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Psychotic disorders

Sonja Widmayer, Julia F Sowislo, Hermann A Jungfer, Stefan Borgwardt, Undine E Lang, Rolf D Stieglitz, Christian G Huber
Background: Aggression in psychoses is of high clinical importance, and volumetric MRI techniques have been used to explore its structural brain correlates. Methods: We conducted a systematic review searching EMBASE, ScienceDirect, and PsycINFO through September 2017 using thesauri representing aggression, psychosis, and brain imaging. We calculated effect sizes for each study and mean Hedge's g for whole brain (WB) volume. Methodological quality was established using the PRISMA checklist (PROSPERO: CRD42014014461)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Zsuzsanna Belteczki, Zoltan Rihmer, Julia Ujvari, Dorian A Lamis, Peter Dome
BACKGROUND: Psychotic symptoms are common in bipolar disorder (BD). Data suggest that BD patients with or without psychotic symptoms may differ from each other with regards to some clinical features of BD (e.g., age at onset, suicidality, psychiatric comorbidity, number of hospitalizations). However, the literature in this area is relatively scarce and not always conclusive. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to investigate whether the presence of psychotic symptoms is associated with clinical characteristics of patients with BD...
June 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Fujika Katsuki, Hiroshi Takeuchi, Takahiko Inagaki, Tohru Maeda, Yosuke Kubota, Nao Shiraishi, Hideaki Tabuse, Tadashi Kato, Atsurou Yamada, Norio Watanabe, Tatsuo Akechi, Toshiaki A Furukawa
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common and often chronic problem. Patients with chronic MDD often have negative impacts on the health of their families. Family psychoeducation is recognized as part of the optimal treatment for patients with psychotic disorder, and has been shown to reduce the rate of relapse in individuals with schizophrenia and to reduce the burden on their caregivers. Thus, we predict that family psychoeducation has the potential to reduce the burden on the caregivers of patients with chronic MDD...
June 22, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Eun Hyun Seo, Hae Jung Yang, Sang Hoon Kim, Jung Hyun Park, Hyung-Jun Yoon
Background: Neurosyphilis remains a diagnostic challenge in current psychiatric practice because of its pleomorphic psychiatric manifestations. Although neurosyphilis can present with a wide range of psychiatric symptoms, psychotic mania as its solitary manifestation is an unusual phenomenon. Case presentation: A 46-year-old man, with no history of any psychiatric disorder, exhibited abruptly developed symptoms of psychotic mania. He was admitted to a psychiatric ward for further evaluation and treatment...
2018: Annals of General Psychiatry
Emma M Parrish, Nancy S Kim, Kristen A Woodberry, Michelle Friedman-Yakoobian
AIM: Schizophrenia is a highly stigmatized disorder. Identification of youth at high risk for psychosis has the potential for improved outcomes. However, identifying youth at risk could subject them to increased public stigma. Using an experimental vignette design, this study examined relative levels of public stigma elicited by the labels "schizophrenia," "clinical high risk (CHR)," "attenuated psychotic symptoms syndrome (APSS)," a label implying normative adolescent development ("a bad breakup"), and a no-label control condition...
June 21, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Taciana C C Ragazzi, Rosana Shuhama, Paulo R Menezes, Cristina M Del-Ben
AIM: Epidemiological data have provided evidence that psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) can occur in the general population, not necessarily accompanied by the impairment and suffering observed in formal psychiatric diagnoses. According to the psychosis continuum hypothesis, PLEs would be subject to the same risk factors as frank psychosis. The aim of this review was to summarize observational studies that evaluated cannabis use as a risk factor for PLEs as determined by the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences in non-clinical samples...
