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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691837/oral-health-status-associated-with-sociodemographic-factors-of-nepalese-schoolchildren-a-population-based-study
#1
Saujanya Karki, Marja-Liisa Laitala, Manoj Humagain, Marjo Seppänen, Jari Päkkila, Vuokko Anttonen
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the oral health of Nepalese schoolchildren relative to their sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS: This school-based, cross-sectional study was conducted among 5-6-, 12- and 15-year-old Nepalese children in 18 randomly selected districts of the 75 in Nepal. Clinical parameters were recorded according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Results were presented as mean (SD) and proportions; the chi-square test, t-test and one way-ANOVA were also performed...
April 25, 2018: International Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687287/quantifying-the-connections-linkages-between-land-use-and-water-in-the-kathmandu-valley-nepal
#2
Jeffrey C Davids, Martine M Rutten, Ram Devi T Shah, Deep N Shah, Nischal Devkota, Petra Izeboud, Anusha Pandey, Nick van de Giesen
Land development without thoughtful water supply planning can lead to unsustainability. In practice, management of our lands and waters is often unintegrated. We present new land-use, ecological stream health, water quality, and streamflow data from nine perennial watersheds in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, in the 2016 monsoon (i.e., August and September) and 2017 pre-monsoon (i.e., April and May) periods. Our goal was to improve understanding of the longitudinal linkages between land-use and water. At a total of 38 locations, the Rapid Stream Assessment (RSA) protocol was used to characterize stream ecology, basic water quality parameters were collected with a handheld WTW multi-parameter meter, and stream flow was measured with a SonTek FlowTracker Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter...
April 23, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679435/validation-of-host-specific-bacteroidales-quantitative-pcr-assays-and-their-application-to-microbial-source-tracking-of-drinking-water-sources-in-the-kathmandu-valley-nepal
#3
Bikash Malla, Rajani Ghaju Shrestha, Sarmila Tandukar, Dinesh Bhandari, Daisuke Inoue, Kazunari Sei, Yasuhiro Tanaka, Jeevan B Sherchand, Eiji Haramoto
AIMS: To validate host-specific Bacteroidales assays to identify faecal-source contamination of drinking water sources in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 54 composite faecal-source samples were collected from human sewage, ruminants, pigs, dogs, chickens, and ducks, which were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction using human-specific (BacHum, HF183 SYBR, gyrB, and HF183 TaqMan), ruminant-specific (BacCow and BacR), pig-specific (Pig2Bac and PF163), and dog-specific assays (BacCan SYBR)...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670804/blood-transfusion-practice-among-healthcare-personnel-in-nepal-an-observational-study
#4
Abja Sapkota, Sabitra Poudel, Arun Sedhain, Niru Khatiwada
Background: The complications associated with errors in transfusion practice can be minimized by assessing transfusion practices. In Nepal, there is no standard protocol on blood transfusion. So, this study was conducted with an aim to assess the blood transfusion practice among healthcare personnel. Methods: A descriptive observational study was conducted in two tertiary hospitals in Kathmandu, Nepal, over a period of 10 months. Bedside blood transfusion procedures were observed using structured checklist...
2018: Journal of Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668933/the-human-clone-st22-sccmec-iv-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-swine-herds-and-wild-primates-in-nepal-is-man-the-common-source
#5
Marilyn C Roberts, Prabhu Raj Joshi, Alexander L Greninger, Daira Melendez, Saroj Paudel, Mahesh Acharya, Nabin Kishor Bimali, Narayan P Koju, David No, Mukesh Chalise, Randall C Kyes
Swine nasal samples [n = 282] were collected from 12 randomly selected farms around Kathmandu, Nepal, from healthy animals. In addition, wild monkey (Macaca mulatta) saliva samples [n = 59] were collected near temples areas in Kathmandu using a non-invasive sampling technique. All samples were processed for MRSA using standardized selective media and conventional biochemical tests. MRSA verification was done and isolates characterized by SCCmec, multilocus sequence typing, whole genome sequencing [WGS] and antibiotic susceptibilities...
May 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622996/clinical-profile-management-and-outcome-of-pulmonary-embolism-in-shahid-gangalal-national-heart-centre-kathmandu-nepal
#6
Chandra Mani Adhikari, K C Bishal, Sobita Khadka
Background and aims: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is associated with a significant mortality and morbidity. We aim to study clinical profile, management and outcome of PE at Shahid Gangalal National heart Centre, Kathmandu, Nepal. Methods: It was a retrprospective, single centre study, conducted from January 2015 to December 2016. Haemodynamics was used for risk Simplified, PESI score, predisposing factors, symptoms, clinical features at the time of admission, ECG features, echocardiogram, treatment received and the outcome were reviewed...
