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Metabolic conditioning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340434/potentially-direct-interspecies-electron-transfer-of-methanogenesis-for-syntrophic-metabolism-under-sulfate-reducing-conditions-with-stainless-steel
#1
Yue Li, Yaobin Zhang, Yafei Yang, Xie Quan, Zhiqiang Zhao
Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) is an alternative to syntrophic metabolism in natural carbon cycle as well as in anaerobic digesters, but its function in anaerobic treatment of sulfate-containing wastewater have not yet to be described. Here, conductive stainless steel was added into anaerobic digesters for treating sulfate-containing wastewater to investigate the potential role of DIET in the response to the sulfate impact. Results showed that adding the conductive stainless steel made the anaerobic digestion less affected by the sulfate reduction than adding insulative plastic material...
March 12, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340326/effects-of-coupling-a-uf-membrane-with-a-mesh-screen-and-elevating-temperature-in-the-methanogenic-digester-of-a-two-phased-anaerobic-system
#2
Min Ho Kim, Chul-Hwi Park, Gee-Bong Han
This study was conducted to investigate coupling of UF with a mesh screen under thermophilic temperatures and compare the effectiveness of membrane filtration and temperature change in the methanogenic digester. A two-phased anaerobic digester coupled with an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane system was used for anaerobic sludge digestion. The overall average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency achieved in the two-phased anaerobic digester coupled with the UF membrane system was 97.9 ± 0.8%. In the methanogenic digester, 10...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339731/obesity-associated-cardiac-pathogenesis-in-broiler-breeder-hens-development-of-metabolic-cardiomyopathy2-3
#3
C Y Chen, Y F Huang, Y J Ko, Y J Liu, Y H Chen, R L Walzem, S E Chen
Feed intake is typically restricted (R) in broiler hens to avoid obesity and improve egg production and livability. To determine whether improved heart health contributes to improved livability, fully adult 45-week-old R hens were allowed to consume feed to appetite (ad libitum; AL) up to 10 wk (70 d). Mortality, contractile functions, and morphology at 70 d, and measurements of cardiac hypertrophic remodeling at 7 d and 21 d were made and compared between R and AL hens. Outcomes for cardiac electrophysiology and mortality, reported separately, found increased mortality in AL hens in association with cardiac pathological hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction...
February 22, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339664/adult-paget-s-disease-of-bone-a-review
#4
Stephen Paul Tuck, Robert Layfield, Julie Walker, Babitha Mekkayil, Roger Francis
Adult PD of bone is the second commonest metabolic bone condition after osteoporosis. The condition is characterized by increased bone cell activity, with bone-resorbing osteoclasts often larger and containing more nuclei than normal, and osteoblasts producing increased amounts of disorganized bone. This leads to expanded bone of poor quality possessing both sclerotic and lytic areas. PD of bone has a strong genetic element, with a family history being noted in 10-20% of cases. A number of genetic defects have been found to be associated with the condition...
February 17, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339343/alterations-in-multiple-lifestyle-factors-in-subjects-with-the-metabolic-syndrome-independently-of-obesity
#5
Vendela Roos, Sölve Elmståhl, Erik Ingelsson, Johan Sundström, Johan Ärnlöv, Lars Lind
BACKGROUND: Many lifestyle factors have been associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, most of these studies have not considered the potential impact of obesity and have often only investigated one lifestyle factor at the time. We aimed to investigate the interplay between body mass index (BMI) and MetS with respect to multiple lifestyle factors. METHODS: BMI and MetS [National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)/Adult Treatment Panel III criteria] were assessed in a sample of 18,880 subjects aged 45-75 years from the population-based EpiHealth study...
April 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338930/expath-tool-a-system-for-comprehensively-analyzing-regulatory-pathways-and-coexpression-networks-from-high-throughput-transcriptome-data
#6
Han-Qin Zheng, Nai-Yun Wu, Chi-Nga Chow, Kuan-Chieh Tseng, Chia-Hung Chien, Yu-Cheng Hung, Guan-Zhen Li, Wen-Chi Chang
Next generation sequencing (NGS) has become the mainstream approach for monitoring gene expression levels in parallel with various experimental treatments. Unfortunately, there is no systematical webserver to comprehensively perform further analysis based on the huge amount of preliminary data that is obtained after finishing the process of gene annotation. Therefore, a user-friendly and effective system is required to mine important genes and regulatory pathways under specific conditions from high-throughput transcriptome data...
