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Fetal cerebral artery

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898024/perinatal-arterial-ischemic-stroke-is-associated-to-materno-fetal-immune-activation-and-intracranial-arteritis
#1
Clémence Guiraut, Nicole Cauchon, Martin Lepage, Guillaume Sébire
The medium-size intra-cranial arteries arising from the carotid bifurcation are prone to perinatal arterial ischemic strokes (PAIS). PAIS' physiopathology needs to be better understood to develop preventive and therapeutic interventions that are currently missing. We hypothesized that materno-fetal inflammation leads to a vasculitis affecting selectively the carotidian tree and promoting a focal thrombosis and subsequent stroke. Dams were injected with saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873370/the-magnitude-of-change-in-the-fetal-cerebroplacental-ratio-in-the-third-trimester-and-the-risk-of-adverse-pregnancy-outcome
#2
Christopher Flatley, Ristan M Greer, Sailesh Kumar
OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to evaluate if the magnitude of change in the cerebro-placental ratio (CPR) after 30 weeks gestation was better predictive of adverse pregnancy outcome compared to a single measurement at 35-37 weeks. A secondary aim was to evaluate whether the utility of CPR measured at 35-37 weeks was enhanced after adjusting for the gestational change. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of women who had had at least two ultrasound scans between 30-37 weeks gestation with the final scan taking place at 35-37 weeks...
November 22, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863915/prenatal-ultrasound-monitoring-of-homozygous-%C3%AE-0-thalassemia-induced-fetal-anemia
#3
REVIEW
Helena H L Lee, Annisa S L Mak, C F Poon, K Y Leung
A noninvasive approach by serial ultrasound examination at 12-15, 18, and 30 weeks of gestation can be used to exclude homozygous α(0)-thalassemia-induced fetal anemia. At 12-15 weeks of gestation, the predictive values for the fetal cardio-thoracic ratio were better than that for the placental thickness. At 16-20 weeks of gestation, measuring middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity is associated with a low false-positive rate. However, the false-positive rate of this noninvasive approach can be about 3%, requiring an invasive test to confirm the diagnosis...
October 26, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831924/transient-fetal-blood-redistribution-associated-with-maternal-supine-position
#4
Karina P Silva, Tatiana Emy N K Hamamoto, Roseli M Y Nomura
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether fetal blood circulation is influenced by the maternal supine position. METHODS: The inclusion criteria were good health, a singleton pregnancy, maternal age between 18 and 40 years, gestational age between 36 and 40 weeks, and an agreement to participate in the study. Each participant (n=20) was initially asked to adopt the left lateral position for 5 min, while fetal Doppler measurements were taken of the fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA), umbilical artery (UA), and umbilical vein (UV)...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827796/effect-of-body-position-and-ventilation-on-umbilical-artery-and-venous-blood-flows-during-delayed-umbilical-cord-clamping-in-preterm-lambs
#5
Stuart B Hooper, Kelly J Crossley, Valerie A Zahra, Jeroen van Vonderen, Alison Moxham, Andrew W Gill, Martin Kluckow, Arjan B Te Pas, Euan M Wallace, Graeme R Polglase
OBJECTIVE: While delayed umbilical cord clamping (UCC) is thought to facilitate placental to infant blood transfusion, the physiological factors regulating flow in the umbilical arteries and veins during delayed UCC is unknown. We investigated the effects of gravity, by changing fetal height relative to the placenta, and ventilation on umbilical blood flows and the cardiovascular transition during delayed UCC at birth. METHODS: Catheters and flow probes were implanted into preterm lambs (128 days) prior to delivery to measure pulmonary, carotid, umbilical artery (UaBF) and umbilical venous (UvBF) blood flows...
November 8, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825404/comparsion-between-intravenous-delivered-human-fetal-bone-marrow-br-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-and-mononuclear-cells-in-br-the-treatment-of-rat-cerebral-infarct
#6
Ai-Hua Huang, Ping-Ping Zhang, Bin Zhang, Bu-Qing Ma, Yun-Qian Guan, Yi-Dan Zhou
Objective To compare the effecacy of human mesenchymal stromal cell (hMSC) with human mononuclear cell (hMNC) in treating rat cerebral infarct.Methods The SD rat models of cerebral infarct were established by distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO). Rats were divided into four groups: sham,ischemia vehicle,MSC,and MNC transplantation groups. For the transplantation group,1×10(6) hMSCs or hMNCs were intravascularly transplanted into the tail vein 1 hour after the ischemia onset. The ischemia vehicle group received dMCAO surgery and intravascular saline injection 1,3,5,and 7 days after the ischemia onset,and then behavioral tests were performed...
