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Beige cell

Almudena Gómez-Hernández, Nuria Beneit, Sabela Díaz-Castroverde, Óscar Escribano
This review focuses on the contribution of white, brown, and perivascular adipose tissues to the pathophysiology of obesity and its associated metabolic and vascular complications. Weight gain in obesity generates excess of fat, usually visceral fat, and activates the inflammatory response in the adipocytes and then in other tissues such as liver. Therefore, low systemic inflammation responsible for insulin resistance contributes to atherosclerotic process. Furthermore, an inverse relationship between body mass index and brown adipose tissue activity has been described...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
Michel J Massaad, Jia Zhou, Daisuke Tsuchimoto, Janet Chou, Haifa Jabara, Erin Janssen, Salomé Glauzy, Brennan G Olson, Henner Morbach, Toshiro K Ohsumi, Klaus Schmitz, Markianos Kyriacos, Jennifer Kane, Kumiko Torisu, Yusaku Nakabeppu, Luigi D Notarangelo, Eliane Chouery, Andre Megarbane, Peter B Kang, Eman Al-Idrissi, Hasan Aldhekri, Eric Meffre, Masayuki Mizui, George C Tsokos, John P Manis, Waleed Al-Herz, Susan S Wallace, Raif S Geha
Alterations in the apoptosis of immune cells have been associated with autoimmunity. Here, we have identified a homozygous missense mutation in the gene encoding the base excision repair enzyme Nei endonuclease VIII-like 3 (NEIL3) that abolished enzymatic activity in 3 siblings from a consanguineous family. The NEIL3 mutation was associated with fatal recurrent infections, severe autoimmunity, hypogammaglobulinemia, and impaired B cell function in these individuals. The same homozygous NEIL3 mutation was also identified in an asymptomatic individual who exhibited elevated levels of serum autoantibodies and defective peripheral B cell tolerance, but normal B cell function...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Eun Hee Koh, Yong Chen, David A Bader, Mark P Hamilton, Bin He, Brian York, Shingo Kajimura, Sean E McGuire, Sean M Hartig
The acquisition of beige adipocyte features by white fat cells corresponds to protection against obesity-induced metabolic diseases in humans and animal models of type 2 diabetes. In adipose tissue, expression of the E2-SUMO ligase Ubiquitin Carrier Protein 9 (Ubc9) is positively correlated with markers of insulin resistance and corresponds with impaired browning of human white adipocytes. However, the molecular regulation of Ubc9 expression in adipocytes and other cells remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated the mRNA and protein expression of Ubc9 are regulated by the microRNA miRNA-30a (miR-30a) in human subcutaneous adipocytes...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Zhongyan Hua, Xiao Gu, Yudi Dong, Fei Tan, Zhihui Liu, Carol J Thiele, Zhijie Li
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its tyrosine kinase receptor TrkB have been reported to be associated with poor prognosis in neuroblastoma (NB) patients. Our previous studies indicated that BDNF activation of TrkB induces chemo-resistance through activation of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. In this study, we investigated the role of BDNF/TrkB on metastasis in NB. A tetracycline-regulated TrkB-expressing NB cell line (TB3) was used. Scratch wound healing assay, Boyden chamber migration, and invasion assays were performed to study the migration and invasion of TB3 cells...
October 17, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
I Louveau, M-H Perruchot, M Bonnet, F Gondret
Both white and brown adipose tissues are recognized to be differently involved in energy metabolism and are also able to secrete a variety of factors called adipokines that are involved in a wide range of physiological and metabolic functions. Brown adipose tissue is predominant around birth, except in pigs. Irrespective of species, white adipose tissue has a large capacity to expand postnatally and is able to adapt to a variety of factors. The aim of this review is to update the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with pre- and postnatal adipose tissue development with a special focus on pigs and ruminants...
November 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Yong Chen, Ruping Pan, Alexander Pfeifer
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules consisting of approximately 20 to 22 nucleotides. They play a very important role in the regulation of gene expression. miRNAs can be found in different species and a variety of organs and tissues including adipose tissue. There are two types of adipose tissue in mammals: White adipose tissue (WAT) is the largest energy storage, whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy to maintain body temperature. BAT was first identified in hibernating animals and newborns as a defense against cold...
