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Extreme prematurity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211648/cognitive-development-in-preterm-infants-multi-faceted-deficits-reflect-vulnerability-of-rigorous-neurodevelopmental-pathways
#1
Jessie R Maxwell, Tracylyn R Yellowhair, Akosua Y Oppong, Jenny E Camacho, Jean R Lowe, Lauren L Jantzie, Robin K Ohls
Prematurity remains the major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, with 15 million preterm births occurring worldwide in 2010. Infants born less than 37 weeks gestation are at high risk of abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes, given that the central nervous system is extremely sensitive to an abnormal intra- and extra-uterine environment. Children born preterm have multiple neurodevelopmental sequelae involving dynamic and complex cognitive deficits. Former preterm infants have difficulty with each domain of cognition, including executive function, language, learning and memory, complex attention, perceptual-motor function and social cognition when compared to children born at term...
February 17, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206998/dynamic-outcome-prediction-in-a-socio-demographically-diverse-population-based-cohort-of-extremely-preterm-neonates
#2
M A Steurer, J Anderson, R J Baer, S Oltman, L S Franck, M Kuppermann, L Rand, K K Ryckman, J C Partridge, L L Jelliffe-Pawlowski, E E Rogers
OBJECTIVE: Accurate outcome prediction is crucial for counseling parents and providing individualized treatment to extremely premature infants. We sought to improve upon existing prediction model by using a diverse population-based cohort of extremely premature live births (⩽28 weeks' gestation) for survival and survival without severe neonatal morbidity at different times throughout the first week of life and to evaluate potential differences by race/ethnicity and maternal education...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206993/hemodynamic-effects-of-sodium-bicarbonate-administration
#3
A C Katheria, M K Brown, K Hassan, D M Poeltler, D A Patel, V K Brown, J B Sauberan
OBJECTIVE: To describe the hemodynamic changes that occur with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) administration in premature neonates. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective study included premature neonates 23 to 31+6 weeks of gestational age who underwent continuous cardiac and cerebral monitoring as participants in prospective trials at our institution, and who received NaHCO3 infused over 30 min in the first 24 h of life. Blood pressure (BP), heart rate, cardiac output (CO), SpO2 and cerebral oximetry (StO2) were captured every 2 s...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203565/tubular-dysfunction-mimicking-dent-s-disease-in-2-infants-born-with-extremely-low-birth-weight
#4
Midori Awazu, Mie Arai, Shoko Ohashi, Hirotaka Takahashi, Takashi Sekine, Kazushige Ikeda
Two preterm infants, with extremely low birth weight born at gestational weeks 24 and 25, showed generalized proximal tubular dysfunction during their stay in the neonatal intensive care unit, including glucosuria, low molecular weight proteinuria, phosphaturia, uricosuria, enzymuria (elevated urine N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase), panaminoaciduria, and hypercalciuria, associated with renal calcification. Renal tubular acidosis was not present in either patient. DNA mutation analysis for Dent's disease, performed in patient 1, was negative...
January 2017: Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187718/an-education-programme-influencing-health-professionals-to-recommend-exercise-to-their-type-2-diabetes-patients-understanding-the-processes-a-case-study-from-oxfordshire-uk
#5
Anne Matthews, Natasha Jones, Alastair Thomas, Perdy van den Berg, Charlie Foster
BACKGROUND: Increasing levels of physical activity decreases the risk of premature mortality associated with chronic diseases e.g., coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, stroke. Despite this, most adults in England do not meet physical activity guidelines. Physical activity advice and signposting offered to at-risk patients by primary care providers is recommended. However, exercise medicine education is sparse, leading to poor practitioner knowledge of the risk reduction evidence and strategies to implement effective patient behaviour change...
February 11, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180126/providing-a-placental-transfusion-in-newborns-who-need-resuscitation
#6
REVIEW
Anup C Katheria, Melissa K Brown, Wade Rich, Kathy Arnell
Over the past decade, there have been several studies and reviews on the importance of providing a placental transfusion to the newborn. Allowing a placental transfusion to occur by delaying the clamping of the umbilical cord is an extremely effective method of enhancing arterial oxygen content, increasing cardiac output, and improving oxygen delivery. However, premature and term newborns who require resuscitation have impaired transitional hemodynamics and may warrant different methods to actively provide a placental transfusion while still allowing for resuscitation...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166228/rapid-turnover-of-dnaa-at-replication-origin-regions-contributes-to-initiation-control-of-dna-replication
#7
Katrin Schenk, Ana B Hervás, Thomas C Rösch, Marc Eisemann, Bernhard A Schmitt, Stephan Dahlke, Luise Kleine-Borgmann, Seán M Murray, Peter L Graumann
DnaA is a conserved key regulator of replication initiation in bacteria, and is homologous to ORC proteins in archaea and in eukaryotic cells. The ATPase binds to several high affinity binding sites at the origin region and upon an unknown molecular trigger, spreads to several adjacent sites, inducing the formation of a helical super structure leading to initiation of replication. Using FRAP analysis of a functional YFP-DnaA allele in Bacillus subtilis, we show that DnaA is bound to oriC with a half-time of 2...
