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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484498/evaluating-the-trends-of-bloodstream-infections-among-pediatric-and-adult-patients-at-a-teaching-hospital-of-kathmandu-nepal-role-of-drug-resistant-pathogens
#1
Narayan Prasad Parajuli, Hridaya Parajuli, Roshan Pandit, Jyotsna Shakya, Puspa Raj Khanal
Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are among the significant causes of morbidity and mortality for patients of all age groups. However, very little is known about the trends of bacterial bloodstream infections and antimicrobial susceptibilities among pediatric and adult population from Nepal. In this study, we have investigated the different etiological agents responsible for bloodstream infections among pediatric and adult patients and the role of drug resistant organisms in these infections at a tertiary care teaching hospital of Kathmandu, Nepal...
2017: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482301/effects-of-inequality-of-supply-hours-on-consumers-coping-strategies-and-perceptions-of-intermittent-water-supply-in-kathmandu-valley-nepal
#2
B Guragai, S Takizawa, T Hashimoto, K Oguma
To investigate the effects of unequal supply hours on consumers' coping strategies and perceptions of the intermittent water supply (IWS) in the Kathmandu Valley (KV), Nepal we conducted a randomized household survey (n=369) and on-site water quality tests. Half of the households received piped water for 6 or fewer hours per week. To augment or cope with the inadequate supply, 28% of the households used highly contaminated and expensive tanker-delivered water. Half of the piped water samples (n=13) were contaminated with Escherichia coli...
May 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481626/retinal-hemorrhage-in-a-high-altitude-aid-post-volunteer-doctor-a-case-report
#3
Sanjeeb Sudarshan Bhandari, Pranawa Koirala, Nirajan Regmi, Sushil Pant
Bhandari, Sanjeeb Sudarshan, Pranawa Koirala, Nirajan Regmi, and Sushil Pant. Retinal hemorrhage in a high-altitude aid post volunteer doctor: a case report. High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2017.-High-altitude retinal hemorrhages (HARHs) are seen at altitudes more than 3000 m, are usually multiple, flame shaped, and adjacent to blood vessels. Development near the macula causes blurring of vision, otherwise, they are symptomless and self-limiting. They often develop during the first few days after ascent to high altitude and subjects often suffer from acute mountain sickness (AMS) or high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE)...
May 8, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479920/bacteremia-and-urinary-tract-infection-caused-by-chromobacterium-violaceum-case-reports-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-kathmandu-nepal
#4
Narayan Dutt Pant, Subhash Prasad Acharya, Raju Bhandari, Uday Narayan Yadav, Dil Bahadur Saru, Manisha Sharma
Chromobacterium violaceum is ubiquitous in the environment of tropical and subtropical regions but the infections caused by this organism are rare and the urinary tract infections caused by it are even rarer. Due to the propensity for hematogenous spread leading to fatal sepsis, the infections caused by Chromobacterium violaceum have high mortality rate (65-80%) with death occurring in as less as one week of acquiring infection. So, prompt proper treatment is necessary for successful treatment of the infections but, due to the rarity of the infections caused by the organism, there is limited awareness among the clinicians regarding the infections caused by this organism...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475605/the-impact-of-migration-and-antimicrobial-resistance-on-the-transmission-dynamics-of-typhoid-fever-in-kathmandu-nepal-a-mathematical-modelling-study
#5
Neil J Saad, Cayley C Bowles, Bryan T Grenfell, Buddha Basnyat, Amit Arjyal, Sabina Dongol, Abhilasha Karkey, Stephen Baker, Virginia E Pitzer
BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of the global burden of typhoid fever occurs in South Asia. Kathmandu, Nepal experienced a substantial increase in the number of typhoid fever cases (caused by Salmonella Typhi) between 2000 and 2003, which subsequently declined but to a higher endemic level than in 2000. This epidemic of S. Typhi coincided with an increase in organisms with reduced susceptibility against fluoroquinolones, the emergence of S. Typhi H58, and an increase in the migratory population in Kathmandu...
