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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339596/health-warning-labels-for-smokeless-tobacco-the-impact-of-graphic-images-on-attention-recall-and-craving
#1
Elizabeth G Klein, Amanda J Quisenberry, Abigail B Shoben, Sarah Cooper, Amy K Ferketich, Micah Berman, Ellen Peters, Mary Ellen Wewers
Introduction: Little research has examined the impacts of graphic health warnings on the users of smokeless tobacco products. Methods: A convenience sample of past-month, male smokeless tobacco users (n = 142; 100% male) was randomly assigned to view a smokeless tobacco advertisement with a graphic health warning (GHW) or a text-only warning. Eye-tracking equipment measured viewing time, or dwell time, in milliseconds. Following the advertisement exposure, participants self-reported smokeless tobacco craving and recalled any content in the health warning message (unaided recall)...
January 28, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337155/impact-of-different-e-cigarette-generation-and-models-on-cognitive-performances-craving-and-gesture-a-randomized-cross-over-trial-cogecig
#2
Pasquale Caponnetto, Marilena Maglia, Maria Concetta Cannella, Lucio Inguscio, Mariachiara Buonocore, Claudio Scoglio, Riccardo Polosa, Valeria Vinci
Introduction: Most electronic-cigarettes (e-cigarette) are designed to look like traditional cigarettes and simulate the visual, sensory, and behavioral aspects of smoking traditional cigarettes. This research aimed to explore whether different e-cigarette models and smokers' usual classic cigarettes can impact on cognitive performances, craving and gesture. Methods: The study is randomized cross-over trial designed to compare cognitive performances, craving, and gesture in subjects who used first generation electronic cigarettes, second generation electronic cigarettes with their usual cigarettes...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336495/genetic-variation-and-epigenetic-modification-of-the-prodynorphin-gene-in-peripheral-blood-cells-in-alcoholism
#3
Claudio D'Addario, Klementy Shchetynsky, Mariangela Pucci, Carlo Cifani, Agneta Gunnar, Vladana Vukojević, Leonid Padyukov, Lars Terenius
Dynorphins are critically involved in the development, maintenance and relapse of alcoholism. Alcohol-induced changes in the prodynorphin gene expression may be influenced by both gene polymorphisms and epigenetic modifications. The present study of human alcoholics aims to evaluate DNA methylation patterns in the prodynorphin gene (PDYN) promoter and to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with alcohol dependence and with altered DNA methylation. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood cells of alcoholics and healthy controls, and DNA methylation was studied in the PDYN promoter by bisulfite pyrosequencing...
March 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333537/self-control-depletion-and-nicotine-deprivation-as-precipitants-of-smoking-cessation-failure-a-human-laboratory-model
#4
Bryan W Heckman, David A MacQueen, Nicole S Marquinez, James MacKillop, Warren K Bickel, Thomas H Brandon
OBJECTIVE: The need to understand potential precipitants of smoking relapse is exemplified by relapse rates as high as 95%. The Self-Control Strength model, which proposes that self-control is dependent upon limited resources and susceptible to fatigue, may offer insight into relapse processes. The current study tested the hypothesis that self-control depletion (SCD), produced from engagement in emotional suppression, would serve as a novel antecedent for cessation failure, as indexed by a validated laboratory analogue of smoking lapse and relapse...
April 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324454/reward-circuitry-in-addiction
#5
REVIEW
Sarah Cooper, A J Robison, Michelle S Mazei-Robison
Understanding the brain circuitry that underlies reward is critical to improve treatment for many common health issues, including obesity, depression, and addiction. Here we focus on insights into the organization and function of reward circuitry and its synaptic and structural adaptations in response to cocaine exposure. While the importance of certain circuits, such as the mesocorticolimbic dopamine pathway, are well established in drug reward, recent studies using genetics-based tools have revealed functional changes throughout the reward circuitry that contribute to different facets of addiction, such as relapse and craving...
March 21, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320841/prefrontal-cortex-kca2-channels-regulate-mglu5-dependent-plasticity-and-extinction-of-alcohol-seeking-behavior
#6
Reginald Cannady, Justin T McGonigal, Ryan J Newsom, John J Woodward, Patrick J Mulholland, Justin T Gass
Identifying novel treatments that facilitate extinction learning could enhance cue-exposure therapy and reduce high relapse rates in alcoholics. Activation of mGlu5 receptors in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex (IL-PFC) facilitates learning during extinction of cue-conditioned alcohol-seeking behavior. Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (KCa2) channels have also been implicated in extinction learning of fear memories, and mGlu5 receptor activation can reduce KCa2 channel function. Using a combination of electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral approaches, this study examined KCa2 channels as a novel target to facilitate extinction of alcohol-seeking behavior in rats...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319755/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-rtms-of-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-reduces-resting-state-insula-activity-and-modulates-functional-connectivity-of-the-orbitofrontal-cortex-in-cigarette-smokers
#7
Xingbao Li, Lian Du, Gregory L Sahlem, Bashar W Badran, Scott Henderson, Mark S George
BACKGROUND: Previous studies reported that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can reduce cue-elicited craving and decrease cigarette consumption in smokers. The mechanism of this effect however, remains unclear. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) to test the effect of rTMS in non-treatment seeking smokers. METHODS: We used a single blinded, sham-controlled, randomized counterbalanced crossover design where participants underwent two visits separated by at least 1 week...
