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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432301/ampk-signaling-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core-mediates-cue-induced-reinstatement-of-cocaine-seeking
#1
Xue-Jiao Gao, Kai Yuan, Lu Cao, Wei Yan, Yi-Xiao Luo, Min Jian, Jian-Feng Liu, Qin Fang, Ji-Shi Wang, Ying Han, Jie Shi, Lin Lu
Relapse to drug seeking can be caused by exposure to drug-associated cues, provoking drug craving even after prolonged abstinence. Recent studies demonstrated that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates neuronal morphology and membrane excitability in neurons. Here, we investigated the role of AMPK activity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in relapse to cocaine seeking. We found that exposure to drug-related cues reinstated cocaine-seeking behavior and increased AMPK and p70s6k phosphorylation in the NAc core but not shell...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431292/cannabis-and-cue-induced-craving-in-cocaine-dependent-individuals-a-pilot-study
#2
K Giasson-Gariépy, S Potvin, M Ghabrash, J Bruneau, D Jutras-Aswad
BACKGROUND: Cannabis consumption is common among cocaine users; however, little is known about its effect on cocaine craving. The objective of this study was to assess whether cannabis co-use is associated with lower cue-induced cocaine craving in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals. METHODS: Data from twenty-eight cocaine-dependent men were analyzed in this pilot study. Cocaine-dependent subjects (n=12) were compared with cocaine-dependent subjects who also abused or were dependent on cannabis (n=16)...
March 30, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430015/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-mindfulness-and-acceptance-group-therapy-for-residential-substance-use-patients
#3
Ryan C Shorey, Joanna Elmquist, Michael J Gawrysiak, Catherine Strauss, Ellen Haynes, Scott Anderson, Gregory L Stuart
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders are understood as a chronically relapsing condition that is difficult to treat. However, in recent years there have been promising developments in the treatment of substance use disorders, specifically with interventions based on mindfulness and acceptance and commitment therapy. Little research has examined whether these types of interventions may positively impact residential substance use treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVES: Thus, in the current study we developed and examined, in a randomized controlled trial, a 4-week, eight-session, adjunctive mindfulness and acceptance group therapy for patients in residential substance use treatment...
April 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422519/spontaneous-hedonic-reactions-to-social-media-cues
#4
Guido M van Koningsbruggen, Tilo Hartmann, Allison Eden, Harm Veling
Why is it so difficult to resist the desire to use social media? One possibility is that frequent social media users possess strong and spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues, which, in turn, makes it difficult to resist social media temptations. In two studies (total N = 200), we investigated less-frequent and frequent social media users' spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues using the Affect Misattribution Procedure-an implicit measure of affective reactions. Results demonstrated that frequent social media users showed more favorable affective reactions in response to social media (vs...
April 19, 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422379/increased-5-hydroxymethylation-levels-in-the-hippocampus-of-rat-extinguished-from-cocaine-self-administration
#5
Anna Sadakierska-Chudy, Małgorzata Frankowska, Karolina Wydra, Joanna Jastrzębska, Joanna Miszkiel, Małgorzata Filip
Drug craving and relapse risk during abstinence from cocaine are thought to be caused by persistent changes in transcription and chromatin regulation. Although several brain regions are involved in these processes, the hippocampus seems to play an important role in context-evoked craving and drug-seeking behavior. Only a few studies have examined epigenetic alterations during a period of cocaine abstinence. To investigate the effects of cocaine abstinence on DNA methylation and gene expression, rats that self-administered the drug underwent cocaine abstinence in two time points with extinction training...
April 19, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421529/suppression-of-methamphetamine-self-administration-by-ketamine-pre-treatment-is-absent-in-the-methylazoxymethanol-mam-rat-model-of-schizophrenia
#6
Jana Ruda-Kucerova, Zuzana Babinska, Tibor Stark, Vincenzo Micale
Ketamine may prove to be a potential candidate in treating the widespread drug addiction/substance abuse epidemic among patients with schizophrenia. Clinical studies have shown ketamine to reduce cocaine and heroin cravings. However, the use of ketamine remains controversial as it may exacerbate the symptoms of schizophrenia. Therefore, the aim of this study is to characterize the effects of ketamine on drug addiction in schizophrenia using the methylazoxymethanol (MAM) acetate rat model on operant IV methamphetamine (METH) self-administration...
April 18, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419649/a-paradigm-for-examining-stress-effects-on-alcohol-motivated-behaviors-in-participants-with-alcohol-use-disorder
#7
Mary E McCaul, Gary S Wand, Elise M Weerts, Xiaoqiang Xu
Although epidemiological research has shown an increase in drinking following stressors and trauma, limited paradigms have been validated to study the relationship between stress and drinking in the human laboratory. The current study developed a progressive ratio (PR) operant procedure to examine the effects of psychosocial stress on alcohol craving and several alcohol-motivated behaviors in persons with alcohol use disorder. Current heavy, nontreatment-seeking drinkers (N = 30) were media-recruited and completed a comprehensive assessment of recent drinking, mood and health...
