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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197149/treatment-of-infantile-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-autoimmunity-by-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-lps-responsive-beige-like-anchor-deficiency
#1
Shahrzad Bakhtiar, Laura Gámez-Díaz, Andrea Jarisch, Jan Soerensen, Bodo Grimbacher, Bernd Belohradsky, Klaus-Michael Keller, Christoph Rietschel, Thomas Klingebiel, Sibylle Koletzko, Michael H Albert, Peter Bader
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in young children can be a clinical manifestation of various primary immunodeficiency syndromes. Poor clinical outcome is associated with poor quality of life and high morbidity from the complications of prolonged immunosuppressive treatment and malabsorption. In 2012, mutations in the lipopolysaccharide-responsive beige-like anchor (LRBA) gene were identified as the cause of an autoimmunity and immunodeficiency syndrome. Since then, several LRBA-deficient patients have been reported with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations without reliable predictive prognostic markers...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178562/young-and-lean-elimination-of-senescent-cells-boosts-adaptive-thermogenesis
#2
Pablo J Fernandez-Marcos, Manuel Serrano
Thermogenesis converts the chemical energy of nutrients into heat, and this is associated to improved metabolic performance. In a previous issue of Cell Metabolism, Berry et al. (2017) reported that the progenitors of thermogenic beige adipocytes lose functionality with aging, and this process can be reversed with strategies that eliminate senescent cells.
February 7, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154348/promoting-effect-of-%C3%AE-tocopherol-on-beige-adipocyte-differentiation-in-3t3-l1-cells-and-rat-white-adipose-tissue
#3
Rieko Tanaka-Yachi, Chie Takahashi-Muto, Kazuya Adachi, Yukina Tanimura, Yoshinori Aoki, Taisuke Koike, Chikako Kiyose
Thermogenic adipocytes that are distinct from classical brown adipocytes (beige adipocytes) were identified in 2012. Beige adipocytes are also called inducible brown adipocytes because their differentiation is induced by a number of physiological stimuli, including adrenaline or myokines. PPARγ is the master regulator of adipogenesis and promotes thermogenic adipocyte differentiation. A PPARγ agonist also promotes thermogenic adipocyte differentiation in mouse white adipose tissues. The vitamin E analog α-tocopherol promotes PPARγ expression and induces mRNA expression of target genes...
2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151989/cd8-t-cells-protect-adult-naive-mice-from-jev-induced-morbidity-via-lytic-function
#4
Nidhi Jain, Neelam Oswal, Amanpreet Singh Chawla, Tanvi Agrawal, Moanaro Biswas, Sudhanshu Vrati, Satyajit Rath, Anna George, Vineeta Bal, Guruprasad R Medigeshi
Following Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection neutralizing antibodies are shown to provide protection in a significant proportion of cases, but not all, suggesting additional components of immune system might also contribute to elicit protective immune response. Here we have characterized the role of T cells in offering protection in adult mice infected with JEV. Mice lacking α/β-T cells (TCRβ-null) are highly susceptible and die over 10-18 day period as compared to the wild-type (WT) mice which are resistant...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129120/targeting-of-aberrant-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-6-integrin-expression-in-solid-tumors-using-chimeric-antigen-receptor-engineered-t-cells
#5
Lynsey M Whilding, Ana C Parente-Pereira, Tomasz Zabinski, David M Davies, Roseanna M G Petrovic, Y Vincent Kao, Shobhit A Saxena, Alex Romain, Jose A Costa-Guerra, Shelia Violette, Hiroaki Itamochi, Sadaf Ghaem-Maghami, Sabari Vallath, John F Marshall, John Maher
Expression of the αvβ6 integrin is upregulated in several solid tumors. In contrast, physiologic expression of this epithelial-specific integrin is restricted to development and epithelial re-modeling. Here, we describe, for the first time, the development of a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) that couples the recognition of this integrin to the delivery of potent therapeutic activity in a diverse repertoire of solid tumor models. Highly selective targeting αvβ6 was achieved using a foot and mouth disease virus-derived A20 peptide, coupled to a fused CD28(+)CD3 endodomain...
