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Immunohistochemistry for pancreatic neoplasms

David Altree-Tacha, Jillian Tyrrell, Faqian Li
Context .- High-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas and carcinoids can arise in different sites such as lung, gastrointestinal tract, prostate, and skin. Classic neuroendocrine markers such as CD56, synaptophysin, and chromogranin cannot distinguish carcinoids from high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas. Recently, mouse monoclonal mASH1 has been shown to help discriminate carcinoids from high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas in various neoplastic sites. To date, there have been no comprehensive immunohistochemistry studies with mASH1 on nonneuroendocrine neoplasms...
September 15, 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
J A Ramos-Vara, C B Frank, D DuSold, M A Miller
Expression of thyroid transcription factor (TTF)-1 corroborates a thyroid origin of neoplasms. Thyroglobulin and calcitonin immunohistochemistry (IHC) can distinguish between a follicular and C-cell origin of thyroid tumours, respectively. Pax8 (expressed by normal canine thyroid follicular cells) and napsin A (expressed mainly by C-cells) labelling was compared with labelling for TTF-1, thyroglobulin and calcitonin in 114 canine proliferative thyroid lesions. All 81 follicular tumours expressed thyroglobulin and were negative for calcitonin; 79/81 (98%) of these tumours expressed TTF-1 and Pax8 and 60/81 (74%) expressed napsin A...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
Junpei Yamaguchi, Mari Mino-Kenudson, Andrew S Liss, Sanjib Chowdhury, Timothy C Wang, Carlos Fernández-Del Castillo, Keith D Lillemoe, Andrew L Warshaw, Sarah P Thayer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Little is known about the origin of pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN). Pancreatic duct glands (PDGs) are gland-like outpouches budding off the main pancreatic ducts that function as progenitor niche for the ductal epithelium; they express gastric mucins and have characteristics of side-branch IPMN. We investigated whether PDGs are a precursor compartment for IPMN and the role of trefoil factor family 2 (TFF2)- a protein expressed by PDGs and the gastric mucosa that are involved in epithelial repair and tumor suppression...
August 11, 2016: Gastroenterology
Deepika Savant, Lili Lee, Kasturi Das
BACKGROUND: Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas (ITPN) is a rare tumor which was first described in 2009. We report a case with cytologic and histologic findings and discuss the pitfalls in diagnosing this entity on cytology. CASE: An 82-year-old female presented with a pancreatic body mass measuring 3.3 cm. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration showed cells in cohesive clusters with high-grade nuclear atypia. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) showed the neoplastic cells to be positive for CK19, CD56 and chromogranin (focal)...
2016: Acta Cytologica
Aatur D Singhi, Ta-Chiang Liu, Justin L Roncaioli, Dengfeng Cao, Herbert J Zeh, Amer H Zureikat, Allan Tsung, J Wallis Marsh, Kenneth K Lee, Melissa E Hogg, Nathan Bahary, Randall Brand, Kevin M McGrath, Adam Slivka, Kristi L Cressman, Kimberly Fuhrer, Roderick J O'Sullivan
PURPOSE: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with increasing incidence and unpredictable behavior. Whole exome sequencing has identified recurrent mutations in the genes DAXX and ATRX, which correlate with loss of protein expression and alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). Both ALT and DAXX/ATRX loss were initially reported to be associated with a favorable prognosis; however, recent studies suggest the contrary. Our aims were to assess the prevalence and prognostic significance of ALT and DAXX/ATRX in both primary and metastatic PanNETs...
July 12, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Emad M Raddaoui, Majid A Almadi, Abdulrahman M Aljebreen, Faisal A Alsaif, Ahlam A AlShedoukhy, Abed H Al-Lehibi, Khalid A Almohameed, Apostolos V Tsolakis, Mousa A AlAbbadi, Amna R Almutrafi
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of applying a limited panel of immunohistochemical stains on the cellblock preparation from samples obtained by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in the aim of differentiating solid pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPNs) from neuroendocrine tumors (NETs).  METHODS: We retrospectively retrieved all the EUS-FNAs of the pancreas that have a diagnosis of NET or SPN that were performed at 2 tertiary care hospitals in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from May 2004 to December 2014...
