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Fetal cerebral artery

J Fluss, M Dinomais, M Kossotoroff, C Vuillerot, S Darteyre, S Chabrier
Over the last decade considerable advances have been made in the identification, understanding and management of pediatric arterial ischemic stroke. Such increasing knowledge has also brought new perspectives and interrogations in the current acute and rehabilitative care of these patients. Areas covered: In developed countries, focal cerebral arteriopathy is one of the most common causes of arterial ischemic stroke in childhood and imaging features are well characterized. However, there are ongoing debates regarding its underlying mechanisms, natural evolution and proper management...
October 12, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Xin Yang, Jin-Mei Yan, Jian Li, Xing-Mei Xie, Jian-Ying Zhou, Yan Li, Dong-Zhi Li
Hb Zurich-Albisrieden [HBA2: c.178G > C; α59(E8)Gly→Arg (α2)] is a rare nondeletional α-thalassemia (α-thal) that results from a nucleotide substitution at codon 59 of the α2-globin gene. In this report, we present a fetus with cardiomegaly, enlarged placenta and increased middle cerebral artery-peak systolic velocity (MCA-PSV) at 25 weeks' gestation. Fetal blood sampling revealed the severe anemia [hemoglobin (Hb) level being 5.5 g/dL] and Hb H (β4) disease-like hematological findings with Hb Bart's (γ4) level of 30...
September 30, 2016: Hemoglobin
Kevin S Nye, Matthew I Converse, Mar Janna Dahl, Kurt H Albertine, Kenneth L Monson
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating problem for people of all ages, but the nature of the response to such injury is often different in children than in adults. Cerebral vessel damage and dysfunction are common following TBI, but age-dependent, large-deformation vessel response has not been characterized. Our objective was to investigate the mechanical properties of cerebral arteries as a function of development. Sheep middle cerebral arteries from four age groups (fetal, newborn, juvenile, and adult) were subjected to biaxial loading around physiological conditions and then to failure in the axial direction...
September 27, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Aqueel H Pabaney, Richard A Rammo, Rizwan A Tahir, Donald Seyfried
BACKGROUND: Arteriovenous Malformations (AVMs) are hypothesized to be static, congenital lesions developing as early as 4 weeks of fetal life. New literature has shown that AVMs may represent dynamic and reactive vascular lesions arising from cerebral infarction, inflammation, or trauma. A literature search reveals 17 previously reported cases of new AVM formation after previous negative imaging studies. This reactive development or "second hit" theory suggests that at a molecular level, growth factors may play a vital role in aberrant angiogenesis and maturation of an arterio-venous fistula into an AVM...
September 23, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Stephen L Lambert, Frank J Williams, Zhora Z Oganisyan, Lionel A Branch, Edward C Mader
Fetal-type or fetal posterior cerebral artery (FPCA) is a variant of cerebrovascular anatomy in which the distal posterior cerebral artery (PCA) territory is perfused by a branch of the internal carotid artery (ICA). In the presence of FPCA, thromboembolism in the anterior circulation may result in paradoxical PCA territory infarction with or without concomitant infarction in the territories of the middle (MCA) or the anterior (ACA) cerebral artery. We describe 2 cases of FPCA and concurrent acute infarction in the PCA and ICA territories-right PCA and MCA in Patient 1 and left PCA, MCA, and ACA in Patient 2...
July 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
Vijaya Subramanian, Janani Venkat, Mohana Dhanapal
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To analyze which is superior, Doppler velocimetry or non-stress test or both by means of categorization into four groups and comparing the prediction of perinatal outcome in high-risk pregnancies like anemia, hypertensive disorders of pregnancies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISO KGH, Madras Medical College, Chennai, in the year 2014. Two hundred high-risk pregnancies like anemia, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were included in the study...
