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Biomarker AND parkinson's disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911343/pink1-parkin-and-mitochondrial-quality-control-what-can-we-learn-about-parkinson-s-disease-pathobiology
#1
Dominika Truban, Xu Hou, Thomas R Caulfield, Fabienne C Fiesel, Wolfdieter Springer
The first clinical description of Parkinson's disease (PD) will embrace its two century anniversary in 2017. For the past 30 years, mitochondrial dysfunction has been hypothesized to play a central role in the pathobiology of this devastating neurodegenerative disease. The identifications of mutations in genes encoding PINK1 (PTEN-induced kinase 1) and Parkin (E3 ubiquitin ligase) in familial PD and their functional association with mitochondrial quality control provided further support to this hypothesis. Recent research focused mainly on their key involvement in the clearance of damaged mitochondria, a process known as mitophagy...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908171/automated-detection-of-white-matter-hyperintensities-of-all-sizes-in-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#2
Mohsen Ghafoorian, Nico Karssemeijer, Inge W M van Uden, Frank-Erik de Leeuw, Tom Heskes, Elena Marchiori, Bram Platel
PURPOSE: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are seen on FLAIR-MRI in several neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis, dementia, Parkinsonism, stroke and cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). WMHs are often used as biomarkers for prognosis or disease progression in these diseases, and additionally longitudinal quantification of WMHs is used to evaluate therapeutic strategies. Human readers show considerable disagreement and inconsistency on detection of small lesions. A multitude of automated detection algorithms for WMHs exists, but since most of the current automated approaches are tuned to optimize segmentation performance according to Jaccard or Dice scores, smaller WMHs often go undetected in these approaches...
December 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904575/alpha-synuclein-structure-functions-and-interactions
#3
REVIEW
Fatemeh Nouri Emamzadeh
At present, when a clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is made, serious damage has already been done to nerve cells of the substantia nigra pars compacta. The diagnosis of PD in its earlier stages, before this irreversible damage, would be of enormous benefit for future treatment strategies designed to slow or halt the progression of this disease that possibly prevents accumulation of toxic aggregates. As a molecular biomarker for the detection of PD in its earlier stages, alpha-synuclein (α-syn), which is a key component of Lewy bodies, in which it is found in an aggregated and fibrillar form, has attracted considerable attention...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903331/biomarkers-in-prodromal-parkinson-disease-a-qualitative-review
#4
Christine A Cooper, Lama M Chahine
BACKGROUND: Over the past several years, the concept of prodromal Parkinson disease (PD) has been increasingly recognized. This term refers to individuals who do not fulfill motor diagnostic criteria for PD, but who have clinical, genetic, or biomarker characteristics suggesting risk of developing PD in the future. Clinical diagnosis of prodromal PD has low specificity, prompting the need for objective biomarkers with higher specificity. In this qualitative review, we discuss objectively defined putative biomarkers for PD and prodromal PD...
November 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899296/targeting-the-norepinephrinergic-system-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-related-disorders-the-locus-coeruleus-story
#5
Yannick Vermeiren, Peter P De Deyn
Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) are related, progressive and debilitating neurodegenerative disorders with hallmark features that include a variety of motor and non-motor symptoms (behavioral, autonomic and cognitive dysfunction). For almost half a century, the motor aspects have been attributed to Lewy pathology (LP) predominantly in the substantia nigra (SN), causing a major loss of dopaminergic neurons. However, the relative success of dopaminergic replacement therapies for alleviation of solely the parkinsonian features has prompted researchers to further explore other monoaminergic strategies which may tackle all PD-related aspects...
November 26, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896490/cerebrospinal-fluid-levels-of-neurofilament-light-chain-in-multiple-system-atrophy-relative-to-parkinson-s-disease-a-meta-analysis
#6
Xiaohui Hu, Yan Yang, Daokai Gong
As a biomarker of axonal injury, neurofilament light chain (NFL) in multiple system atrophy (MSA) patients and Parkinson's disease (PD) patients has been investigated by numerous studies. However, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) NFL changes are conflicting in MSA patients relative to PD patients to date. Therefore, the current study was carried out to find out possible heterogeneity sources. Furthermore, "Neurofilament", "Neurofilament light chain" and "Multiple system atrophy" were employed to search "PubMed", "Springer" and "Medline" databases until August 2016 with standard mean difference (Std...