February 6, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162769/cord-blood-biomarkers-of-placental-maternal-vascular-underperfusion-predict-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-associated-pulmonary-hypertension
#8
Karen K Mestan, Nina Gotteiner, Nicolas Porta, William Grobman, Emily J Su, Linda M Ernst
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether cord blood biomarkers associated with placental maternal vascular underperfusion (MVU) are predictive of bronchopulmonary dysplasia-associated pulmonary hypertension (BPD-PH). STUDY DESIGN: Premature infants enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study were randomly sampled from 4 gestational age strata (n = 190, range 23-36 weeks). Fifteen factors from a human angiogenesis panel were measured in cord blood using multiplex immunoassay...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150080/predictors-of-mental-health-treatment-seeking-and-engagement-in-a-community-mental-health-center
#9
Ruth S Shim, Michael T Compton, Shun Zhang, Kristin Roberts, George Rust, Benjamin G Druss
Disparities in behavioral health treatment outcomes are multifactorial, but treatment engagement and dropout from treatment often contribute to unequal mental health outcomes in individuals with serious mental illnesses. Alcohol and other substance use disorders have been associated with poor treatment adherence and premature discontinuation of treatment, but few studies have examined these factors in a predominantly African American sample of individuals with serious mental illnesses. This study examined predictors of mental health treatment engagement and dropout in a sample of 90 African American individuals presenting for treatment at a community mental health treatment facility in Atlanta, Georgia...
February 1, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137344/retinal-microvascular-plasticity-in-a-premature-neonate
#10
Y Kandasamy, L Hartley, R Smith
Dilation and abnormal tortuosity of retinal vessels are the hallmarks of severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in premature infants. The stages of ROP are defined by vessel appearance at the interface between the vascular and avascular retinal areas. Deregulated signaling pathways involving hypoxia-inducible factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are involved in the pathogenesis of ROP. VEGF-antagonists are increasingly being used as 'off-label medication' to treat this condition, with some success...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135431/retrospective-dual-center-study-of-parenteral-nutrition-associated-cholestasis-in-premature-neonates
#11
Weihui Yan, Li Hong, Ying Wang, Yi Feng, Lina Lu, Yijing Tao, Jiang Wu, Huijuan Ruan, Qingya Tang, Wei Cai
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC) has not been clarified. The objective of this study was to explore the incidence of PNAC in premature infants without surgery and to identify associated risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Premature neonates who received parenteral nutrition (PN) at least 14 days were included in a retrospective, dual-center study. Cholestasis was diagnosed as conjugated bilirubin ≥2 mg/dL. Infants with metabolic liver disease, cyanotic congenital heart disease, congenital syphilis, hepadnaviridae infection, and those who underwent surgery were excluded...
January 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135022/structural-overshoot-of-tree-growth-with-climate-variability-and-the-global-spectrum-of-drought-induced-forest-dieback
#12
Alistair S Jump, Paloma Ruiz-Benito, Sarah Greenwood, Craig D Allen, Thomas Kitzberger, Rod Fensham, Jordi Martínez-Vilalta, Francisco Lloret
Ongoing climate change poses significant threats to plant function and distribution. Increased temperatures and altered precipitation regimes amplify drought frequency and intensity, elevating plant stress and mortality. Large-scale forest mortality events will have far-reaching impacts on carbon and hydrological cycling, biodiversity, and ecosystem services. However, biogeographical theory and global vegetation models poorly represent recent forest die-off patterns. Furthermore, since trees are sessile and long-lived, their responses to climate extremes are substantially dependent on historical factors...
January 30, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131493/trends-in-premature-mortality-in-the-usa-by-sex-race-and-ethnicity-from-1999-to-2014-an-analysis-of-death-certificate-data
#13
Meredith S Shiels, Pavel Chernyavskiy, William F Anderson, Ana F Best, Emily A Haozous, Patricia Hartge, Philip S Rosenberg, David Thomas, Neal D Freedman, Amy Berrington de Gonzalez
BACKGROUND: Reduction of premature mortality is a UN Sustainable Development Goal. Unlike other high-income countries, age-adjusted mortality in the USA plateaued in 2010 and increased slightly in 2015, possibly because of rising premature mortality. We aimed to analyse trends in mortality in the USA between 1999 and 2014 in people aged 25-64 years by age group, sex, and race and ethnicity, and to identify specific causes of death underlying the temporal trends. METHODS: For this analysis, we used cause-of-death and demographic data from death certificates from the US National Center for Health Statistics, and population estimates from the US Census Bureau...