May 5, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466048/first-report-of-hepatitis-e-virus-viremia-in-healthy-blood-donors-from-nepal
#6
Birendra Prasad Gupta, Thupten K Lama, Anurag Adhikari, Ananta Shrestha, Ramanuj Rauniyar, Binay Sapkota, Sandeep Thapa, Smita Shrestha, Pawan Prasad Gupta, Krishna Das Manandhar
The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in healthy blood donors so as to decipher the maintenance of (HEV) reservoir if any. Five hundred and eighty-one blood samples along with clinical information were collected from central blood bank, Kathmandu between February and March 2014. Samples were tested for hepatitis B virus surface antigen, anti-hepatitis C virus antibodies, anti-hepatitis A virus IgM, HEV antigen, HEV viral load and anti-HEV antibodies (IgM and IgG) by ELISA...
September 2016: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428815/service-user-and-care-giver-involvement-in-mental-health-system-strengthening-in-nepal-a-qualitative-study-on-barriers-and-facilitating-factors
#7
Dristy Gurung, Nawaraj Upadhyaya, Jananee Magar, Nir Prakash Giri, Charlotte Hanlon, Mark J D Jordans
BACKGROUND: Service user and caregiver involvement has become an increasingly common strategy to enhance mental health outcomes, and has been incorporated in the mental healthpolicies of many developed nations. However, this practice is non-existent or fragmented in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Instances of service user and caregiver involvement have been rising slowly in a few LMICs, but are rarely described in the literature. Very little is known about the context of user and caregiver participation in mental health system strengthening processes in a low-income, disaster- and conflict-affected state such as Nepal...
2017: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409713/persistent-complex-bereavement-disorder-and-culture-early-and-prolonged-grief-in-nepali-widows
#8
Jane Kim, Wietse A Tol, Abina Shrestha, Hari Maya Kafle, Rajin Rayamajhi, Nagendra P Luitel, Lily Thapa, Pamela J Surkan
OBJECTIVE: Persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), has not been well studied in socioculturally diverse populations. Thus, this qualitative study examined (a) how widows in Nepal understand grief, (b) whether a local construct of PCBD exists, and (c) its comparability with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), terminology. METHODS: Using an adapted Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC) framework, semistructured interviews with 25 widows and 12 key informants, as well as three focus-group discussions (n = 20), were conducted between October 2014 and April 2015...
2017: Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395091/morbidity-among-the-israeli-defense-force-response-team-during-nepal-post-earthquake-mission-2015
#9
Tamar Lachish, Aviad Bar, Heli Alalouf, Ofer Merin, Eli Schwartz
Background: On 25 April 2015, a 7.8-magnitude earthquake struck Nepal. Soon after, the Israel Defense Force (IDF) dispatched a rapid-response team and opened a tertiary field hospital in Kathmandu. There is limited data regarding the spectrum of diseases among rescue teams to disease-stricken areas. The aim of this study was to assess the morbidity among the field-hospital staff during the mission. Methods: The rescue team was deployed for a 2-week mission in Kathmandu...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393635/assessment-of-environmental-policy-implementation-in-solid-waste-management-in-kathmandu-nepal
#10
Mohan B Dangi, Erica Schoenberger, John J Boland
In Nepal, full-fledged environmental legislation was rare before the democratic constitution of 1990. The first law covering the environment and sustainability was the Environment Protection Act 1997. While the Solid Waste Act was introduced in 1987, the problem of solid waste management still surfaces in Kathmandu. In order to understand the bedrock of this unrelenting failure in solid waste management, the manuscript digs deeper into policy implementation by dissecting solid waste rules, environmental legislations, relevant local laws, and solid waste management practices in Kathmandu, Nepal...