March 2018: The Egyptian heart journal: (EHJ): official bulletin of the Egyptian Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617832/challenges-constraining-insulin-access-in-nepal-a-country-with-no-local-insulin-production
#7
Abhishek Sharma, Parash Mani Bhandari, Dipika Neupane, Warren A Kaplan, Shiva Raj Mishra
Background: Nepal is facing an increasing burden of diabetes and relies almost entirely on insulin imported through India. Methods: We employed a modified version of the WHO/Health Action International standard survey to assess insulin availability and prices, along with qualitative interviews with insulin retailers (pharmacists) and wholesalers in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Results: The mean availability of the two human insulins listed on the 2011 Nepal Essential Medicine List were 14...
April 3, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609601/geographical-heterogeneity-and-inequality-of-access-to-improved-drinking-water-supply-and-sanitation-in-nepal
#8
Wen-Jun He, Ying-Si Lai, Biraj M Karmacharya, Bo-Feng Dai, Yuan-Tao Hao, Dong Roman Xu
BACKGROUND: Per United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals, Nepal is aspiring to achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water and provide access to adequate and equitable sanitation for all by 2030. For these goals to be accomplished, it is important to understand the country's geographical heterogeneity and inequality of access to its drinking-water supply and sanitation (WSS) so that resource allocation and disease control can be optimized. We aimed 1) to estimate spatial heterogeneity of access to improved WSS among the overall Nepalese population at a high resolution; 2) to explore inequality within and between relevant Nepalese administrative levels; and 3) to identify the specific administrative areas in greatest need of policy attention...
April 2, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549825/psychiatric-symptoms-experienced-by-adolescents-in-nepal-following-the-2015-earthquakes
#9
Sanju Silwal, Ragnhild Dybdahl, Roshan Chudal, Andre Sourander, Lars Lien
BACKGROUND: In 2015, Nepal was hit by two major earthquakes, which caused 8900 deaths and displaced more than 450,000 people. We assessed the prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and depressive symptoms and explored potential risk factors among adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study comprised 893 students aged 11-17 in school grades 7-10. They lived in two districts affected by the earthquakes: Sindhupalchok and Kathmandu. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed using Child PTSD symptom scale and Depression Self-Rating Scale...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501890/distribution-sources-and-air-soil-exchange-of-ocps-pcbs-and-pahs-in-urban-soils-of-nepal
#10
Balram Pokhrel, Ping Gong, Xiaoping Wang, Mengke Chen, Chuanfei Wang, Shaopeng Gao
Due to the high temperature and extensive use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), tropical cities could act as secondary sources of these pollutants and therefore received global concern. As compared with other tropical cities, studies on the air-soil exchange of OCPs, PCBs and PAHs in tropical Nepali cities remained limited. In the present study, 39 soil samples from Kathmandu (capital of Nepal) and 21 soil samples from Pokhara (second largest city in Nepal) were collected The soil concentrations of the sum of endosulfans (α- and β-endosulfans) ranged from 0...
February 20, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487874/epidemiological-profile-and-risk-factors-for-acquiring-hbv-and-or-hcv-in-hiv-infected-population-groups-in-nepal
#11
Manjula Bhattarai, Jagat Bahadur Baniya, Nirmal Aryal, Bimal Shrestha, Ramanuj Rauniyar, Anurag Adhikari, Pratik Koirala, Pardip Kumar Oli, Ram Deo Pandit, David A Stein, Birendra Prasad Gupta
HBV and HCV infections are widespread among the HIV-infected individuals in Nepal. The goals of this study were to investigate the epidemiological profile and risk factors for acquiring HBV and/or HCV coinfection in disadvantaged HIV-positive population groups in Nepal. We conducted a retrospective study on blood samples from HIV-positive patients from the National Public Health Laboratory at Kathmandu to assay for HBsAg, HBeAg, and anti-HCV antibodies, HIV viral load, and CD4+ T cell count. Among 579 subjects, the prevalence of HIV-HBV, HIV-HCV, and HIV-HBV-HCV coinfections was 3...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486003/clinical-spectrum-and-risk-factors-associated-with-asymptomatic-erosive-esophagitis-as-determined-by-los-angeles-classification-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Akhilesh Kumar Kasyap, Shiv Kumar Sah, Sitaram Chaudhary
BACKGROUND: Gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic and recurrent disease, and it varies in regions. However, to date, there are no reports available on clinical features and the risk factors for the asymptomatic reflux esophagitis in Nepalese adults. METHODS: Data were gathered from 142 erosive patients who had undergone endoscopy at Bir Hospital, Kathmandu. Los Angeles classification was used to grade the severity of the disease. Patients were interviewed to find out the presence of various reflux symptoms...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458455/impact-of-nepal-earthquake-on-patients-presenting-for-emergency-care-at-patan-hospital
#13
Mimang Tembe, Sushma Dhakal, Ashis Shrestha, Josh Mugele, Darlene R House
OBJECTIVE: Natural disasters have a significant impact on the health sector. On April 25, 2015, Nepal was struck by a 7.8 magnitude earthquake. The aim of the study was to compare patient volumes and clinical conditions presenting to the emergency department pre- and post-earthquake. METHODS: A retrospective study was done at Patan Hospital Emergency Department in Kathmandu, Nepal. Volume, demographics, and patient diagnoses were collected for 4 months post-disaster and compared with cases seen the same months the year before the disaster to control for seasonal variations...
