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Biomarker AND parkinson's disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816642/proteomic-analysis-of-the-human-olfactory-bulb
#1
Manjunath Dammalli, Gourav Dey, Anil K Madugundu, Manish Kumar, Benvil Rodrigues, Harsha Gowda, Bychapur Gowrishankar Siddaiah, Anita Mahadevan, Susarla Krishna Shankar, Thottethodi Subrahmanya Keshava Prasad
The importance of olfaction to human health and disease is often underappreciated. Olfactory dysfunction has been reported in association with a host of common complex diseases, including neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. For health, olfaction or the sense of smell is also important for most mammals, for optimal engagement with their environment. Indeed, animals have developed sophisticated olfactory systems to detect and interpret the rich information presented to them to assist in day-to-day activities such as locating food sources, differentiating food from poisons, identifying mates, promoting reproduction, avoiding predators, and averting death...
August 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808876/changes-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-a%C3%AE-42-t-tau-and-p-tau-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-with-cognitive-impairment-relative-to-those-with-normal-cognition-a-meta-analysis
#2
Xiaohui Hu, Yan Yang, Daokai Gong
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) signature of reduced amyloid beta 1-42 (Aβ42), elevated total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau181 (p-tau) is important for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ42, t-tau, and p-tau have been reported in numerous studies to contribute to predicting cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PDCI). However, no consistent conclusion can be drawn so far. Literatures regarding Aβ42, t-tau, and p-tau in CSF were systematically reviewed, and a meta-analysis was thus performed to evaluate the changes of these biomarkers in PDCI patients, including PD with mild cognitive impairment (PDMCI) and PD dementia (PDD) patients, relative to PD with normal cognition (PDNC) patients...
August 14, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805581/nonmotor-parkinson-s-and-future-directions
#3
Nataliya Titova, K Ray Chaudhuri
Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) of Parkinson's disease (PD) are integral to the condition largely regarded as a motor syndrome. A range of NMS underpin the prodromal stage of Parkinson's and are present with variable frequency, range, and nature across the whole journey of a patient with Parkinson's from the onset of the motor disease to palliative stage. These symptoms also are key determinants of quality of life of the patient as well as the carer. Despite this, recognition management and focused treatment of NMS of PD remain poor...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803382/cortical-afferent-inhibition-abnormalities-reveal-cholinergic-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-reappraisal
#4
REVIEW
Raffaele Nardone, Francesco Brigo, Viviana Versace, Yvonne Höller, Frediano Tezzon, Leopold Saltuari, Eugen Trinka, Luca Sebastianelli
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multisystem neurodegenerative disorder affecting, besides the dopaminergic function, multiple neurotransmission systems, including the cholinergic system. Central cholinergic circuits of human brain can be tested non-invasively by coupling peripheral nerve stimulation with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of motor cortex; this test is named short latency afferent inhibition (SAI). SAI abnormalities have been reported in PD patients with gait disturbances and many non-motor symptoms, such as visual hallucinations (VHs), REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), dysphagia, and olfactory impairment...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802934/psychosis-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Dominic H Ffytche, Dag Aarsland
Although illusions, hallucinations and delusions did not play a prominent role in James Parkinson's original clinical descriptions, the longitudinal view of disease progression he advocated has important lessons for the study of such symptoms today. A focus on longitudinal progression rather than individual symptoms led to the concept of PD psychosis-a spectrum of positive symptoms in Parkinson's disease. The publication of criteria for PD psychosis in 2007 helped unify the disparate set of symptoms, raising their profile and resulting in a rapid expansion of literature focussing on clinical aspects, mechanisms, and treatment...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802932/anosmia-and-ageusia-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Arjun Tarakad, Joseph Jankovic
Anosmia, the loss of sense of smell, is a common nonmotor feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). Ageusia, the loss of sense of taste, is additionally an underappreciated nonmotor feature of PD. The olfactory tract is involved early in PD as indicated by frequent occurrence of hyposmia or anosmia years or decades before motor symptoms and by autopsy studies showing early synuclein pathology in the olfactory tract and anterior olfactory nucleus even in the early stages of PD. Testing for olfaction consists of evaluation of olfactory thresholds, smell identification and discrimination, and olfactory memory...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802928/nonmotor-subtyping-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Anna Sauerbier, Miguel Rosa-Grilo, Mubasher A Qamar, K Ray Chaudhuri
Nonmotor symptoms are integral to Parkinson's disease. Several subtypes dominated by specific nonmotor symptoms have emerged. In this chapter, the rationale behind nonmotor subtyping and currently proposed nonmotor subgroups within Parkinson's disease based on data-driven cluster analysis and clinical observations will be summarized. Furthermore, the concept of seven clinical nonmotor subtypes will be discussed in detail including the clinical presentation, potential biomarkers, and the clinical relevance. In future, nonmotor subtypes will possibly play a major role within the aim to achieve personalized medicine...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802926/nonmotor-symptoms-and-natural-history-of-parkinson-s-disease-evidence-from-cognitive-dysfunction-and-role-of-noninvasive-interventions