October 11, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
A Castellanos-Gonzalez, H Sparks, S Nava, W Huang, Z Zhang, K Rivas, M Hulverson, L Barrett, K K Ojo, E Fan, W C Van Voorhis, A C White
Cryptosporidium is recognized as one of the main causes of childhood diarrhea worldwide. However, the current treatment for cryptosporidiosis is suboptimal. Calcium flux is essential for entry in apicomplexan parasites. Calcium dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are distinct from protein kinases of mammals, and the CDPK1 of the apicomplexan Cryptosporidium lack side-chains that typically block a hydrophobic pocket in protein kinases. We exploited this to develop bumped kinase inhibitors (BKI) that selectively target CDPK1...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Yong Chen, Ruping Pan, Alexander Pfeifer
Fat tissue is well known for its capacity to store energy and its detrimental role in obesity and metaflammation. However, humans possess different types of fat that have different functions in physiology and metabolic diseases. Apart from white adipose tissue (WAT), the body's main energy storage, there is also brown adipose tissue (BAT) that dissipates energy as a defense against cold and maintains energy balance for the whole body. BAT is present not only in newborns but also in adult humans and its mass correlates with leanness...
October 4, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Florian W Kiefer
The view of adipose tissue as solely a fat storing organ has changed significantly over the past two decades with the discoveries of numerous adipocyte-secreted factors, so called adipokines, and their endocrine functions throughout the body. The newest chapter added to this story is the finding that adipose tissue is also a thermogenic organ contributing to energy expenditure through actions of specialized, heat-producing brown or beige adipocytes. In contrast to bone fide brown adipocytes, beige cells develop within white fat depots in response to various stimuli such as prolonged cold exposure, underscoring the great thermogenic plasticity of adipose tissue...
August 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Kevin Man, Vassily I Kutyavin, Ajay Chawla
Evolution of metazoans resulted in the specialization of cellular and tissue function. This was accomplished by division of labor, which allowed tissue parenchymal cells to prioritize their core functions while ancillary functions were delegated to tissue accessory cells, such as immune, stromal, and endothelial cells. In metabolic organs, the accessory cells communicate with their clients, the tissue parenchymal cells, to optimize cellular processes, allowing organisms to adapt to changes in their environment...
September 21, 2016: Cell Metabolism
Lance A Stechschulte, Chunxi Ge, Terry D Hinds, Edwin R Sanchez, Renny T Franceschi, Beata Lecka-Czernik
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) are key regulators of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation toward adipocytes and osteoblasts, respectively. Post-translational modifications of these factors determine their activities. Dephosphorylation of PPARγ at Serine 112 (S112) is required for its adipocytic activity, whereas phosphorylation of RUNX2 at Serine 319 (S319) promotes its osteoblastic activity. Here we show that protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) reciprocally regulates each receptor by targeting each serine...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Sadat A Aziz, Luisa A Wakeling, Satomi Miwa, Goiuri Alberdi, John E Hesketh, Dianne Ford
Promoting the development of brown or beige adipose tissue may protect against obesity and related metabolic features, and potentially underlies protective effects of genistein in mice. We observed that application of genistein to 3T3-L1 adipocytes changed the lipid distribution from large droplets to a multilocular distribution, reduced mRNAs indicative of white adipocytes (ACC, Fasn, Fabp4, HSL, chemerin and resistin) and increased mRNAs that are a characteristic feature of brown/beige adipocytes (CD-137 and UCP1)...
September 27, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
L M Laiglesia, S Lorente-Cebrián, P L Prieto-Hontoria, M Fernández-Galilea, S M R Ribeiro, N Sáinz, J A Martínez, M J Moreno-Aliaga
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, has been reported to have beneficial effects in obesity-associated metabolic disorders. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of EPA on the regulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism, and the ability of EPA to induce mitochondrial biogenesis and beiging in subcutaneous adipocytes from overweight subjects. Fully differentiated human subcutaneous adipocytes from overweight females (BMI: 28.1-29.8kg/m(2)) were treated with EPA (100-200 μM) for 24 h...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Yi Zhu, Yong Gao, Caroline Tao, Mengle Shao, Shangang Zhao, Wei Huang, Ting Yao, Joshua A Johnson, Tiemin Liu, Aaron M Cypess, Olga Gupta, William L Holland, Rana K Gupta, David C Spray, Herbert B Tanowitz, Lei Cao, Matthew D Lynes, Yu-Hua Tseng, Joel K Elmquist, Kevin W Williams, Hua V Lin, Philipp E Scherer
"Beige" adipocytes reside in white adipose tissue (WAT) and dissipate energy as heat. Several studies have shown that cold temperature can activate pro-opiomelanocortin-expressing (POMC) neurons and increase sympathetic neuronal tone to regulate WAT beiging. WAT, however, is traditionally known to be sparsely innervated. Details regarding the neuronal innervation and, more importantly, the propagation of the signal within the population of "beige" adipocytes are sparse. Here, we demonstrate that beige adipocytes display an increased cell-to-cell coupling via connexin 43 (Cx43) gap junction channels...
