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Tsuyoshi Sasaki, Hitoshi Shitara, Atsushi Yamamoto, Noritaka Hamano, Tsuyoshi Ichinose, Daisuke Shimoyama, Tsutomu Kobayashi, Toshihisa Osawa, Yoshito Tsushima, Kenji Takagishi, Hirotaka Chikuda
BACKGROUND: Supraspinatus muscle atrophy is typically assessed by the occupation ratio of the cross-sectional area of the muscle belly to the supraspinatus fossa at the medial border of the coracoid process in a slice along the oblique-sagittal plane on MRI. Previous studies have shown that the occupation ratio of the supraspinatus changed soon after rotator cuff repair compared with before surgery. However, no studies have examined the perioperative change in the muscle volume assessed with 3-dimensional measurement...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Eun Jung Lee, Jong Chul Han, Changwon Kee
PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between glaucomatous disc hemorrhage (DH) location with respect to the nasal or temporal margin of the retinal nerve fiber layer defect (RNFLD) and the direction of RNFLD widening. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective, cross-sectional study. Patients with any documented episode of glaucomatous DH throughout the follow-up period, and definite RNFLD widening on retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) photos were analyzed...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Masayuki Ishii, Atsushi Shimizu, Alan Kawarai Lefor, Yujirou Kokado, Hideaki Nishigori, Yasuko Noda
PURPOSE: The term "lateral rectal ligament" in surgery for rectal cancer has caused confusion regarding its true existence and contents. In previous studies, investigators claimed the existence of the ligament and described its topographical features as neurovascular structures and their surrounding connective tissues located at the anterolateral aspect of the distal rectum or the posterolateral aspect of the middle rectum. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the structure of the so-called "lateral rectal ligament" in cadaver dissections...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Shelly Arora, Srinivas Sulugodu Ramachandra, Christopher Squier
Introduction: Scientific literature suggests that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection may be associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, knowledge regarding HPV-OSCC link among oral health professionals (OHP) has been insufficient. So, the aim of this study was to assess the knowledge about HPV associated OSCC among OHP working in dental faculties in Malaysia. Methodology: Ethical committee of the University approved this study. A validated, pre-tested questionnaire was sent electronically to 224 OHP...
January 2018: Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research
Norma Oviedo, Leticia Manuel-Apolinar, Sandra Orozco-Suárez, Teresa Juárez-Cedillo, Vilma Carolina Bekker Méndez, Emiliano Tesoro-Cruz
BACKGROUND: Intranasal administration (Int adm) has been well-studied and offers the possibility to deliver larger molecular weight biologics, such as proteins, viral vectors, nanoparticles, and naked plasmids to the brain and treat a variety of diseases in the central nervous system. The predominant challenge in this field is finding efficient vectors that are capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). OBJECTIVES: Here, we investigated whether a naked plasmid (pIRES-hrGFP-1a), could cross the BBB, reach brain cells and express green fluorescent protein (GFP) after int-adm and propose it as candidate for future gene therapy studies...
March 16, 2018: Archives of Medical Research
Mikaela G Howie, Allyson K Jackson, Daniel A Cristol
Mercury (Hg) exposure has been extensively studied in aquatic and piscivorous wildlife, but, historically, less attention has been directed towards terrestrial species. However, it has become apparent that aquatic Hg crosses ecosystem boundaries along with beneficial subsidies, thereby entering the terrestrial food chain. It is still not known how far from contaminated waterways Hg exposure remains a risk. We examined the spatial extent of exposure in terrestrial songbirds breeding in the floodplain along a 40-km stretch of Hg-contaminated river in Virginia, USA...
March 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Kazlin N Mason, John E Riski, Jamie L Perry
OBJECTIVE: Palpation is often used to identify C1, an intraoperative landmark, for placement of the pharyngoplasty. However, little is known about the relationship between the palatal plane (PP) and this cervical spine landmark across select variables. This study seeks to analyze variations in the height of velopharyngeal closure relative to C1 across differing cleft types and age groups. DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional analysis. SETTING: Large, multidisciplinary center for craniofacial disorders...
