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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786898/adults-with-comorbid-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-alcohol-use-disorder-and-opioid-use-disorder-the-effectiveness-of-modified-prolonged-exposure
#1
Kelly R Peck, Julie A Schumacher, Paul R Stasiewicz, Scott F Coffey
Opioid use disorders (OUDs) are a growing problem in the United States. When OUDs co-occur with problematic drinking and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), negative drug-related mental and physical health outcomes may be exacerbated. Thus, it is important to establish whether PTSD treatments with established efficacy for dually diagnosed individuals also demonstrate efficacy in individuals who engage in problematic drinking and concurrent opioid misuse. Adults who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for PTSD and alcohol dependence were recruited from a substance use treatment facility and were randomly assigned to receive either modified prolonged exposure (mPE) therapy for PTSD or a non-trauma-focused comparison treatment...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782180/current-evidence-on-heart-rate-variability-biofeedback-as-a-complementary-anticraving-intervention
#2
Nour Alayan, Lucille Eller, Marsha E Bates, Dennis P Carmody
BACKGROUND: The limited success of conventional anticraving interventions encourages research into new treatment strategies. Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRVB), which is based on slowed breathing, was shown to improve symptom severity in various disorders. HRVB, and certain rates of controlled breathing (CB), may offer therapeutic potential as a complementary drug-free treatment option to help control substance craving. METHODS: This review evaluated current evidence on the effectiveness of HRVB and CB training as a complementary anticraving intervention, based on guidelines from the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778773/effects-of-electronic-cigarette-liquid-solvents-propylene-glycol-and-vegetable-glycerin-on-user-nicotine-delivery-heart-rate-subjective-effects-and-puff-topography
#3
Tory R Spindle, Soha Talih, Marzena M Hiler, Nareg Karaoghlanian, Matthew S Halquist, Alison B Breland, Alan Shihadeh, Thomas Eissenberg
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) are a class of tobacco products that produce different effects (e.g., nicotine delivery), depending on the device, liquid, and behavioral factors. However, the influence of the two primary ECIG liquid solvents, propylene glycol (PG) and vegetable glycerin (VG), on ECIG acute effects is unknown. METHODS: Thirty ECIG-experienced, ≥12-h nicotine- abstinent participants completed four conditions consisting of two ECIG-use bouts (10 puffs, 30 s interpuff-interval) differing only by liquid PG:VG ratio (2PG:98VG, 20PG:80VG, 55PG:45VG, 100PG)...
May 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777968/ecological-momentary-assessment-of-food-perceptions-and-eating-behavior-using-a-novel-phone-application-in-adults-with-or-without-obesity
#4
Kholoud Alabduljader, Marion Cliffe, Francesco Sartor, Gabriele Papini, W Miles Cox, Hans-Peter Kubis
We developed a smart phone application to measure participants' food-reward perceptions and eating behavior in their naturalistic environment. Intensity ratings (0 - not at all to 10 - very strongly) of perceived anticipation of food (wanting) and food enjoyment at endpoint of intake (liking) were recorded as they occurred over a period of 14 days. Moreover, food craving trait, implicit and explicit attitude towards healthy food, and body composition were assessed. 53 participants provided complete data. Participants were classified by percentage of body fat; 33 participants with lower body fat (L-group) and 20 with higher body fat (H-group; ≥25% body fat for males and ≥32% for females)...
May 12, 2018: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776355/can-deep-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-dtms-be-used-to-treat-substance-use-disorders-sud-a-systematic-review
#5
Karina Karolina Kedzior, Imke Gerkensmeier, Maria Schuchinsky
BACKGROUND: Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (DTMS) is a non-invasive method of stimulating widespread cortical areas and, presumably, deeper neural networks. The current study assessed the effects of DTMS in the treatment of substance use disorders (SUD) using a systematic review. METHODS: Electronic literature search (PsycInfo, Medline until April 2017) identified k = 9 studies (k = 4 randomized-controlled trials, RCTs, with inactive sham and k = 5 open-label studies)...