October 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
Sifa Turan, Joshua I Rosenbloom, Mostafa Hussein, Christoph Berg, Ulrich Gembruch, Ahmet A Baschat, Ozhan M Turan
PURPOSE: Fetal head and somatic growth dynamics differs in fetuses with congenital heart defects (CHD). We longitudinally characterized fetal head and somatic growth in relation to the type of CHD. METHODS: Four hundred eleven exams from isolated CHD were compared with 1,219 controls. Head and somatic growth was assessed using head circumference (HC), brain volume (BrV = 1/6 × π × (HC/π)3)/2), fetal cephalization index (FCI = BrV/[estimated fetal weight]), and growth percentile...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
Fang Liu, Yong Liu, Ya-Ping Lai, Xiao-Ning Gu, Dong-Mei Liu, Min Yang
BACKGROUND: The offspring of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are prone to macrosomia. However, birth weight is difficult to be correctly estimated by ultrasound because of fetal asymmetric growth characteristics. This study aimed to investigate the correlations between fetal hemodynamics, fetal growth indices in late pregnancy, and birth weight in GDM. METHODS: A total of 147 women with GDM and 124 normal controls (NC) were enrolled in this study...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
A N Aksoy, F Aydin, S K Kucur, I Gözükara
AIM: This study aimed to investigate maternal and fetal Doppler flow parameters in term pregnant women diagnosed with fear of childbirth (FOC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women between 20 and 40 years with full-term singleton pregnancies (≥37 gestational weeks) were included in the study. All patients were questioned with Turkish form of Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ) version A. Women with W-DEQ scores ≥85 were defined as FOC. Forty women diagnosed with FOC (FOC group) and 45 women with W-DEQ scores <85 (control group) underwent Doppler waveform analysis and the pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI) values for uterine, umbilical, and mid cerebral arteries were recorded...
September 2016: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Michael Tchirikov, Zhaxybay Sh Zhumadilov, Gauri Bapayeva, Michael Bergner, Michael Entezami
OBJECTIVE: To determine if intrauterine intraumbilical supplementation with amino acids (AA) and glucose can improve neonatal outcome of severe growth restricted human fetuses (IUGR). METHODS: Prospective pilot study of intrauterine treatment of severe IUGR fetuses [n=14, 27 weeks of gestation (range 23-31)] with cerebroplacental ratio <1, with long-term intraumbilical AA and glucose supplementation (10% of feto-placental blood volume/day) using a perinatal port system alone (n=5) or combined with hyperbaric oxygenation (n=1, HBO) vs...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Hala A E Wahab Abdel Latif, Hassan Mostafa Gaafar, Ghada Abdel Fattah Abdel Moety, Doaa Salah Eldin Mahmoud, Nihal Mohamed El Rifai
Objectives This study aims to detect possible differences in fetal brain volumes between growth-restricted fetuses (FGR), small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetuses with normal Doppler indices, and appropriate-for-gestational-age fetuses (AGA). Study Design Three-dimensional measurements of fetal brain volume and umbilical artery and middle cerebral artery (MCA) pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI) were made in 80 AGA fetuses, 68 SGA fetuses with normal Doppler indices, and 68 FGR with brain-sparing effect between 32 and 36 weeks of gestation...
August 17, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Kirsten Emmert, Daniela Zöller, Maria Giulia Preti, Dimitri Van De Ville, Panteleimon Giannakopoulos, Sven Haller
INTRODUCTION: The fetal origin of the posterior cerebral artery (fPCA) is a frequent vascular variant in 11-29% of the population. For the fPCA, blood flow in the PCA originates from the anterior instead of the posterior circulation. We tested whether this blood supply variant impacts the cerebral blood flow assessed by arterial spin labeling (ASL), cerebrovascular reserve as well as resting-state static functional connectivity (sFC) in the sense of a systematic confound. METHODS: The study included 385 healthy, elderly subjects (mean age: 74...
2016: PloS One
Hideaki Matsumura, Noriyuki Kato, Yusuke Fujiwara, Hisayuki Hosoo, Tomosato Yamazaki, Susumu Yasuda, Akira Matsumura
We present a retrospective analysis of endovascular treatments for posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysms and discuss the susceptibility of a fetal-type PCA to vascular insufficiency after parent artery occlusion. Among 1207 aneurysms treated with endovascular therapy between March 1997 and March 2013 in our institution, 10 patients (0.8%) presented PCA aneurysms. The principal strategy was to employ selective coil embolization for the aneurysm. However, in certain cases of fusiform or dissecting aneurysms, we performed parent artery occlusion with coils...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Lut Geerts, Elrike Van der Merwe, Anneke Theron, Kerry Rademan
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of abnormal multi-vessel Doppler values among advanced pregnancies at risk of suboptimal placentation but with a normal umbilical artery resistance index (RI), and to assess whether clinical and ultrasonography findings can identify them. METHODS: In a prospective cross-sectional study at Tygerberg Hospital, South Africa, women with high-risk pregnancies but normal umbilical artery RI after 32weeks underwent ultrasonography (fetal biometry, liquor, and placenta maturation) and Doppler assessment (uterine, umbilical, and middle cerebral arteries) between February 11 and October 21, 2013...