April 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
Maria José Costa, Jyothirmayee Kudaravalli, Wen-Hui Liu, Jeffrey Stock, Sophanna Kong, Shu-Hui Liu
The development of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies through mouse immunization often originates drug candidates that are not cross-reactive to the mouse ortholog. In such cases, and particularly in oncology, drug efficacy studies are performed on human tumor xenografts or with "surrogate" anti-mouse ortholog antibodies if targeting tumor host cells. Safety assessment of drug candidate(s) is performed at a later development stage in healthy non-human primates. While the latter remains necessary before a drug advances into human subjects, it precludes evaluation of safety in disease conditions and drug de-risking during early development...
2018: PloS One
Marie E Boo, J Craig Garrison, Joseph P Hannon, Kalyssa M Creed, Shiho Goto, Angellyn N Grondin, James M Bothwell
Background: Female patients are more likely to suffer a second anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) and return to sport (RTS) compared with healthy female controls. Few studies have examined the energy absorption contribution (EAC) that could lead to this subsequent injury. Hypothesis: The ACLR group would demonstrate an altered EAC between joints (hip, knee, and ankle) but no difference in quadriceps, hip abduction, or hip external rotation (ER) strength at the time of RTS...
March 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Carl A Johnson, Amber L Melvin, Brandon F Lebow, Amanda Yap, Peter A Knight
Aortic valve replacement through minimally invasive access is increasing. These procedures have several advantages over conventional sternotomy including decreased intensive care unit and hospital length of stay and decreased ventilation time. The right anterior mini-thoracotomy (RAM) approach is potentially attractive in that it completely spares the sternum leading to improved cosmesis, reduced blood loss, and improved patient satisfaction. However, this approach is underutilized due to anticipated technical challenges including difficulty with visualization and annular suture placement...
2018: Journal of Visualized Surgery
Carl A Johnson, Katherine L Wood, Amber L Melvin, Brandon F Lebow, Peter A Knight
Aortic root replacement is typically performed through a median sternotomy. The right anterior mini-thoracotomy approach has been shown to decrease hospital length of stay in aortic valve surgery when compared to sternotomy. This approach is rare in ascending aortic surgery due to technical challenges which include exposure and annular suture placement. Automated suturing technology is now available to facilitate the placement of annular sutures. The use of a camera greatly enhances visualization of the aortic root...
2018: Journal of Visualized Surgery
Hinnerk Schulz-Hildebrandt, Mario Pieper, Charlotte Stehmar, Martin Ahrens, Christian Idel, Barbara Wollenberg, Peter König, Gereon Hüttmann
Intravital microscopy (IVM) offers the opportunity to visualize static and dynamic changes of tissue on a cellular level. It is a valuable tool in research and may considerably improve clinical diagnosis. In contrast to confocal and non-linear microscopy, optical coherence tomography (OCT) with microscopic resolution (mOCT) provides intrinsically cross-sectional imaging. Changing focus position is not needed, which simplifies especially endoscopic imaging. For in-vivo imaging, here we are presenting endo-microscopic OCT (emOCT)...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Boy Braaf, Sabine Donner, Ahhyun S Nam, Brett E Bouma, Benjamin J Vakoc
Complex differential variance (CDV) provides phase-sensitive angiographic imaging for optical coherence tomography (OCT) with immunity to phase-instabilities of the imaging system and small-scale axial bulk motion. However, like all angiographic methods, measurement noise can result in erroneous indications of blood flow that confuse the interpretation of angiographic images. In this paper, a modified CDV algorithm that corrects for this noise-bias is presented. This is achieved by normalizing the CDV signal by analytically derived upper and lower limits...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Fred Feng, Shan Bao, Robert C Hampshire, Michael Delp
This paper demonstrates a unique and promising approach to study driver-bicyclist interactions from a driver's perspective by using in-vehicle sensory data from naturalistic driving studies. A total of 4789 events of drivers overtaking bicyclists were extracted from an existing naturalistic driving study in Michigan, United States. The vehicle lateral placement at the time of passing bicyclists was used as a surrogate safety measure. A number of factors were examined, including the lane marking type, the presence of a bike lane or paved shoulder, the presence of traffic, lane width, and driver distraction...