October 10, 2016: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805787/cerebral-haemodynamic-response-to-somatosensory-stimulation-in-near-term-fetal-sheep
#7
S Nakamura, D W Walker, F Y Wong
Functional hyperaemia induced by a localised increase in neuronal activity has been suggested to occur in the fetal brain from positive blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal recorded by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) following acoustic stimulation. To study the effect of somatosensory input on local cerebral perfusion we used Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in anaesthetized, partially exteriorized fetal sheep where the median nerve was stimulated with trains of pulses (2 ms, 3.3 Hz) for durations of 1...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777190/-correlation-analysis-of-fetal-middle-cerebral-artery-peak-systolic-velocity-cardiothoracic-ratio-and-crown-rump-length-in-early-pregnancy
#8
Xu-Jie Deng, Cui-Hua Chen, Yu-Wen Qiu, Shu-Fang Xiao, Shu-Xin Liao, Mei Zhong, Fang Yang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the pattern of variations in middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity (MCA PSV) and cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) during early pregnancy, establish their reference ranges and explore their correlation with the crown-rump length (CRL). METHODS: A total of 522 pregnant women with normal findings in antenatal examinations underwent routine color Doppler ultrasound examination to collect the data of MCA PSV, CTR and CRL. The reference ranges of MCA PSV and CTR for different CRL levels were established, and the correlation of MCA PSV and CTR with CRL was analyzed...
October 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687767/perspectives-in-neonatal-and-childhood-arterial-ischemic-stroke
#9
J Fluss, M Dinomais, M Kossorotoff, C Vuillerot, S Darteyre, S Chabrier
Over the last decade considerable advances have been made in the identification, understanding and management of pediatric arterial ischemic stroke. Such increasing knowledge has also brought new perspectives and interrogations in the current acute and rehabilitative care of these patients. Areas covered: In developed countries, focal cerebral arteriopathy is one of the most common causes of arterial ischemic stroke in childhood and imaging features are well characterized. However, there are ongoing debates regarding its underlying mechanisms, natural evolution and proper management...
October 12, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686733/hydrops-fetalis-associated-with-compound-heterozygosity-for-hb-zurich-albisrieden-hba2-c-178g%C3%A2-%C3%A2-c-and-the-southeast-asian-sea-deletion
#10
Xin Yang, Jin-Mei Yan, Jian Li, Xing-Mei Xie, Jian-Ying Zhou, Yan Li, Dong-Zhi Li
Hb Zurich-Albisrieden [HBA2: c.178G > C; α59(E8)Gly→Arg (α2)] is a rare nondeletional α-thalassemia (α-thal) that results from a nucleotide substitution at codon 59 of the α2-globin gene. In this report, we present a fetus with cardiomegaly, enlarged placenta and increased middle cerebral artery-peak systolic velocity (MCA-PSV) at 25 weeks' gestation. Fetal blood sampling revealed the severe anemia [hemoglobin (Hb) level being 5.5 g/dL] and Hb H (β4) disease-like hematological findings with Hb Bart's (γ4) level of 30...
September 30, 2016: Hemoglobin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679444/development-of-mechanical-and-failure-properties-in-sheep-cerebral-arteries
#11
Kevin S Nye, Matthew I Converse, Mar Janna Dahl, Kurt H Albertine, Kenneth L Monson
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating problem for people of all ages, but the nature of the response to such injury is often different in children than in adults. Cerebral vessel damage and dysfunction are common following TBI, but age-dependent, large-deformation vessel response has not been characterized. Our objective was to investigate the mechanical properties of cerebral arteries as a function of development. Sheep middle cerebral arteries from four age groups (fetal, newborn, juvenile, and adult) were subjected to biaxial loading around physiological conditions and then to failure in the axial direction...
September 27, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671884/development-of-de-novo-arteriovenous-malformation-following-ischemic-stroke-case-report-and-review-of-current-literature
#12
Aqueel H Pabaney, Richard A Rammo, Rizwan A Tahir, Donald Seyfried
BACKGROUND: Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are hypothesized to be static, congenital lesions developing as early as 4 weeks of fetal life. New literature has shown that AVMs may represent dynamic and reactive vascular lesions arising from cerebral infarction, inflammation, or trauma. A literature search reveals 17 previously reported cases of new AVM formation after previous negative imaging studies. This reactive development or "second hit" theory suggests that at a molecular level, growth factors may play a vital role in aberrant angiogenesis and maturation of an arteriovenous fistula into an AVM...
September 23, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660767/fetal-type-variants-of-the-posterior-cerebral-artery-and-concurrent-infarction-in-the-major-arterial-territories-of-the-cerebral-hemisphere
#13
Stephen L Lambert, Frank J Williams, Zhora Z Oganisyan, Lionel A Branch, Edward C Mader
Fetal-type or fetal posterior cerebral artery (FPCA) is a variant of cerebrovascular anatomy in which the distal posterior cerebral artery (PCA) territory is perfused by a branch of the internal carotid artery (ICA). In the presence of FPCA, thromboembolism in the anterior circulation may result in paradoxical PCA territory infarction with or without concomitant infarction in the territories of the middle (MCA) or the anterior (ACA) cerebral artery. We describe 2 cases of FPCA and concurrent acute infarction in the PCA and ICA territories-right PCA and MCA in Patient 1 and left PCA, MCA, and ACA in Patient 2...