September 13, 2016: Cell Metabolism
Christian Schütz, Juan Carlos Varela, Karlo Perica, Carl Haupt, Mathias Oelke, Jonathan P Schneck
Redirection of T cells to target and destroy tumors has become an important clinical tool and major area of research in tumor immunology. Here we present a novel, nanoparticle-based approach to selectively bind antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTL) and redirect them to kill tumors, termed ATR (Antigen-specific T cell Redirectors). ATR were generated by decorating nanoparticles with both an antigen-specific T cell binding moiety, either peptide loaded MHC-Ig dimer or clonotypic anti-TCR antibody, and a model tumor cell binding moiety, anti-CD19 antibody to engage CD19+ tumor cells...
September 1, 2016: Oncotarget
Peter Kämpfer, Philipp Auraß, Susanne Karste, Antje Flieger, Stefanie P Glaeser
A beige-pigmented, oxidase-positive bacterial strain (WPAn02T), isolated as a presumably airborne contamination of an axenic bacterial microcosm was studied in a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Cells of the isolate were coccoid and stained Gram-negative. A comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain WPAn02T with sequences of type strains of most closely related Paracoccus species showed highest sequence similarities to Paracoccus chinensis (97.7%), Paracoccus marinus (97.1%), Paracoccus niistensis (97...
September 5, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Sho Nishikawa, Hiroki Aoyama, Misa Kamiya, Jun Higuchi, Aiko Kato, Minoru Soga, Taeko Kawai, Kazuki Yoshimura, Shigenori Kumazawa, Takanori Tsuda
Induction of brown-like adipocytes (beige/brite cells) in white adipose tissue (WAT) suggests a new approach for preventing and treating obesity via induction of thermogenesis associated with uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). However, whether diet-derived factors can directly induce browning of white adipocytes has not been well established. In addition, the underlying mechanism of induction of brown-like adipocytes by diet-derived factors has been unclear. Here, we demonstrate that artepillin C (ArtC), which is a typical Brazilian propolis-derived component, significantly induces brown-like adipocytes in murine C3H10T1/2 cells and primary inguinal WAT (iWAT)-derived adipocytes...
2016: PloS One
Joel A Schick, Claudia Seisenberger, Joachim Beig, Antje Bürger, Vivek Iyer, Viola Maier, Sajith Perera, Barry Rosen, William C Skarnes, Wolfgang Wurst
The International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) has produced a genome-wide collection of 15,000 isogenic targeting vectors for conditional mutagenesis in C57BL/6N mice. Although most of the vectors have been used successfully in murine embryonic stem (ES) cells, there remain a set of nearly two thousand genes that have failed to target even after several attempts. Recent attention has turned to the use of new genome editing technology for the generation of mutant alleles in mice. Here, we demonstrate how Cas9-assisted targeting can be combined with the IKMC targeting vector resource to generate conditional alleles in genes that have previously eluded targeting using conventional methods...
2016: Scientific Reports
Salvatore Fabbiano, Nicolas Suárez-Zamorano, Dorothée Rigo, Christelle Veyrat-Durebex, Ana Stevanovic Dokic, Didier J Colin, Mirko Trajkovski
Caloric restriction (CR) extends lifespan from yeast to mammals, delays onset of age-associated diseases, and improves metabolic health. We show that CR stimulates development of functional beige fat within the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, contributing to decreased white fat and adipocyte size in lean C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice kept at room temperature or at thermoneutrality and in obese leptin-deficient mice. These metabolic changes are mediated by increased eosinophil infiltration, type 2 cytokine signaling, and M2 macrophage polarization in fat of CR animals...
September 13, 2016: Cell Metabolism
P Vargovic, G Manz, R Kvetnansky
OBJECTIVE: Continuous exposure to cold leads to an activation of adaptive thermogenesis in the brown adipose tissue and induction of brown/beige cell phenotype in the white adipose tissue. Thermogenic response is associated with alternatively activated macrophages producing catecholamines, which subsequently activate the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1). The aim of this work was to elucidate the effect of cold exposure on catecholamine and immune responses associated with adipocyte browning in the mesenteric adipose tissue (mWAT) of rat...
July 2016: Endocrine Regulations
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