March 15, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Gunjan Kumar Shrestha, Prabhat Ranjan Pokharel, Rajesh Gyawali, Bhushan Bhattarai, Jamal Giri
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the shapes, sizes, and bridging of the sella turcica in patients with different skeletal patterns and genders. METHODS: It was a cross-sectional comparative study. The samples were divided into three groups according to the skeletal pattern viz. Class I, Class II and Class III, and each group consisted of 40 samples (20 males and 20 females). The lateral cephalograms were traced and the sella turcica was assessed for its size, shape, and bridging...
March 16, 2018: BMC Oral Health
Pedro A Vázquez, Alberto T Pérez, Philippe Traoré, Jian Wu
We study the linear stability and nonlinear behavior of the electroconvection between two concentric half-cylinders with no-slip conditions on all boundaries. The no-slip condition makes impossible to apply the standard modal approach. Hence, we apply a finite element technique similar to the one we have used in a previous paper about the electroconvection in a rectangular enclosed domain. When compared to the classical problem of electroconvection between two full concentric cylinders, the linear criterion is higher, due to the viscous shear introduced by the lateral walls...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Maria J Gonzalez-Moa, Bieke Van Dorst, Ole Lagatie, Ann Verheyen, Lieven Stuyver, Marco A Biamonte
Three O. volvulus immunogenic peptide sequences recently discovered by peptide microarray were adapted to a lateral flow assay (LFA). The LFA employs gold nanoshells as novel high-contrast reporter nanoparticles and detects a serological response against the 3 peptides, found in OvOC9384, OvOC198, and OvOC5528, respectively. When tested on 118 sera from O. volvulus infected patients and 208 control sera, the LFA was 90, 63, and 98% sensitive for each peptide, respectively, and 99-100% specific vs. samples from healthy volunteers...
March 16, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Ruchi Singh, Jagdish C Suri, Renuka Sharma, Tejas Suri, Tulsi Adhikari
OBJECTIVES: To examine the sleep pattern and observe differences in sleep routines, phase preferences, mood, attendance, and academic performance among different adolescent age students. Secondly, to observe the age at which sleep phase transition and changes in sleep requirement become evident. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 501 students (aged 11-15 y) of a school in Delhi, India. Students were evaluated for their sleep patterns, sleep duration, habits of napping, quality of sleep, sleepiness, depression, phase preferences by self-reported school sleep habits survey questionnaire along with school performance and attendance...
March 16, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Jef L Leroy, Deanna Olney, Marie Ruel
Background: Food-assisted maternal and child health and nutrition (FA-MCHN) programs are widely used to address undernutrition, but little is known about their effectiveness in improving child linear growth. Objective: We assessed the impact of Burundi's Tubaramure FA-MCHN program on linear growth. The program targeted women and their children during the first 1000 d and included 1) food rations, 2) strengthening of health services and promotion of their use, and 3) behavior change communication (BCC)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Anna Timperio, David Crawford, Rebecca M Leech, Karen E Lamb, Kylie Ball
This study examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between typologies of neighbourhood food environment and dietary patterns among 10-12 year-old children. Baseline data were collected in 2002/3 and follow-up data in 2006 from children in Melbourne or Geelong. Parents completed a food frequency questionnaire at both time points. 'Healthful' and 'energy-dense' dietary pattern scores were computed. A Geographic Information System was used to determine the presence or absence of food outlets (cafés/restaurant; fast food; supermarkets/grocery stores; convenience store; greengrocer; and butcher, seafood or poultry retailer) within an 800 m road network buffer of home...
March 12, 2018: Preventive Medicine
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