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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218443/prevalence-and-associated-risk-factors-of-giardia-duodenalis-infection-among-school-going-children-in-nepal
#1
Sarmila Tandukar, Jeevan B Sherchand, Jia Xue, Sital Uprety, Samendra P Sherchan, Dinesh Bhandari, Bikash Malla, Rajani Ghaju Shrestha, Laxmi Parajuli, Shristi Poudel, Ashmita Dhital, Eiji Haramoto
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and its associated risk factors among school-going children in Kathmandu, Nepal. Between August and September 2016, a total of 333 stool samples were collected from children at five public schools. The collected samples were subjected to formol-ether concentration, followed by conventional microscopic examination for intestinal parasites. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 24.3% (81/333), with Giardia spp. showing the highest prevalence of 18...
December 7, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216906/detection-of-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamases-encoding-genes-among-clinical-isolates-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-kathmandu-nepal
#2
Mahesh Acharya, Prabhu R Joshi, Kamal Thapa, Rajan Aryal, Trishna Kakshapati, Supriya Sharma
OBJECTIVES: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in imipenem-nonsusceptible isolates and to detect MBL-encoding genes among MBLs-positive isolates. RESULTS: Metallo-β-lactamases production was detected in 68.6% isolates of P. aeruginosa with reduced susceptibility to imipenem. The bla VIM-2 gene was detected in 75% isolates and bla IMP-1 was detected in 25% isolates. All MBLs-positive isolates were multidrug resistant with a high level of resistance to imipenem (MIC 16 to ≥ 32 µg/ml), meropenem (MIC 16 to ≥ 32 µg/ml), and ceftazidime (MIC 64 to ≥ 512 µg/ml)...
December 8, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201418/factors-associated-with-contraceptive-use-among-sexually-active-nepalese-youths-in-the-kathmandu-valley
#3
Laxmi Tamang, Camille Raynes-Greenow, Kevin McGeechan, Kirsten Black
Background: In Nepal, evidence is sparse regarding the use of contraception at first and current relationships among sexually active young people. This study examined the factors associated with modern contraceptive use at first and current sexual relationships. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional household survey conducted amongst young Nepalese men and women living in the urban areas of the Kathmandu valley. We used logistic regression to model the relationship between selected independent variables and outcome variables (use at first sexual intercourse and current use of modern contraception) among 492 ever sexually active youth aged 15-24 years...
2017: Contraception and Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201366/survey-on-the-availability-price-and-affordability-of-selected-essential-medicines-for-non-communicable-diseases-in-community-pharmacies-of-kathmandu-valley
#4
Rajeev Shrestha, Anish Ghale, Bijay Raj Chapagain, Mahasagar Gyawali, Trishna Acharya
Background: The access to essential medicines for non-communicable disease treatment is unacceptably low worldwide. The fundamental right to health cannot be fulfilled without equitable access to essential medicines. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 94 community pharmacies of Kathmandu valley. Non-probability quota sampling method was adopted for the purpose. Village Development Committees with more than 5000 populations were included in the study...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188059/efficacy-of-high-dose-vitamin-d-supplementation-in-improving-serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-among-laboratory-personnel-working-at-the-nepal-national-center-for-rheumatic-diseases
#5
Mohan Giri, Bibhuti Upreti, Rakshya Joshi, Jayanti Chamling Rai, Binit Vaidya
Vitamin D deficiency is a highly prevalent condition worldwide. However, few studies have been conducted to examine the vitamin D status of laboratory personnel and the correlation between vitamin D deficiency and working conditions. The aim of the present study was to assess changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration with a weekly dose of oral cholecalciferol (60,000 IU) for two months. The prospective, open-label, interventional study was conducted from January 2016 to March 2016 at the National Centre for Rheumatic Diseases, Kathmandu, Nepal...