March 13, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338908/metabolite-profiling-of-barley-flag-leaves-under-drought-and-combined-heat-and-drought-stress-reveals-metabolic-qtls-for-metabolites-associated-with-antioxidant-defense
#7
Sven Eduard Templer, Alexandra Ammon, David Pscheidt, Otilia Ciobotea, Christian Schuy, Christopher McCollum, Uwe Sonnewald, Anja Hanemann, Jutta Förster, Frank Ordon, Maria von Korff, Lars Matthias Voll
Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is among the most stress-tolerant crops; however, not much is known about the genetic and environmental control of metabolic adaptation of barley to abiotic stresses. We have subjected a genetically diverse set of 81 barley accessions, consisting of Mediterranean landrace genotypes and German elite breeding lines, to drought and combined heat and drought stress at anthesis. Our aim was to (i) investigate potential differences in morphological, physiological, and metabolic adaptation to the two stress scenarios between the Mediterranean and German barley genotypes and (ii) identify metabolic quantitative trait loci (mQTLs)...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338900/exposure-to-the-chinese-famine-of-1959-61-in-early-life-and-long-term-health-conditions-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Chihua Li, L H Lumey
Background: Most Chinese people over 55 years old today have experienced the Great Leap Forward Famine of 1959-61. Many reports suggested that the famine could have profound long-term health effects for exposed birth cohorts. A systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out to summarize reported famine effects on long-term health. Methods: Relevant reports were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, Chinese Wanfang Data and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases...
March 3, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338798/genetic-dissection-of-metabolite-variation-in-arabidopsis-seeds-evidence-for-mqtl-hotspots-and-a-master-regulatory-locus-of-seed-metabolism
#9
Dominic Knoch, David Riewe, Rhonda Christiane Meyer, Anastassia Boudichevskaia, Renate Schmidt, Thomas Altmann
To gain insight into genetic factors controlling seed metabolic composition and its relationship to major seed properties, an Arabidopsis recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, derived from accessions Col-0 and C24, was studied using an MS-based metabolic profiling approach. Relative intensities of 311 polar primary metabolites were used to identify associated genomic loci and to elucidate their interactions by quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. A total of 786 metabolic QTLs (mQTLs) were unequally distributed across the genome, forming several hotspots...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338755/red-blotch-disease-alters-grape-berry-development-and-metabolism-by-interfering-with-the-transcriptional-and-hormonal-regulation-of-ripening
#10
Barbara Blanco-Ulate, Helene Hopfer, Rosa Figueroa-Balderas, Zirou Ye, Rosa M Rivero, Alfonso Albacete, Francisco Pérez-Alfocea, Renata Koyama, Michael M Anderson, Rhonda J Smith, Susan E Ebeler, Dario Cantu
Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV) is a major threat to the wine industry in the USA. GRBaV infections (aka red blotch disease) compromise crop yield and berry chemical composition, affecting the flavor and aroma properties of must and wine. In this study, we combined genome-wide transcriptional profiling with targeted metabolite analyses and biochemical assays to characterize the impact of the disease on red-skinned berry ripening and metabolism. Using naturally infected berries collected from two vineyards, we were able to identify consistent berry responses to GRBaV across different environmental and cultural conditions...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338745/circadian-oscillations-of-microbial-and-functional-composition-in-the-human-salivary-microbiome
#11
Lena Takayasu, Wataru Suda, Kageyasu Takanashi, Erica Iioka, Rina Kurokawa, Chie Shindo, Yasue Hattori, Naoko Yamashita, Suguru Nishijima, Kenshiro Oshima, Masahira Hattori
The human microbiomes across the body evidently interact with various signals in response to biogeographical physiological conditions. To understand such interactions in detail, we investigated how the salivary microbiome in the oral cavity would be regulated by host-related signals. Here, we show that the microbial abundance and gene participating in keeping the human salivary microbiome exhibit global circadian rhythm. Analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences of salivary microbial samples of six healthy adults collected at 4-h intervals for three days revealed that the microbial genera accounting for 68...
February 23, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338719/the-legume-mir1514a-modulates-a-nac-transcription-factor-transcript-to-trigger-phasirna-formation-in-response-to-drought
#12
Guadalupe Sosa-Valencia, Miguel Palomar, Alejandra A Covarrubias, José L Reyes
Recent studies have identified microRNAs as post-transcriptional regulators involved in stress responses. miR1514a is a legume microRNA that is induced in response to drought stress in Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) and shows differential accumulation levels in roots during water deficit in two cultivars with different drought tolerance phenotypes. A recent degradome analysis revealed that miR1514a targets the transcripts of two NAC transcription factors (TFs), Phvul.010g121000 and Phvul.010g120700. Furthermore, expression studies and small RNA-seq data indicate that only Phvul...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338685/prebiotic-synthesis-of-phosphoenol-pyruvate-by-%C3%AE-phosphorylation-controlled-triose-glycolysis
#13
Adam J Coggins, Matthew W Powner
Phosphoenol pyruvate is the highest-energy phosphate found in living organisms and is one of the most versatile molecules in metabolism. Consequently, it is an essential intermediate in a wide variety of biochemical pathways, including carbon fixation, the shikimate pathway, substrate-level phosphorylation, gluconeogenesis and glycolysis. Triose glycolysis (generation of ATP from glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate via phosphoenol pyruvate) is among the most central and highly conserved pathways in metabolism. Here, we demonstrate the efficient and robust synthesis of phosphoenol pyruvate from prebiotic nucleotide precursors, glycolaldehyde and glyceraldehyde...