November 28, 2016: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889469/changes-in-neural-circuitry-associated-with-depression-at-pre-clinical-pre-motor-and-early-motor-phases-of-parkinson-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
Janina Borgonovo, Camilo Allende-Castro, Almudena Laliena, Néstor Guerrero, Hernán Silva, Miguel L Concha
Although Parkinson's Disease (PD) is mostly considered a motor disorder, it can present at early stages as a non-motor pathology. Among the non-motor clinical manifestations, depression shows a high prevalence and can be one of the first clinical signs to appear, even a decade before the onset of motor symptoms. Here, we review the evidence of early dysfunction in neural circuitry associated with depression in the context of PD, focusing on pre-clinical, pre-motor and early motor phases of the disease. In the pre-clinical phase, structural and functional changes in the substantia nigra, basal ganglia and limbic structures are already observed...
November 21, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878377/relationship-between-the-plasma-levels-of-neurodegenerative-proteins-and-motor-subtypes-of-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Jian Ding, Jiejin Zhang, Xixi Wang, Li Zhang, Siming Jiang, Yongsheng Yuan, Junyi Li, Lin Zhu, Kezhong Zhang
The aim of our study is to examine the plasma levels of the four kinds of neurodegenerative proteins in plasma: α-syn, T-tau, P-tau181, and Aβ-42 in Parkinson's disease (PD) and to evaluate the relationship between their plasma levels and PD motor subtypes. 84 patients with PD were enrolled in our study, and finally, 73 of them were classified into the tremor-dominant subtype (TD) and the postural instability gait difficulty subtype (PIGD). Their motor performance was evaluated by a series of clinical assessments: Freezing of Gait Questionnaire (FOGQ), Timed Up and Go (TUGs), Tinetti balance, and Tinetti gait...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873359/constipation-in-parkinson-s-disease-subjective-symptoms-objective-markers-and-new-perspectives
#9
REVIEW
Karoline Knudsen, Klaus Krogh, Karen Østergaard, Per Borghammer
Constipation is among the first nonmotor symptoms to develop in the prodromal phase of PD. Pathological alpha-synuclein deposition is present throughout the gastrointestinal tract up to 20 years preceding diagnosis. Nevertheless, constipation in the context of PD remains ill defined and poorly understood. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of subjective symptoms and objective measures of constipation in PD. More than 10 different definitions of constipation have been used in the PD literature, making generalizations difficult...
November 22, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872820/nine-year-experience-in-gaucher-disease-diagnosis-at-the-spanish-reference-center-fundaci%C3%A3-n-jim%C3%A3-nez-d%C3%A3-az
#10
N V Ortiz-Cabrera, J Gallego-Merlo, C Vélez-Monsalve, R de Nicolas, S Fontao Mas, C Ayuso, M J Trujillo-Tiebas
BACKGROUND: Fundación Jiménez Díaz (FJD) is a reference center for genetic diagnosis of Gaucher disease (GD) in Spain. Genetic analyses of acid β-glucosidase (GBA) gene using different techniques were performed to search for new mutations, in addition to those previously and most frequently found in the Spanish population. Additionally, the study of the chitotriosidase (CHIT1) gene was used to assess the inflammatory status of patients in the follow-up of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT)...
December 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866858/clinical-variables-and-biomarkers-in-prediction-of-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-parkinson-s-disease-a-cohort-study
#11
Anette Schrag, Uzma Faisal Siddiqui, Zacharias Anastasiou, Daniel Weintraub, Jonathan M Schott
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease is associated with an increased incidence of cognitive impairment and dementia. Predicting who is at risk of cognitive decline early in the disease course has implications for clinical prognosis and for stratification of participants in clinical trials. We assessed the use of clinical information and biomarkers as predictive factors for cognitive decline in patients with newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease. METHODS: The Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) study is a cohort study in patients with newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease...
November 17, 2016: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859983/imaging-of-nigrosome-1-in-substantia-nigra-at-3t-using-multiecho-susceptibility-map-weighted-imaging-smwi
#12
Yoonho Nam, Sung-Min Gho, Dong-Hyun Kim, Eung Yeop Kim, Jongho Lee
PURPOSE: To enhance the visibility of nigrosome 1 in substantia nigra, which has recently been suggested as an imaging biomarker for Parkinson's disease (PD) at 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The substantia nigra structure was visualized at 3T MRI using multiecho susceptibility map-weighted imaging (SMWI) in 15 healthy volunteers and 6 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The visibility of nigrosome 1 was further enhanced by acquiring data in an oblique-coronal imaging plane at a high spatial resolution (0...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859598/reduction-of-gapdh-in-lenses-of-parkinson-s-disease-patients-a-possible-new-biomarker
#13
Alexa Klettner, Andreas Tholey, Alena Wiegandt, Elisabeth Richert, Bernhard Nölle, Günther Deuschl, Johann Roider, Susanne A Schneider
BACKGROUND: We previously showed that the protein pattern of lenses removed in cataract surgery differs between patients with Parkinson's disease and age-matched controls. In this study, we identified the protein reduced in abundance in the 34- to 37-kDa gel band. METHODS: During cataract surgery (phacoemulsification), we collected the rinsing fluid and lens particles from the eyes of PD patients and controls. Residual lens fragments in the supernatant of 3 PD patients and aged-matched controls were studied for protein profiles using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and Western blots...
