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Beige cell

Suhong Xiao, Ying-Sheng Tang, Praveen Kusumanchi, Sally P Stabler, Ying Zhang, Asok C Antony
Background: Epidemiologic and in vitro studies suggest independent linkages between poor folate and/or vitamin B-12 nutrition, genomic human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 viral integration, and cancer. However, there is no direct evidence in vivo to support the causative role of poor folate nutrition in HPV16 integration into the cellular genome. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that folate deficiency enables the integration of HPV16 into the genome of HPV16-harboring keratinocytes, and could thereby influence earlier transformation of these cells to cancer in an animal model...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Gholamreza Azizi, Hassan Abolhassani, Majid Zaki-Dizaji, Sima Habibi, Hamed Mohammadi, Mohammadreza Shaghaghi, Reza Yazdani, Juan-Manuel Anaya, Nima Rezaei, Lennart Hammarström, Asghar Aghamohammadi
BACKGROUND: Polyautoimmunity is defined as the presence of more than one autoimmune disorder in a single patient. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-responsive beige-like anchor (LRBA) deficiency is one of the monogenic causes of polyautoimmunity. The aim of this study was to report the characteristics of polyautoimmunity in patients with LRBA deficiency. METHODS: A total of 14 LRBA deficiency patients with confirmed autoimmunity were enrolled in this study. For those patients with polyautoimmunity, demographic information, clinical records, laboratory, and molecular data were collected...
March 12, 2018: Immunological Investigations
Xiaoli Hou, Yongzhao Zhang, Wei Li, Alexander J Hu, Chi Luo, Wenhui Zhou, Jamie K Hu, Stefano G Daniele, Jinfeng Wang, Jinghao Sheng, Yongsheng Fan, Andrew S Greenberg, Stephen R Farmer, Miaofen G Hu
Whereas white adipose tissue depots contribute to the development of metabolic diseases, brown and beige adipose tissue has beneficial metabolic effects. Here we show that CDK6 regulates beige adipocyte formation. We demonstrate that mice lacking the CDK6 protein or its kinase domain (K43M) exhibit significant increases beige cell formation, enhanced energy expenditure, better glucose tolerance, and improved insulin sensitivity, and are more resistant to high-fat diet-induced obesity. Re-expression of CDK6 in Cdk6-/- mature or precursor cells, or ablation of RUNX1 in K43M mature or precursor cells, reverses these phenotypes...
March 9, 2018: Nature Communications
Lingyan Wu, Lina Zhang, Bohan Li, Haowen Jiang, Yanan Duan, Zhifu Xie, Lin Shuai, Jia Li, Jingya Li
Obesity occurs when excess energy accumulates in white adipose tissue (WAT), whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT), which is specialized in dissipating energy through thermogenesis, potently counteracts obesity. White adipocytes can be converted to thermogenic "brown-like" cells (beige cells; WAT browning) under various stimuli, such as cold exposure. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a crucial energy sensor that regulates energy metabolism in multiple tissues. However, the role of AMPK in adipose tissue function, especially in the WAT browning process, is not fully understood...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Maria Moysidou, Sevasti Karaliota, Elisavet Kodela, Maria Salagianni, Yassemi Koutmani, Antonia Katsouda, Konstantia Kodella, Panagiotis Tsakanikas, Styliani Ourailidou, Evangelos Andreakos, Nikolaos Kostomitsopoulos, Dimitris Skokos, Antonios Chatzigeorgiou, Kyoung-Jin Chung, Stefan Bornstein, Mark W Sleeman, Triantafyllos Chavakis, Katia P Karalis
Although accumulation of lymphocytes in the white adipose tissue (WAT) in obesity is linked to insulin resistance, it remains unclear whether lymphocytes also participate in the regulation of energy homeostasis in the WAT. Here, we demonstrate enhanced energy dissipation in Rag1-/- mice, increased catecholaminergic input to subcutaneous WAT, and significant beige adipogenesis. Adoptive transfer experiments demonstrated that CD8+ T cell deficiency accounts for the enhanced beige adipogenesis in Rag1-/- mice...
March 8, 2018: JCI Insight
Hiroshi Mikamo, Meizi Jiang, Mahito Noro, Yasuo Suzuki, Nobuyuki Hiruta, Hiroyuki Unoki-Kubota, Wolfgang J Schneider, Hideaki Bujo
The upregulation of brown or brown-like beige adipocytes is a potential strategy for the prevention or treatment of diabetes and coronary artery diseases in obese patients. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) differs significantly from subcutaneous fat tissue (SAT) in metabolic properties. To investigate properties of EAT further, thermogenesis gene expression was investigated in human autopsy and murine samples, and adipocytes differentiated from EAT mesenchymal cells. Subsequently, analyzed EAT volume alterations were observed to be associated with weight reduction in obese patients by imaging...