April 17, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412950/prevalence-withdrawal-symptoms-and-associated-factors-of-khat-chewing-among-students-at-jimma-university-in-ethiopia
#8
Tilahun Abdeta, Daniel Tolessa, Kristina Adorjan, Mubarek Abera
BACKGROUND: Recently, khat chewing has become a common practice among high school, college, and university students. Regular khat chewing is thought to be a predisposing factor for different physical and mental health problems. It can lead to absenteeism from work and classes. In Ethiopia, to our knowledge no published study has investigated khat withdrawal symptoms. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence, withdrawal symptoms, and associated factors of khat chewing among regular undergraduate students on the main campus of Jimma University in Ethiopia...
April 17, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410525/high-frequency-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-of-the-left-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-for-methamphetamine-use-disorders-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#9
Hang Su, Na Zhong, Hong Gan, Jijun Wang, Hui Han, Tianzhen Chen, Xiaotong Li, Xiaolu Ruan, Youwei Zhu, Haifeng Jiang, Min Zhao
BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a brain stimulation and modulation electrophysiological technique, it can change cortical excitability of target brain region, modulate neuron plasticity and brain connections. Previous researches indicated that rTMS could reduce cue-induced craving in drug addiction. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we employed real and sham rTMS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to test whether it could reduce cue-induced craving for methamphetamine (MA) and influence cognitive function in a randomised clinical trial...
March 29, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401985/alcohol-demand-future-orientation-and-craving-mediate-the-relation-between-depressive-and-stress-symptoms-and-alcohol-problems
#10
Kathryn E Soltis, Meghan McDevitt-Murphy, James G Murphy
Elevated depression and stress have been linked to greater levels of alcohol problems among young adults even after taking into account drinking level. The current study attempts to elucidate variables that might mediate the relation between symptoms of depression and stress and alcohol problems, including alcohol demand, future time orientation, and craving METHODS: Participants were 393 undergraduates (60.8% female, 78.9% White/Caucasian) who reported at least 2 binge drinking episodes (4/5+ drinks for women/men, respectively) in the previous month...
April 12, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400259/a-role-for-the-peripheral-immune-system-in-the-development-of-alcohol-use-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Philippe de Timary, Peter Stärkel, Nathalie M Delzenne, Sophie Leclercq
Preclinical studies have largely supported that alcohol-consumption induces the development of an important neuro-inflammation and this neuro-inflammation contributes to alcohol-drinking behaviors, notably through TLR4 and LPS related mechanisms. The neuro-inflammation originates from a direct interaction of ethanol with the neuronal and immune brain cells, but also from the generation of an inflammation at the periphery. Ethanol in particular interacts with the intestine to develop a gut dysbiosis and an increase in gut permeability, that allows the liberation of bacterial fragments to the systemic circulation and induces a pro-inflammatory response in the systemic circulation and peripheral organs, and in particular the liver...
April 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399488/intentional-cannabis-use-to-reduce-crack-cocaine-use-in-a-canadian-setting-a-longitudinal-analysis
#12
M Eugenia Socías, Thomas Kerr, Evan Wood, Huiru Dong, Stephanie Lake, Kanna Hayashi, Kora DeBeck, Didier Jutras-Aswad, Julio Montaner, M-J Milloy
BACKGROUND: No effective pharmacotherapies exist for the treatment of crack cocaine use disorders. Emerging data suggests that cannabinoids may play a role in reducing cocaine-related craving symptoms. This study investigated the intentional use of cannabis to reduce crack use among people who use illicit drugs (PWUD). METHODS: Data were drawn from three prospective cohorts of PWUD in Vancouver, Canada. Using data from participants reporting intentional cannabis use to control crack use, we used generalized linear mixed-effects modeling to estimate the independent effect of three pre-defined intentional cannabis use periods (i...
April 4, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398588/electrical-stimulation-reduces-smokers-craving-by-modulating-the-coupling-between-dorsal-lateral-prefrontal-cortex-and-parahippocampal-gyrus
#13
Li-Zhuang Yang, Bin Shi, Hai Li, Ying Liu, Wei Zhang, Ying Wang, Wanwan Lv, Xuebing Ji, Justin Hudak, Yifeng Zhou, Andreas J Fallgatter, Xiaochu Zhang
Applying electrical stimulation over the prefrontal cortex can help nicotine dependents reduce cigarette craving. However, the underlying mechanism remains ambiguous. The present study investigates this issue with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Thirty-two male chronic smokers received real and sham stimulation over dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex separated by 1 week. The neuroimaging data of the resting state, the smoking cue reactivity task and the emotion task after stimulation were collected. The craving across the cue reactivity task was diminished during real stimulation as compared to sham stimulation...
April 4, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398148/the-emotional-eating-and-negative-food-relationship-experiences-of-obese-and-overweight-adults
#14
Tasha Ford, HeeSoon Lee, MinJeong Jeon
Overweight and obesity pose serious public health problems, affecting 68.8% of Americans. Previous research indicated that psychological factors played important roles in an individual's motivation to consume food. In particular, emotional eating, defined as overeating in response to negative affect, has received particular attention as a risk factor for obesity. This study explored and addressed the emotional factors involved in the development of emotional eating. A total of 10 Midwestern American male and female adults, previously diagnosed as medically overweight and obese, were recruited via online and print advertisement using maximum variation and snowball sampling methods...