July 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
Elettra Merola, Maria Rinzivillo, Noemi Cicchese, Gabriele Capurso, Francesco Panzuto, Gianfranco Delle Fave
Digestive neuroendocrine neoplasms (DNENs) have an incidence of 2.39 per 100,000 inhabitants per year, and a prevalence of 35 cases per 100,000; the gap between these rates is to be referred to the relatively long survival that characterizes the majority of these tumors, which can be thus considered as chronic oncological diseases. Up to 80% of patients are stage IV since the first diagnosis, presenting a 5-yr overall survival rate of 35%-55% and a twice higher mortality than limited disease. DNENs express somatostatin receptors in more than 80% of cases, detected through immunohistochemistry or functional imaging tests (FITs)...
August 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
Heewon A Kwak, Xiuli Liu, Daniela S Allende, Rish K Pai, John Hart, Shu-Yuan Xiao
Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm is considered a precursor lesion to pancreatic adenocarcinoma. These are further classified into four histologic subtypes: gastric, intestinal, pancreatobiliary, and oncocytic. The first aim of this study was to assess the interobserver variability among five gastrointestinal pathologists in diagnosing intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm subtypes by morphology alone. The second aim of the study was to compare intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm subtypes, which received consensus diagnoses (≥80% agreement) with their respective mucin immunoprofiles (MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC6, and CDX2)...
September 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Kazuhiro Yoshida, Takeshi Nagasaka, Yuzo Umeda, Takehiro Tanaka, Keisuke Kimura, Fumitaka Taniguchi, Tomokazu Fuji, Kunitoshi Shigeyasu, Yoshiko Mori, Hiroyuki Yanai, Takahito Yagi, Ajay Goel, Toshiyoshi Fujiwara
PURPOSE: Although limited understanding exists for the presence of specific genetic mutations and aberrantly methylated genes in pancreatobiliary intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs), the fundamental understanding of the dynamics of methylation expansion across CpG dinucleotides in specific gene promoters during carcinogenesis remains unexplored. Expansion of DNA methylation in some gene promoter regions, such as EFEMP1, one of the fibulin family, with tumor progression has been reported in several malignancies...
July 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Summer E Blount, Camilla Cobb, Anwar Sultana Raza
Retroperitoneal mucinous neoplasms are common and have a wide range of differential diagnoses to consider. It is of utmost importance to maintain a multidisciplinary approach when evaluating these lesions. Clinical history, surgical impression and radiographic studies should be obtained and used in conjunction with morphology and immunohistochemistry to help guide the pathologist to the correct diagnosis. We recently encountered a case of a 51-year-old man who presented with an 11.5 cm left-sided retroperitoneal mucinous neoplasm...
April 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Ruyi Hu, Wenming Liu, Xingfeng Qiu, Zhenghe Lin, Yan Xie, Xingya Hong, Reyila Paerhati, Zhongquan Qi, Guohong Zhuang, Zhongchen Liu
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced protein 8 (TIPE) is a recently identified protein that is considered to be associated with various malignancies, including esophageal, breast and pancreatic cancer; however, the importance of TIPE in gastric cancer (GC) remains unknown. Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is expressed in digestive system neoplasms. The expression of DcR3 is regulated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/MAPK kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway...
March 2016: Oncology Letters
Osman Mamat, Yuki Fukumura, Tsuyoshi Saito, Michiko Takahashi, Hiroyuki Mitomi, Jin Kan Sai, Seiji Kawasaki, Takashi Yao
AIMS: Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) differentiate in several histological directions, which are related to their clinical behaviour. Differentiation of IPMNs to the gastric foveolar epithelium/pyloric gland (PG) is well known. However, no study has been conducted regarding fundic gland (FG) differentiation. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of FG differentiation and its relationship with the clinicopathological features of IPMNs, by studying 48 surgically resected IPMN cases consisting of 17 gastric IPMNs, 15 intestinal IPMNs, 10 pancreatobiliary IPMNs, and six oncocytic IPMNs...
October 2016: Histopathology
Goran Hamid Mohammad, S W M Olde Damink, Massimo Malago, Dipok Kumar Dhar, Stephen P Pereira
Pancreatic cancer has a 5-year survival rate of less than 4%. Despite advances in diagnostic technology, pancreatic cancer continues to be diagnosed at a late and incurable stage. Accurate biomarkers for early diagnosis and to predict treatment response are urgently needed. Since alteration of glucose metabolism is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells, we proposed that pyruvate kinase type M2 (M2PK) and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) enzymes could represent novel diagnostic markers and potential therapeutic targets in pancreatic cancer...
