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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331600/a-real-world-study-on-the-genetic-cognitive-and-psychopathological-differences-of-obese-patients-clustered-according-to-eating-behaviours
#1
Mariarita Caroleo, Amedeo Primerano, Marianna Rania, Matteo Aloi, Valentina Pugliese, Fabio Magliocco, Gilda Fazia, Andrea Filippo, Flora Sinopoli, Marco Ricchio, Franco Arturi, Susana Jimenez-Murcia, Fernando Fernandez-Aranda, Pasquale De Fazio, Cristina Segura-Garcia
BACKGROUND: Considering that specific genetic profiles, psychopathological conditions and neurobiological systems underlie human behaviours, the phenotypic differentiation of obese patients according to eating behaviours should be investigated. The aim of this study was to classify obese patients according to their eating behaviours and to compare these clusters in regard to psychopathology, personality traits, neurocognitive patterns and genetic profiles. METHODS: A total of 201 obese outpatients seeking weight reduction treatment underwent a dietetic visit, psychological and psychiatric assessment and genotyping for SCL6A2 polymorphisms...
December 14, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329753/does-social-context-matter-an-ecological-momentary-assessment-study-of-marijuana-use-among-college-students
#2
Kristina T Phillips, Michael M Phillips, Trent L Lalonde, Mark A Prince
INTRODUCTION: Past research has shown that marijuana use occurs commonly in social situations for young adults, though few studies have examined the association between immediate social context and marijuana use patterns and associated problems. The current study examined the impact of demographics, marijuana use and problem use, alcohol use, craving, and social context on the likelihood of using marijuana with others via ecological momentary assessment (EMA). METHODS: College-student marijuana users (N=56) were recruited and completed a baseline assessment and training on the two-week signal-contingent EMA protocol...
January 4, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329692/potential-psychological-neural-mechanisms-in-binge-eating-disorder-implications-for-treatment
#3
REVIEW
Hedy Kober, Rebecca G Boswell
Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is a newly-established eating disorder diagnosis in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Although systematic research on BED is in its infancy and many studies feature small samples, several observations emerge. First, we review diagnostic, developmental, and socio-demographic features of BED. Next, although BED and obesity are linked and frequently co-occur, we review data suggesting that BED is a distinct phenotype. Importantly, we take a mechanism-focused approach and propose four psychological processes with neurobiological bases that may uniquely differentiate BED from obesity: emotion reactivity, food-cue reactivity, food craving, and cognitive control...
December 23, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328501/cognitive-control-functions-in-individuals-with-obesity-with-and-without-binge-eating-disorder
#4
Ines Kollei, Martina Rustemeier, Stefanie Schroeder, Sebastian Jongen, Stephan Herpertz, Sabine Loeber
OBJECTIVE: Deficits in cognitive control are thought to contribute to the maintenance of obesity (OB). Cognitive control is referred to as impulsivity and binge-eating disorder (BED) is characterized by high levels of impulsivity. The present study sought to elucidate which cognitive control functions differentiate between severe OB with and without BED also taking into account hunger as a moderating factor. METHOD: The study included 48 individuals with OB and BED (OB + BED), 48 individuals with OB and no BED (OB - BED) and 48 normal-weight controls (NWC)...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326022/the-effects-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-eating-behaviors-and-body-weight-in-obesity-a-randomized-controlled-study
#5
Se-Hong Kim, Ju-Hye Chung, Tae-Hong Kim, Seong Hoon Lim, Youngkook Kim, Yun-Ah Lee, Sang-Wook Song
BACKGROUND: Although some studies have reported significant reductions in food cravings following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), none have examined changes in body weight. OBJECTIVE: We conducted 2-week randomized, sham-controlled, single-blind, parallel-group trial to examine the effect of rTMS on body weight in obese patients. METHODS: Sixty obese patients (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2) aged between 18 and 65 years were recruited...
December 1, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324652/food-addiction-and-binge-eating-lessons-learned-from-animal-models
#6
REVIEW
Marta G Novelle, Carlos Diéguez
The feeding process is required for basic life, influenced by environment cues and tightly regulated according to demands of the internal milieu by regulatory brain circuits. Although eating behaviour cannot be considered "addictive" under normal circumstances, people can become "addicted" to this behaviour, similarly to how some people are addicted to drugs. The symptoms, cravings and causes of "eating addiction" are remarkably similar to those experienced by drug addicts, and both drug-seeking behaviour as eating addiction share the same neural pathways...
January 11, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317146/momentary-factors-during-marijuana-use-as-predictors-of-lapse-during-attempted-abstinence-in-young-adults
#7
Lydia A Shrier, Vishnudas Sarda, Cassandra Jonestrask, Sion Kim Harris
INTRODUCTION: Young adults using marijuana heavily often try multiple times to quit on their own. We sought to identify momentary experiences during marijuana use that could aid in predicting lapse when young adults subsequently attempt abstinence. METHODS: Young adults (N=34) age 18-25 using marijuana ≥5days/week and planning to quit completed a survey of sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, marijuana expectancies, use motives, perceived social support, and confidence to abstain...
