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Psychotic disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345374/psychoticism-in-patients-with-panic-disorder-with-or-without-comorbid-agoraphobia
#1
Vasilios G Masdrakis, Emilia-Maria Legaki, Charalambos Papageorgiou, Manolis Markianos
OBJECTIVE: A few case-reports have previously described transient psychotic-like symptoms in non-psychotic patients with panic disorder (PD). We aimed to systematically explore whether PD patients without any current or past psychosis can be differentiated according to the severity of 'psychoticism' as a dimension, comprising clinical features such as psychotic-like experiences, increased social alienation, hostility and suspiciousness. METHODS: Sample included 35 (female = 26) medication-free, non-psychotic patients consecutively referred from our Department's Outpatient Clinic for acute symptoms of DSM-5 PD with (PDA; N = 29) or without concurrent agoraphobia...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345275/abnormal-frontoparietal-synaptic-gain-mediating-the-p300-in-patients-with-psychotic-disorder-and-their-unaffected-relatives
#2
Álvaro Díez, Siri Ranlund, Dimitris Pinotsis, Stella Calafato, Madiha Shaikh, Mei-Hua Hall, Muriel Walshe, Ángel Nevado, Karl J Friston, Rick A Adams, Elvira Bramon
The "dysconnection hypothesis" of psychosis suggests that a disruption of functional integration underlies cognitive deficits and clinical symptoms. Impairments in the P300 potential are well documented in psychosis. Intrinsic (self-)connectivity in a frontoparietal cortical hierarchy during a P300 experiment was investigated. Dynamic Causal Modeling was used to estimate how evoked activity results from the dynamics of coupled neural populations and how neural coupling changes with the experimental factors...
March 27, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343462/exploring-the-neuroanatomical-bases-of-psychotic-features-in-bipolar-disorder
#3
E Maggioni, A C Altamura, P Brambilla
Although bipolar disorder (BD) is traditionally conceptualised as one diagnostic entity, the heterogeneity of pathophysiological manifestations in BD suggests the need to classify the subtypes of the illness based on neural markers. Specifically, the presence of psychotic symptoms seems to be relevant for the clinical outcome and may have specific neuroanatomical bases. The main objective of the present review was to assess whether the distinction between psychotic BD (PBD) and non-psychotic BD (NPBD) can improve the identification of the neurobiological markers of this complex illness...
March 27, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343286/a-mimic-of-sexually-motivated-homicide-insect-stings-and-heat-exhaustion-in-a-forest
#4
Nancy X Liu, Michael S Pollanen
We report the case a woman who was found dead in a forest. The body was nude and the position of the body suggested a sexually motivated homicide. We concluded that death was not related to homicide, but was related to the conjunction of environmental factors, including insect stings, and acute psychosis. A medicolegal death investigation with postmortem examination was undertaken to determine cause of death. At the scene, the body was supine with legs spread apart and the knees flexed, exposing the external genitalia...
March 25, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342165/formal-thought-disorder-and-executive-functioning-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-old-leads-and-new-avenues
#5
Tim Ziermans, Hanna Swaab, Alexander Stockmann, Esther de Bruin, Sophie van Rijn
Formal thought disorder (FTD) is a disruption in the flow of thought and a common feature in psychotic disorders and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Executive dysfunction has often been associated with FTD, yet for ASD convincing evidence is lacking. This study investigated FTD and three core executive functions in 50 young children and adolescents with high-functioning ASD and 56 matched controls. Higher overall levels of FTD marked ASD compared to controls. Furthermore, in ASD decreased performance on verbal working memory was correlated with increased FTD ratings and explained a significant amount of variance of objective and subjective FTD...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338967/thought-disorder-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-probands-their-relatives-and-nonpsychiatric-controls
#6
Charity J Morgan, Michael J Coleman, Ayse Ulgen, Lenore Boling, Jonathan O Cole, Frederick V Johnson, Jan Lerbinger, J Alexander Bodkin, Philip S Holzman, Deborah L Levy
Thought disorder (TD) has long been associated with schizophrenia (SZ) and is now widely recognized as a symptom of mania and other psychotic disorders as well. Previous studies have suggested that the TD found in the clinically unaffected relatives of SZ, schizoaffective and bipolar probands is qualitatively similar to that found in the probands themselves. Here, we examine which quantitative measures of TD optimize the distinction between patients with diagnoses of SZ and bipolar disorder with psychotic features (BP) from nonpsychiatric controls (NC) and from each other...