#8
Roberta Biundo, Eleonora Fiorenzato, Angelo Antonini
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by motor and nonmotor symptoms (NMS). Several subsequent studies substantiate the great functional burden related to NMS, their progression, and negative effect on quality of life in PD. Additional evidence indicates interesting relationships between striatal dopaminergic function and NMS. The basal ganglia are implicated in the modulation and integration of sensory information and pain, bladder function is under control of both inhibitory (D1) and facilitatory (D2) dopaminergic inputs, finally reduced dopaminergic activity in the mesocortical and mesolimbic pathways is involved in the development of several NMS including mood, motivational, and cognitive alterations...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802922/biomarkers-of-nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Takuya Konno, Rana Hanna Al-Shaikh, Angela B Deutschländer, Ryan J Uitti
Biomarkers are helpful for early diagnosis, assessment of disorder severity, prognosis, and prediction of response to therapy. Given that early therapeutic intervention may be useful in forestalling or slowing neurodegenerative conditions, employing reliable biomarkers to identify asymptomatic individuals who are destined to develop clinical Parkinson's disease (PD) is critical. Two important observations have been repeatedly found in persons who eventually develop clinical PD: (1) significant neuronal loss occurs in the substantia nigra and (2) the presence of nonmotor symptoms (NMS)...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800113/biomarker-research-in-parkinson-s-disease-using-metabolite-profiling
#10
REVIEW
Jesper F Havelund, Niels H H Heegaard, Nils J K Færgeman, Jan Bert Gramsbergen
Biomarker research in Parkinson's disease (PD) has long been dominated by measuring dopamine metabolites or alpha-synuclein in cerebrospinal fluid. However, these markers do not allow early detection, precise prognosis or monitoring of disease progression. Moreover, PD is now considered a multifactorial disease, which requires a more precise diagnosis and personalized medication to obtain optimal outcome. In recent years, advanced metabolite profiling of body fluids like serum/plasma, CSF or urine, known as "metabolomics", has become a powerful and promising tool to identify novel biomarkers or "metabolic fingerprints" characteristic for PD at various stages of disease...
August 11, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794981/a-test-retest-study-on-parkinson-s-ppmi-dataset-yields-statistically-significant-white-matter-fascicles
#11
Martin Cousineau, Pierre-Marc Jodoin, Félix C Morency, Verena Rozanski, Marilyn Grand'Maison, Barry J Bedell, Maxime Descoteaux
In this work, we propose a diffusion MRI protocol for mining Parkinson's disease diffusion MRI datasets and recover robust disease-specific biomarkers. Using advanced high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) crossing fiber modeling and tractography robust to partial volume effects, we automatically dissected 50 white matter (WM) fascicles. These fascicles connect deep nuclei (thalamus, putamen, pallidum) to different cortical functional areas (associative, motor, sensorimotor, limbic), basal forebrain and substantia nigra...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793971/unlocking-the-mystery-of-biomarkers-a-brief-introduction-challenges-and-opportunities-in-parkinson-disease
#12
Thomas F Tropea, Alice S Chen-Plotkin
First described 200 years ago, Parkinson Disease (PD) exhibits considerable heterogeneity in clinical presentation, as well as trajectory of motor and non-motor decline. This heterogeneity, in turn, complicates the planning of clinical research, particularly trials of disease-modifying therapies, as well as the care of PD patients. While clinical features have been used to delineate subgroups of PD patients, clinical subtyping is hampered by change in features over time, and clinical subtyping may fail to capture the biological processes underlying heterogeneity...
July 22, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792504/common-gene-network-signature-of-different-neurological-disorders-and-their-potential-implications-to-neuroaids
#13
Vidya Sagar, S Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Paola C Martinez, V S R Atluri, M Nair
The neurological complications of AIDS (neuroAIDS) during the infection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are symptomized by non-specific, multifaceted neurological conditions and therefore, defining a specific diagnosis/treatment mechanism(s) for this neuro-complexity at the molecular level remains elusive. Using an in silico based integrated gene network analysis we discovered that HIV infection shares convergent gene networks with each of twelve neurological disorders selected in this study. Importantly, a common gene network was identified among HIV infection, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and age macular degeneration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791585/transcription-factors-potential-cell-death-markers-in-parkinson-s-disease
#14
REVIEW
Ronglin Wang, Shaosong Yang, Tiejian Nie, Gang Zhu, Dayun Feng, Qian Yang
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with a long preclinical phase. The continuous loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons is one of the pathogenic hallmarks of PD. Diagnosis largely depends on clinical observation, but motor dysfunctions do not emerge until 70%-80% of the nigrostriatal nerve terminals have been destroyed. Therefore, a biomarker that indicates the degeneration of DA neurons is urgently needed. Transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins that regulate RNA synthesis from a DNA template...