December 29, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309770/a-sub-set-of-psychoactive-effects-may-be-critical-to-the-behavioral-impact-of-ketamine-on-cocaine-use-disorder-results-from-a-randomized-controlled-laboratory-study
#8
REVIEW
E Dakwar, E V Nunes, C L Hart, M C Hu, R W Foltin, F R Levin
Efforts to translate sub-anesthetic ketamine infusions into widespread clinical use have centered around developing medications with comparable neurobiological activity, but with attenuated psychoactive effects so as to minimize the risk of behavioral toxicity and abuse liability. Converging lines of research, however, suggest that some of the psychoactive effects of sub-anesthetic ketamine may have therapeutic potential. Here, we assess whether a subset of these effects - the so-called mystical-type experience - mediates the effect of ketamine on craving and cocaine use in cocaine dependent research volunteers...
January 5, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306962/initial-ratings-of-different-types-of-e-cigarettes-and-relationships-between-product-appeal-and-nicotine-delivery
#9
Peter Hajek, Dunja Przulj, Anna Phillips-Waller, Rebecca Anderson, Hayden McRobbie
AIMS: Little is known about features of e-cigarettes (EC) that facilitate or hinder the switch from smoking to vaping. We tested eight brands of EC to determine how nicotine delivery and other product characteristics influence user's initial reactions. METHODS: Fifteen vapers tested each product after overnight abstinence from both smoking and vaping. At each session, participant's vaped ad lib for 5 min. Blood samples were taken at baseline and at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 30 min after starting vaping...
January 6, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305936/modeling-cocaine-relapse-in-rodents-behavioral-considerations-and-circuit-mechanisms
#10
REVIEW
Mitchell R Farrell, Hannah Schoch, Stephen V Mahler
Addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder, in that most addicted individuals who choose to quit taking drugs fail to maintain abstinence in the long-term. Relapse is especially likely when recovering addicts encounter risk factors like small "priming" doses of drug, stress, or drug-associated cues and locations. In rodents, these same factors reinstate cocaine seeking after a period of abstinence, and extensive preclinical work has used priming, stress, or cue reinstatement models to uncover brain circuits underlying cocaine reinstatement...
January 3, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302226/minding-the-brain-the-role-of-pharmacotherapy-in-substance-use-disorder-treatment
#11
Dakwar Elias, Herbert D Kleber
With its medicalization as a brain-based disease, addiction has come to be regarded as amenable to biomedical treatment approaches, most commonly pharmacotherapy. Various vulnerabilities are recognized to contribute to maladaptive substance use, and have been linked to diverse neurobiological alterations that may be targeted with pharmacotherapy: withdrawal, craving and cue reactivity, and aberrant reward processing are the most significant. Here, we summarize current thinking regarding pharmacotherapy for substance-use disorders, grouping medications by the type of vulnerability they propose to address and providing insight into their neurobiological mechanisms...
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301261/detection-of-craving-for-gaming-in-adolescents-with-internet-gaming-disorder-using-multimodal-biosignals
#12
Hodam Kim, Jihyeon Ha, Won-Du Chang, Wanjoo Park, Laehyun Kim, Chang-Hwan Im
The increase in the number of adolescents with internet gaming disorder (IGD), a type of behavioral addiction is becoming an issue of public concern. Teaching adolescents to suppress their craving for gaming in daily life situations is one of the core strategies for treating IGD. Recent studies have demonstrated that computer-aided treatment methods, such as neurofeedback therapy, are effective in relieving the symptoms of a variety of addictions. When a computer-aided treatment strategy is applied to the treatment of IGD, detecting whether an individual is currently experiencing a craving for gaming is important...
January 1, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300763/food-words-distract-the-hungry-evidence-of-involuntary-semantic-processing-of-task-irrelevant-but-biologically-relevant-unexpected-auditory-words
#13
Fabrice B R Parmentier, Antonia P Pacheco-Unguetti, Sara Valero
Rare changes in a stream of otherwise repeated task-irrelevant sounds break through selective attention and disrupt performance in an unrelated visual task by triggering shifts of attention to and from the deviant sound (deviance distraction). Evidence indicates that the involuntary orientation of attention to unexpected sounds is followed by their semantic processing. However, past demonstrations relied on tasks in which the meaning of the deviant sounds overlapped with features of the primary task. Here we examine whether such processing is observed when no such overlap is present but sounds carry some relevance to the participants' biological need to eat when hungry...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297296/gtz-a-fast-compression-and-cloud-transmission-tool-optimized-for-fastq-files
#14
Yuting Xing, Gen Li, Zhenguo Wang, Bolun Feng, Zhuo Song, Chengkun Wu
BACKGROUND: The dramatic development of DNA sequencing technology is generating real big data, craving for more storage and bandwidth. To speed up data sharing and bring data to computing resource faster and cheaper, it is necessary to develop a compression tool than can support efficient compression and transmission of sequencing data onto the cloud storage. RESULTS: This paper presents GTZ, a compression and transmission tool, optimized for FASTQ files. As a reference-free lossless FASTQ compressor, GTZ treats different lines of FASTQ separately, utilizes adaptive context modelling to estimate their characteristic probabilities, and compresses data blocks with arithmetic coding...