November 10, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855513/recent-developments-in-circulating-biomarkers-in-parkinson-s-disease-the-potential-use-of-mirnas-in-a-clinical-setting
#14
Marcia Cristina Teixeira Dos Santos, Rosie Bell, Andre Nogueira da Costa
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, affecting 5% of the elderly population. PD diagnosis is still based on the identification of neuromotor symptoms although nonmotor manifestations emerge years prior to diagnosis. The discovery of biomarkers at the earliest stages of PD is of extreme interest. miRNAs have been considered potential biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases, but only a limited number have been found to be PD related. This review focuses on the current findings in the field of circulating miRNAs in PD and the challenges surrounding clinical utility and validation...
December 2016: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847686/parkinson-disease-and-cognitive-impairment-five-new-things
#15
REVIEW
Albert A Davis, Brad Racette
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: While the distinctive motor symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD) have been described for centuries, cognitive impairment has only recently been recognized as a central feature. Studies have yielded clues to the etiology and natural history of cognitive impairment in PD, but much remains unclear and effective therapies are needed. RECENT FINDINGS: Longitudinal cohort studies demonstrate that almost all patients with PD will develop dementia if they live long enough...
October 2016: Neurology. Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844283/micrornas-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-as-potential-biomarkers-for-parkinson-s-disease-and-multiple-system-atrophy
#16
Tainá M Marques, H Bea Kuiperij, Ilona B Bruinsma, Anouke van Rumund, Marjolein B Aerts, Rianne A J Esselink, Bas R Bloem, Marcel M Verbeek
Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) are both part of the spectrum of neurodegenerative movement disorders and α-synucleinopathies with overlap of symptoms especially at early stages of the disease but with distinct disease progression and responses to dopaminergic treatment. Therefore, having biomarkers that specifically classify patients, which could discriminate PD from MSA, would be very useful. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate protein translation and are observed in biological fluids, including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and may therefore have potential as biomarkers of disease...
November 14, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836833/the-whole-brain-pattern-of-magnetic-susceptibility-perturbations-in-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Julio Acosta-Cabronero, Arturo Cardenas-Blanco, Matthew J Betts, Michaela Butryn, Jose P Valdes-Herrera, Imke Galazky, Peter J Nestor
Although iron-mediated oxidative stress has been proposed as a potential pathomechanism in Parkinson's disease, the global distribution of iron accumulation in Parkinson's disease has not yet been elucidated. This study used a new magnetic resonance imaging contrast, quantitative susceptibility mapping, and state-of-the-art methods to map for the first time the whole-brain landscape of magnetostatic alterations as a surrogate for iron level changes in n = 25 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease versus n = 50 matched controls...
November 11, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836779/contribution-of-cholesterol-and-oxysterols-to-the-pathophysiology-of-parkinson-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
Margaux Doria, Lucie Maugest, Thibault Moreau, Gérard Lizard, Anne Vejux
Neurodegenerative diseases are a major public health issue worldwide. Some countries, including France, have engaged in research into the causes of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis and the management of these patients. It should lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to these diseases including the possible involvement of lipids in their pathogenesis. Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the accumulation of α-synuclein (Lewy bodies)...
November 9, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830492/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-for-the-assessment-of-neurodegenerative-disease
#19
REVIEW
Steve Vucic, Matthew C Kiernan
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive technique that has provided important information about cortical function across an array of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson's disease, and related extrapyramidal disorders. Application of TMS techniques in neurodegenerative diseases has provided important pathophysiological insights, leading to the development of pathogenic and diagnostic biomarkers that could be used in the clinical setting and therapeutic trials...
November 9, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828769/metabolic-biomarkers-and-neurodegeneration-a-pathway-enrichment-analysis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-parkinson-s-disease-and-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#20
Medi Kori, Busra Aydın, Semra Unal, Kazim Yalcin Arga, Dilek Kazan
Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) lack robust diagnostics and prognostic biomarkers. Metabolomics is a postgenomics field that offers fresh insights for biomarkers of common complex as well as rare diseases. Using data on metabolite-disease associations published in the previous decade (2006-2016) in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Web of Science, we identified 101 metabolites as putative biomarkers for these three neurodegenerative diseases...
November 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
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