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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239292/ethnic-density-effects-for-adult-mental-health-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-international-studies
#1
Laia Bécares, Michael E Dewey, Jayati Das-Munshi
BACKGROUND: Despite increased ethnic diversity in more economically developed countries it is unclear whether residential concentration of ethnic minority people (ethnic density) is detrimental or protective for mental health. This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis covering the international literature, assessing ethnic density associations with mental health outcomes. METHODS: We systematically searched Medline, PsychINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science from inception to 31 March 2016...
December 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235251/the-score-distribution-and-factor-structure-of-the-community-assessment-of-psychic-experiences-positive-scale-cape-p15-in-a-canadian-sample
#2
Mashal K Haque, Jill A Jacobson, Christopher R Bowie, Kevin G Munhall
AIM: Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) share several risk factors with psychotic disorders and confer greater risk of developing a psychotic disorder. Thus, individuals with PLEs not only comprise a valuable population in which to study the aetiology and premorbid changes associated with psychosis, but also represent a high-risk population that could benefit from clinical monitoring or early intervention efforts. METHOD: We examined the score distribution and factor structure of the current 15-item Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences-Positive Scale (CAPE-P15) in a Canadian sample...
December 13, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235240/gender-differences-in-first-self-perceived-signs-and-symptoms-in-patients-with-an-at-risk-mental-state-and-first-episode-psychosis
#3
Ulrike Heitz, Erich Studerus, Stephanie Menghini-Müller, Martina Papmeyer, Laura Egloff, Sarah Ittig, Astrid Navarra, Christina Andreou, Anita Riecher-Rössler
AIM: Gender differences in the current symptomatology of patients with psychotic disorders have previously been described in the literature. However, it has not yet been investigated whether gender differences exist in the very first self-perceived signs or symptoms of illness onset. The aim of this study was to investigate this aspect in at-risk mental state (ARMS) and first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients. METHODS: ARMS and FEP were recruited via the early detection of psychosis (FePsy) clinic Basel, Switzerland...
December 13, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233622/underrepresentation-of-adolescents-with-respiratory-mental-health-and-developmental-disabilities-using-american-community-survey-acs-questions
#4
Catherine Ipsen, Cathy Chambless, Noelle Kurth, Sara McCormick, Rebecca Goe, Jean Hall
BACKGROUND: Disability prevalence estimates are used to identify populations, establish priorities and allocate funding for a broad range of federal, state, and local initiatives. Increasingly, these estimates are based on a set of six questions developed and tested for use in the American Community Survey (ACS). A key assumption about the ACS disability screeners is that they sufficiently capture the entire population of people with disabilities, but some studies indicate that certain disability groups are underrepresented...
November 29, 2017: Disability and Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233195/intact-striatal-dopaminergic-modulation-of-reward-learning-and-daily-life-reward-oriented-behavior-in-first-degree-relatives-of-individuals-with-psychotic-disorder
#5
Zuzana Kasanova, Jenny Ceccarini, Michael J Frank, Thérèse van Amelsvoort, Jan Booij, Esther van Duin, Henrietta Steinhart, Thomas Vaessen, Alexander Heinzel, Felix Mottaghy, Inez Myin-Germeys
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in reward learning in psychotic disorders have been proposed to be linked to dysregulated subcortical dopaminergic (DA) neurotransmission, which in turn is a suspected mechanism for predisposition to psychosis. We therefore explored the striatal dopaminergic modulation of reward processing and its behavioral correlates in individuals at familial risk for psychosis. METHODS: We performed a DA D2/3 receptor [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography scan during a probabilistic reinforcement learning task in 16 healthy first-degree relatives of patients with psychosis and 16 healthy volunteers, followed by a 6-day ecological momentary assessment study capturing reward-oriented behavior in the everyday life...
December 13, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232967/a-latent-class-analysis-of-psychotic-symptoms-in-the-general-population
#6
Baptiste Pignon, Hugo Peyre, Andrei Szöke, Pierre A Geoffroy, Benjamin Rolland, Renaud Jardri, Pierre Thomas, Guillaume Vaiva, Jean-Luc Roelandt, Imane Benradia, Hélène Behal, Franck Schürhoff, Ali Amad
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with psychotic symptoms may actually correspond to various subgroups, characterized by different patterns of psychotic symptoms as well as specific sociodemographic and clinical correlates. We aimed to identify groups of individuals from the general population with specific patterns of psychotic symptoms. METHODS: In a 38,694-subject survey, a latent class analysis was performed to identify subgroups based on the distribution of seven psychotic symptoms taken from the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview...
December 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232966/sex-differences-in-the-relationship-between-prolactin-levels-and-impaired-processing-speed-in-early-psychosis
#7
Itziar Montalvo, Roser Nadal, Antonio Armario, Alfonso Gutiérrez-Zotes, Marta Creus, Ángel Cabezas, Montse Solé, Maria José Algora, Vanessa Sánchez-Gistau, Elisabet Vilella, Javier Labad
INTRODUCTION: Hyperprolactinaemia is commonly observed in people with psychotic disorders due to D2 receptor blockade by antipsychotic drugs, although it may also exist in drug-naïve patients with first-episode psychosis. Recent studies suggest that hyperprolactinaemia may have a negative impact on cognitive function in people with early psychosis. We aimed to explore whether there are sex differences in the association between prolactin levels and cognitive performance in early psychosis patients...
