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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329795/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-adipose-tissue-biology
#1
REVIEW
Ondrej Kuda, Martin Rossmeisl, Jan Kopecky
This review provides evidence for the importance of white and brown adipose tissue (i.e. WAT and BAT) function for the maintenance of healthy metabolic phenotype and its preservation in response to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA), namely in the context of diseased states linked to aberrant accumulation of body fat, systemic low-grade inflammation, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. More specifically, the review deals with (i) the concept of immunometabolism, i.e. how adipose-resident immune cells and adipocytes affect each other and define the immune-metabolic interface; and (ii) the characteristic features of "healthy adipocytes" in WAT, which are relatively small fat cells endowed with a high capacity for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, triacylglycerol/fatty acid (TAG/FA) cycling and de novo lipogenesis (DNL)...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329687/bubble-induced-color-doppler-feedback-correlates-with-histotripsy-induced-destruction-of-structural-components-in-liver-tissue
#2
Jonathan J Macoskey, Xi Zhang, Timothy L Hall, Jiaqi Shi, Shahaboddin Alahyari Beig, Eric Johnsen, Fred T Lee, Charles A Cain, Zhen Xu
Bubble-induced color Doppler (BCD) is a histotripsy-therapy monitoring technique that uses Doppler ultrasound to track the motion of residual cavitation nuclei that persist after the collapse of the histotripsy bubble cloud. In this study, BCD is used to monitor tissue fractionation during histotripsy tissue therapy, and the BCD signal is correlated with the destruction of structural and non-structural components identified histologically to further understand how BCD monitors the extent of treatment. A 500-kHz, 112-element phased histotripsy array is used to generate approximately 6- × 6- × 7-mm lesions within ex vivo bovine liver tissue by scanning more than 219 locations with 30-1000 pulses per location...
January 9, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320703/three-dimensional-adipose-tissue-imaging-reveals-regional-variation-in-beige-fat-biogenesis-and-prdm16-dependent-sympathetic-neurite-density
#3
Jingyi Chi, Zhuhao Wu, Chan Hee J Choi, Lily Nguyen, Saba Tegegne, Sarah E Ackerman, Audrey Crane, François Marchildon, Marc Tessier-Lavigne, Paul Cohen
While the cell-intrinsic pathways governing beige adipocyte development and phenotype have been increasingly delineated, comparatively little is known about how beige adipocytes interact with other cell types in fat. Here, we introduce a whole-tissue clearing method for adipose that permits immunolabeling and three-dimensional profiling of structures including thermogenic adipocytes and sympathetic innervation. We found that tissue architecture and sympathetic innervation differ significantly between subcutaneous and visceral depots...
January 9, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320702/repression-of-adipose-tissue-fibrosis-through-a-prdm16-gtf2ird1-complex-improves-systemic-glucose-homeostasis
#4
Yutaka Hasegawa, Kenji Ikeda, Yong Chen, Diana L Alba, Daniel Stifler, Kosaku Shinoda, Takashi Hosono, Pema Maretich, Yangyu Yang, Yasushi Ishigaki, Jingyi Chi, Paul Cohen, Suneil K Koliwad, Shingo Kajimura
Adipose tissue fibrosis is a hallmark of malfunction that is linked to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes; however, what regulates this process remains unclear. Here we show that the PRDM16 transcriptional complex, a dominant activator of brown/beige adipocyte development, potently represses adipose tissue fibrosis in an uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-independent manner. By purifying the PRDM16 complex, we identified GTF2IRD1, a member of the TFII-I family of DNA-binding proteins, as a cold-inducible transcription factor that mediates the repressive action of the PRDM16 complex on fibrosis...
January 9, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295856/fgf21-induced-by-carbon-monoxide-mediates-metabolic-homeostasis-via-the-perk-atf4-pathway
#5
Yeonsoo Joe, Sena Kim, Hyo Jeong Kim, Jeongmin Park, Yingqing Chen, Hyeok-Jun Park, Seung-Joo Jekal, Stefan W Ryter, Uh Hyun Kim, Hun Taeg Chung
The prevalence of metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease, has rapidly increased, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying the metabolic syndrome, a primary risk factor, remain incompletely understood. The small, gaseous molecule carbon monoxide (CO) has well-known anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and antiapoptotic effects in a variety of cellular- and tissue-injury models, whereas its potential effects on the complex pathways of metabolic disease remain unknown...