December 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176850/a-23-year-retrospective-investigation-of-salmonella-typhi-and-salmonella-paratyphi-isolated-in-a-tertiary-kathmandu-hospital
#6
Raphaël M Zellweger, Buddha Basnyat, Poojan Shrestha, Krishna G Prajapati, Sabina Dongol, Paban K Sharma, Samir Koirala, Thomas C Darton, Christiane Dolecek, Corinne N Thompson, Guy E Thwaites, Stephen G Baker, Abhilasha Karkey
BACKGROUND: Salmonella serovars Typhi (S. Typhi) and Paratyphi A (S. Paratyphi A), the causative agents of enteric fever, have been routinely isolated organisms from the blood of febrile patients in the Kathmandu Valley since the early 1990s. Susceptibility against commonly used antimicrobials for treating enteric fever has gradually changed throughout South Asia since this time, posing serious treatment challenges. Here, we aimed to longitudinally describe trends in the isolation of Salmonella enterica and assess changes in their antimicrobial susceptibility in Kathmandu over a 23-year period...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169894/preparing-for-rotavirus-vaccine-introduction-a-retrospective-assessment-of-the-epidemiology-of-intussusception-in-children-below-2%C3%A2-years-of-age-in-nepal
#7
Ajit Rayamajhi, Anupama Thapa, Manoj Kumar, Catherine Yen, Jacqueline E Tate, Umesh D Parashar, Anjana Karki Rayamajhi
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea in Nepali children, accounting for 25-33% of childhood diarrhea hospitalizations. Two rotavirus vaccines recommended for inclusion in national immunization programs have been associated with a low risk of intussusception in post-marketing studies conducted in several countries. Data on the epidemiology of intussusception hospitalizations are lacking in Nepal. Thus, we aimed to describe the epidemiology of intussusception-associated hospitalizations among Nepali children in preparation for rotavirus vaccine introduction...
November 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164136/factors-associated-with-health-related-quality-of-life-among-hypertensive-patients-in-kathmandu-nepal
#8
Saruna Ghimire, Praful Pradhananga, Binaya Kumar Baral, Naveen Shrestha
Introduction: Nepal has a high prevalence of hypertension. While improving the overall health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a central tenet to public health plans in developed nations, this focus has yet to be articulated in Nepal. Therefore, this study aims to identify the factors associated with HRQOL among hypertensive patients in Nepal. Method: The EuroQol-5Dimension HRQOL survey was administered to 180 hypertensive patients, attending the outpatient clinic at Shahid Gangalal National Heart Center in Kathmandu, Nepal...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163996/lymphangiomatous-polyp-presenting-as-tonsillar-mass
#9
Ashish Dhakal, Sameer Karmacharya, Sandhya Shrestha
A 19-year-old female presented to ENT OPD of Dhulikhel Hospital, Kathmandu University Hospital, with history of foreign body sensation in throat for 2 weeks and mass in left tonsil for 1 week. There is no history of difficulty swallowing or recurrent throat infection. Physical examination revealed a pedunculated mass arising from upper pole of left tonsil. Bilateral tonsillectomy was done under general anaesthesia. Grossly, 2.5 × 1.5 × 1 cm polypoidal mass, soft in consistency, was found to be attached to left tonsil...
2017: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162143/prevalence-and-risk-of-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-the-hiv-population-of-nepal
#10
Ananta Shrestha, Anurag Adhikari, Manjula Bhattarai, Ramanuj Rauniyar, Jose D Debes, André Boonstra, Thupten K Lama, Mamun Al Mahtab, Amna Subhan Butt, Sheikh Mohammad Fazle Akbar, Nirmal Aryal, Sapana Karn, Krishna Das Manandhar, Birendra Prasad Gupta
BACKGROUND: Infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV) can cause acute hepatitis in endemic areas in immune-competent hosts, as well as chronic infection in immune-compromised subjects in non-endemic areas. Most studies assessing HEV infection in HIV-infected populations have been performed in developed countries that are usually affected by HEV genotype 3. The objective of this study is to measure the prevalence and risk of acquiring HEV among HIV-infected individuals in Nepal. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 459 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-positive individuals from Nepal, an endemic country for HEV, for seroprevalence of HEV and assessed risk factors associated with HEV infection...