February 20, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453479/blood-pressure-and-its-association-with-body-mass-index-among-the-people-attending-in-a-hospital
#14
Dinesh Kumar Lamsal
INTRODUCTION: Systolic and diastolic hypertension has been increasing trend and different factors are associated such as body mass index, diabetes etc. Obesity and overweight are generally associated with high blood pressure. This study aims to identify the prevalence of blood pressure level and its association to body mass index among people attending in civil service hospital, Kathmandu. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among all 1002 study subjects aged above 20 years...
October 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453477/effects-of-bilateral-nasal-packing-on-oxygen-saturation-and-blood-pressure
#15
Meera Bista
INTRODUCTION: Nasal packing is one of the most common rhinological procedures in ENT practice exerting local in nose and systemic effects. Systemic effects may be due to poor sleep quality, respiratory difficulty, decreased oxygen saturation, circulatory problems and toxic shock syndrome which can threaten the life of a person.The study was done to investigate the effect on bilateral nasal packing on blood oxygen saturation and blood pressure changes. METHODS: A cross-sectional prospective study was undertaken in Kathmandu Medical College from January 2017 to June 2017...
October 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453472/prevalence-of-hepatitis-d-among-patients-with-hepatitis-b-viral-infection-attending-a-tertiary-care-centre-of-nepal
#16
Kiran Regmi, Jeetendra Kaji Shrestha, Sudhamshu Kc, Bikash Jaishi, Niyanta Karki, Dipendra Khadka, Sandip Khadka
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide there is variation in prevalence of Hepatitis D viral infection. Superinfection and co infection with hepatitis B viral infection is known to occur in 15-20 million people. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional hospital based study carried out in NAMS, Bir hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal from period of January 2017 to June 2017. Consecutive patients of chronic hepatitis B viral infection of HBsAg positive with more than two-time upper normal limit of ALT were enrolled and tested for HDV IgG...
October 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446212/free-dialysis-in-nepal-logistical-challenges-explored
#17
John Mcgee, Bimal Pandey, Abhishek Maskey, Tifany Frazer, Theodore Mackinney
Nepal's Ministry of Health began offering free lifetime hemodialysis (HD) in 2016. There has been a large growth in renal replacement therapy (RRT) services offered in Nepal since 2010, when the last known data on the subject was published. In 2016, 42 HD centers existed (223% increase since 2010) serving 1975 end stage renal disease patients (303% increase since 2010); 36 nephrologists were registered (200% increase since 2010), 12 were trained in transplantation, and 790 transplants had been performed to date...
February 15, 2018: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421754/altitudinal-and-spatial-variations-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-nepal-implications-on-source-apportionment-and-risk-assessment
#18
Ishwar Chandra Yadav, Ningombam Linthoingambi Devi, Jun Li, Gan Zhang
Although several global/regional studies have detailed the high level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban areas worldwide, unfortunately, Nepal has never been part of any global/regional regular monitoring plan. Despite few sporadic studies exist, the systematic monitoring and integrated concentration of PAHs in urban region of Nepal are lacking. In this study, the concentrations, sources, and health risk assessment of 16 PAHs in air (n = 34) were investigated in suspected source areas/more densely populated regions of Nepal...
February 3, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402263/effect-of-the-2015-earthquake-on-pediatric-inpatient-pattern-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-nepal
#19
Bishnu Rath Giri, Ram Hari Chapagain, Samana Sharma, Sandeep Shrestha, Sunita Ghimire, P Ravi Shankar
BACKGROUND: Earthquakes impact child health in many ways. Diseases occurring immediately following an earthquake have been studied in field based hospitals but studies on the inpatient disease pattern among children without trauma in a permanent hospital setup is lacking. METHODS: We examined the diagnoses of all children without trauma, admitted to Kanti Children's Hospital, Kathmandu for fifteen-week duration (from 4th week to end of the 18th week) following the 7...
February 5, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396197/ticks-acari-ixodidae-of-nepal-first-record-of-amblyomma-varanense-supino-with-an-update-of-species-list
#20
Shyam Kumar Pun, Alberto A Guglielmone, Evelina L Tarragona, Santiago Nava, Mahendra Maharjan
Males and females specimens of Amblyomma were collected from Orthriophis hodgsoni (Squamata: Colubridae) caught during routine herpetological work in Kathmandu. Morphological characteristics led to the diagnosis of A. varanense, constituting the second Nepalese species for the genus after the collection of Amblyomma gervaisi, also from a colubrid snake, almost 100 years ago. Amblyomma varanense is the 55th species found in the country, and preceded for the collection of 21 species of Haemaphysalis, 14 Ixodes, 6 Rhipicephalus, 6 Hyalomma, 4 Dermacentor, 1 Amblyomma, 1 Anomalohimalaya and 1 species of Nosomma...
January 30, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
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