January 2, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288687/distinctive-effects-of-licarin-a-on-lipolysis-mediated-by-pka-and-on-formation-of-brown-adipocytes-from-c3h10t1-2-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#6
Dahyeon Yoon, Khan Mohammad Imran, Yong-Sik Kim
Obesity increases with the positive energy imbalance and correlates with increased risks for metabolic diseases. Promotion of white adipose tissue beiging has received considerable attention due to possible usefulness for preventing obesity and the comorbidities. Licarin A (LA) is a compound derived from Mexican medicinal plant Aristolochia taliscana. Here, we report that LA stimulates the development of brown-like and beige-like adipocytes from C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells with phenotypic shifts to formation of smaller lipid droplets...
December 27, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286443/reprogramming-primary-amniotic-fluid-and-membrane-cells-to-pluripotency-in-xeno-free-conditions
#7
Jaroslav Slamecka, Javier Laurini, Troy Shirley, Simon Philipp Hoerstrup, Benedikt Weber, Laurie Owen, Steven McClellan
Autologous cell-based therapies got a step closer to reality with the introduction of induced pluripotent stem cells. Fetal stem cells, such as amniotic fluid and membrane mesenchymal stem cells, represent a unique type of undifferentiated cells with promise in tissue engineering and for reprogramming into iPSC for future pediatric interventions and stem cell banking. The protocol presented here describes an optimized procedure for extracting and culturing primary amniotic fluid and membrane mesenchymal stem cells and generating episomal induced pluripotent stem cells from these cells in fully chemically defined culture conditions utilizing human recombinant vitronectin and the E8 medium...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280351/mir-27b-3p-regulation-in-browning-of-human-visceral-adipose-related-to-central-obesity
#8
Jing Yu, Yifan Lv, Wenjuan Di, Juan Liu, Xiaocen Kong, Yunlu Sheng, Min Huang, Shan Lv, Hanmei Qi, Mei Gao, Hui Liang, Sarah Kim, Zan Fu, Hong Zhou, Guoxian Ding
OBJECTIVE: Given the rising prevalence of central obesity and the discovery that beige cells appear within white adipose tissue, strategies to enhance these energy-expending adipocytes or "browning" within white adipose depots have become of therapeutic interest to combat obesity and its associated disorders. This study focused on, the role of microRNA (miRNA)-27b-3p in human visceral adipose tissue (VAT) browning. METHODS: Expression of miR-27b-3p and UCP1 in VAT and serum of humans was measured...
December 27, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279393/designing-a-retrievable-and-scalable-cell-encapsulation-device-for-potential-treatment-of-type-1-diabetes
#9
Duo An, Alan Chiu, James A Flanders, Wei Song, Dahua Shou, Yen-Chun Lu, Lars G Grunnet, Louise Winkel, Camilla Ingvorsen, Nicolaj Strøyer Christophersen, Johannes Josef Fels, Fredrik Wolfhagen Sand, Yewei Ji, Ling Qi, Yehudah Pardo, Dan Luo, Meredith Silberstein, Jintu Fan, Minglin Ma
Cell encapsulation has been shown to hold promise for effective, long-term treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, challenges remain for its clinical applications. For example, there is an unmet need for an encapsulation system that is capable of delivering sufficient cell mass while still allowing convenient retrieval or replacement. Here, we report a simple cell encapsulation design that is readily scalable and conveniently retrievable. The key to this design was to engineer a highly wettable, Ca2+-releasing nanoporous polymer thread that promoted uniform in situ cross-linking and strong adhesion of a thin layer of alginate hydrogel around the thread...