May 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776349/randomised-controlled-trial-rct-of-cannabinoid-replacement-therapy-nabiximols-for-the-management-of-treatment-resistant-cannabis-dependent-patients-a-study-protocol
#6
Anjali K Bhardwaj, David J Allsop, Jan Copeland, Iain S McGregor, Adrian Dunlop, Marian Shanahan, Raimondo Bruno, Nghi Phung, Mark Montebello, Craig Sadler, Jessica Gugusheff, Melissa Jackson, Jennifer Luksza, Nicholas Lintzeris
BACKGROUND: The cannabis extract nabiximols (Sativex®) effectively supresses withdrawal symptoms and cravings in treatment resistant cannabis dependent individuals, who have high relapse rates following conventional withdrawal treatments. This study examines the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of longer-term nabiximols treatment for outpatient cannabis dependent patients who have not responded to previous conventional treatment approaches. METHODS/DESIGN: A phase III multi-site outpatient, randomised, double-blinded, placebo controlled parallel design, comparing a 12-week course of nabiximols to placebo, with follow up at 24 weeks after enrolment...
May 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775959/adolescent-smokers-response-to-reducing-the-nicotine-content-of-cigarettes-acute-effects-on-withdrawal-symptoms-and-subjective-evaluations
#7
Rachel N Cassidy, Suzanne M Colby, Jennifer W Tidey, Kristina M Jackson, Patricia A Cioe, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin, Dorothy Hatsukami
BACKGROUND: Mandating a reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes to a minimally addictive level could dramatically reduce smoking rates in the US. However, little is known about the effects of reduced nicotine content cigarettes in adolescents. METHODS: Following overnight abstinence, adolescent daily smokers (ages 15-19, n = 50) reported on their craving, withdrawal, and positive and negative affect pre- and post- ad lib smoking of one cigarette containing varying nicotine content (15...
May 15, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772295/cognitive-defusion-and-guided-imagery-tasks-reduce-naturalistic-food-cravings-and-consumption-a-field-study
#8
Sophie Schumacher, Eva Kemps, Marika Tiggemann
The present study investigated the effect of two craving reduction techniques, namely, cognitive defusion and guided imagery, on naturalistic food cravings. These techniques targeted the intrusion and elaboration stages of the craving process, respectively (Kavanagh, Andrade, & May, 2005). Participants underwent a seven-day baseline period followed by a seven-day intervention period, during which they recorded their food cravings as they occurred using online diaries accessed via smartphone. In the intervention period, participants were randomly assigned to one of cognitive defusion, guided imagery or control conditions...
May 14, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771560/khat-withdrawal-symptoms-among-chronic-khat-users-following-a-quit-attempt-an-ecological-momentary-assessment-study
#9
Samson W Duresso, Raimondo Bruno, Allison J Matthews, Stuart G Ferguson
Research reports show increased prevalence of habitual khat chewing among various parts of the community in Ethiopia. Some users experience problems controlling their use; withdrawal symptoms may be adding to difficulties with reducing or ceasing use. We aimed to describe the nature and the time course of any withdrawal syndrome in relation to the cessation of khat use over the first 2 weeks of a quit attempt. Fifty-nine participants between the ages of 18 and 35 and who have already chewed ≥1 bundle of khat in their life with a chewing frequency of ≥3 days per week were recruited from Adama Science and Technology University campus...
May 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771557/distress-tolerance-associations-with-trauma-and-substance-cue-reactivity-in-low-income-inner-city-adults-with-substance-use-disorders-and-posttraumatic-stress
#10
Anka A Vujanovic, Margaret C Wardle, Jafar Bakhshaie, Lia J Smith, Charles E Green, Scott D Lane, Joy M Schmitz
Cue reactivity has great potential to advance our understanding of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance use disorder (SUD), and PTSD/SUD comorbidity. The present investigation examined distress tolerance (DT) with regard to trauma and substance cue reactivity. Participants included 58 low-income, inner-city adults (49.1% women; Mage = 45.73, SD = 10.00) with substance dependence and at least 4 symptoms of PTSD. A script-driven cue reactivity paradigm was utilized. Four DT measures were administered, including the Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS), Mirror-Tracing Persistence Task (MTPT), Breath-Holding Task (BH), and Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT)...