August 8, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791571/peripheral-lymphocyte-subsets-as-a-marker-of-parkinson-s-disease-in-a-chinese-population
#15
Luan Cen, Chaohao Yang, Shuxuan Huang, Miaomiao Zhou, Xiaolu Tang, Kaiping Li, Wenyuan Guo, Zhuohua Wu, Mingshu Mo, Yousheng Xiao, Xiang Chen, Xinling Yang, Qinhui Huang, Chaojun Chen, Shaogang Qu, Pingyi Xu
In this study, we conducted a clinical analysis of lymphocyte subtypes in 268 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) to assess their clinical impact as a potential marker of advanced PD in Chinese patients. The participants comprised 268 sporadic PD patients and 268 healthy controls. The numbers of natural killer (NK) cells and CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+, and CD19+ lymphocytes from peripheral blood were determined by immunostaining and flow cytometric analysis and the percentages of these CD+ T cells were calculated...
August 8, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789983/impaired-brain-network-architecture-in-newly-diagnosed-parkinson-s-disease-based-on-graph-theoretical-analysis
#16
Jinping Fang, Huimin Chen, Zhentang Cao, Ying Jiang, Lingyan Ma, Huizi Ma, Tao Feng
BACKGROUND: Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) has been applied to investigate topographic structure in Parkinson's disease (PD). Alteration of topographic architecture has been inconsistent in PD AIM: To investigate the network profile of PD using graph theoretical analysis. METHOD: Twenty six newly diagnosed PD and 19 age- and gender- matched healthy controls (HC) were included in our analysis. Small-world profile and topographic profiles (nodal degree, global efficiency, local efficiency, cluster coefficient, shortest path length, betweenness centrality) were measured and compared between groups, with age and gender as covariates...
August 5, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781202/biomarkers-for-cognitive-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Lorraine V Kalia
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive dysfunction is among the most prevalent and debilitating non-motor features of Parkinson's disease (PD). The neuropathological correlates of cognitive dysfunction in PD are being revealed by clinicopathological correlation studies. These findings are fostering the development of candidate biomarkers to facilitate diagnosis of cognitive impairment and dementia, and to predict cognitive decline and onset of dementia in PD. METHODS: A literature review of candidate biomarkers for cognitive dysfunction in PD was performed based on a PubMed search for peer-reviewed articles published from 1997 to June 2017 using the search terms "biomarker", "parkinson", and "dementia"...
July 24, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776303/premotor-diagnosis-of-parkinson-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
Heinz Reichmann
Typical Parkinsonian symptoms consist of bradykinesia plus rigidity and/or resting tremor. Some time later postural instability occurs. Pre-motor symptoms such as hyposmia, constipation, REM sleep behavior disorder and depression may antecede these motor symptoms for years. It would be ideal, if we had a biomarker which would allow to predict who with one or two of these pre-motor symptoms will develop the movement disorder Parkinson's disease (PD). Thus, it is interesting to learn that biopsies of the submandibular gland or colon biopsies may be a means to predict PD, if there is a high amout of abnormally folded alpha-synuclein and phosphorylated alpha-synuclein...
August 3, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769760/implications-of-dna-methylation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#19
REVIEW
Ernesto Miranda-Morales, Karin Meier, Ada Sandoval-Carrillo, José Salas-Pacheco, Paola Vázquez-Cárdenas, Oscar Arias-Carrión
It has been 200 years since Parkinson's disease (PD) was first described, yet many aspects of its etiopathogenesis remain unclear. PD is a progressive and complex neurodegenerative disorder caused by genetic and environmental factors including aging, nutrition, pesticides and exposure to heavy metals. DNA methylation may be altered in response to some of these factors; therefore, it is proposed that epigenetic mechanisms, particularly DNA methylation, can have a fundamental role in gene-environment interactions that are related with PD...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768533/progression-of-pathology-in-pink1-deficient-mouse-brain-from-splicing-via-ubiquitination-er-stress-and-mitophagy-changes-to-neuroinflammation
#20
Sylvia Torres-Odio, Jana Key, Hans-Hermann Hoepken, Júlia Canet-Pons, Lucie Valek, Bastian Roller, Michael Walter, Blas Morales-Gordo, David Meierhofer, Patrick N Harter, Michel Mittelbronn, Irmgard Tegeder, Suzana Gispert, Georg Auburger
BACKGROUND: PINK1 deficiency causes the autosomal recessive PARK6 variant of Parkinson's disease. PINK1 activates ubiquitin by phosphorylation and cooperates with the downstream ubiquitin ligase PARKIN, to exert quality control and control autophagic degradation of mitochondria and of misfolded proteins in all cell types. METHODS: Global transcriptome profiling of mouse brain and neuron cultures were assessed in protein-protein interaction diagrams and by pathway enrichment algorithms...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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