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Metabolic conditioning

Michael Karlsson, Johannes K Ehinger, Sarah Piel, Fredrik Sjövall, Johanna Henriksnäs, Urban Höglund, Magnus J Hansson, Eskil Elmér
Metabolic crisis is a clinical condition primarily affecting patients with inherent mitochondrial dysfunction in situations of augmented demand. To model this, ten pigs received an infusion of rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, or vehicle. Clinical parameters, blood gases, continuous indirect calorimetry, in vivo muscle oxygen tension, ex vivo mitochondrial respiration and metabolomics were assessed. Rotenone induced a progressive increase in lactate which was paralleled by an increase in oxygen tension in venous blood and skeletal muscle...
October 18, 2016: Mitochondrion
Ruinan Gu, Fali Zhang, Gang Chen, Chaojun Han, Jay Liu, Zhaoxiang Ren, Yi Zhu, John L Waddington, Long Tai Zheng, Xuechu Zhen
Clock (Clk)1/COQ7 is a mitochondrial hydroxylase that is necessary for the biosynthesis of ubiquinone (coenzyme Q or UQ). Here, we investigate the role of Clk1 in neuroinflammation and consequentially dopaminergic (DA) neuron survival. Reduced expression of Clk1 in microglia enhanced the LPS-induced proinflammatory response and promoted aerobic glycolysis. Inhibition of glycolysis abolished Clk1 deficiency-induced hypersensitivity to the inflammatory stimulation. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that mTOR/HIF-1α and ROS/HIF-1α signaling pathways were involved in Clk1 deficiency-induced aerobic glycolysis...
October 18, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
B Q Farah, R M Ritti-Dias, G G Cucato, P S Montgomery, A W Gardner
OBJECTIVES: Time spent in sedentary behavior has been associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors in the general population and in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD). Given the association of sedentary behavior and poor health outcomes, it is important to identify factors associated with sedentary behavior in these patients. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with the sedentary time in patients with symptomatic PAD. METHODS: The sample included 297 patients with symptomatic PAD...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
R Balfour Sartor, Gary D Wu
Intestinal microbiota are involved in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and pouchitis. We review the mechanisms by which these gut bacteria, fungi, and viruses mediate mucosal homeostasis, via their composite genes (metagenome) and metabolic products (metabolome). We explain how alterations to their profiles and functions under conditions of dysbiosis contribute to inflammation and effector immune responses that mediate inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in humans and enterocolitis in mice...
October 18, 2016: Gastroenterology
Xi Chen, Heng Qiu, Chao Wang, Yu Yuan, Jennifer Tickner, Jiake Xu, Jun Zou
Choline, a hydrophilic cation, has versatile physiological roles throughout the body, including cholinergic neurotransmission, memory consolidation and membrane biosynthesis and metabolism. Choline kinases possess enzyme activity that catalyses the conversion of choline to phosphocholine, which is further converted to cytidine diphosphate-coline (CDP-choline) in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC). PC is a major constituent of the phospholipid bilayer which constitutes the eukaryotic cell membrane, and regulates cell signal transduction...
October 8, 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Shengnan Zhai, Genying Li, Youwei Sun, Jianmin Song, Jihu Li, Guoqi Song, Yulian Li, Hongqing Ling, Zhonghu He, Xianchun Xia
BACKGROUND: Phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1) is the most important regulatory enzyme in carotenoid biosynthesis, whereas its function is hardly known in common wheat. The aims of the present study were to investigate Psy1 function and genetic regulation using reverse genetics approaches. RESULTS: Transcript levels of Psy1 in RNAi transgenic lines were decreased by 54-76 % and yellow pigment content (YPC) was reduced by 26-35 % compared with controls, confirming the impact of Psy1 on carotenoid accumulation...
October 21, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Aindrila Chatterjee, Janine Seyfferth, Jacopo Lucci, Ralf Gilsbach, Sebastian Preissl, Lena Böttinger, Christoph U Mårtensson, Amol Panhale, Thomas Stehle, Oliver Kretz, Abdullah H Sahyoun, Sergiy Avilov, Stefan Eimer, Lutz Hein, Nikolaus Pfanner, Thomas Becker, Asifa Akhtar
A functional crosstalk between epigenetic regulators and metabolic control could provide a mechanism to adapt cellular responses to environmental cues. We report that the well-known nuclear MYST family acetyl transferase MOF and a subset of its non-specific lethal complex partners reside in mitochondria. MOF regulates oxidative phosphorylation by controlling expression of respiratory genes from both nuclear and mtDNA in aerobically respiring cells. MOF binds mtDNA, and this binding is dependent on KANSL3. The mitochondrial pool of MOF, but not a catalytically deficient mutant, rescues respiratory and mtDNA transcriptional defects triggered by the absence of MOF...
