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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081227/diagnostic-accuracy-of-genexpert-mtb-rif-assay-in-comparison-to-conventional-drug-susceptibility-testing-method-for-the-diagnosis-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#1
Pratikshya Pandey, Narayan Dutt Pant, Komal Raj Rijal, Bhawana Shrestha, Sirita Kattel, Megha Raj Banjara, Bhagwan Maharjan, Rajendra Kc
Xpert MTB/RIF assay is regarded as a great achievement of modern medicine for the rapid diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The main purpose of this study was to determine the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF assay compared to conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST) method for the diagnosis of MDR-TB. A comparative cross sectional study was carried out at German-Nepal Tuberculosis Project, Kathmandu, Nepal, from April 2014 to September 2014. A total of 88 culture positive clinical samples (83 pulmonary and 5 extra-pulmonary) received during the study period were analyzed for detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis by both GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay and conventional DST method...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065208/mental-health-and-psychosocial-problems-in-the-aftermath-of-the-nepal-earthquakes-findings-from-a-representative-cluster-sample-survey
#2
J C Kane, N P Luitel, M J D Jordans, B A Kohrt, I Weissbecker, W A Tol
AIMS: Two large earthquakes in 2015 caused widespread destruction in Nepal. This study aimed to examine frequency of common mental health and psychosocial problems and their correlates following the earthquakes. METHODS: A stratified multi-stage cluster sampling design was employed to randomly select 513 participants (aged 16 and above) from three earthquake-affected districts in Nepal: Kathmandu, Gorkha and Sindhupalchowk, 4 months after the second earthquake. Outcomes were selected based on qualitative preparatory research and included symptoms of depression and anxiety (Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25); post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD Checklist-Civilian); hazardous alcohol use (AUDIT-C); symptoms indicating severe psychological distress (WHO-UNHCR Assessment Schedule of Serious Symptoms in Humanitarian Settings (WASSS)); suicidal ideation (Composite International Diagnostic Interview); perceived needs (Humanitarian Emergency Settings Perceived Needs Scale (HESPER)); and functional impairment (locally developed scale)...
January 9, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029673/histopathologic-analysis-of-pancreaticoduodenectomy-specimen
#3
R Dhakhwa, N Kafle
INTRODUCTION: Whipple's Pancreaticoduodenectomy has increasingly been used as an appropriate resectional procedure for tumors of the periampullary region which are pancreatic, periampullary, ampullary and biliary tumors. Our aim was to study the distribution and histopathologic features of these tumors and to examine local trends of periampullary neoplasms resected with a PD. METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted in the department of Pathology, Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital from July 2013 to June 2016...
October 2016: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018898/economic-costs-associated-with-motorbike-accidents-in-kathmandu-nepal
#4
Diksha Sapkota, Bihungum Bista, Shiva Raj Adhikari
BACKGROUND: Road traffic accidents, considered as global tragedies, are in increasing trend; however, the safety situation is very severe in developing countries incurring substantial amount of human, economic, and social costs. Motorcycle crashes, the commonest form, occur mostly in economically active population. However, there is limited number of studies on economic burden of motorcycle crashes. This study aims to estimate the total cost and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost due to motorbike accidents among victims of Kathmandu Valley...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000586/evaluation-of-omnigene%C3%A2-%C3%A2-sputum-stabilised-sputum-for-long-term-transport-and-xpert%C3%A2-mtb-rif-testing-in-nepal
#5
B Maharjan, C D Kelly-Cirino, A Weirich, P S Curry, H Hoffman, K Avsar, B Shrestha
SETTING: German Nepal TB Project, National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, Kathmandu, Nepal. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether transporting samples in OMNIgene®•SPUTUM (OM-S) reagent from a peripheral collection site to a central laboratory in Nepal can improve tuberculosis (TB) detection and increase the sensitivity of Xpert® MTB/RIF testing. DESIGN: One hundred sputum samples were split manually. Each portion was assigned to the OM-S group (OM-S added at collection, airline-couriered without cold chain, no other processing required) or the standard-of-care (SOC) group (samples airline-couriered on ice, sodium hydroxide + N-acetyl-L-cysteine processing required at the laboratory)...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935917/safety-and-efficacy-of-azathioprine-as-a-second-line-therapy-for-primary-immune-thrombocytopenic-purpura
#6
B S Poudyal, B Sapkota, G S Shrestha, S Thapalia, B Gyawali, S Tuladhar
INTRODUCTION: Immune thrombocytopenic purpura remains common blood disease in Nepal. Azathioprine is an oral immunosupressive medicine which has been used widely in various autoimmune disease and solid organ transplant patients. It is inexpensive, easily available and well tolerated medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate efficacy and safety of azathioprine as a second line medicine for primary ITP patients who were refractory to steroid therapy. METHODS: The observational, pre-post study was conducted at Government of Nepal Civil Service Hospital, Kathmandu from January to October 2014...