April 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393547/prevalence-of-depressive-symptoms-and-its-associated-factors-in-older-adults-a-cross-sectional-study-in-kathmandu-nepal
#11
Rajani Simkhada, Sharada P Wasti, Vijay S Gc, Andrew C K Lee
OBJECTIVE: Globally, depression is one of the most prevalent and burdensome conditions in older adults. However, there are few population-based studies of depression in older adults in developing countries. In this paper, we examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms and explore possible contributory risk factors in older adults living in Nepal. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in two semi-urban communities in Kathmandu, Nepal. Depression was assessed using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale in 303 participants, aged 60 years and over...
April 10, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369812/treating-philadelphia-chromosome-bcr-abl1-positive-patients-with-glivec-imatinib-mesylate-10%C3%A2-years-experience-at-patan-hospital-nepal
#12
Gyan K Kayastha, Nora Ranjitkar, Radha Gurung, Raj K Kc, Sanjit Karki, Roshan Shrestha, Raj K Thapa, Piyush Rajbhandari, Buddhi Poudyal, Paras Acharya, David J Roberts, Bruce Hayes, Mark Zimmerman, Buddha Basnyat, Aaron Mansfield
The Glivec International Patient Assistance Programme makes Glivec (Imatinib mesylate) available to Philadelphia chromosome/BCR-ABL1 positive patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) in Lower and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). We have established a large cohort of 211 CML patients who are eligible for Imatinib, in Kathmandu, Nepal. Thirty-one patients were lost to follow-up. We report on 180 CML patients with a median age of 38 years (range 9-81). Of these 180 patients, 162 underwent cytogenetic testing and 110 were investigated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction...
March 29, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367217/bacteriological-profile-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-patterns-of-bacteria-isolated-from-pus-wound-swab-samples-from-children-attending-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-kathmandu-nepal
#13
Salu Rai, Uday Narayan Yadav, Narayan Dutt Pant, Jaya Krishna Yakha, Prem Prasad Tripathi, Asia Poudel, Binod Lekhak
In Nepal, little is known about the microbiological profile of wound infections in children and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Total of 450 pus/wound swab samples collected were cultured using standard microbiological techniques and the colonies grown were identified with the help of biochemical tests. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates were detected by using cefoxitin disc and confirmed by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of oxacillin...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362560/comparing-outcomes-of-pediatric-and-adult-external-dacryocystorhinostomy-in-nepal-is-age-a-prognostic-factor
#14
Ben Limbu, Sulaxmi Katwal, Nicole S Lim, Michelle L Faierman, Anna G Gushchin, Rohit Saiju
We determine whether age is a prognostic factor for surgical outcomes of external dacryocystorhinostomy (Ex-DCR). This retrospective cohort study conducted at Tilganga Institute of Ophthalmology (Kathmandu, Nepal) compared pediatric Ex-DCR procedures (age ≤ 15 years) to adult Ex-DCR procedures (age > 15 years) and was performed between January 2013 and December 2013, with a minimum follow-up period of 6 months. Primary outcome measure was rate of success, defined as complete resolution of subjective symptom(s) of epiphora (subjective success), combined with patent lacrimal passage on syringing (anatomical success) at last follow-up visit...
March 31, 2017: Orbit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361005/respiratory-symptoms-and-illnesses-related-to-the-concentration-of-airborne-particulate-matter-among-brick-kiln-workers-in-kathmandu-valley-nepal
#15
Seshananda Sanjel, Sanjay N Khanal, Steven M Thygerson, William S Carter, James D Johnston, Sunil K Joshi
BACKGROUND: Bricks have been manufactured in Nepal for hundreds of years and are seen as a component of Nepalese sculpture and architecture. Large quantities of hazardous materials including high concentrations of particulate matter are emitted on a daily basis from brick kilns. Exposure to these hazardous materials can lead to adverse consequences on the environment and human health. This study was conducted to  estimate the prevalence of respiratory symptoms/illnesses and the magnitude of respirable and total dust exposures among Nepalese brick kiln workers...