October 20, 2016: Cell
Shlomo Sasson
Activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ (PPARδ) induces the expression of genes encoding enzymes that metabolize fatty acids and carbohydrate. Attempts to identify cellular activators of PPARδ produced large lists of various fatty acids and their metabolic derivatives; however, there is no consensus on specific and selective binding interactions of natural ligands with PPARδ. Most models on binding interactions within the ligand binding domain (LBD) of PPARδ have been derived from analyses of PPARδ-LBD crystals formed with synthetic low molecular weight ligands...
October 18, 2016: Biochimie
Matthijs T W Veltmeijer, Dineke Veeneman, Coen C C W Bongers, Mihai G Netea, Jos W van der Meer, Thijs M H Eijsvogels, Maria T E Hopman
PURPOSE: Exercise increases core body temperature (TC) due to metabolic heat production. However, the exercise-induced release of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6 may also contribute to the rise in TC by increasing the hypothalamic temperature setpoint. We aimed to investigate whether the exercise-induced increase in TC is partly caused by an altered hypothalamic temperature setpoint. METHODS: 15 healthy, active male subjects aged 36±14 years were recruited...
September 26, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Liu-Zhu Yu, Yin Wei, Min Shi
Copper-catalyzed cascade cyclization of 1,5-enynes with two types of hypervalent reagents was developed via consecutive trifluoromethylazidation/diazidation and intramolecular click reaction (CUAAC), providing one-pot self-assembly of triazole fused isoindolines bearing a trifluoromethyl or an azide moiety. Moreover, the construction of a trifluoromethylcyclopropyl unit, which has been considered as a metabolically stable replacement for a tert-butyl moiety and was difficult to access, was also achieved under trifluoromethylazidation conditions...
October 21, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Wei Zhang, M Can Gulersonmez, Thomas Hankemeier, Rawi Ramautar
In metabolomics, a wide range of analytical techniques is used for the global profiling of (endogenous) metabolites in complex samples. In this paper, a protocol is presented for the analysis of anionic and cationic metabolites in biological samples by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS). CE is well-suited for the analysis of highly polar and charged metabolites as compounds are separated on the basis of their charge-to-size ratio. A recently developed sheathless interfacing design, i.e., a porous tip interface, is used for coupling CE to electrospray ionization (ESI) MS...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Bhavisha Bakrania, Joey P Granger, Romain Harmancey
The mammalian heart is a major consumer of ATP and requires a constant supply of energy substrates for contraction. Not surprisingly, alterations of myocardial metabolism have been linked to the development of contractile dysfunction and heart failure. Therefore, unraveling the link between metabolism and contraction should shed light on some of the mechanisms governing cardiac adaptation or maladaptation in disease states. The isolated working rat heart preparation can be used to follow, simultaneously and in real time, cardiac contractile function and flux of energy providing substrates into oxidative metabolic pathways...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Lisa A O'Hara, Renée Båge, Kjell Holtenius
BACKGROUND: Optimal body condition in early lactation is generally accepted as a prerequisite for good reproductive performance. Examination of milk progesterone profiles offers an objective method for characterization of postpartum ovarian activity in dairy cows. The present study investigated the relationship between body condition after calving, some metabolic parameters in blood plasma, and fertility, as reflected by milk progesterone profiles in the two dairy breeds Swedish Red (SR) and Swedish Holstein (SH)...
October 20, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Alejandro Iglesias-Linares, Lorri Ann Morford, James Kennedy Hartsfield
When orthodontic patients desire shorter treatment times with aesthetic results and long-term stability, it is important for the orthodontist to understand the potential limitations and problems that may arise during standard and/or technology-assisted accelerated treatment. Bone density plays an important role in facilitating orthodontic tooth movement (OTM), such that reductions in bone density can significantly increase movement velocity. Lifestyle, genetic background, environmental factors, and disease status all can influence a patients' overall health and bone density...