April 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338638/the-value-of-coenzyme-q10-determination-in-mitochondrial-patients
#14
REVIEW
Delia Yubero, George Allen, Rafael Artuch, Raquel Montero
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) is a lipid that is ubiquitously synthesized in tissues and has a key role in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Its biochemical determination provides insight into the CoQ status of tissues and may detect CoQ deficiency that can result from either an inherited primary deficiency of CoQ metabolism or may be secondary to different genetic and environmental conditions. Rapid identification of CoQ deficiency can also allow potentially beneficial treatment to be initiated as early as possible...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338413/human-tissue-engineered-skeletal-muscle-myobundles-to-measure-oxygen-uptake-and-assess-mitochondrial-toxicity
#15
Brittany N J Davis, Jeffrey W Santoso, Michaela J Walker, Cindy S Cheng, Timothy R Koves, William E Kraus, George A Truskey
Mitochondrial dysfunction is responsible for the toxicity of a number of drugs. Current isolated mitochondria or cellular monoculture mitochondrial respiration measurement systems lack physiological relevance. Using a tissue engineering rather than cell- or mitochondria-based approach enables a more physiologically relevant detection of drug-induced mitochondrial impairment. To probe oxygen consumption and mitochondrial health, we assayed the bioenergetic profile of engineered three-dimensional human skeletal muscle myobundles derived from primary myoblasts...
March 24, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338335/stress-induced-protein-s-glutathionylation-and-s-trypanothionylation-in-african-trypanosomes-a-quantitative-redox-proteome-and-thiol-analysis
#16
Kathrin Ulrich, Caroline Finkenzeller, Sabine Merker, Federico Rojas, Keith Matthews, Thomas Ruppert, R Luise Krauth-Siegel
AIMS: Trypanosomatids have a unique trypanothione-based thiol redox metabolism. The parasite-specific dithiol is synthesized from glutathione and spermidine, with glutathionylspermidine as intermediate catalyzed by trypanothione synthetase. In this study, we address the oxidative stress response of African trypanosomes with special focus on putative protein S-thiolation. RESULTS: Challenging bloodstream Trypanosoma brucei with diamide, H2O2 or hypochlorite results in distinct levels of reversible overall protein S-thiolation...
March 24, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338129/prediction-of-metabolic-fluxes-from-gene-expression-data-with-huber-penalty-convex-optimization-function
#17
Shao-Wu Zhang, Wang-Long Gou, Yan Li
As one of the critical parameters of a metabolic pathway, the metabolic flux in a metabolic network serves as an essential role in physiology and pathology. Constraint-based metabolic models are the widely used frameworks for predicting metabolic fluxes in genome-scale metabolic networks. Integrating the transcriptomic data into the constraint-based metabolic models can effectively predict context-specific fluxes across different conditions. However, these methods always need user-defined thresholds to identify the expression levels of metabolic genes or restrain the rate of biomass production, and the predictive results are sensitive to the thresholds...
March 24, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337956/acute-renal-graft-versus-host-disease-in-a-murine-model-of-allogeneic-bone-marrow-transplantation
#18
Peter M Schmid, Abdellatif Bouazzaoui, Karin Schmid, Christoph Birner, Christian Schach, Lars S Maier, Ernst Holler, Dierk H Endemann
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a very common complication after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and associated with poor prognosis. Generally kidneys are assumed to be no direct target of Graft-versus-Host Disease (GvHD), and renal impairment is often attributed to several other factors occurring in the early phase after BMT. Our study aimed to prove the existence of renal GvHD in a fully MHC-mismatched model of BALB/c mice conditioned and transplanted according to two different intensity protocols...
March 23, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337785/transcriptomic-and-metabolic-analyses-provide-new-insights-into-chilling-injury-in-peach-fruit
#19
Ke Wang, Xue-Ren Yin, Bo Zhang, Don Grierson, Chang-Jie Xu, Kun-Song Chen
Low temperature conditioning (LTC) alleviates peach fruit chilling injury but the underlying molecular basis is poorly understood. Here, changes in transcriptome, ethylene production, flesh softening, internal browning, and membrane lipids were compared in fruit maintained in constant 0 °C and LTC (pre-storage at 8 °C for 5 days before storage at 0 °C). LTC resulted in a higher rate of ethylene production and a more rapid flesh softening as a result of higher expression of ethylene biosynthetic genes and a series of cell wall hydrolases...
March 24, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337589/colonization-by-non-pathogenic-bacteria-alters-mrna-expression-of-cytochromes-p450-in-originally-germ-free-mice
#20
L Jourová, P Anzenbacher, B Lišková, Z Matušková, P Hermanová, T Hudcovic, H Kozáková, L Hrnčířová, E Anzenbacherová
Gut microbiota provides a wide range of beneficial function for the host and has an immense effect on the host's health state. It has also been shown that gut microbiome is often involved in the biotransformation of xenobiotics; however, the molecular mechanisms of the interaction between the gut bacteria and the metabolism of drugs by the host are still unclear. To investigate the effect of microbial colonization on messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of liver cytochromes P450 (CYPs), the main drug-metabolizing enzymes, we used germ-free (GF) mice, lacking the intestinal flora and mice monocolonized by non-pathogenic bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum (NIZO2877) or probiotic bacteria Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 compared to specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice...
March 23, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
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