January 25, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130919/the-development-of-extremely-premature-infants
#14
Wolfgang Voss, Elke Hobbiebrunken, Uta Ungermann, Michael Wagner, Gabriele Damm
BACKGROUND: Until now, there has been no comprehensive long-term study in Germany on the development of extremely premature infants up to school age. METHODS: From October 2004 to September 2008, in the German federal state of Lower Saxony, 437 infants born at a gestational age less than 28 weeks were followed up at the ages of 2 and 5 years, and some at the age of 10 years. The 5-year follow-up data were collated with the peri- and neonatological parameters and compared with the 2- and 10-year follow-up data...
December 26, 2016: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128518/maternal-and-neonatal-outcomes-in-women-with-severe-early-onset-pre-eclampsia-before-26-weeks-of-gestation-a-case-series
#15
M F van Oostwaard, L van Eerden, M W de Laat, J J Duvekot, Jjhm Erwich, Kwm Bloemenkamp, A C Bolte, Jpf Bosma, S V Koenen, R F Kornelisse, B Rethans, P van Runnard Heimel, Hcj Scheepers, W Ganzevoort, Bwj Mol, C J de Groot, Ipm Gaugler-Senden
OBJECTIVE: To describe the maternal and neonatal outcomes and prolongation of pregnancies with severe early onset pre-eclampsia before 26 weeks of gestation. DESIGN: Nationwide case series. SETTING: All Dutch tertiary perinatal care centres. POPULATION: All women diagnosed with severe pre-eclampsia who delivered between 22 and 26 weeks of gestation in a tertiary perinatal care centre in the Netherlands, between 2008 and 2014...
January 27, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115515/does-extremely-low-birth-weight-predispose-to-low-renin-hypertension
#16
Anke Raaijmakers, Zhen-Yu Zhang, Jolien Claessens, Nicholas Cauwenberghs, Theun Pieter van Tienoven, Fang-Fei Wei, Lotte Jacobs, Elena Levtchenko, Steven Pauwels, Tatiana Kuznetsova, Karel Allegaert, Jan A Staessen
: Low birth weight and prematurity are risk factors for hypertension in adulthood. Few studies in preterm or full-term born children reported on plasma renin activity (PRA). We tested the hypothesis that renin might modulate the incidence of hypertension associated with prematurity. We enrolled 93 prematurely born children with birth weight <1000 g and 87 healthy controls born at term, who were all examined at ≈11 years. Renal length and glomerular filtration rate derived from serum cystatin C were 0...
March 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111421/combined-approaches-using-aops-and-big-data-to-find-potential-diseases-associated-with-humidifier-disinfectant
#17
Jong-Han Leem, Kyu Hyuck Chung
According to previous survey, about 2 million of people were expected to suffer from toxic effects due to humidifier disinfectant, regardless of healing or not. Extremely small group are recognized as humidifier disinfectants??victims. Up to now, previous research tried to focus on interstitial fibrosis on terminal bronchiole because it is specific finding, compared with other diseases. To figure out overall effects from humidifier disinfectants, we recommend adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) as new approach...
December 23, 2016: Environmental Health and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102073/estimates-of-health-impacts-and-radiative-forcing-in-winter-haze-in-eastern-china-through-constraints-of-surface-pm2-5-predictions
#18
Meng Gao, Pablo E Saide, Jinyuan Xin, Yuesi Wang, Zirui Liu, Yuxuan Wang, Zifa Wang, Mariusz Pagowski, Sarath K Guttikunda, Gregory R Carmichael
The Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) Three-Dimensional Variational (3DVAR) data assimilation system is extended to treat the MOSAIC aerosol model in WRF-Chem, and to be capable of assimilating surface PM2.5 concentrations. The coupled GSI-WRF-Chem system is applied to reproduce aerosol levels over China during an extremely polluted winter month, January 2013. After assimilating surface PM2.5 concentrations, the correlation coefficients between observations and model results averaged over the assimilated sites are improved from 0...
February 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100335/-methods-for-establishing-animal-model-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-and-their-evaluation
#19
Zeng Xiong, Xia Zhou, Shao-Jie Yue
With the development of treatment, the survival rate of premature infants has significantly increased, especially extremely premature infants and very low birth weight infants. This has led to an increase in incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) year by year. BPD has been one of the most common respiratory system diseases in premature infants, especially the small premature infants. Arrested alveolar development is an important cause of BPD. Therefore, the mechanism of arrested alveolar development and the intervention measures for promoting alveolar development are the focuses of research on BPD...
January 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098724/central-macular-thickness-in-6-5-year-old-children-born-extremely-preterm-is-strongly-associated-with-gestational-age-even-when-adjusted-for-risk-factors
#20
Anna E C Molnar, Rebecka M Rosén, Maria Nilsson, Eva K B Larsson, Gerd E Holmström, Kerstin M Hellgren
PURPOSE: To assess the macular thickness in 6.5-year-old children born extremely preterm (EPT) in comparison with children born at term and to investigate risk factors associated with the macular thickness in the preterm group. METHODS: A population-based study of 6.5-year-old children born before the gestational age of 27 weeks and age-matched control subjects. Macular assessments with optical coherence tomography were performed, and the results were compared with neonatal risk factors and sex...
January 16, 2017: Retina
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