February 28, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317506/theory-of-mind-impairments-in-women-with-cocaine-addiction
#8
Breno Sanvicente-Vieira, Bruno Kluwe-Schiavon, Rhiannon Corcoran, Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the Theory of Mind performance of female cocaine-dependent users (CDUs) and possible associations between theory of mind performance and features of cocaine use. METHOD: Sixty women controlled for age, education, individual income, and IQ participated in this study: 30 in the CDU group and 30 in the healthy control group. Participants were assessed for theory of mind with the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET), a test of understanding of first-order and second-order false beliefs, and the Hinting task...
March 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317503/type-a-type-b-alcoholism-predicts-differential-response-to-topiramate-in-a-smoking-cessation-trial-in-dually-diagnosed-men
#9
Melodie Isgro, Neal Doran, Jaimee L Heffner, Esther Wong, Elizabeth Dinh, Jessie Tibbs, Katie Russell, Tracy Bittner, Chris Wehrle, Matthew J Worley, Robert M Anthenelli
OBJECTIVE: Babor's A/B typology characterizes alcohol-dependence subtypes, which differ across multiple defining variables; however, differences in cigarette smoking and cessation between these subtypes have not been previously investigated. Topiramate reduces heavy drinking and has separately been found to help non-alcohol-dependent individuals quit smoking. This study tested the hypothesis that topiramate's effects on smoking would be moderated by alcohol-dependence subtype, and explored craving as a mediator of this response...
March 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317271/baclofen-and-alcohol-dependent-patients-a-real-risk-of-severe-self-poisoning
#10
David Boels, Caroline Victorri-Vigneau, Marie Grall-Bronnec, Ali Touré, Anais Garnier, Alain Turcant, Gaël Le Roux
Baclofen is often prescribed in high doses to fight cravings experienced by alcohol-dependent patients. Such an increase in the availability of baclofen is concerning. This study aimed to determine the change in number and profile of self-poisoning with baclofen over time, since baclofen has become increasingly popular, in order to describe the severity of self-poisoning with baclofen and to focus on co-existing alcohol use disorders and psychiatric illnesses determine predictors of severity. This was a retrospective study of self-poisoning with baclofen as reported by the western France Poison Control Center (PCC), which represents a population of more than 12 million people from January 2008 to March 2014...
March 19, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316252/relationship-between-family-history-of-alcohol-addiction-parents-education-level-and-smartphone-problem-use-scale-scores
#11
Ashley Beison, David J Rademacher
Background and aims Smartphones are ubiquitous. As smartphones increased in popularity, researchers realized that people were becoming dependent on their smartphones. The purpose here was to provide a better understanding of the factors related to problematic smartphone use (PSPU). Methods The participants were 100 undergraduates (25 males, 75 females) whose ages ranged from 18 to 23 (mean age = 20 years). The participants completed questionnaires to assess gender, ethnicity, year in college, father's education level, mother's education level, family income, age, family history of alcoholism, and PSPU...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303497/n-acetylcysteine-prevents-alcohol-related-neuroinflammation-in-rats
#12
Ricardo Schneider, Solange Bandiera, Débora Guerini Souza, Bruna Bellaver, Greice Caletti, André Quincozes-Santos, Elaine Elisabetsky, Rosane Gomez
Alcoholism has been characterized as a systemic pro-inflammatory condition and alcohol withdrawal has been linked to various changes in the brain homeostasis, including oxidative stress and glutamate hyperactivity. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant multi-target drug with promising results in psychiatry, including drug addiction. We assessed the effects of NAC on the serum and brain inflammatory cytokines after cessation of chronic alcohol treatment in rats. Male Wistar rats received 2 g/kg alcohol or vehicle twice a day by oral gavage for 30 days...
March 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302238/gitelman-syndrome
#13
Qurat Ul Ain Mustafa, Zujaja Hina Haroon, Aamir Ijaz, Muhammad Tanveer Sajid, Muhammad Ayyub
Gitelman syndrome (GS) is the most frequently inherited renal salt-wasting tubulointerstitial disease. It follows variable but usually asymptomatic benign course. We present a rare case of GS that remained clinical enigma. A 22-year male presented with severe episodic fatigue involving all limbs associated with episodes of sinking, palpitations, salt craving, increased thirst and frequent micturition hampering his routine daily activities. Laboratory workup revealed serum potassium, 2.7 mmol/L, serum magnesium, 0...