December 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249968/purinergic-receptors-in-adipose-tissue-as-potential-targets-in-metabolic-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Marco Tozzi, Ivana Novak
Extracellular nucleosides and nucleotides, such as adenosine and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), are involved in many physiological and pathological processes in adipose tissue (AT). It is becoming accepted that, in addition to the well-established sympathetic and hormonal system, purinergic receptors contribute significantly to regulation of adipocyte functions. Several receptor subtypes for both adenosine (P1) and ATP (P2X and P2Y) have been characterized in white adipocytes (WA) and brown adipocytes (BA). The effects mediated by adenosine and ATP on adipocytes are multiple and often differing, depending on specific receptors activated...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245445/increasing-diversity-of-land-planarians-platyhelminthes-geoplanidae-in-the-interior-atlantic-forest-with-the-description-of-two-new-species-and-new-records-from-argentina
#11
Lisandro Negrete, Francisco Brusa
Here, we describe two new species of land planarians of the genera Pasipha and Imbira from the Atlantic Forest of Argentina: Pasipha quirogai sp. nov. and Imbira negrita sp. nov. Their external features and internal anatomy distinguish them from their congeners. Pasipha quirogai sp. nov. is about 40mm long, characterized by brown beige dorsal pigmentation with a golden yellow median band and thin graphite black para-median stripes, cylindrical pharynx, extrabulbar prostatic vesicle with paired proximal portion, male atrium with small folds in its proximal part, and female canal opening into the dorso-caudal wall of the female atrium...
December 4, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237539/cdkn2a-deficiency-promotes-adipose-tissue-browning
#12
Nabil Rabhi, Sarah Anissa Hannou, Xavier Gromada, Elisabet Salas, Xi Yao, Frédérik Oger, Charlène Carney, Isabel C Lopez-Mejia, Emmanuelle Durand, Iandry Rabearivelo, Amélie Bonnefond, Emilie Caron, Lluis Fajas, Christian Dani, Philippe Froguel, Jean-Sébastien Annicotte
OBJECTIVES: Genome-wide association studies have reported that DNA polymorphisms at the CDKN2A locus modulate fasting glucose in human and contribute to type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Yet the causal relationship between this gene and defective energy homeostasis remains elusive. Here we sought to understand the contribution of Cdkn2a to metabolic homeostasis. METHODS: We first analyzed glucose and energy homeostasis from Cdkn2a-deficient mice subjected to normal or high fat diets...
December 1, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215317/novel-application-and-serial-evaluation-of-tissue-engineered-portal-vein-grafts-in-a-murine-model
#13
Mark W Maxfield, Mitchel R Stacy, Hirotsugu Kurobe, Shuhei Tara, Tai Yi, Muriel A Cleary, Zhen W Zhuang, Manuel I Rodriguez-Davalos, Sukru H Emre, Yasuko Iwakiri, Toshiharu Shinoka, Christopher K Breuer
AIM: Surgical management of pediatric extrahepatic portal vein obstruction requires meso-Rex bypass using autologous or synthetic grafts. Tissue-engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) provide an alternative, but no validated animal models using portal TEVGs exist. Herein, we preclinically assess TEVGs as portal vein bypass grafts. MATERIALS & METHODS: TEVGs were implanted as portal vein interposition conduits in SCID-beige mice, monitored by ultrasound and micro-computed tomography, and histologically assessed postmortem at 12 months...
December 7, 2017: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209828/regulation-of-immunometabolism-in-adipose-tissue
#14
REVIEW
Manju Kumari, Joerg Heeren, Ludger Scheja
Adipose tissue has emerged as a major player in driving obesity-related inflammatory response. In obesity, chronic infiltration of macrophages in adipose tissue mediates local and systemic inflammation and acts as a key contributor to insulin resistance. In the past few years, adipose tissue plasticity and remodeling capacity has been studied extensively to develop therapeutic targets to combat obesity and related metabolic dysfunction. Progress in understanding the potential of adipocytes and contribution of macrophages and other immune cells to control immunometabolism in disease state has provided us new potential intervention targets to explore such as the formation of heat-producing beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue and the polarization of macrophages from an inflammatory toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype...