November 21, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149873/health-care-workers-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-on-tuberculosis-infection-control-nepal
#11
Anita Shrestha, Dipesh Bhattarai, Barsha Thapa, Prem Basel, Rajendra Raj Wagle
BACKGROUND: Infection control remains a key challenge for Tuberculosis (TB) control program with an increased risk of TB transmission among health care workers (HCWs), especially in settings with inadequate TB infection control measures. Poor knowledge among HCWs and inadequate infection control practices may lead to the increased risk of nosocomial TB transmission. METHODS: An institution-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 28 health facilities providing TB services in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal...
November 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143568/the-inter-rater-reliability-and-prognostic-value-of-coma-scales-in-nepali-children-with-acute-encephalitis-syndrome
#12
Stephen Ray, Ajit Rayamajhi, Laura J Bonnett, Tom Solomon, Rachel Kneen, Michael J Griffiths
Background Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is a common cause of coma in Nepali children. The Glasgow coma scale (GCS) is used to assess the level of coma in these patients and predict outcome. Alternative coma scales may have better inter-rater reliability and prognostic value in encephalitis in Nepali children, but this has not been studied. The Adelaide coma scale (ACS), Blantyre coma scale (BCS) and the Alert, Verbal, Pain, Unresponsive scale (AVPU) are alternatives to the GCS which can be used. Methods Children aged 1-14 years who presented to Kanti Children's Hospital, Kathmandu with AES between September 2010 and November 2011 were recruited...
November 16, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114277/contributing-factors-for-coagulopathy-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Ajit Shrestha, Ramesh Man Joshi, Upendra Prasad Devkota
Context: In traumatic brain injury patients, coagulation disorder causes secondary brain injury, thereby increasing mortality and morbidity. Aims: The aim of this study is to identify the factors responsible for coagulopathy in traumatic brain injury. Settings and Design: This prospective longitudinal study from June 2012 included 100 patients with moderate and severe head injury presenting to National Institute of Neurological and Allied Sciences, Kathmandu, over 1-year period...
October 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109704/assessment-and-translation-of-the-antibody-in-lymphocyte-supernatant-als-assay-to-improve-the-diagnosis-of-enteric-fever-in-two-controlled-human-infection-models-and-an-endemic-area-of-nepal
#14
Thomas C Darton, Claire Jones, Sabina Dongol, Merryn Voysey, Christoph J Blohmke, Rajendra Shrestha, Abhilasha Karkey, Mila Shakya, Amit Arjyal, Claire S Waddington, Malick Gibani, Michael J Carter, Buddha Basnyat, Stephen Baker, Andrew J Pollard
New diagnostic tests for enteric fever are urgently needed to assist with timely antimicrobial treatment of patients and to measure the efficacy of prevention measures such as vaccination. In a novel translational approach, here we use two recently developed controlled human infection models (CHIM) of enteric fever to evaluate an antibody-in-lymphocyte supernatant (ALS) assay, which can detect recent IgA antibody production by circulating B cells in ex vivo mononuclear cell culture. We calculated the discriminative ability of the ALS assay to distinguish diagnosed cases in the two CHIM studies in Oxford, prior to evaluating blood culture-confirmed diagnoses of patients presenting with fever to hospital in an endemic areas of Kathmandu, Nepal...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107904/environmental-concentration-and-atmospheric-deposition-of-halogenated-flame-retardants-in-soil-from-nepal-source-apportionment-and-soil-air-partitioning
#15
Ishwar Chandra Yadav, Ningombam Linthoingambi Devi, Jun Li, Gan Zhang
While various investigations have been driven on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other flame retardants (FRs) in different framework around the world, information about contamination and fate of PBDEs and other FRs in developing countries especially in the Indian subcontinent is uncommon. Nepal being located in the Indian subcontinent, very little is known about contamination level of semi-volatile organic pollutants discharged into the environment. This motivated us to investigate the environmental fate of halogenated flame retardant (HFRs) in Nepalese condition...