July 2016: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935914/road-traffic-accident-and-its-characteristics-in-kathmandu-valley
#7
L Huang, K P Adhikary, B P Choulagai, N Wang, A K Poudyal, S R Onta
INTRODUCTION: Road traffic accident is alarming in Nepal. The objective of this research is to find out the characteristics of RTA in central part of Nepal. METHODS: A prospective descriptive study was taken from 1 August 2014 to 31 July 2015. Data were collected from postmortem department and nine hospitals in Kathmandu Valley. Inventory sheets with targeted variables for secondary sources were created. RESULTS: A total of 3461 morbidity cases from hospitals and 265 mortality cases from postmortem department were included in this study...
July 2016: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935906/cognitive-dysfunctions-in-patients-with-alcohol-dependence-syndrome-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-kathmandu
#8
S Adhikari, M Rana, S Shakya, S P Ojha
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol dependence is a chronic disorder, accompanied by neuropsychological deficits. Patients with alcohol dependence were evaluated to identify the cognitive dysfunctions. METHODS: The study followed descriptive design and recruited participants (N=62) from inpatient services of the Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health by convenient sampling. Participants were evaluated with the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire, Frontal Assessment Battery and PGI Memory Scale for the severity of alcohol dependence, executive impairments and memory dysfunctions respectively once they had completed alcohol detoxification...
January 2016: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931764/accuracy-of-remote-burn-scar-evaluation-via-live-video-conferencing-technology
#9
Lawrence Z Cai, Maria Caceres, Mohan Krishna Dangol, Shankar Man Rai, James Chang, Nicole S Gibran, Tam N Pham
OBJECTIVE: Telemedicine in outpatient burn care, particularly in burn scar management, may provide cost-effective care and comes highly rated by patients. However, an effective scar scale using both video and photographic elements has not been validated. The purpose of this study is to test the reliability of the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) using live video-conferencing. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with individuals with healed burn scars in Kathmandu, Nepal...
December 5, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931548/percutaneous-transvenous-mitral-commissurotomy-in-mitral-stenosis-and-left-atrial-appendage-clot-patients-in-special-conditions-hospital-based-study
#10
Rajib Rajbhandari, Rabi Malla, Arun Maskey, Yadav Bhatta, Yubraj Limbu, Ranjit Sharma, Satish Singh, Chandramani Adhikari, Sundeep Mishra
BACKGROUND: The percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy is an important procedure for the treatment of mitral stenosis. A lot of mitral stenosis cases have left atrial appendage clot which precludes the patient from the benefit of this procedure. The aim of the study was to study the feasibility and safety of the procedure in a patient with appendage clot in the setup of certain urgent conditions. METHOD: All cases of mitral stenosis with significant dyspnea and mitral valve area <1...
November 2016: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931343/evaluation-of-omnigenesputum-stabilised-sputum-for-long-term-transport-and-xpert-mtb-rif-testing-in-nepal
#11
B Maharjan, C D Kelly-Cirino, A Weirich, P S Curry, H Hoffman, K Avsar, B Shrestha
SETTING: German Nepal TB Project, National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, Kathmandu, Nepal. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether transporting samples in OMNIgeneSPUTUM (OM-S) reagent from a peripheral collection site to a central laboratory in Nepal can improve tuberculosis (TB) detection and increase the sensitivity of Xpert MTB/RIF testing. DESIGN: One hundred sputum samples were split manually. Each portion was assigned to the OM-S group (OM-S added at collection, airline-couriered without cold chain, no other processing required) or the standard-of-care (SOC) group (samples airline-couriered on ice, sodium hydroxide + N-acetyl-L-cysteine processing required at the laboratory)...
December 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913014/characterizations-of-atmospheric-particulate-bound-mercury-in-the-kathmandu-valley-of-nepal-south-asia
#12
Junming Guo, Shichang Kang, Jie Huang, Qianggong Zhang, Maheswar Rupakheti, Shiwei Sun, Lekhendra Tripathee, Dipesh Rupakheti, Arnico K Panday, Mika Sillanpää, Rukumesh Paudyal
The Kathmandu Valley, located in the Himalayan foothills in Nepal, is heavily polluted. In order to investigate ambient particulate-bound mercury (Hg) in the Kathmandu Valley, a total 64 total suspended particulates (TSP) samples were collected from a sub-urban site in the Kathmandu Valley, the capital region of Nepal during a sampling period of an entire year (April 2013-April 2014). They were analyzed for ambient particulate-bound Hg (PBM) using thermal desorption combined with cold vapor atomic spectroscopy...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892450/orthognathic-surgery-for-the-correction-of-severe-skeletal-class-iii-malocclusion
#13
D Kafle, C Upadhayaya, N Chaurasia, A Agarwal
Skeletal Malocclusions results from the abnormal position of maxilla and mandible in relation with cranial base. These types of malocclusion are commonly treated by orthodontic teeth movement known as camouflage orthodontics. However severe skeletal malocclusions cannot be treated by orthodontics alone. Such cases need surgical intervention to align the position of the jaw along with orthodontic correction. This procedure is commonly known as Orthognathic Surgery. Orthognathic Surgery dates back to early eighteenth century but became popular on mid twentieth century...