June 21, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Mathieu Dufour, Thomas Hastings, Richard O'Reilly
The United Nations adopted the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) in 2006. When Canada ratified the CRPD, it reserved the right to continue using substitute decision making schemes even if the CRPD was 'interpreted as requiring their elimination'. This was a prescient decision because the CRPD Committee, which is tasked with overseeing the interpretation and implementation of the CRPD, subsequently opined that all legislation supporting substitute decision making schemes contravene the CRPD and must be revoked...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Gisèle Carrière, Bougie Bougie, Dafna Kohen
BACKGROUND: National information about acute care hospitalizations for mental/behavioural disorders among Aboriginal people in Canada is limited. DATA AND METHODS: This study describes acute care hospitalizations for mental /behavioural disorders among First Nations people living on and off reserve. The 2006 Census was linked to the Discharge Abstract Database from 2006/2007 through 2008/2009 for all provinces (except Ontario and Quebec) and the three territories...
June 20, 2018: Health Reports
Yann Quidé, Sarah Cohen-Woods, Nicole O'Reilly, Vaughan J Carr, Bernet M Elzinga, Melissa J Green
OBJECTIVES: Childhood trauma is a common risk factor for adult psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar-I disorder (BD). However, its association with schizotypal personality traits, as well as cognitive and social cognitive abilities, is less well studied in these populations. METHODS: In a cohort of 79 SZ cases, 84 BD cases, and 75 healthy controls (HCs), clinically significant levels of childhood trauma exposure (according to scores on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire; CTQ) were evident in 54 SZ, 55 BD, and 26 HC individuals...
June 20, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Floortje E Scheepers, Jos de Mul, Frits Boer, Witte J Hoogendijk
Background: From an evolutionary perspective it is remarkable that psychotic disorders, mostly occurring during fertile age and decreasing fecundity, maintain in the human population. Aim: To argue the hypothesis that psychotic symptoms may not be viewed as an illness but as an adaptation phenomenon, which can become out of control due to different underlying brain vulnerabilities and external stressors, leading to social exclusion. Methods: A literature study and analysis. Results: Until now, biomedical research has not unravelld the definitive etiology of psychotic disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Jerome H Taylor, Ewgeni Jakubovski, Daniel Gabriel, Michael H Bloch
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic-related weight gain is a common clinically relevant side effect when treating psychotic disorders in pediatric populations, yet few predictors and no moderators of antipsychotic-related weight gain are known. METHODS: The Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS) study randomized 119 youths (age 8-19 years) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder to 8 weeks of antipsychotic treatment with molindone, risperidone, or olanzapine and assessed treatment response and side effects...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Filip Tylš, Martin Brunovský, Kateřina Šulcová, Barbora Kohútová, Zuzana Ryznarová, Miloslav Kopeček
OBJECTIVES: Although schizencephaly belongs to the class of neurodevelopmental disorders, which are a well-known predisposing factor for psychosis, there is a lack of relevant studies and diagnostic guidelines on this relationship. METHOD: A case report of first-episode psychosis with persistent negative symptoms associated with schizencephaly is described and compared with 7 other cases found in the literature. RESULTS: We found perinatal pathology, cognitive deficit, and EEG abnormality in a patient with atypical initial symptoms of psychosis such as olfactory hallucinations...
June 1, 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
Fabian Termorshuizen, Eibert R Heerdink, Jean-Paul Selten
PURPOSE: A higher own-group ethnic density in the area of residence is often associated with a lower risk for psychotic disorder. For common mental disorders the evidence is less convincing. This study explores whether these findings are mirrored in data on dispensing of antipsychotics and antidepressants. METHODS: Health insurance data on dispensed medication among all adults living in the four largest Dutch cities were linked to demographic data from Statistics Netherlands...
June 12, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Anthony O Ahmed, Brian Kirkpatrick, Silvana Galderisi, Armida Mucci, Alessandro Rossi, Alessandro Bertolino, Paola Rocca, Mario Maj, Stefan Kaiser, Martin Bischof, Matthias N Hartmann-Riemer, Matthias Kirschner, Karoline Schneider, Maria Paz Garcia-Portilla, Anna Mane, Miguel Bernardo, Emilio Fernandez-Egea, Cui Jiefeng, Yao Jing, Tan Shuping, James M Gold, Daniel N Allen, Gregory P Strauss
Objective: Negative symptoms are currently viewed as having a 2-dimensional structure, with factors reflecting diminished expression (EXP) and motivation and pleasure (MAP). However, several factor-analytic studies suggest that the consensus around a 2-dimensional model is premature. The current study investigated and cross-culturally validated the factorial structure of BNSS-rated negative symptoms across a range of cultures and languages. Method: Participants included individuals diagnosed with a psychotic disorder who had been rated on the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) from 5 cross-cultural samples, with a total N = 1691...