May 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762196/high-intensity-interval-training-and-continuous-aerobic-exercise-interventions-to-promote-self-initiated-quit-attempts-in-young-adults-who-smoke-feasibility-acceptability-and-lessons-learned-from-a-randomized-pilot-trial
#11
Alicia Allen, Samantha C Carlson, Tyler A Bosch, Lynn E Eberly, Kola Okuyemi, Uma Nair, Judith S Gordon
OBJECTIVES: While exercise significantly reduces craving for cigarettes, the effect of exercise on self-initiation of quit attempts is less known. Therefore, this randomized pilot study explored the effect of starting an exercise program on self-initiated quit attempts, and also the feasibility and acceptability of a novel exercise intervention, high-intensity interval training (HIIT), as compared with a more traditional continuous aerobic (CA) exercise intervention. METHODS: Participants smoked (≥5 cigarettes/d), were aged 18 to 40 years, and wanted to increase their exercise...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761343/role-of-exogenous-progesterone-in-the-treatment-of-men-and-women-with-substance-use-disorders-a-narrative-review
#12
REVIEW
MacKenzie R Peltier, Mehmet Sofuoglu
Substance use disorders (SUDs) remain problematic as many individuals are untreated or do not benefit from the currently available interventions. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop novel pharmacological interventions to treat SUDs. Evidence suggests that the female sex hormone, progesterone, attenuates the craving for and the euphoric effects of drugs of abuse. Research to date has demonstrated that progesterone may modulate responses to drugs of abuse and may have utility as a novel treatment for SUDs...
May 14, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760674/validation-of-a-spanish-questionnaire-on-mobile-phone-abuse
#13
María A Olivencia-Carrión, Isabel Ramírez-Uclés, Pablo Holgado-Tello, Francisca López-Torrecillas
Mobile phone addiction has attracted much attention recently and is showing similarity to other substance use disorders. Because no studies on mobile phone addiction had yet been conducted in Spain, we developed and validated a questionnaire (Cuestionario de Abuso del Teléfono Móvil, ATeMo) to measure mobile phone abuse among young adults in Spanish. The ATeMo questionnaire was designed based on relevant DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and included craving as a diagnostic symptom. Using stratified sampling, the ATeMo questionnaire was administered to 856 students (mean age 21, 62% women)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754475/regulator-of-g-protein-signaling-4-rgs4-controls-morphine-reward-by-glutamate-receptor-activation-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-the-mouse-brain
#14
Juhwan Kim, Sueun Lee, Sohi Kang, Tae-Il Jeon, Man-Jong Kang, Tae-Hoon Lee, Yong Sik Kim, Key-Sun Kim, Heh-In Im, Changjong Moon
Crosstalk between G-protein signaling and glutamatergic transmission within the brain reward circuits is critical for long-term emotional effects (depression and anxiety), cravings, and negative withdrawal symptoms associated with opioid addiction. A previous study showed that Regulator of G-protein signaling 4 (RGS4) may be implicated in opiate action in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). However, the mechanism of the NAc-specific RGS4 actions that induce the behavioral responses to opiates remains largely unknown...
May 10, 2018: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754031/dispositional-mindfulness-and-prescription-opioid-misuse-among-chronic-pain-patients-craving-and-attention-to-positive-information-as-mediating-mechanisms
#15
Sarah E Priddy, Adam W Hanley, Michael R Riquino, Keith A Platt, Anne K Baker, Eric L Garland
OBJECTIVES: Opioid-treated chronic pain patients may be at risk for prescription opioid misuse due to heightened opioid craving coupled with deficits in attention to naturally rewarding, positive stimuli. Conversely, dispositional mindfulness, which is associated with reduced craving and increased responsiveness to natural rewards, may serve as a protective factor and buffer opioid misuse risk. The current investigation aimed to examine the association between mindfulness and opioid misuse, and to test opioid craving and attention to positive information as mediators of this relationship...