October 2016: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Franz Bahlmann, Ammar Al Naimi, Manfred Ossendorf, Monica Schmidt-Fittschen, Arne Willruth
BACKGROUND: Erythropoietin seems to play an important role in the regulation of fetal hypoxemia. The present prospective study was designed to determine if changes in erythropoietin levels can be found in fetuses with severe early-onset growth restriction and hemodynamic compromise. METHODS AND RESULTS: Erythropoietin, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet counts, normoblasts, lacate, arterial and venous blood gasses in the umbilical cord were determined in 42 fetuses with fetal growth restriction (IUGR) with absent (zero-flow) and 26 IUGR fetuses with retrograde end-diastolic flow (reverse-flow) in the umbilical artery...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Alberto Borges Peixoto, Taciana Mara Rodrigues da Cunha Caldas, Tácito Augusto Godoy Silva, Mário Sérgio Silva Gomes Caetano, Wellington P Martins, Eduardo Felix Martins Santana, Edward Araujo Júnior
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate ultrasound and Doppler parameters in the third trimester of pregnancy as possible predictors of adverse perinatal outcome in unselected pregnancies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study including unselected pregnant women be-tween 27 and 36 + 6 weeks of gestation. The following ultrasound and Doppler parameters were assessed: estimated fetal weight (EFW) [g], EFW percentile, placental maturity grade (Grannum classification), single vertical deepest pocket (SVDP) of amniotic fluid [cm], amniotic fluid index (AFI) [cm], mean uterine artery (UtA) pulsatility index (PI), umbilical artery (UA) PI, middle cerebral artery (MCA) PI, MCA peak systolic velocity (PSV) [cm/s], and cerebroplacental ratio (CPR)...
2016: Ginekologia Polska
U O Ulu, B E Udoh, K K Agwu
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this prospective cross sectional study are (i) to establish new reference values of peak systolic blood flow velocity measurement in the fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA-PSV) following validated methodological guidelines (ii) to correlat peak systolic velocity with gestational age and (iii) to establish regression prediction model of MCA-PSV for our population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional data were obtained from 480 low risk pregnant women and cross validated by 120 high risk pregnant women between 12 and 41 weeks' gestation...
October 2015: Nigerian Journal of Medicine: Journal of the National Association of Resident Doctors of Nigeria
José Morales-Roselló, Asma Khalil, Farida Akhoundova, Silvia Salvi, Maddalena Morlando, Janani Sivanathan, José Alberola-Rubio, David Hervas-Marín, Victoria Fornés-Ferrer, Alfredo Perales-Marín, Basky Thilaganathan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether changes in the cerebroplacental Doppler and birth weight (BW) suggestive of chronic fetal hypoxemia, precede the development of late-onset placental abruption (PA) after 32 weeks. METHODS: In a multicenter retrospective study, the Doppler examinations of the fetal umbilical artery (UA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) recorded after 32 weeks were collected in pregnancies subsequently developing PA. The BW centiles were calculated and the MCA pulsatility indices (PI), and UA PI were converted into multiples of the median (MoM)...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Bikei Ryu, Hidenori Anami, Tatsuya Ishikawa, Tatsuya Inoue, Makoto Sugiura, Takakazu Kawamata
Primitive arteries are persistent fetal anastomoses between the carotid and vertebral-basilar circulation. Although rare, persistent primitive arteries can remain at birth. A 73-year-old woman presented with cerebral infarction to the posterior circulation caused by symptomatic common carotid artery stenosis with an unnamed and extremely rare persistent primitive artery. This anomalous vessel branched from the extracranial internal carotid artery and passed through the ipsilateral jugular foramen into the posterior cranial fossa and merged into the basilar artery...
October 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
J S Possomato-Vieira, R A Khalil
Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-related disorder characterized by hypertension and could lead to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Although the causative factors and pathophysiological mechanisms are unclear, endothelial dysfunction is a major hallmark of preeclampsia. Clinical tests and experimental research have suggested that generalized endotheliosis in the systemic, renal, cerebral, and hepatic circulation could decrease endothelium-derived vasodilators such as nitric oxide, prostacyclin, and hyperpolarization factor and increase vasoconstrictors such as endothelin-1 and thromboxane A2, leading to increased vasoconstriction, hypertension, and other manifestation of preeclampsia...
2016: Advances in Pharmacology
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