April 18, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Fabian Lamster, Matthias Jäger
Psychotherapy of psychotic disorders Abstract. The efficacy of psychotherapy for individuals with psychotic disorders is well documented and its implementation is recommended by international guidelines. Goals of psychotherapeutic interventions are reduction of symptoms, prevention of relapse, improvement of cognitive, emotional and social functioning, social integration and participation, and enhancement of quality of life as well as self-perception. Cognitive-behavioral and family interventions, cognitive and social trainings as well as psychoeducation are particularly recommended according to the literature...
June 2018: Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Thérapeutique
Daniela Hubl
Phenomenology, clinical diagnostics and treatment of hallucinations Abstract. Hallucinations are perceptions without any stimulus. They occur typically in schizophrenia, but they can be found in other psychiatric or medical disorders as well. Recently, hallucinations have been increasingly reported to occur with a high prevalence in the general population and they are conceptualised as continuum from a physiological to pathological especially psychotic phenomenon. Schizophrenic hallucinations exhibit a special proximity to language and for this they can be considered as diagnostic...
June 2018: Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Thérapeutique
Philipp E Eich, Beat Nick
Pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia spectrum disorders: State of the Art Abstract. Schizophrenia is a disorder, whose cause and course are still a puzzle. Nevertheless its treatment has made big progresses during the last decades. Early recognition and early treatment of the disorder are very important for a good outcome. Any of the four stages of the illness needs its own treatment concept. Today the gold standard during a acute / progressive psychotic phase is primarily the prescription of an 2nd generation antipsychotic (atypicals)...
June 2018: Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Thérapeutique
Franz Moggi
Epidemiology, etiology and treatment of patients with psychosis and co-morbid substance use disorder Abstract. More than 25 years ago, when the research on the efficacy of treatments for patients with a comorbidity of psychosis and substance use disorder has been systematically started, some authors described the treatment of these patients as a "mission impossible". Approximately half of all individuals with schizophrenia develop substance use disorders in the course of their life; about one third of them a comorbid alcohol use disorder and about one quarter a comorbid substance use disorder with other addictive substances...
June 2018: Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Thérapeutique
Thomas Vaessen, Zuzana Kasanova, Dennis Hernaus, Johan Lataster, Dina Collip, Martine van Nierop, Inez Myin-Germeys
OBJECTIVE: Results from experimental studies suggest that psychosis and psychosis liability are associated with increased cortisol levels and blunted cortisol reactivity, and that use of antipsychotics may reduce these aberrations. Here, we report on overall cortisol, diurnal slope, and cortisol stress reactivity in everyday life in psychosis and psychosis liability using the experience sampling method (ESM). METHODS: Our sample consisted of individuals diagnosed with psychotic disorder currently on (MPD; n = 53) or off antipsychotic medication (NMPD; n = 20), first-degree relatives of psychotic patients (REL; n = 47), and healthy volunteers (HV; n = 67)...
June 7, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
(no author information available yet)
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are two distinct diagnoses that share symptomology. Understanding the genetic factors contributing to the shared and disorder-specific symptoms will be crucial for improving diagnosis and treatment. In genetic data consisting of 53,555 cases (20,129 bipolar disorder [BD], 33,426 schizophrenia [SCZ]) and 54,065 controls, we identified 114 genome-wide significant loci implicating synaptic and neuronal pathways shared between disorders. Comparing SCZ to BD (23,585 SCZ, 15,270 BD) identified four genomic regions including one with disorder-independent causal variants and potassium ion response genes as contributing to differences in biology between the disorders...
June 14, 2018: Cell
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