January 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892444/mortality-patterns-among-hospital-deaths
#14
R K Karki
Background Death occurring in hospital is medically certified by attending physicians with cause of death. In developing countries such as Nepal, limited resources are available related to the pattern of deaths that occur in hospitals, so that the health priorities can be selected wisely. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the pattern, frequency and causes of inpatient mortality in hospital. Method This was a retrospective study of all deaths occurred at the Dhulikhel Hospital, Kathmandu University Hospital, Dhulikhel from 1st January 2012 to 31st December 2013...
January 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892436/study-of-depression-anxiety-and-stress-among-the-medical-students-in-two-medical-colleges-of-nepal
#15
D Kunwar, A Risal, S Koirala
Background Medical education is intended to prepare graduates for a promoting health and caring for the sick. Medical students are confronted with significant academic, psychological and existential stressors. There is insufficient information regarding psychological morbidity among Nepalese medical students. Objective To determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress, among the medical students in Nepal, and its association with sociodemographic characteristics. Method A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted including all students from first to fifth year of student using convenience method of sampling from Kathmandu University Medical School (KUSMS), Dhulikhel and Manipal College of Medical Sciences (MCOMS), Pokhara, Nepal...
January 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892434/clinicomorphological-spectrum-of-ovarian-cystic-lesions
#16
R Dhakal, R Makaju, R Bastakoti
Background Ovarian cysts, which present as neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions, are the most common gynaecological cause of hospital admissions. Early diagnosis is difficult due to asymptomatic nature. Clinical, radiological and gross examination alone cannot distinguish benign from malignant lesions, hence, histopathological examination is important for diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic approach. Objective The objective of the study is to analyze the spectrum of ovarian cystic lesions with their clinico-morphorgical features...
January 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887586/hepatitis-e-virus-seroepidemiology-a-post-earthquake-study-among-blood-donors-in-nepal
#17
Ashish C Shrestha, Robert L P Flower, Clive R Seed, Manita Rajkarnikar, Shrawan K Shrestha, Uru Thapa, Veronica C Hoad, Helen M Faddy
BACKGROUND: As one of the causative agents of viral hepatitis, hepatitis E virus (HEV) has gained public health attention globally. HEV epidemics occur in developing countries, associated with faecal contamination of water and poor sanitation. In industrialised nations, HEV infections are associated with travel to countries endemic for HEV, however, autochthonous infections, mainly through zoonotic transmission, are increasingly being reported. HEV can also be transmitted by blood transfusion...
November 25, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885293/prevalence-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolated-from-urinary-tract-infected-patients
#18
P Chaudhary, D Bhandari, K Thapa, P Thapa, D Shrestha, H K Chaudhary, A Shrestha, H Parajuli, B P Gupta
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae, one of the bacterial agents associated with urinary tract infection has been often implicated as a major extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producer in last few decades. This study was designed to assess the prevalence of ESBL producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in urinary isolates at a tertiary care hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal, from July to December 2014. METHODS: One thousand nine hundred eighty six mid-stream urine specimens were collected aseptically from the clinically suspected patients of urinary tract infections attending Capital Hospital and Research Center, Kathmandu...
May 2016: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885287/comparative-study-of-prevalence-of-cataract-at-high-altitude-and-kathmandu-valley
#19
S Shrestha, S M Shrestha, A Gurung
BACKGROUND: Cataract is the leading cause of avoidable blindness in the world. Many etiological and risk factors for age related cataract has been documented. The present study is conducted to compare the prevalence of cataract at high altitude and Kathmandu valley.Many etiological and risk factors for age related cataract has been documented. METHODS: A cross sectional comparative study was conducted at Jomsom, Kagbeni, Jharkot and Muktinath of Mustang district and Balaju and Jawalakhel of Kathmandu valley of Nepal in 2009 to 2011 ...
May 2016: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871256/domestic-violence-among-antenatal-attendees-in-a-kathmandu-hospital-and-its-associated-factors-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Monika Shrestha, Sumina Shrestha, Binjwala Shrestha
BACKGROUND: Domestic violence during pregnancy is a public health problem which violates human rights and causes an adverse effect on both maternal and fetal health. The objectives of the study were to assess the prevalence of domestic violence among the pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic, to explore the associated factors, and to identify the perpetrators of domestic violence. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 404 pregnant women in their third trimester of pregnancy...
November 21, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
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