May 3, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751347/effects-of-varenicline-on-subjective-craving-and-relative-reinforcing-value-of-cigarettes
#16
ReJoyce Green, Lara A Ray
BACKGROUND: Varenicline is an FDA approved medication for the treatment of nicotine dependence. While the efficacy and safety of this medication have been demonstrated, success rates remain low, and efforts to understand mechanisms of efficacy are in progress. A behavioral economics framework is one unique way to examine how demand for a drug changes under different circumstances. Therefore, the current randomized placebo-controlled, cross-over study aimed to examine effects of varenicline on subjective cigarette craving and objective demand for cigarettes measured by a hypothetical behavioral economic task as well as associations between subjective craving and objective demand...
April 30, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742385/the-neurocognitive-mechanisms-underlying-food-cravings-and-snack-food-consumption-a-combined-continuous-theta-burst-stimulation-ctbs-and-eeg-study
#17
Cassandra J Lowe, William R Staines, Felicia Mannochio, Peter A Hall
Regulation of food cravings is thought to be critical for modulating eating behavior, yet we do not fully understand the mechanisms by which cognitive control operates in the eating context. The current study combined rTMS and EEG paradigms to examine the causal role of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in modulating visceral and behavioral responses to high calorie foods, and the mediational mechanisms underlying this relation. 28 right-handed female participants received both active and sham continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS; a rTMS variant used to decrease cortical activity) targeting the left dlPFC in a counterbalanced order...
May 6, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740347/cue-induced-ethanol-seeking-in-drosophila-melanogaster-is-dose-dependent
#18
Kavin M Nunez, Reza Azanchi, Karla R Kaun
Alcohol use disorder generates devastating social, medical and economic burdens, making it a major global health issue. The persistent nature of memories associated with intoxication experiences often induces cravings and triggers relapse in recovering individuals. Despite recent advances, the neural and molecular mechanisms underlying these memories are complex and not well understood. This makes finding effective pharmacological targets challenging. The investigation of persistent alcohol-associated memories in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster , presents a unique opportunity to gain a comprehensive understanding of the memories for ethanol reward at the level of genes, molecules, neurons and circuits...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738425/a-pilot-open-label-8-week-study-evaluating-desvenlafaxine-for-treatment-of-major-depression-in-methadone-maintained-individuals-with-opioid-use-disorder
#19
Cynthia El Hage, Maykel F Ghabrash, Simon Dubreucq, Suzanne Brissette, François Lespérance, Paul Lespérance, Clairélaine Ouellet-Plamondon, Julie Bruneau, Didier Jutras-Aswad
Depression is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders among opioid-dependent individuals. Clinical trials testing selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors among depressed patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) failed to show efficacy, whereas those on tricyclic antidepressants produced mixed results with potential for cardiotoxicity. Desvenlafaxine (DESV) is a SNRI with minimal cardiotoxicity and drug interactions. This study sought to assess feasibility and tolerability of using DESV in depressed patients on MMT...
May 7, 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737884/the-impact-of-shift-work-on-eating-patterns-and-self-care-strategies-utilised-by-experienced-and-inexperienced-nurses
#20
Jane Gifkins, Amy Johnston, Rebecca Loudoun
For nurses, shift work is a necessity, required to provide 24-h continuous care for patients. Research posits that fatigue amongst shift-working nurses is associated with inadequate and poorly timed sleep and also strongly influenced by the timing, quality and quantity of food consumed. The aim of this investigation was to examine differences and similarities in the food choices and eating patterns of nurses exposed to different lengths of time in shift work, as a means of understanding how nurses can adapt their eating patterns to better manage fatigue and sleep loss...
May 8, 2018: Chronobiology International
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