December 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231914/determinants-of-late-life-depression-in-residents-of-long-term-care-facility
#8
Urszula Horwath, Katarzyna Szczerbińska
Mental disorders, such as dementia and depression, are beside chronic somatic diseases, the most common problem in residents of longterm care facilities (LTCF). Late-life depression refers to depressive symptoms that arise in adults older than 65 years. According to literature review, older people tend to differ from middle-aged adults in presentation of depression. AIM: Mental disorders, such as dementia and depression, are beside chronic somatic diseases, the most common problem in residents of longterm care facilities (LTCF)...
November 23, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231139/catechol-o-methyltransferase-cognition-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Matea Nikolac Perkovic, Dubravka Svob Strac, Lucija Tudor, Marcela Konjevod, Gordana Nedic Erjavec, Nela Pivac
OBJECTIVE: Cognition is a complex trait representing a set of all mental abilities and processes related to knowledge. Although diverse brain regions are involved, most cognitive processes appear to engage cortical regions. The activity of dopaminergic neurons in prefrontal cortex represents a biological substrate underlying cognitive functions. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent dementia associated with cognitive impairments. Cognitive impairment in AD starts slow with discrete deterioration in memory, language, thinking and reasoning, but it progresses into more severe and debilitating cognitive dysfunction...
December 11, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228982/electroconvulsive-therapy-for-manic-state-with-mixed-and-psychotic-features-in-a-teenager-with-bipolar-disorder-and-comorbid-episodic-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-case-report
#10
Olof Rask, Klara Suneson, Eva Holmström, Beata Bäckström, Björn Axel Johansson
BACKGROUND: Comorbidity of bipolar disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder is common in adolescence. Obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms may be episodic and secondary to alterations in mood, and display specific features. Management of pediatric bipolar disorder-obsessive-compulsive disorder is challenging, as pharmacotherapy of obsessive-compulsive disorder may induce or exacerbate manic episodes and there is limited evidence of treatment efficacy. Electroconvulsive therapy is sparsely used in children and adolescents, but is documented to be a safe and efficacious intervention in adults with bipolar disorder...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227894/substance-induced-psychotic-symptoms-in-borderline-personality-disorder-among-substance-use-disorder-samples-in-spain
#11
Carmen Barral, Laia Rodríguez-Cintas, Lara Grau-López, Constanza Daigre, Elena Ros-Cucurull, Natalia Calvo, Marc Ferrer, Carlos Roncero
Substance-induced psychosis (SIP) is frequent in substance use disorder patients. However, little is known about the presence of SIP in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and what the risk factors for the development of SIP in this population would be. A sample of 91 BPD drug-dependent patients attending an outpatient substance use disorder unit was evaluated. Comorbidity with Axis I and II was assessed using SCID-I and SCID-II. Psychoactive drug related variables were registered as well as the presence of the ninth criterion of DSM-IV-TR as a code of psychotic symptoms...
December 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227363/psychosocial-factors-and-surgical-outcomes-in-adult-spinal-deformity-do-dementia-patients-have-more-complications
#12
Courtney S Toombs, Justin C Paul, Baron S Lonner
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected, national inpatient hospital database. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate comorbid psychiatric disorders in the ASD population. We hypothesized that a high incidence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in ASD would negatively impact perioperative outcomes. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Adult spinal fusion (ASF) patients suffer from severe back pain and often depression. Psychiatric comorbidities in the adult spinal deformity (ASD) population are not well understood, despite the apparent psychological effects of spinal deformity-related self-image...
December 8, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227016/patients-with-chronic-bipolar-disorder-exhibit-widespread-increases-in-extracellular-free-water
#13
Carissa Tuozzo, Amanda E Lyall, Ofer Pasternak, Anthony C D James, Timothy J Crow, Marek Kubicki
OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder (BP) is a debilitating psychiatric disease that is not well understood. Previous diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) studies of BP patients found prominent microstructural white matter (WM) abnormalities of reduced fractional anisotropy (FA). Because FA is a nonspecific measure, relating these abnormalities to a specific pathology is difficult. Here, dMRI specificity was increased by free water (FW) imaging, which allows identification of changes in extracellular space (FW) from neuronal tissue (fractional anisotropy of tissue [FA-t])...
December 11, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225144/copy-number-variants-in-people-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-co-morbid-psychosis
#14
Felicity V Larson, John R Arrand, Digby Tantam, Peter B Jones, Anthony J Holland
The genetic association between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia is complicated and mirrors the clinical overlap between these conditions to some degree. However, no studies to date have examined the genetics of individuals dually diagnosed with both ASD and psychosis. In this study, we present findings of copy number variants (CNVs) from a study of 116 well-characterised individuals with this dual diagnosis. DNA was extracted and arrayed using the Affymetrix CytoScan HD 2...