March 6, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Aneta Stefanidis, Nicole M Wiedmann, Sonika Tyagi, Andrew M Allen, Matthew J Watt, Brian J Oldfield
OBJECTIVE: The potential for brown adipose tissue (BAT) to be targeted as a therapeutic option to combat obesity has been heightened by the discovery of a brown-like form of inducible "beige" adipose tissue in white fat which has overlapping structural and functional properties to "classical" BAT. The likelihood that both beige and brown fat are recruited functionally by neural mechanisms, taken together with the lack of a detailed understanding of the nature of changes in the nervous system when white adipose tissue (WAT) is transformed to brown, provides the impetus for this study...
February 10, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Peter Kämpfer, Hans-Jürgen Busse, Sophie Baars, Gottfried Wilharm, Stefanie P Glaeser
A beige-pigmented bacterial strain, SB30-Chr27-3T , isolated from a garden pond, was studied for its taxonomic position. Cells of the isolate were rod-shaped and stained Gram-negative. A comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequence with the sequences of the type strains of the most closely related species showed that the strain belongs to the genus Comamonas and showed highest sequence similarities to the type strains of Comamonas jiangduensis (97.5 %), Comamonas aquatica (97.4 %) and Comamonas phosphati (97...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Diane M Sepa-Kishi, Rolando B Ceddia
The white adipose tissue (WAT) exhibits great plasticity and can undergo "browning" and acquire features of the brown adipose tissue (BAT), which takes place following cold exposure, chronic endurance exercise or β3-adrenergic stimulation. WAT that underwent browning is characterized by the presence of "beige" adipocytes, which are morphologically similar to brown adipocytes, express uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and are considered thermogenically competent. Thus, inducing a BAT-like phenotype in the WAT could promote energy dissipation within this depot, reducing the availability of substrate that would otherwise be stored in the WAT...
February 21, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Ming-Jing Shi, Chong Wang, Xu-Ting Wang, Zong-Jun Du
A novel Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, non-flagellated and rod-shaped bacterium, designated HF004T , was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected from the coast of Weihai, China. The strain grew optimally at 28 °C, pH 7.5-8.0 and in the presence of 2.0-3.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain HF004T was a member of the genus Halioglobus, appearing to be closely related to Halioglobus pacificus (96.1 %) and Halioglobus japonicus (95.6 %). The major fatty acids were summed feature 3 (i...
January 29, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Yujiao Zu, Haley Overby, Guofeng Ren, Zhaoyang Fan, Ling Zhao, Shu Wang
Trans-resveratrol (R) has a potential to increase energy expenditure via inducing browning in white adipose tissue. However, its low levels of aqueous solubility, stability, and poor bioavailability limit its application. We have successfully synthesized biocompatible, and biodegradable R encapsulated lipid nanocarriers (R-nano), and R encapsulated liposomes (R-lipo). The mean particle size of R-nano and R-lipo were 140 nm and 110 nm, respectively, and their polydispersity index values were less than 0...
December 27, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Sunhye Shin, Kolapo M Ajuwon
Long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) are known to activate brown and beige adipocytes. However, very little is known about the effects of the number and the position of double bonds in LCFA with the same length on brown fat-specific gene expression. To determine the specificity of LCFA in the regulation of these genes in different adipocyte models, fully differentiated 10T1/2, 3T3-L1, murine, or porcine primary adipocytes (obtained from the subcutaneous fat pad of C57BL/6 mice or Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc crossbred piglets) were treated with 50 μM of the following 18-carbon fatty acids: stearic acid (STA; 18:0), oleic acid (OLA; 18:1, Δ9), linoleic acid (LNA; 18:2, Δ9,12), α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3, Δ9,12,15), γ-linolenic acid (GLA; 18:3, Δ6,9,12), or pinolenic acid (PLA; 18:3, Δ5,9,12) for 24 h with or without 4-h norepinephrine (NE) treatment...
February 9, 2018: Lipids
Nelly Saber, Jennifer E Bruin, Shannon O'Dwyer, Hellen Schuster, Alireza Rezania, Timothy J Kieffer
Pancreatic progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are now in clinical trials for insulin replacement in patients with type 1 diabetes. Animal studies indicate the cells can mature into a mixed population of pancreatic endocrine cells including glucose-responsive beta cells several months after implant, but it remains unclear how conditions in the recipient may influence the maturation and ultimately the function of these cells. Here, we investigated the effects of the host sex and pregnancy on the maturation of human Stage 4 (S4) pancreatic progenitor cells and more mature Stage 7 (S7) pancreatic endocrine cells implanted under the kidney capsule of immunodeficient SCID-Beige mice...