January 4, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123942/fetal-development-of-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue-is-dependent-on-zfp423
#6
Mengle Shao, Chelsea Hepler, Lavanya Vishvanath, Karen A MacPherson, Napoleon C Busbuso, Rana K Gupta
OBJECTIVE: Zfp423 is a multi zinc-finger transcription factor expressed in preadipocytes and mature adipocytes in vivo. Our recent work has revealed a critical role for Zfp423 in maintaining the fate of white adipocytes in adult mice through suppression of the beige cell thermogenic gene program; loss of Zfp423 in mature adipocytes of adult mice results in a white-to-beige phenotypic switch. However, the exact requirements of Zfp423 in the fetal stages of early adipose development in vivo have not been clarified...
January 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123330/the-plethora-clinical-manifestations-and-treatment-options-of-autoimmunity-in-patients-with-primary-immunodeficiency
#7
Hatice Ezgi Barış, Ayça Kıykım, Ercan Nain, Ahmet Oğuzhan Özen, Elif Karakoç-Aydıner, Safa Barış
AIM: Although the association between primary immunodeficiency and autoimmunity is already well-known, it has once again become a topic of debate with the discovery of newly-defined immunodeficiencies. Thus, investigation of the mechanisms of development of autoimmunity in primary immunodefficiency and new target-specific therapeutic options has come to the fore. In this study, we aimed to examine the clinical findings of autoimmunity, autoimmunity varieties, and treatment responses in patients who were genetically diagnosed as having primary immunodeficiency...
December 2016: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123139/remodeling-of-rat-stromal-vascular-cells-to-brite-beige-adipocytes-by-prolyl-hydroxyproline
#8
Jun A Minaguchi, Sakino Ogata, Naoki Takahashi, Takuya Hirose, Hiromi Ueda, Kazushige Takehana
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of prolyl-hydroxyproline (Pro-Hyp) on the proliferation and differentiation of rat stromal-vascular cells (SVCs) being cultured in a medium with (Pro-Hyp group) or without Pro-Hyp (control group). The results showed that there was no significant difference in proliferation rate of SVCs, lipid droplet (LD) diameter or intracellular concentration of triglycerides between two groups. However, the diameter range of LDs in the Pro-Hyp group tended to be smaller than that in the control group...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108299/mouse-model-of-hydroquinone-hypersensitivity-via-innate-and-acquired-immunity-and-its-promotion-by-combined-reagents
#9
Kanan Bando, Yukinori Tanaka, Toshinobu Kuroishi, Keiichi Sasaki, Teruko Takano-Yamamoto, Shunji Sugawara, Yasuo Endo
We established a mouse model of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) to hydroquinone (HQ), a widespread chemical in our environment. HQ was painted onto flanks. Then, HQ was challenged by painting onto ear-pinnas on days 7 and 14. The CHS after the 2(nd) challenge was markedly greater than that after the 1(st) challenge. Both challenges increased thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and Th2 cytokines in ear-pinnas, while IFN-γ (typical Th1 cytokine) was decreased, despite an increase in IL-18 (typical IFN-γ inducer)...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107636/visceral-white-adipose-tissue-following-chronic-intermittent-and-sustained-hypoxia-in-mice
#10
David Gozal, Alex Gileles-Hillel, Rene Cortese, Yan Li, Isaac Almendros, Zhuanhong Qiao, Ahamed A Khalyfa, Jorge Andrade, Abdelnaby Khalyfa
BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis, a process induced by hypoxia in visceral white adipose tissue (vWAT) in the context of obesity, mediates obesity-induced metabolic dysfunction and insulin resistance. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) and sustained hypoxia (SH) induce body weight reductions and insulin resistance of differing magnitude, suggesting different HIF-1α-related activity. METHODS: 8-week old male C57BL/6J mice (n=10-12/group) were exposed to either IH, SH,or room air (RA)...