December 7, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224570/mapping-the-evidence-on-pharmacological-interventions-for-non-affective-psychosis-in-humanitarian-non-specialised-settings-a-unhcr-clinical-guidance
#15
Giovanni Ostuzzi, Corrado Barbui, Charlotte Hanlon, Sudipto Chatterjee, Julian Eaton, Lynne Jones, Derrick Silove, Peter Ventevogel
BACKGROUND: Populations exposed to humanitarian emergencies are particularly vulnerable to mental health problems, including new onset, relapse and deterioration of psychotic disorders. Inadequate care for this group may lead to human rights abuses and even premature death. The WHO Mental Health Gap Action Programme Intervention Guide (mhGAP-IG), and its adaptation for humanitarian settings (mhGAP-HIG), provides guidance for management of mental health conditions by non-specialised healthcare professionals...
December 11, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224181/social-cognition-and-aggression-in-methamphetamine-dependence-with-and-without-a-history-of-psychosis
#16
Anne Uhlmann, Jonathan C Ipser, Don Wilson, Dan J Stein
In substance use and psychotic disorders, socially problematic behaviours, such as high aggression may, in part, be explained by deficits in social cognition skills, like the detection of emotions or intentions in others. The aim of this study was to assess the magnitude of social cognition impairment and its association with aggression in individuals with methamphetamine (MA) dependence, methamphetamine-associated psychosis (MAP), and healthy controls (CTRL). A total of 20 MAP participants, 21 MA-dependent participants without psychosis, and 21 CTRL participants performed a facial morphing emotion recognition task (ERT) across four basic emotions (anger, fear, happiness and sadness) and the reading the mind in the eyes task (RMET), and completed the aggression questionnaire...
December 9, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223329/the-impact-of-psychosis-on-brain-anatomy-in-bipolar-disorder-a-structural-mri-study
#17
A Carlo Altamura, Eleonora Maggioni, Taj Dhanoa, Valentina Ciappolino, Riccardo A Paoli, Laura Cremaschi, Cecilia Prunas, Giulia Orsenigo, Elisabetta Caletti, Claudia M Cinnante, Fabio M Triulzi, Bernardo Dell'Osso, Lakshmi Yatham, Paolo Brambilla
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a major psychiatric illness characterized by heterogeneous symptoms including psychotic features. Up until now, neuroimaging studies investigating cerebral morphology in patients with BD have underestimated the potential impact of psychosis on brain anatomy in BD patients. In this regard, psychotic and non-psychotic BD may represent biologically different subtypes of the disorder, being possibly associated with specific cerebral features. METHODS: In the present study, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3T was used to identify the neuroanatomical correlates of psychosis in an International sample of BD patients...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221792/the-serotonin-hallucinogen-5-meo-dmt-alters-cortico-thalamic-activity-in-freely-moving-mice-regionally-selective-involvement-of-5-ht1a-and-5-ht2a-receptors
#18
REVIEW
Maurizio S Riga, Laia Lladó-Pelfort, Francesc Artigas, Pau Celada
5-MeO-DMT is a natural hallucinogen acting as serotonin 5-HT1A/5-HT2A receptor agonist. Its ability to evoke hallucinations could be used to study the neurobiology of psychotic symptoms and to identify new treatment targets. Moreover, recent studies revealed the therapeutic potential of serotonin hallucinogens in treating mood and anxiety disorders. Our previous results in anesthetized animals show that 5-MeO-DMT alters cortical activity via 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors. Here, we examined 5-MeO-DMT effects on oscillatory activity in prefrontal (PFC) and visual (V1) cortices, and in mediodorsal thalamus (MD) of freely-moving wild-type (WT) and 5-HT2A-R knockout (KO2A) mice...
December 5, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220783/a-study-to-compare-the-differences-between-genders-in-psychiatric-comorbidities-in-individuals-with-psychoses
#19
Praveen Das, Priya Sreedaran, Ashok Mv
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric comorbidities worsen the outcome and increase severity of suffering in psychotic disorders. Gender differences have also been found to impact the severity and outcome in psychoses. In this background, this study attempted to compare psychiatric comorbidity between genders. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim was to compare psychiatric co-morbidity between men and women with psychotic disorders. METHODOLOGY: A descriptive cross sectional study design was used...
November 29, 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219634/using-molecular-imaging-to-understand-early-schizophrenia-related-psychosis-neurochemistry-a-review-of-human-studies
#20
Christin Schifani, Sina Hafizi, Tania Da Silva, Jeremy Joseph Watts, M Saad Khan, Romina Mizrahi
Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric disorder generally preceded by a so-called prodromal phase, which is characterized by attenuated psychotic symptoms. Advances in clinical research have enabled prospective identification of those individuals who are at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis, with the power to predict psychosis onset within the near future. Changes in several brain neurochemical systems and molecular mechanisms are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and the psychosis spectrum, including the dopaminergic, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic, glutamatergic, endocannabinoid, and immunologic (i...
December 8, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
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