February 5, 2018: Endocrinology
Valentin Barquissau, Benjamin Léger, Diane Beuzelin, Frédéric Martins, Ez-Zoubir Amri, Didier F Pisani, Wim H M Saris, Arne Astrup, Jean-José Maoret, Jason Iacovoni, Sébastien Déjean, Cédric Moro, Nathalie Viguerie, Dominique Langin
Caloric restriction (CR) is standard lifestyle therapy in obesity management. CR-induced weight loss improves the metabolic profile of individuals with obesity. In mice, occurrence of beige fat cells in white fat depots favors a metabolically healthy phenotype, and CR promotes browning of white adipose tissue (WAT). Here, human subcutaneous abdominal WAT samples were analyzed in 289 individuals with obesity following a two-phase dietary intervention consisting of an 8 week very low calorie diet and a 6-month weight-maintenance phase...
January 23, 2018: Cell Reports
Raissa G Ludwig, Andréa L Rocha, Marcelo A Mori
Obesity may be counteracted by increased energy expenditure. Circulating molecules act in the adipose tissue to influence brown and beige adipocyte function, differentiation, and thermogenic capacity, which in turn affects substrate utilization and impacts energy balance at the organismal level. These molecules have been envisioned as biomarkers and potential candidates for pharmacological interventions to treat obesity. Here we summarize studies that demonstrate the roles of endogenous circulating molecules of a wide variety in regulating the thermogenic potential of brown and beige fat cells...
January 31, 2018: Cell Biology International
Kenji Ikeda, Pema Maretich, Shingo Kajimura
Two types of thermogenic fat cells, brown adipocytes and beige adipocytes, play a key role in the regulation of systemic energy homeostasis in mammals. Both brown fat and beige fat possess thermogenic properties in addition to common morphological and biochemical characteristics, including multilocular lipid droplets and cristae-dense mitochondria. Recent studies also identify features that are distinct between the two types of thermogenic fat cells, such as their developmental regulation and function. Of particular interest is the role of beige fat in the regulation of glucose homeostasis via uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-independent mechanisms...
January 20, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Erica L Scheller, Shaima Khandaker, Brian S Learman, William P Cawthorn, Lindsay M Anderson, H A Pham, Hero Robles, Zhaohua Wang, Ziru Li, Sebastian D Parlee, Becky R Simon, Hiroyuki Mori, Adam J Bree, Clarissa S Craft, Ormond A MacDougald
Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is preserved or increased in states of caloric restriction. Similarly, we found that BMAT in the tail vertebrae, but not the red marrow in the tibia, resists loss of neutral lipid with acute, 48-hour fasting in rats. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon and its seemingly distinct regulation from peripheral white adipose tissue (WAT) remain unknown. To test the role of β-adrenergic stimulation, a major regulator of adipose tissue lipolysis, we examined the responses of BMAT to β-adrenergic agonists...
January 19, 2018: Bone
D-I Kim, J Liao, M P Emont, M-J Park, H Jun, S K Ramakrishnan, J D Lin, Y M Shah, M B Omary, J Wu
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Thermogenic fat is present in humans and emerging evidence indicates that increasing the content and activity of these adipocytes may lead to weight loss and improved metabolic health. Multiple reporter systems have been developed to assay thermogenic fat activity based on the transcriptional and translational activation of Ucp1, the key molecule that mediates nonshivering thermogenesis. Our study aims to develop a much-needed tool to monitor thermogenic fat activity through a mechanism independent of Ucp1 regulation, therefore effectively assaying not only canonical β-adrenergic activation but also various non-UCP1-mediated thermogenic pathways that have been increasingly appreciated...
January 23, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Tamiris Lima Rachid, Flavia Maria Silva-Veiga, Francielle Graus-Nunes, Isabele Bringhenti, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Vanessa Souza-Mello
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity compromises adipocyte physiology. PPARs are essential to adipocyte plasticity, but its isolated role in the browning phenomenon is not clear. This study aimed to examine whether activation of PPAR-α or PPAR-β/δ could induce beige cell depots in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty animals were randomly assigned to receive a control diet (C, 10% lipids) or a high-fat diet (HF, 50% lipids) for ten weeks...
2018: PloS One
Ondrej Kuda, Martin Rossmeisl, Jan Kopecky
This review provides evidence for the importance of white and brown adipose tissue (i.e. WAT and BAT) function for the maintenance of healthy metabolic phenotype and its preservation in response to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA), namely in the context of diseased states linked to aberrant accumulation of body fat, systemic low-grade inflammation, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. More specifically, the review deals with (i) the concept of immunometabolism, i.e. how adipose-resident immune cells and adipocytes affect each other and define the immune-metabolic interface; and (ii) the characteristic features of "healthy adipocytes" in WAT, which are relatively small fat cells endowed with a high capacity for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, triacylglycerol/fatty acid (TAG/FA) cycling and de novo lipogenesis (DNL)...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
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