December 28, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297152/the-thalamo-cortical-resting-state-functional-connectivity-and-abstinence-induced-craving-in-young-smokers
#15
Chaoyan Wang, Yong Zhang, Chenyu Yan, Mengtian Sun, Jingliang Cheng
Craving is a significant predicator of smoking relapse. Thus, revealing the neural correlates of craving to smoke in young smokers is important to improve the success of quit attempts. The abstinence-induced craving to smoke has not been explored extensively, although previous studies had investigated the neural substrates of cue-induced craving. Especially, the critical roles of thalamus had been revealed in cigarettes smoking. However, the implication of thalamus resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) in abstinence-induced craving remains unclear...
January 3, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296618/lateral-hypothalamic-activity-indicates-hunger-and-satiety-states-in-humans
#16
Omid Talakoub, Raquel R Paiva, Matija Milosevic, Marcelo Q Hoexter, Ruth Franco, Eduardo Alho, Jessie Navarro, José F Pereira, Milos R Popovic, Cary Savage, Antonio C Lopes, Pedro Alvarenga, Durval Damiani, Manoel J Teixeira, Euripides C Miguel, Erich T Fonoff, Marcelo C Batistuzzo, Clement Hamani
Lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) local field potentials (LFPs) were recorded in a Prader-Willi patient undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS) for obesity. During hunger, exposure to food-related cues induced an increase in beta/low-gamma activity. In contrast, recordings during satiety were marked by prominent alpha rhythms. Based on these findings, we have delivered alpha-frequency DBS prior to and during food intake. Despite reporting an early sensation of fullness, the patient continued to crave food. This suggests that the pattern of activity in LHA may indicate hunger/satiety states in humans but attest to the complexity of conducting neuromodulation studies in obesity...
December 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295558/effects-of-sleeve-gastrectomy-vs-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-on-eating-behavior-and-sweet-taste-perception-in-subjects-with-obesity
#17
Katie Nance, J Christopher Eagon, Samuel Klein, Marta Yanina Pepino
The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that weight loss induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) has greater effects on taste perception and eating behavior than comparable weight loss induced by sleeve gastrectomy (SG). We evaluated the following outcomes in 31 subjects both before and after ~20% weight loss induced by RYGB (n = 23) or SG (n = 8): (1) sweet, savory, and salty taste sensitivity; (2) the most preferred concentrations of sucrose and monosodium glutamate; (3) sweetness palatability, by using validated sensory testing techniques; and (4) eating behavior, by using the Food Craving Inventory and the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire...
December 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291508/trait-and-state-impulsivity-in-males-with-tendency-towards-internet-pornography-use-disorder
#18
Stephanie Antons, Matthias Brand
INTRODUCTION: Impulsivity has been identified to be involved in the development and maintenance of specific Internet-use disorders (IUD). It can be differentiated between relatively stable trait impulsivity and state impulsivity which is dependent on environmental and affective factors such as craving. Following the I-PACE (Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution) model, both trait and state impulsivity may play an interactive role in IUD. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between trait and state impulsivity and symptom severity of Internet-pornography-use disorder (IPD) as one form of IUD...
December 23, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290921/gut-brain-crosstalk-regulates-craving-for-fatty-food
#19
REVIEW
Rajendra Raghow
Patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery elicit striking loss of body weight. Anatomical re-structuring of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, leading to reduced caloric intake and changes in food preference, are thought to be the primary drivers of weight loss in bariatric surgery patients. However, the mechanisms by which RYGB surgery causes a reduced preference for fatty foods remain elusive. In a recent report, Hankir et al described how RYGB surgery modulated lipid nutrient signals in the intestine of rats to blunt their craving for fatty food...
December 15, 2017: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289347/releasing-addiction-memories-trapped-in-perineuronal-nets
#20
REVIEW
Amy W Lasek, Hu Chen, Wei-Yang Chen
Drug addiction can be conceptualized at a basic level as maladaptive learning and memory. Addictive substances elicit changes in brain circuitry involved in reward, cognition, and emotional state, leading to the formation and persistence of strong drug-associated memories that lead to craving and relapse. Recently, perineuronal nets (PNNs), extracellular matrix (ECM) structures surrounding neurons, have emerged as regulators of learning, memory, and addiction behaviors. PNNs do not merely provide structural support to neurons but are dynamically remodeled in an experience-dependent manner by metalloproteinases...
December 27, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
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