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Edward Gilbert-Kawai, Jonny Coppel, Hennis Phillip, Michael Grocott, Can Ince, Daniel Martin
Present knowledge of how the microcirculation is altered by prolonged exposure to hypoxia at high altitude is incomplete and modification of existing analytical techniques may improve our knowledge considerably. We set out to use a novel simplified method of measuring in vivo capillary density during an expedition to high altitude using a CytoCam incident dark field imaging video-microscope. The simplified method of data capture involved recording one-second images of the mucosal surface of the inner lip to reveal data about microvasculature density in ten individuals...
2016: F1000Research
Ishwar Chandra Yadav, Ningombam Linthoingambi Devi, Jun Li, Gan Zhang, Pawan Raj Shakya
Nepal is a landlocked country located between world's two most populous countries-India and China where high level of organochlorines pesticides has been reported from multi-environmental matrices. In this study, we investigated the occurrence, distributions and profile of selected OCP chemicals in surface soil samples (N=72) from four major cities of Nepal. Overall, the sum of total OCPs in soil ranged from 20 to 250ng/g with Biratnagar being the most polluted site in Nepal. DDTs and endosulfans were the most abundant OCP chemicals in soil samples...
September 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
S K Sah, S K Sahu, B Lamichhane, G K Bhatta, K B Bhandari, P Owiti, S S Majumdar
Setting: The three government tertiary care hospitals providing care for people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) in Kathmandu, Nepal. Objectives: To assess 1) the screening cascades for intensified case finding for tuberculosis (TB), 2) isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), including demographic and clinical factors associated with treatment interruption, and 3) TB infection control (IC) in the health facilities. Design: A cross-sectional study of new PLHIV enrolled from January 2012 to December 2014...
September 2016: Public Health Action
Sujata Sapkota, Jo-Anne E Brien, Parisa Aslani
BACKGROUND: Perceptions and beliefs about treatment can influence patients' adherence to treatment regimens. Perceptions, in turn, are often shaped by patients' sociocultural context. Nepal and the Nepalese have unique sociocultural traditions and beliefs, and their perceptions of diabetes treatment remain largely unexplored. This study explored Nepalese participants' perceptions of diabetes treatment, and whether perceptions differed between the Nepalese living in Australia and Nepal...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
Sangam Shrestha, Ranjana Kafle, Vishnu Prasad Pandey
This study aimed at evaluating three index-overlay methods of vulnerability assessment (i.e., DRASTIC, GOD, and SI) for estimating risk to pollution of shallow groundwater aquifer in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The Groundwater Risk Assessment Model (GRAM) model was used to compute the risk to groundwater pollution. Results showed that DRASTIC and SI methods are comparable for vulnerability assessment as both methods delineate around 80% of the groundwater basin area under high vulnerable zone. From the perspective of risk to pollution results, DRASTIC and GOD methods are comparable...
September 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Helen Elsey, Shraddha Manandah, Dilip Sah, Sudeepa Khanal, Frances MacGuire, Rebecca King, Hilary Wallace, Sushil Chandra Baral
BACKGROUND: Communities in urban slums face multiple risks to their health. These are shaped by intermediary and structural determinants. Gaining a clear understanding of these determinants is a prerequisite for developing interventions to reduce the health consequences of urban poverty. With 828 million people living in slum conditions, the need to find ways to reduce risks to health has never been greater. In many low income settings, the kitchen is the epicentre of activities and behaviours which either undermine or enhance health...
2016: PloS One
Chester E Sutterlin
At noon on Saturday, 25 April 2015, a 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck Nepal. It was centered in the Himalaya northwest of Kathmandu, the capital of over 1 million people. The violent tremors were felt as far away as New Delhi, India 1,000 km from the epicenter, but the worst of its destructive force was experienced in the heavily populated Kathmandu valley and in the remote mountainous villages of the Himalaya. Ancient temples crumbled; poorly constructed buildings collapsed; men, women, and children were trapped and injured, sometimes fatally...
December 2015: J Spine Surg
Mahesh Sarki, Aileen Robertson, Alexandr Parlesak
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity is increasing in low-and middle income countries such as Nepal. At the same time, high prevalence of chronic undernutrition persists leading to a double burden of malnutrition. AIM: To identify associations between the socioeconomic status of mothers, food security, the food safety environment within the household, and prevalence of stunting and overweight of the children. METHODS: Statistical analysis of socioeconomic, food safety-related and anthropometric data from 289 mother-child dyads in an urban area of the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal...
2016: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
Bhupendra Kumar Poudel, Itsuko Ishii
BACKGROUND: This work attempts to investigate the standards of physical premises of pharmacies in terms of cleanliness, ventilation, protection from physical environment, spaciousness and storage facilities of two selected districts of Nepal: Kathmandu and Kaski. METHODS: A cross-sectional, observational study of 100 randomly selected retail and wholesale pharmacies (55 from Kathmandu and 45 from Kaski) was conducted for their compliance to provisions of physical premises: cleanliness, ventilation, protection from physical environment, spaciousness and storage facilities...
2016: SAGE Open Medicine
Sumina Shrestha, Monika Shrestha, Rajendra Raj Wagle, Gita Bhandari
BACKGROUND: Immunization is one of the most effective health interventions averting an estimated 2-3 million deaths every year. In Nepal, as in most low-income countries, infants are immunized with standard WHO recommended vaccines. However, 16.4 % of children did not receive complete immunization by 12 months of age in Nepal in 2011. Studies from different parts of the world showed that incomplete immunization is even higher in slums. The objective of this study was to identify the predictors of incompletion of immunization among children aged 12-23 months living in the slums of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal...