April 11, 2017: Social Work in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398011/striatal-activation-and-frontostriatal-connectivity-during-non-drug-reward-anticipation-in-alcohol-dependence
#15
Alena Becker, Martina Kirsch, Martin Fungisai Gerchen, Falk Kiefer, Peter Kirsch
According to prevailing neurobiological theories of addiction, altered function in neural reward circuitry is a central mechanism of alcohol dependence. Growing evidence postulates that the ventral striatum (VS), as well as areas of the prefrontal cortex, contribute to the increased incentive salience of alcohol-associated cues, diminished motivation to pursue non-drug rewards and weakened strength of inhibitory cognitive control, which are central to addiction. The present study aims to investigate the neural response and functional connectivity underlying monetary, non-drug reward processing in alcohol dependence...
May 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396289/food-craving-food-choice-and-consumption-the-role-of-impulsivity-and-sham-controlled-tdcs-stimulation-of-the-right-dlpfc
#16
Claudio Georgii, Philipp Goldhofer, Adrian Meule, Anna Richard, Jens Blechert
BACKGROUND: Impulsivity has been found to be associated with overeating and obesity. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may enhance inhibitory control while reducing food craving and intake. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether tDCS stimulation modifies food choice, craving and consumption as a function of trait impulsivity. METHODS: Forty-two predominantly healthy-weight women received active tDCS stimulation to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and sham stimulation in a within participant design...
April 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393896/effects-of-ibudilast-on-the-subjective-reinforcing-and-analgesic-effects-of-oxycodone-in-recently-detoxified-adults-with-opioid-dependence
#17
Verena E Metz, Jermaine D Jones, Jeanne Manubay, Maria Sullivan, Shanthi Mogali, Andrew Segoshi, Gabriela Madera, Kirk W Johnson, Sandra D Comer
Ibudilast, a non-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, is used clinically in Asia for the treatment of asthma and post-stroke dizziness. Recent preclinical studies have suggested that it also inhibits glial cell activation in rodents, and may alter opioid-mediated effects, including analgesia and withdrawal symptoms. The effects of ibudilast on the abuse potential of opioids in humans are largely unknown. The present study was designed to examine the influence of ibudilast on subjective (including drug craving), reinforcing, and analgesic effects of oxycodone in human volunteers diagnosed with opioid dependence (equivalent to moderate-severe opioid use disorder)...
April 10, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393332/cocaine-administration-and-its-withdrawal-enhance-the-expression-of-genes-encoding-histone-modifying-enzymes-and-histone-acetylation-in-the-rat-prefrontal-cortex
#18
Anna Sadakierska-Chudy, Małgorzata Frankowska, Joanna Jastrzębska, Karolina Wydra, Joanna Miszkiel, Marek Sanak, Małgorzata Filip
Chronic exposure to cocaine, craving, and relapse are attributed to long-lasting changes in gene expression arising through epigenetic and transcriptional mechanisms. Although several brain regions are involved in these processes, the prefrontal cortex seems to play a crucial role not only in motivation and decision-making but also in extinction and seeking behavior. In this study, we applied cocaine self-administration and extinction training procedures in rats with a yoked triad to determine differentially expressed genes in prefrontal cortex...
April 10, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393082/electronic-cigarette-use-among-current-smokers-a-pilot-qualitative-study
#19
Ban A Majeed, Cassandra A Stanton, Shanta R Dube, Kymberle L Sterling, Joy D Burns, Michael P Eriksen
OBJECTIVE: This pilot study explored psychosocial influences of e-cigarette use among dual users. METHODS: Two focus groups among adult current smokers who had ever used e-cigarettes were conducted in Georgia. Discussions were audio-recorded. Principles of grounded theory and thematic analysis were employed. RESULTS: Reasons for initial use included curiosity and social influence. Themes related to regular use included enjoyment of sensory experiences and perception of reduced harm...
November 2016: Health Behavior and Policy Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391178/mirtazapine-attenuates-cocaine-seeking-in-rats
#20
Susana Barbosa-Méndez, Phillipe Leff, Adriana Arías-Caballero, Ricardo Hernández-Miramontes, Gerardo Heinze, Alberto Salazar-Juárez
BACKGROUND: Relapse to cocaine use is a major problem in the clinical treatment of cocaine addiction. Antidepressants have been studied for their therapeutic potential to treat cocaine use disorder. Research has suggested that antidepressants attenuate both drug craving and the re-acquisition of drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors. This study examined the efficacy of mirtazapine, an antidepressant/anxiolytic, in decreasing cocaine seeking in rats. METHODS: We used the cocaine self-administration paradigm to assess the effects of mirtazapine on rats trained to self-administer cocaine or food under a fixed-ratio schedule...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
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