypertension. Every year scientific symposia took place in different venues in one of the three countries, except in the years between 1963-1987, when the congresses of the International Society of Nephrology took place...
February 2016: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
Rami Saadeh, James Klaunig
Children of different ages vary in their response to environmental stressors due to their continuous development and changes in their bodies' anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry. Each age group of children has special biological features that distinguish their toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic characteristics from other age groups. The variability in responses extends to include children of the same age group. These intra- and inter-group differences in biological features explains the variability in responses to environmental exposures...
October 2015: International Journal of Health Sciences
Carlo Pellicciari
Especially in recent years, biomedical research has taken advantage of the progress in several disciplines, among which microscopy and histochemistry. To assess the influence of histochemistry in the biomedical field, the articles published during the period 2011-2015 have been selected from different databases and grouped by subject categories: as expected, biological and biomedical studies where histochemistry has been used as a major experimental approach include a wide of basic and applied researches on both humans and other animal or plant organisms...
2015: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
A K Capulli, L A MacQueen, Sean P Sheehy, K K Parker
Extracellular matrix (ECM) structure and biochemistry provide cell-instructive cues that promote and regulate tissue growth, function, and repair. From a structural perspective, the ECM is a scaffold that guides the self-assembly of cells into distinct functional tissues. The ECM promotes the interaction between individual cells and between different cell types, and increases the strength and resilience of the tissue in mechanically dynamic environments. From a biochemical perspective, factors regulating cell-ECM adhesion have been described and diverse aspects of cell-ECM interactions in health and disease continue to be clarified...
January 15, 2016: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Amie J Dirks-Naylor, Nicholas J D Wright, Gregory L Alston
OBJECTIVE: To design and assess a horizontally integrated biological sciences course sequence and to determine its effectiveness in imparting the foundational science knowledge necessary to successfully progress through the pharmacy school curriculum and produce competent pharmacy school graduates. DESIGN: A 2-semester course sequence integrated principles from several basic science disciplines: biochemistry, molecular biology, cellular biology, anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology...
August 25, 2015: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Hans E Grossniklaus, Eldon E Geisert, John M Nickerson
Here, we briefly introduce and survey the retina including terminology and naming conventions. We consider anatomical structures of the retina including gross and microscopic anatomy of the fundus, layers of the retina, retinal cell types, and neuronal wiring of the retina. We discuss briefly biochemistry of the visual transduction cascade and the Vitamin A cycle. We introduce physiological processes including outer segment disk shedding and origins of electrical signals detected by the electroretinogram. This sets the stage for a more in-depth look at specific aspects of retinal structure and function in subsequent sections in this chapter...
2015: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Ahmad Al-Saffar, André Nogueira da Costa, Annie Delaunois, Derek J Leishman, Louise Marks, Marie-Luce Rosseels, J-P Valentin
Although the basic structure of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is similar across species, there are significant differences in the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry between humans and laboratory animals, which should be taken into account when conducting a gastrointestinal (GI) assessment. Historically, the percentage of cases of drug attrition associated with GI-related adverse effects is small; however, this incidence has increased over the last few years. Drug-related GI effects are very diverse, usually functional in nature, and not limited to a single pharmacological class...
2015: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Emma Crowther, Sarah Baillie
Case-based learning (CBL) has been introduced as part of a major review of the veterinary curriculum at the University of Bristol. The initial aim was to improve integration between all first year subjects, i.e., basic science disciplines (anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry), animal management, and professional studies, while highlighting the relevance by providing clinical context. The CBL was delivered as whole class sessions in a lecture theatre, as small group teaching facilities were not readily available, co-facilitated by two to four basic scientists and clinicians...
January 2016: Anatomical Sciences Education
Rosalinda Guevara-Guzmán, María Esther Urrutia Aguilar
Physiology teaching began with Claudius Galenus (c. 126-199 AD), known as Galen, who is considered the initiator of experimental physiology. This discipline was consolidated in the XIX century with the discoveries of Claude Bernard, which influenced the way of teaching this discipline in universities, independently from Anatomy. In Mexico, physiology teaching started in 1580. It was at the beginning of the XIX century when Valentín Gómez Farías created the professorship in Medical Sciences and Daniel Vergara Lope carried out its consolidation when he implemented a lab course...
December 2014: Gaceta Médica de México
Zhibin Wen, Mingli Zhang
This study identifies Salsola laricifolia as a C3-C4 intermediate in tribe Salsoleae s.l., Chenopodiaceae, and compares S. laricifolia with the previously described C3-C4 intermediates in Salsoleae. Photosynthetic pathway characteristics were studied in four species of this tribe including S. laricifolia, C3 Sympegma regelii, C3-C4 S. arbusculiformis, and C4 S. arbuscula, using the approaches of leaf anatomy and ultrastructure, activities of ribulose 1-5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and PEP carboxylase (PEPC), CO2 compensation point, and immunolocalization of Rubisco, PEPC, and the P-subunit of glycine decarboxylase (GDC)...
January 2015: Photosynthesis Research
Nathan Ashby, Joshua Squiers
The historical development of the concept of perfusion is traced, with particular focus on the development of the modern clinical concepts of perfusion through the fields of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry. This article reviews many of the significant contributors to the changing ideas of perfusion up through the twentieth century that have influenced the modern physiologic circulatory and metabolic models. The developments outlined have provided the modern model of perfusion, linking the cardiopulmonary circulation, tissue oxygen utilization and carbon dioxide production, food intake, tissue waste production and elimination, and ultimately the production and utilization of ATP in the body...
September 2014: Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America
F C Gwazdauskas, M L McGilliard, B A Corl
Several factors affect the success of students in college classes. The objective of this research was to determine what factors affect success of undergraduate students in an anatomy and physiology class. Data were collected from 602 students enrolled in the Agriculture and Life Sciences (ALS) 2304 Animal Physiology and Anatomy course from 2005 through 2012. The data set included 476 females (79.1%) and 126 males (20.9%). Time to complete exams was recorded for each student. For statistical analyses, students' majors were animal and poultry sciences (APSC), agricultural sciences, biochemistry, biological sciences, dairy science, and "other," which combined all other majors...
October 2014: Journal of Dairy Science
Gurpreet Kaur, Harminder Pal Singh, Daizy Rani Batish, Ravinder Kumar Kohli
Lead (Pb) causes severe damage to crops, ecosystems, and humans, and alters the physiology and biochemistry of various plant species. It is hypothesized that Pb-induced metabolic alterations could manifest as structural variations in the roots of plants. In light of this, the morphological, anatomical, and ultrastructural variations (through scanning electron microscopy, SEM) were studied in 4-day-old seedlings of Triticum aestivum grown under Pb stress (0, 8, 16, 40, and 80 mg Pb(2+) l(-1); mild to highly toxic)...
November 2014: Protoplasma
Arun Kumar, Kasturi Mitra, Sangeetha Nagarajan, Bibek Poudel
BACKGROUND: In future, increase in the number of healthcare professionals is dependent on the career interest among present undergraduate medical students. Based on their interest to pursue their specialty, the availability of medical doctors in each specialty could be done. AIMS: This study was to find out future career interest and factors that influence undergraduate medical students to choose their future specialization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out among first-year medical students from five countries...
March 2014: North American Journal of Medical Sciences
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