January 20, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099842/brown-adipogenic-reprogramming-induced-by-a-small-molecule
#11
Baoming Nie, Tao Nie, Xiaoyan Hui, Ping Gu, Liufeng Mao, Kuai Li, Ran Yuan, Jiashun Zheng, Haixia Wang, Ke Li, Shibing Tang, Yu Zhang, Tao Xu, Aimin Xu, Donghai Wu, Sheng Ding
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has attracted considerable research interest because of its therapeutic potential to treat obesity and associated metabolic diseases. Augmentation of brown fat mass and/or its function may represent an attractive strategy to enhance energy expenditure. Using high-throughput phenotypic screening to induce brown adipocyte reprogramming in committed myoblasts, we identified a retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonist, bexarotene (Bex), that efficiently converted myoblasts into brown adipocyte-like cells...
January 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099124/browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-lessons-from-experimental-models
#12
Thereza Cristina Lonzetti Bargut, Vanessa Souza-Mello, Marcia Barbosa Aguila, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda
Beige or brite (brown-in-white) adipocytes are present in white adipose tissue (WAT) and have a white fat-like phenotype that when stimulated acquires a brown fat-like phenotype, leading to increased thermogenesis. This phenomenon is known as browning and is more likely to occur in subcutaneous fat depots. Browning involves the expression of many transcription factors, such as PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, and of uncoupling protein (UCP)-1, which is the hallmark of thermogenesis...
January 18, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090143/acute-exercise-regulates-adipogenic-gene-expression-in-white-adipose-tissue
#13
Y Shen, H Zhou, W Jin, H J Lee
White adipose tissue expansion is associated with both hypertrophy and hyperplasia of adipocytes. Exercise training results in adipocyte hypotrophy by activating lipolysis, but it is poorly understood whether exercise regulates adipogenesis by altering adipogenic gene expression. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single bout of swimming exercise on adipogenic gene expression in white adipose tissue (WAT). Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into two groups: a sedentary control group and a 120-minute swimming exercise group...
December 2016: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060251/in-vivo-model-for-testing-effect-of-hypoxia-on-tumor-metastasis
#14
Sung-Hyeok Hong, Jason U Tilan, Susana Galli, Rachel Acree, Katherine Connors, Akanksha Mahajan, Larissa Wietlisbach, Taylor Polk, Ewa Izycka-Swieszewska, Yi-Chien Lee, Luciane R Cavalli, Olga C Rodriguez, Chris Albanese, Joanna B Kitlinska
Hypoxia has been implicated in the metastasis of Ewing sarcoma (ES) by clinical observations and in vitro data, yet direct evidence for its pro-metastatic effect is lacking and the exact mechanisms of its action are unclear. Here, we report an animal model that allows for direct testing of the effects of tumor hypoxia on ES dissemination and investigation into the underlying pathways involved. This approach combines two well-established experimental strategies, orthotopic xenografting of ES cells and femoral artery ligation (FAL), which induces hindlimb ischemia...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049691/pdgfr%C3%AE-controls-the-balance-of-stromal-and-adipogenic-cells-during-adipose-tissue-organogenesis
#15
Chengyi Sun, William L Berry, Lorin E Olson
Adipose tissue is distributed in depots throughout the body with specialized roles in energy storage and thermogenesis. PDGFRα is a marker of adipocyte precursors, and increased PDGFRα activity causes adipose tissue fibrosis in adult mice. However, the function of PDGFRα during adipose tissue organogenesis is unknown. Here, by analyzing mice with juxtamembrane or kinase domain point mutations that increase PDGFRα activity (V561D or D842V), we found that PDGFRα activation inhibits embryonic white adipose tissue organogenesis in a tissue-autonomous manner...