March 1, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338892/embodiment-and-schizophrenia-a-review-of-implications-and-applications
#7
Wolfgang Tschacher, Anne Giersch, Karl Friston
In recent decades, embodiment has become an influential concept in psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Embodiment denotes the study of the reciprocal (causal) relationships between mind and body, with the mind not only affecting the body but also vice versa. Embodied cognition comes to the fore in sensorimotor coupling, predictive coding, and nonverbal behavior. Additionally, the embodiment of the mind constitutes the basis of social interaction and communication, as evident in research on nonverbal synchrony and mimicry...
March 3, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338760/childhood-maltreatment-and-young-adulthood-hallucinations-delusional-experiences-and-psychosis-a-longitudinal-study
#8
Amanuel Alemu Abajobir, Steve Kisely, James G Scott, Gail Williams, Alexandra Clavarino, Lane Strathearn, Jake Moses Najman
Child maltreatment is a widespread public health problem associated with a range of mental health disorders later in life. In order to effectively address these disorders, there is a need to understand more about the mental health consequences of different types of child maltreatment. This study examines the associations between prospectively substantiated child maltreatment (ages 0-14 y) and reports of hallucinations and delusional experiences at 21 years after birth. As well, we examined 12-month and lifetime psychotic disorders using data from a longitudinal birth cohort...
January 30, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335878/psychotic-symptoms-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-an-analysis-of-the-mta-database
#9
Benedetto Vitiello, Guillermo Perez Algorta, L Eugene Arnold, Andrea L Howard, Annamarie Stehli, Brooke S G Molina
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of psychotic symptoms among youths (14-25 years of age) with a childhood diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) combined type. METHOD: Participants in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA) and a local normative comparison group (LNCG) were systematically assessed 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 years after the original enrollment at a mean age of 8.5 years. Trained research assistants administered a psychosis screener, and positive screens were referred to study clinicians to confirm or exclude psychosis...
April 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335873/parental-psychopathology-and-tourette-syndrome-chronic-tic-disorder-in-offspring-a-nationwide-case-control-study
#10
Susanna Leivonen, Jeremiah M Scharf, Carol A Mathews, Roshan Chudal, David Gyllenberg, Dan Sucksdorff, Auli Suominen, Arja Voutilainen, Alan S Brown, Andre Sourander
OBJECTIVE: To determine the associations between maternal and paternal psychiatric diagnoses and Tourette syndrome (TS)/chronic tic disorder (CT) in a nationwide study. METHOD: This nested case-control study linked data derived from three national registers. All singletons born and diagnosed with TS/CT in Finland between January 1991 and December 2010 were identified (n = 1,120) and matched to four controls (n = 4,299). Conditional logistic regression was used to examine the associations between parental psychopathology and TS/CT...
April 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335531/associations-among-substance-use-mental-health-disorders-and-self-harm-in-a-prison-population-examining-group-risk-for-suicide-attempt
#11
Madison L Gates, Asher Turney, Elizabeth Ferguson, Veronica Walker, Michelle Staples-Horne
Substance use disorders (SUD) and mental health disorders are significant public health issues that co-occur and are associated with high risk for suicide attempts. SUD and mental health disorders are more prevalent among offenders (i.e., prisoners or inmates) than the non-imprisoned population, raising concerns about the risk of self-harm. This cross-sectional study examined the population of a state prison system (10,988 out of 13,079) to identify associations among SUD (alcohol, cannabis, intravenous drugs, narcotics, and tobacco smoking), mental health disorders (anxiety, bipolar, depression, and psychotic disorders), and suicide attempts...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333778/cochlear-implant-in-severe-impaired-psychiatric-patients-a-case-series
#12
Ioana T Herisanu, Mark Praetorius, Margarete Mattern
OBJECTIVE: Psychotic disorders and intelligence deficiencies are no longer contraindications for cochlear implantation regarding the revised German guidelines from May 2012. This article aims to evaluate the outcome of patients with severe psychiatric comorbidities. Therefore the database of the Cochlear Implant Center of the University Hospital of Heidelberg was investigated. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case review. METHODS: We present three patients who received a cochlear implant (CI) despite a serious psychiatric disorder...
March 22, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333365/clozapine-combined-with-different-antipsychotic-drugs-for-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia
#13
REVIEW
Sarah Barber, Uwaila Olotu, Martina Corsi, Andrea Cipriani
BACKGROUND: Between 40% and 70% of people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia do not respond to clozapine, despite adequate blood levels. For these people, a number of treatment strategies have emerged, including the prescription of a second anti-psychotic drug in combination with clozapine. OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical effects of various clozapine combination strategies with antipsychotic drugs in people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia both in terms of efficacy and tolerability...