2017: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351353/the-impact-of-ocular-trauma-during-the-nepal-earthquake-in-2015
#16
E Pradhan, B Limbu, S Thakali, N S Jain, R Gurung, S Ruit
BACKGROUND: Nepal was struck by a massive earthquake on the 25th April 2015 and major aftershock on the 12th of May 2015, resulting in widespread devastation with a death toll in the thousands. The burden of ocular trauma resulting from the recent earthquakes in Nepal has not been described thus far. The aim of this study was to determine the types of ocular injuries sustained in the earthquake in Nepal and its management in Tilganga Institute of Ophthalmology (TIO) in Gaushala, Kathmandu...
March 28, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346535/caudwell-xtreme-everest-a-prospective-study-of-the-effects-of-environmental-hypoxia-on-cognitive-functioning
#17
Konstadina Griva, Jan Stygall, Mark H Wilson, Daniel Martin, Denny Levett, Kay Mitchell, Monty Mythen, Hugh E Montgomery, Mike P Grocott, Golnar Aref-Adib, Mark Edsell, Tracie Plant, Chris Imray, Debbie Cooke, Jane Harrington, Maryam Khosravi, Stanton P Newman
BACKGROUND: The neuropsychological consequences of exposure to environmental hypobaric hypoxia (EHH) remain unclear. We thus investigated them in a large group of healthy volunteers who trekked to Mount Everest base camp (5,300 m). METHODS: A neuropsychological (NP) test battery assessing memory, language, attention, and executive function was administered to 198 participants (age 44.5±13.7 years; 60% male). These were studied at baseline (sea level), 3,500 m (Namche Bazaar), 5,300 m (Everest Base Camp) and on return to 1,300 m (Kathmandu) (attrition rate 23...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329181/treatment-response-in-enteric-fever-in-an-era-of-increasing-antimicrobial-resistance-an-individual-patient-data-analysis-of-2092-participants-enrolled-into-4-randomized-controlled-trials-in-nepal
#18
Corinne N Thompson, Abhilasha Karkey, Sabina Dongol, Amit Arjyal, Marcel Wolbers, Thomas Darton, Jeremy J Farrar, Guy E Thwaites, Christiane Dolecek, Buddha Basnyat, Stephen Baker
Background.: Enteric fever, caused by Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, is the leading cause of bacterial febrile disease in South Asia. Methods.: Individual data from 2092 patients with enteric fever randomized into 4 trials in Kathmandu, Nepal, were pooled. All trials compared gatifloxacin with 1 of the following comparator drugs: cefixime, chloramphenicol, ofloxacin, or ceftriaxone. Treatment outcomes were evaluated according to antimicrobial if S...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327684/outbreak-investigation-of-influenza-in-pajaru-vdc-of-jajarkot-district-of-nepal
#19
S K Upadhyay, P M Singh Pradhan, R K Mahato, B Marasini, B Upadhyaya, G Shakya, G Baral, K P Baral
BACKGROUND: An outbreak investigation study was conducted in Pajaru, one of the initially affected Village Development Committees (VDCs) of the Jajarkot district in Nepal following an outbreak of respiratory illness in early 2015. The objectives of this study were to identify the cases and magnitude of the outbreak. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in mid-April 2015 covering five most affected wards of Pajaru VDC to assess the patients using standard case definition for Influenza like Illness (ILI)...
September 2016: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327098/sleep-quality-internet-addiction-and-depressive-symptoms-among-undergraduate-students-in-nepal
#20
Parash Mani Bhandari, Dipika Neupane, Shristi Rijal, Kiran Thapa, Shiva Raj Mishra, Amod Kumar Poudyal
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the burden of depression, internet addiction and poor sleep quality in undergraduate students from Nepal is virtually non-existent. While the interaction between sleep quality, internet addiction and depressive symptoms is frequently assessed in studies, it is not well explored if sleep quality or internet addiction statistically mediates the association between the other two variables. METHODS: We enrolled 984 students from 27 undergraduate campuses of Chitwan and Kathmandu, Nepal...
March 21, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
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