March 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301697/managing-opioid-withdrawal-for-hospital-patients-in-custody
#14
Connie R Shi, Manjinder S Kandola, Matthew Tobey, Elizabeth Singer
Dr. Brown, a hospitalist, admits Mark, a patient transferred from a local jail for management of cellulitis. The patient, who was taken into custody two days prior to hospital admission, has a history of intravenous heroin use. Mark explains that he had been prescribed buprenorphine-naloxone maintenance therapy for opioid use disorder for several years prior to being arrested and had not used other opioids during that time. As a policy, the jail where Mark is detained does not prescribe opioid agonists, and his maintenance therapy was stopped upon his arrival there...
March 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300626/changes-in-circulating-peptide-yy-and-ghrelin-are-associated-with-early-smoking-relapse
#15
Andrine M Lemieux, Mustafa al'Absi
Ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY) during ad libitum smoking have been associated with decreased reported craving (ghrelin) and increased positive affect (PYY), and higher baseline ghrelin levels predicted subsequent increased risk of smoking relapse. The current study assessed PYY and ghrelin during ad libitum smoking and again after the initial 48hours of a smoking cessation attempt. The data compared smokers who abstained for 28days (n=37), smokers who relapsed (n=54), and nonsmokers (n=37). Plasma samples and subjective measures assessing craving and mood were collected at the beginning of each session...
March 11, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294985/effects-of-a-diet-based-weight-reducing-program-with-probiotic-supplementation-on-satiety-efficiency-eating-behaviour-traits-and-psychosocial-behaviours-in-obese-individuals
#16
Marina Sanchez, Christian Darimont, Shirin Panahi, Vicky Drapeau, André Marette, Valerie H Taylor, Jean Doré, Angelo Tremblay
This study evaluated the impact of probiotic supplementation (Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 (LPR)) on appetite sensations and eating behaviors in the context of a weight-reducing program. Obese men (n = 45) and women (n = 60) participated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that included a 12-week weight loss period (Phase 1) based on moderate energy restriction, followed by 12 weeks of weight maintenance (Phase 2). During the two phases of the program, each subject consumed two capsules per day of either a placebo or a LPR formulation (10 mg of LPR equivalent to 1...
March 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294707/outcome-of-non-invasive-brain-stimulation-in-substance-use-disorders-a-review-of-randomized-sham-controlled-clinical-trials
#17
Benoit Trojak, Anne Sauvaget, Shirley Fecteau, Laurence Lalanne, Jean-Christophe Chauvet-Gelinier, Sonja Koch, Samuel Bulteau, Daniele Zullino, Sophia Achab
Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) might be a new approach to treat substance use disorders (SUD). A systematic review and critical analysis was performed to identify potential therapeutic effects of NIBS on addictions. A search of the Medline database was conducted for randomized sham-controlled trials using NIBS in the field of addiction and published until August 2016. Twenty-six studies in various SUD met the inclusion criteria. Converging evidence indicates that NIBS might be a promising mean to treat patients with alcohol and tobacco use disorders, by acting on craving reduction and other mechanisms such as improvement in cognitive dysfunctions...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294131/structural-and-functional-plasticity-within-the-nucleus-accumbens-and-prefrontal-cortex-associated-with-time-dependent-increases-in-food-cue-seeking-behavior
#18
Paige M Dingess, Rebecca A Darling, Rifka C Derman, Shaun S Wulff, Melissa L Hunter, Carrie R Ferrario, Travis E Brown
Urges to consume food can be driven by stimuli in the environment that are associated with previous food experience. Identifying adaptations within brain reward circuits that facilitate cue-induced food seeking is critical for understanding and preventing the overconsumption of food and subsequent weight gain. Utilizing electrophysiological, biochemical, and DiI labeling we examined functional and structural changes in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) associated with time-dependent increases in food craving ('incubation of craving')...
March 15, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292795/primary-care-management-of-opioid-use-disorders-abstinence-methadone-or-buprenorphine-naloxone
#19
REVIEW
Anita Srivastava, Meldon Kahan, Maya Nader
OBJECTIVE: To advise physicians on which treatment options to recommend for specific patient populations: abstinence-based treatment, buprenorphine-naloxone maintenance, or methadone maintenance. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: PubMed was searched and literature was reviewed on the effectiveness, safety, and side effect profiles of abstinence-based treatment, buprenorphine-naloxone treatment, and methadone treatment. Both observational and interventional studies were included...
March 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292567/images-of-suffering-depicted-in-diaries-of-family-caregivers-in-the-acute-stage-of-necrotising-soft-tissue-infection-a-content-analysis
#20
Ingrid Egerod, Annette E Andersson, Ann-Mari Fagerdahl, Vibeke E Knudsen
OBJECTIVES: Severe necrotising soft tissue infections (NSTI) are rare life threatening rapidly progressing bacterial infections requiring immediate diagnosis and treatment. The aim of the study was to explore the experience of family caregivers of patients with necrotising soft tissue infection during the acute stage of disease. METHODS: Our study had a qualitative descriptive binational design using qualitative content analysis to explore diaries written by close family members (n=15)...
March 11, 2017: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
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