November 3, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098656/virological-quality-of-irrigation-water-sources-and-pepper-mild-mottle-virus-and-tobacco-mosaic-virus-as-index-of-pathogenic-virus-contamination-level
#16
Sadhana Shrestha, Shankar Shrestha, Junko Shindo, Jeevan B Sherchand, Eiji Haramoto
Irrigation water is a doorway for the pathogen contamination of fresh produce. We quantified pathogenic viruses [human adenoviruses, noroviruses of genogroups I and II, group A rotaviruses, Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1), enteroviruses (EnVs), and salivirus (SaliV)] and examined potential index viruses [JC and BK polyomaviruses (JCPyVs and BKPyVs), pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)] in irrigation water sources in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. River, sewage, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, pond, canal, and groundwater samples were collected in September 2014, and in April and August 2015...
November 2, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096652/biofilm-and-metallo-beta-lactamase-production-among-the-strains-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-acinetobacter-spp-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-kathmandu-nepal
#17
Bandana Baniya, Narayan Dutt Pant, Sanjeev Neupane, Saroj Khatiwada, Uday Narayan Yadav, Nisha Bhandari, Rama Khadka, Sabita Bhatta, Raina Chaudhary
INTRODUCTION: Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. are found to be associated with biofilm and metallo-β-lactamase production and are the common causes of serious infections mainly in hospitalized patients. So, the main aims of this study were to determine the rates of biofilm production and metallo beta-lactamase production (MBL) among the strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. isolated from hospitalized patients. METHODS: A total of 85 P...
November 2, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083954/screening-of-antibiotic-residues-in-fresh-milk-of-kathmandu-valley-nepal
#18
Bal Kumari Sharma Khanal, Muhammad Bilal Sadiq, Manisha Singh, Anil Kumar Anal
The prevalence of two groups of antibiotics; namely penicillin and sulfonamides was studied in fresh milk available in Kathmandu Valley of Nepal. The milk samples (n = 140) were collected from three different sources; individual farmers, cottage dairies and organized dairies of Kathmandu valley. Qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis with rapid screening kits revealed that 23% samples were positive for antibiotic residues in the fresh milk for penicillin and sulfonamide groups (1-256 µg/kg). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses detected 81% samples positive for amoxicillin (68-802 µg/kg), 41% for sulfadimethoxine (31-69 µg/kg), 27% for penicillin G (13-353 µg/kg), and 12% for ampicillin (0...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054643/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-the-urban-atmosphere-of-nepal-distribution-sources-seasonal-trends-and-cancer-risk
#19
Balram Pokhrel, Ping Gong, Xiaoping Wang, Chuanfei Wang, Shaoping Gao
Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban areas have always been a global concern, as these areas are considered to be the source region. Despite studies on the concentrations of PAHs in water, soils and sediments, knowledge of the distribution patterns, seasonality and sources of PAHs in urban areas of Nepal remains limited. In this study, polyurethane foam passive air samplers were used to measure gas-phase PAH concentrations over different land types in three major cities of Nepal-namely, Kathmandu (the capital) and Pokhara (both densely populated cities), and Hetauda (an agricultural city)...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032629/consumption-of-commercially-produced-snack-foods-and-sugar-sweetened-beverages-during-the-complementary-feeding-period-in-four-african-and-asian-urban-contexts
#20
Alissa M Pries, Sandra L Huffman, Mary Champeny, Indu Adhikary, Margaret Benjamin, Aminata Ndeye Coly, El Hadji Issakha Diop, Khin Mengkheang, Ndèye Yaga Sy, Shrid Dhungel, Alison Feeley, Bineti Vitta, Elizabeth Zehner
The availability and consumption of commercially produced foods and beverages have increased across low-income and middle-income countries. This cross-sectional survey assessed consumption of commercially produced foods and beverages among children 6-23 months of age, and mothers' exposure to promotions for these products. Health facility-based interviews were conducted among 218 randomly sampled mothers utilizing child health services in Dakar, Senegal; 229 in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 228 in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal; and 222 in Phnom Penh, Cambodia...
October 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
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