January 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046166/expression-of-uncoupling-protein-1-in-bovine-muscle-cells
#16
M A Abd Eldaim, O Hashimoto, H Ohtsuki, T Yamada, M Murakami, K Onda, R Sato, Y Kanamori, Y Qiao, S Tomonaga, T Matsui, M Funaba
Uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) is predominantly expressed in brown/beige adipocytes in mammals. Although myogenic cells have been suggested to commit to a brown adipocyte lineage through the induction of Prdm16 expression, Prdm16 is also expressed in skeletal muscle. Thus, we examined expression of Ucp1 in bovine myogenic cells. Considering that Ucp1 is a principle molecule that induces energy expenditure in brown/beige adipocytes, expression of Ucp1 is not preferable in beef cattle because of potential decrease in energy (fattening) efficiency...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045125/metabolic-heterogeneity-of-activated-beige-brite-adipocytes-in-inguinal-adipose-tissue
#17
Yun-Hee Lee, Sang-Nam Kim, Hyun-Jung Kwon, James G Granneman
Sustained β3 adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) activation simultaneously upregulates fatty acid synthesis and oxidation in mouse brown, beige, and white adipose tissues; however, the cellular basis of this dual regulation is not known. Treatment of mice with the ADRB3 agonist CL316,243 (CL) increased expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) protein within the same cells in classic brown and white adipose tissues. Surprisingly, in inguinal adipose tissue, CL-upregulated FASN and MCAD in distinct cell populations: high MCAD expression occurred in multilocular adipocytes that co-expressed UCP1+, whereas high FASN expression occurred in paucilocular adipocytes lacking detectable UCP1...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026903/impaired-adrenergic-agonist-dependent-beige-adipocyte-induction-in-aged-mice
#18
Woongchul Shin, Yuko Okamatsu-Ogura, Ken Machida, Ayumi Tsubota, Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Kazuhiro Kimura
OBJECTIVE: There are two types of thermogenic adipocytes expressing uncoupling protein (UCP)-1: the brown adipocyte activated by adrenergic stimulation and the beige adipocyte that appears within the white adipose tissue (WAT) in response to chronic adrenergic stimulation. This study examined age-related changes in responses of both types of adipocytes to adrenergic stimulation in mice. METHODS: Aged (age 20 months) and young (4 months) mice were injected daily with either saline or β3-adrenergic receptor agonist CL316,243 (CL; 0...
December 27, 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011041/establishment-of-a-patient-derived-xenograft-of-canine-enteropathy-associated-t-cell-lymphoma-large-cell-type
#19
K S Im, J H Kim, A J Graef, I Cornax, D M Seelig, M G O'Sullivan, R C Kovi, J F Modiano
The pathogenesis of canine T-cell lymphoma remains incompletely understood, partly because there are no well-established in-vivo models to study these malignancies. For this study, we generated a patient-derived tumour xenograft (PDTX) from a 10-year-old neutered male golden retriever dog with enteropathy-associated intestinal T-cell lymphoma, large cell type. One of two female, 15-week-old beige/nude/XID mice developed a visible tumour 7 weeks after sections of tumour material from the spleen were surgically implanted...
January 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008247/new-silver-nanoparticles-induce-apoptosis-like-process-in-e-coli-and-interfere-with-mammalian-copper-metabolism
#20
Iurii A Orlov, Tatiana P Sankova, Polina S Babich, Ilya M Sosnin, Ekaterina Yu Ilyechova, Demid A Kirilenko, Pavel N Brunkov, Gennadii L Ataev, Alexey E Romanov, Ludmila V Puchkova
Silver nanoparticles (SNPs) are new functional materials that are widely used in biomedical and industrial technologies. Two main features that make SNPs valuable are their strong antibacterial effects and low toxicity to eukaryotes. In this study, SNPs were synthesized using a modified method of reducing the metal ions to their atomic state followed by crystallization. SNPs were characterized by UV/vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The SNPs were spherically shaped with an average linear dimension of 20 nm...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
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