March 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331504/clozapine-treatment-and-cannabis-use-in-adolescents-with-psychotic-disorders-a-retrospective-cohort-chart-review
#14
Sephora M Tang, Aylar Ansarian, Darren B Courtney
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between clozapine treatment and frequency of cannabis use in adolescents with co-occurring psychotic and cannabis use disorder in a retrospective cohort chart review. METHOD: We conducted a retrospective cohort chart review of patients diagnosed with a psychotic disorder and concurrent cannabis use disorder admitted to a tertiary care youth inpatient unit from 2010-2012. Longitudinal exposure and outcome data was coded month-by-month...
2017: Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331329/successful-treatment-for-psychomotor-agitation-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-with-trazodone-risperidone-combination-a-case-report
#15
Zui Narita, Harumasa Takano, Tomiki Sumiyoshi
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a relapsing disease that typically affects the spinal cord and optic nerves. So far, a few studies have reported pharmacologic treatment for psychiatric symptoms in patients with NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD). However, no literature has described psychomotor agitation associated with the disease and its treatment. We report an 84-year-old woman with NMOSD whose psychomotor agitation was effectively treated with a combination of trazodone and risperidone. Our observation suggests the ability of augmentation of antipsychotic drugs with antidepressants to ameliorate psychotic symptoms associated with NMOSD...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325158/-clinical-application-of-rom-in-psychosis
#16
M Tasma, M Swart, G Wolters, E J Liemburg, R Bruggemans, H Knegtering, S Castelein
AIM: The use of 'routine outcome monitoring' (ROM) in mental health care has increased widely during the past decade. However, little is known about the use of ROM outcome in daily clinical practice. We investigated to what extent ROM results were reflected in psychotic patients' treatment plans. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHOD: The ROM-Phamous, a ROM-protocol for patients with psychotic disorders in which data is collected on the basis of interviews, questionnaires and physical examination was implemented in the northern Netherlands...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321871/psychological-implications-of-a-vision-disorder
#17
Brian E Weber
The paper discusses how the condition of crossed-eyes affects a baby's eye contact with mother and potentially results in the loss of a vital emotional connection with her during the earliest days of life. This loss may contribute to a rupture that arrests emotional development at a deep psychic level. It is suggested that, in the same way as premature separation, the rupture can precipitate a 'fusional complex', a defence that develops to protect the infant against psychotic anxieties. The paper proposes that psychological development atrophies in this place and creates a blind spot...
April 2017: Journal of Analytical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321200/the-importance-of-metamemory-functioning-to-the-pathogenesis-of-psychosis
#18
REVIEW
Sarah Eisenacher, Mathias Zink
Many studies up to date have implied that biases in the metacognition of memory, so called metamemory, contribute to the development and maintenance of positive symptoms in schizophrenia. However, no study exists which has longitudinally followed patients experiencing positive symptoms. The present article therefore reviews cross-sectional studies on retrospective metamemory abilities in participants within different stages of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, with heterogeneous symptom severities, creating a pseudo-longitudinal overview...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321193/early-psychosis-and-trauma-related-disorders-clinical-practice-guidelines-and-future-directions
#19
Casey A Cragin, Martha B Straus, Dawn Blacker, Laura M Tully, Tara A Niendam
Despite high rates of trauma-related disorders among individuals with early psychosis, no clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of comorbid early psychosis and trauma-related disorders exist to date. Indeed, the routine exclusion of individuals with past and current psychosis from participation in trauma research and practice has limited the accumulation of research that could support such clinical practice guidelines. While preliminary research evidence suggests that traditional, evidence-based treatments for trauma-related disorders can be safely and effectively employed to reduce symptoms of posttraumatic stress and chronic psychosis, it remains unclear whether such treatments are appropriate for individuals in the early stages of psychotic illness...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320191/c9orf72-hexanucleotide-repeat-expansions-are-not-a-common-cause-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#20
Karissa C Arthur, Alberto M Rivera, Jack Samuels, Ying Wang, Marco Grados, Fernando S Goes, Brion Maher, Gerald Nestadt, Bryan J Traynor
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a polygenic neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by repetitive thoughts and behaviors that cause distress. The pathogenic repeat expansion [GGGGCC]n found at the C9orf72 locus is the most common cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and has also been documented in patients with psychosis and schizophrenia. Furthermore, obsessions and compulsions have been identified in patients diagnosed with ALS and/or FTD and carrying the pathogenic repeat expansion...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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