July 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651594/which-is-superior-doppler-velocimetry-or-non-stress-test-or-both-in-predicting-the-perinatal-outcome-of-high-risk-pregnancies
#14
Vijaya Subramanian, Janani Venkat, Mohana Dhanapal
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To analyze which is superior, Doppler velocimetry or non-stress test or both by means of categorization into four groups and comparing the prediction of perinatal outcome in high-risk pregnancies like anemia, hypertensive disorders of pregnancies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISO KGH, Madras Medical College, Chennai, in the year 2014. Two hundred high-risk pregnancies like anemia, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were included in the study...
October 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619545/longitudinal-analysis-of-head-and-somatic-growth-in-fetuses-with-congenital-heart-defects
#15
Sifa Turan, Joshua I Rosenbloom, Mostafa Hussein, Christoph Berg, Ulrich Gembruch, Ahmet A Baschat, Ozhan M Turan
PURPOSE: Fetal head and somatic growth dynamics differs in fetuses with congenital heart defects (CHD). We longitudinally characterized fetal head and somatic growth in relation to the type of CHD. METHODS: Four hundred eleven exams from isolated CHD were compared with 1,219 controls. Head and somatic growth was assessed using head circumference (HC), brain volume (BrV = 1/6 × π × (HC/π)3)/2), fetal cephalization index (FCI = BrV/[estimated fetal weight]), and growth percentile...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569240/fetal-hemodynamics-and-fetal-growth-indices-by-ultrasound-in-late-pregnancy-and-birth-weight-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#16
Fang Liu, Yong Liu, Ya-Ping Lai, Xiao-Ning Gu, Dong-Mei Liu, Min Yang
BACKGROUND: The offspring of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are prone to macrosomia. However, birth weight is difficult to be correctly estimated by ultrasound because of fetal asymmetric growth characteristics. This study aimed to investigate the correlations between fetal hemodynamics, fetal growth indices in late pregnancy, and birth weight in GDM. METHODS: A total of 147 women with GDM and 124 normal controls (NC) were enrolled in this study...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538552/maternal-and-fetal-doppler-velocimetry-in-women-diagnosed-with-fear-of-childbirth
#17
A N Aksoy, F Aydin, S K Kucur, I Gözükara
AIM: This study aimed to investigate maternal and fetal Doppler flow parameters in term pregnant women diagnosed with fear of childbirth (FOC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women between 20 and 40 years with full-term singleton pregnancies (≥37 gestational weeks) were included in the study. All patients were questioned with Turkish form of Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ) version A. Women with W-DEQ scores ≥85 were defined as FOC. Forty women diagnosed with FOC (FOC group) and 45 women with W-DEQ scores <85 (control group) underwent Doppler waveform analysis and the pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI) values for uterine, umbilical, and mid cerebral arteries were recorded...
September 2016: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533115/the-effect-of-intraumbilical-fetal-nutrition-via-a-subcutaneously-implanted-port-system-on-amino-acid-concentration-by-severe-iugr-human-fetuses
#18
Michael Tchirikov, Zhaxybay Sh Zhumadilov, Gauri Bapayeva, Michael Bergner, Michael Entezami
OBJECTIVE: To determine if intrauterine intraumbilical supplementation with amino acids (AA) and glucose can improve neonatal outcome of severe growth restricted human fetuses (IUGR). METHODS: Prospective pilot study of intrauterine treatment of severe IUGR fetuses [n=14, 27 weeks of gestation (range 23-31)] with cerebroplacental ratio <1, with long-term intraumbilical AA and glucose supplementation (10% of feto-placental blood volume/day) using a perinatal port system alone (n=5) or combined with hyperbaric oxygenation (n=1, HBO) vs...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533101/brain-volume-and-doppler-velocimetry-in-growth-restricted-small-for-gestational-age-and-appropriate-for-gestational-age-fetuses
#19
Hala A E Wahab Abdel Latif, Hassan Mostafa Gaafar, Ghada Abdel Fattah Abdel Moety, Doaa Salah Eldin Mahmoud, Nihal Mohamed El Rifai
Objectives This study aims to detect possible differences in fetal brain volumes between growth-restricted fetuses (FGR), small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetuses with normal Doppler indices, and appropriate-for-gestational-age fetuses (AGA). Study Design Three-dimensional measurements of fetal brain volume and umbilical artery and middle cerebral artery (MCA) pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI) were made in 80 AGA fetuses, 68 SGA fetuses with normal Doppler indices, and 68 FGR with brain-sparing effect between 32 and 36 weeks of gestation...
August 17, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27532633/influence-of-vascular-variant-of-the-posterior-cerebral-artery-pca-on-cerebral-blood-flow-vascular-response-to-co2-and-static-functional-connectivity
#20
Kirsten Emmert, Daniela Zöller, Maria Giulia Preti, Dimitri Van De Ville, Panteleimon Giannakopoulos, Sven Haller
INTRODUCTION: The fetal origin of the posterior cerebral artery (fPCA) is a frequent vascular variant in 11-29% of the population. For the fPCA, blood flow in the PCA originates from the anterior instead of the posterior circulation. We tested whether this blood supply variant impacts the cerebral blood flow assessed by arterial spin labeling (ASL), cerebrovascular reserve as well as resting-state static functional connectivity (sFC) in the sense of a systematic confound. METHODS: The study included 385 healthy, elderly subjects (mean age: 74...
2016: PloS One
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