2016: BMC Public Health
Bishal Gyawali, Bishnu P Choulagai, Damaru Prasad Paneru, Meraj Ahmad, Anja Leppin, Per Kallestrup
BACKGROUND: The burden of substance misuse in developing countries is large and increasing, with negative consequences for physical and psychological health. Substance use disorders and psychological distress commonly co-exist, however few studies have examined this relationship in developing countries, including Nepal. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of psychological distress symptoms and associated factors among patients with substance use disorders attending drug rehabilitation centers in Nepal...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
Wei Zheng, Yonghe Hu, Hai Xin
BACKGROUND: After receiving the 25 April 2015 Nepal earthquake relief mission, a fully self-sufficient Rescue Center of Trauma set up quickly in downtown Kathmandu by Chengdu Military Medical Team of PLA P. R. China. METHODS: The medical team consisted of 68 members and 40 tons of supplies, which was equivalent to a small hospital. The medical area and living area were constructed with tents. Operating areas were converted from eight simple bungalows. The main purpose of the Rescue Center of Trauma was to save those earthquake survivors who needed surgery...
September 2, 2016: International Orthopaedics
Gobinda Thapa, Narayan Dutt Pant, Saroj Khatiwada, Binod Lekhak, Bhawana Shrestha
BACKGROUND: Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a serious public health problem in Nepal. It is a major obstacle for the control of the tuberculosis. The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of the multidrug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis and to evaluate the drug susceptibility patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from previously treated and newly diagnosed cases of pulmonary tuberculosis. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2013 to August 2013 at German-Nepal tuberculosis project (GENETUP) laboratory, Kathmandu, Nepal...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
J Camilo Roldán, Hans-Dieter Pape, Heribert Koch, Michael Koller
BACKGROUND: Cleft lip and palate surgery abroad is devoid of global consensus regarding standards of therapy, follow-up, and outcome. Cleft surgery in Nepal during a 10-year sustained program provided the opportunity to inform on the need for such standards. METHODS: Medical records were evaluated from the cleft clinic at Sushma Koirala Memorial Hospital, Sankhu, Kathmandu, Nepal, from 1997 to 2007. Four groups were identified for analysis: total cohort, total surgical cohort (TSC), primary program patients (PPP; patients had not been operated on before), and nonprimary program patients (non-PPP; patients operated on elsewhere before)...
May 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Ming Li Leonard Ho, Jonathan Zhao Min Lim, Mark Zhong Wei Tan, Wai Leong Kok, Jun Ren Zhang, Mian Yi Tan, Adrian Chong Beng Tan
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to report the injury or disease patterns, challenges, key observations, and recommendations by the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) team that embarked on an Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) mission in the aftermath of the April 2015 Nepal earthquake. METHODS: The SAF medical team that provided HADR assistance to Nepal consisted of personnel from the SAF, Singapore¢s Ministry of Health and the Royal Brunei Armed Forces...
August 2016: Singapore Medical Journal
Surya Devkota, Raja Ram Dhungana, Achyut Raj Pandey, Bihungum Bista, Savyata Panthi, Kartikesh Kumar Thakur, Ratna Mani Gajurel
INTRODUCTION: Despite the established evidence on benefits of controlling raised blood pressure and development of several guidelines on detection and management of hypertension, people often have untreated or uncontrolled hypertension. In this context, we undertook this study to identify the barriers existing in hypertension treatment and control in the municipalities of Kathmandu district in Nepal. METHODS: This was a community based, cross-sectional mixed method study conducted in the municipalities of Kathmandu district in Nepal between January and July 2015...
2016: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Naoko Kozuki, Luke C Mullany, Subarna K Khatry, Ram K Ghimire, Sharma Paudel, Karin Blakemore, Christine Bird, James M Tielsch, Steven C LeClerq, Joanne Katz
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of ultrasonographic task shifting by estimating the accuracy at which primary-level health care workers can perform community-based third-trimester ultrasound diagnosis for selected obstetric risk factors in rural Nepal. METHODS: Three auxiliary nurse-midwives received two 1-week ultrasound trainings at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital in Kathmandu. At a study site in rural Nepal, pregnant women who were 32 weeks of gestation or greater were enrolled and received ultrasound examinations from the auxiliary nurse-midwives during home visits...
September 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Narayan Dutt Pant, Raju Bhandari, Asia Poudel, Mukunda Sharma
BACKGROUND: The extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria are present as the serious public health problems due to their resistance to large number of antibiotics. The main aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacteria producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and to find the suitable cephalosporin/clavulanate combination for phenotypic confirmation of ESBL production. METHODS: During the study period from April 2013 to November 2013, a total of 1003 urine samples from the patients visiting National Public Health Laboratory, Kathmandu, Nepal were collected and processed...
2016: BMC Research Notes
Rajesh Gyawali, Basanta Kumar Shrestha, Rajiv Yadav
BACKGROUND: Mixed dentition space analysis forms an important part of orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. Regression equations are widely used for mixed dentition analysis which can vary among races. This study aimed to find out the new regression equation in estimating the size of unerupted canines and premolars for Nepalese Brahmins/Chhetris. METHODS: Hundred Nepalese Brahmins/Chhetris (50 males and 50 females) who met our criteria were selected among the patients attending to the Orthodontic Out-Patient Department, Institute of Medicine, Kathmandu...
2016: BMC Oral Health
His Excellency Nanda Bahadur Pun Pasang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
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