December 5, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209342/physical-functional-and-genetic-interactions-between-the-beach-domain-protein-spirrig-and-lip5-and-skd1-and-its-role-in-endosomal-trafficking-to-the-vacuole-in-arabidopsis
#15
Alexandra Steffens, Marc Jakoby, Martin Hülskamp
Beige and Chediak Higashi (BEACH) domain-containing proteins (BDCPs) are facilitators of membrane-dependent cellular processes in eukaryotes. Mutations in BDCPs cause malfunctions of endosomal compartments in various cell types. Recently, the molecular analysis of the BDCP homolog gene SPIRRIG (SPI) has revealed a molecular function in P-bodies and the regulation of RNA stability. We therefore aimed to analyze, whether SPI has also a role in membrane-dependent processes. In this study, we show that SPI physically interacts with endosomal sorting complex required for transport associated ATPase Suppressor of K+-transport growth defect1 (SKD1) and its positive regulator, LYST Interacting Protein 5 (LIP5) and report genetic interactions between SPI and SKD1 and LIP5...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198749/mitochondrial-fission-is-associated-with-ucp1-activity-in-human-brite-beige-adipocytes
#16
Didier F Pisani, Valentin Barquissau, Jean-Claude Chambard, Diane Beuzelin, Rayane A Ghandour, Maude Giroud, Aline Mairal, Sophie Pagnotta, Saverio Cinti, Dominique Langin, Ez-Zoubir Amri
OBJECTIVE: Thermogenic adipocytes (i.e. brown or brite/beige adipocytes) are able to burn large amounts of lipids and carbohydrates as a result of highly active mitochondria and enhanced uncoupled respiration, due to UCP1 activity. Although mitochondria are the key organelles for this thermogenic function, limited human data are available. METHODS/RESULTS: We characterized changes in the mitochondrial function of human brite adipocytes, using hMADS cells as a model of white- to brite-adipocyte conversion...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170465/egr1-deficiency-induces-browning-of-inguinal-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue-in-mice
#17
Cécile Milet, Marianne Bléher, Kassandra Allbright, Mickael Orgeur, Fanny Coulpier, Delphine Duprez, Emmanuelle Havis
Beige adipocyte differentiation within white adipose tissue, referred to as browning, is seen as a possible mechanism for increasing energy expenditure. The molecular regulation underlying the thermogenic browning process has not been entirely elucidated. Here, we identify the zinc finger transcription factor EGR1 as a negative regulator of the beige fat program. Loss of Egr1 in mice promotes browning in the absence of external stimulation and leads to an increase of Ucp1 expression, which encodes the key thermogenic mitochondrial uncoupling protein-1...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169339/an-orthotopic-xenograft-model-for-high-risk-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-in-mice-influence-of-mouse-strain-tumor-cell-count-dwell-time-and-bladder-pretreatment
#18
Doreen Huebner, Christiane Rieger, Ralf Bergmann, Martin Ullrich, Sebastian Meister, Marieta Toma, Ralf Wiedemuth, Achim Temme, Vladimir Novotny, Manfred P Wirth, Michael Bachmann, Jens Pietzsch, Susanne Fuessel
BACKGROUND: Novel theranostic options for high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer are urgently needed. This requires a thorough evaluation of experimental approaches in animal models best possibly reflecting human disease before entering clinical studies. Although several bladder cancer xenograft models were used in the literature, the establishment of an orthotopic bladder cancer model in mice remains challenging. METHODS: Luciferase-transduced UM-UC-3(LUC)K1 bladder cancer cells were instilled transurethrally via 24G permanent venous catheters into athymic NMRI and BALB/c nude mice as well as into SCID-beige mice...
November 23, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158739/human-admc-derived-adipocyte-thermogenic-capacity-is-regulated-by-il-4-receptor
#19
Fernando Lizcano, Diana Vargas, Ángela Gómez, Astrid Torrado
Type two innate immune system is anti-inflammatory and may play an important role as the means whereby "browning" is induced in subcutaneous adipocytes. It was shown that IL-4 may influence the fate of adipose cell precursors by promoting differentiation towards more thermogenic adipocytes in mice. Here, we investigated the influence of IL-4 and IL-4 receptor, a type two immune cytokine pathway, on the metabolic activity and thermogenic potential of human adipocytes differentiated from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) obtained from subcutaneous samples of healthy women undergoing abdominoplasty...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158445/pdgfr%C3%AE-pdgfr%C3%AE-signaling-balance-modulates-progenitor-cell-differentiation-into-white-and-beige-adipocytes
#20
Zhanguo Gao, Alexes C Daquinag, Fei Su, Brad Snyder, Mikhail G Kolonin
Relative abundance of thermogenic beige adipocytes and lipid-storing white adipocytes in adipose tissue underlie its metabolic activity. The roles of adipocyte progenitor cells, which express PDGFRα or PDGFRβ, in adipose tissue function have remained unclear. Here, by defining the developmental timing of PDGFRα and PDGFRβ expression in mouse subcutaneous and visceral adipose depots, we uncover depot-specificity of preadipocyte delineation. We demonstrate that PDGFRα expression precedes PDGFRβ expression in all subcutaneous but only in a fraction of visceral adipose stromal cells...
November 20, 2017: Development
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