October 20, 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Sunday A Adebusoye
Cupriavidus sp. strain SK-3, previously isolated on polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures, was found to aerobically utilize a wide spectrum of substituted aromatic compounds including 4-fluoro-, 4-chloro- and 4-bromobenzoic acids as a sole carbon and energy source. Other chlorobenzoic acid (CBA) congeners such as 2-, 3-, 2,3-, 2,5-, 3,4- and 3,5-CBA were all rapidly transformed to respective chlorocatechols (CCs). Under aerobic conditions, strain SK-3 grew readily on 4-CBA to a maximum concentration of 5 mM above which growth became impaired and yielded no biomass...
October 20, 2016: Biodegradation
Yusaku Sugimura, Katsuharu Saito
The development of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is strongly suppressed under high-phosphate (Pi) conditions. To investigate AM fungal responses during the suppression of AM by high Pi, we performed an RNA-seq analysis of Rhizophagus irregularis colonizing Lotus japonicus roots at different levels of Pi (20, 100, 300, and 500 μM). AM fungal colonization decreased markedly under high-Pi conditions. In total, 163 fungal genes were differentially expressed among the four Pi treatments. Among these genes, a cell cycle-regulatory gene, cyclin-dependent kinase CDK1, and several DNA replication- and mitosis-related genes were repressed under high-Pi conditions...
October 20, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Patrick C Even, Anne Blais
The components of energy expenditure, total metabolic rate (TMR), resting metabolic rate (RMR), thermogenic response to feeding (TEF), activity, and cost of activity were measured in fed and fasted mice housed at 22 and 30°C. Mice housed at 22°C had more than two times larger TMR and RMR. Mice at 22°C were less active when fasted but more active when fed. Cost of activity was nearly doubled in the fasted and in the fed state. Analysis of the short-term relation between TMR, RMR, and bouts of activity showed that, at 22°C, the bouts of activity induced a decrease in the intensity of RMR that reflected the reduced need for thermal regulation induced by the heat released from muscular contraction...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
Giuseppe Dilorenzo, Michele Telegrafo, Giuseppe Marano, Michele De Ceglie, Amato Antonio Stabile Ianora, Giuseppe Angelelli, Marco Moschetta
Metastatic pulmonary calcification (MPC) is a rare pathological condition consisting of lung calcium salt deposits which commonly occurs in patients affected by chronic kidney disease probably for some abnormalities in calcium and phosphate metabolism. CT represents the technique of choice for detecting MPC findings including ground glass opacities and partially calcified nodules or consolidations. We present a case of MCP in a patient affected by hepato-renal autosomic-dominant polycystic disease; chest CT revealed extensive lobar-segmental parenchymal calcification with a peculiar cauliflower shape which we called "calcified cauliflower" sign...
2016: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
David J McKenzie, Michael Axelsson, Denis Chabot, Guy Claireaux, Steven J Cooke, Richard A Corner, Gudrun De Boeck, Paolo Domenici, Pedro M Guerreiro, Bojan Hamer, Christian Jørgensen, Shaun S Killen, Sjannie Lefevre, Stefano Marras, Basile Michaelidis, Göran E Nilsson, Myron A Peck, Angel Perez-Ruzafa, Adriaan D Rijnsdorp, Holly A Shiels, John F Steffensen, Jon C Svendsen, Morten B S Svendsen, Lorna R Teal, Jaap van der Meer, Tobias Wang, Jonathan M Wilson, Rod W Wilson, Julian D Metcalfe
The state of the art of research on the environmental physiology of marine fishes is reviewed from the perspective of how it can contribute to conservation of biodiversity and fishery resources. A major constraint to application of physiological knowledge for conservation of marine fishes is the limited knowledge base; international collaboration is needed to study the environmental physiology of a wider range of species. Multifactorial field and laboratory studies on biomarkers hold promise to relate ecophysiology directly to habitat quality and population status...
2016: Conservation Physiology
H Cumming, N A Herbert
Turbidity as a result of increased suspended sediments in coastal waters is an environmental stress of worldwide concern. Recent research on fish suggests that detrimental changes to gill structure can occur in turbid waters, with speculation that these alterations diminish fitness variables, such as growth and development, by negatively impacting the O2 uptake capacity (respiration) of fish. Specifically to address this unknown, the impact of turbid water on the gill structure, somatic growth rate and O2 uptake rates of a juvenile sparid species (Pagrus auratus) was addressed following exposure to five different turbidity treatments (<10, 20, 40, 60 or 80 nephelometric turbidity units) for 30 days...
2016: Conservation Physiology
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