2016: PloS One
Wenjie Liang, Shunliang Xu
Previous studies on pancreatic paraganglioma, a rare neoplasm, have primarily reported its ultrasound and routine and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) findings. To our knowledge, we are the first to report the contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequence findings of pancreatic paraganglioma. A male patient, ages 41 years, was admitted to our hospital due to a pancreatic space-occupying lesion that had been present for more than 10 days. The patient had no obvious discomfort...
March 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Megumi Yamaguchi, Toshikatsu Fukuda, Masahiro Nakahara, Mio Amano, Daisuke Takei, Masumi Kawashima, Yusuke Sumi, Hironobu Amano, Shuji Yonehara, Keiji Hanada, Toshio Noriyuki
Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) of the pancreas is a rare tumor. This neoplasm usually arises as a single mass; multicentricity is exceptionally rare. We report the preoperative diagnosis of multicentric SPNs by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). A 32-year-old woman presented to the hospital with a pancreatic tumor that was detected on abdominal echography. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scans revealed a 5-mm low-density mass in the body of the pancreas and a 10-mm mass in the tail of the pancreas...
December 2015: Surgical Case Reports
Tsuneyuki Uchida, Yusuke Yamamoto, Takaaki Ito, Yukiyasu Okamura, Teiichi Sugiura, Katsuhiko Uesaka, Yasuni Nakanuma
We report a case of a 75-year-old man with cystic micropapillary neoplasm of peribiliary glands detected preoperatively by radiologic examination. Enhanced computed tomography showed a low-density mass 2.2 cm in diameter in the right hepatic hilum and a cystic lesion around the common hepatic duct. Under a diagnosis of perihilar cholangiocarcinoma, right hepatectomy with caudate lobectomy and bile duct resection were performed. Pathological examination revealed perihilar cholangiocarcinoma mainly involving the right hepatic duct...
February 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Kensuke Fujii, Toshikatsu Nitta, Hiroshi Kawasaki, Jun Kataoka, Tomo Tominaga, Yoshihiro Inoue, Eiji Kadota, Takashi Ishibashi, Kazuhisa Uchiyama
We herein report a case of anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas arising in an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). A 68-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to our hospital complaining of fatigue. Computed tomography revealed an irregular mass in the pancreatic head, which displayed high-signal intensity on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Accordingly, the patient was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer and underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy. The histopathological findings revealed intraductal papillary proliferative changes involving the main and branch ducts of the pancreatic head...
January 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Sunita M C De Sousa, Koroush S Haghighi, Min Ru Qiu, Jerry R Greenfield, Daniel L T Chen
Herein, we report the first case of concomitant nesidioblastosis, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia. The combination is significant as each of these pathological entities is independently very rare. The patient was a 33-year-old man who presented with symptomatic hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia and no risk factors for pancreatic disease. Abdominal imaging showed an isolated 12 mm pancreatic lesion, whilst selective arterial calcium stimulation testing demonstrated multiple territories of insulin excess...
January 2016: Pancreas
Fadl H Veerankutty, Varghese Yeldho, Shabeer Ali Tu, B Venugopal, Krishnan Sarojam Manoj, C Vidhya
Pancreatic hepatoid carcinoma (HC) is an extremely uncommon neoplasm of pancreas that resembles hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We report a case of incidentally detected pancreatic HC combined with a serous microcystic cystadenoma, in a 47-year-old man, while he was being evaluated for renal calculi. Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) of abdomen revealed a lesion with mild heterogeneous enhancement in the tail of pancreas and another proximal lesion having moderate enhancement, and a calculus in the neck of gallbladder...
October 2015: Hepatobiliary Surgery and Nutrition
Rajib K Gupta, Bill H Xie, Kurt T Patton, Mikhail Lisovsky, Eric Burks, Stephen W Behrman, David Klimstra, Vikram Deshpande
Follicular pancreatitis is a recently described variant of chronic pancreatitis characterized clinically by the formation of a discrete pancreatic mass and histologically by the presence of florid lymphoid aggregates with reactive germinal centers. Our aim was to study the clinical and histologic features of follicular pancreatitis, as well as to critically examine potential overlap with autoimmune pancreatitis. Immunohistochemistry for Bcl-2, CD21, κ and λ light chains as well as IgG4 and IgG were performed...
February 2016: Human Pathology
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