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Supplementary motor area

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918935/depressive-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease-correlate-with-cortical-atrophy-over-time
#1
Alexandru Hanganu, Marie-Andrée Bruneau, Clotilde Degroot, Christophe Bedetti, Béatriz Mejia-Constain, Anne-Louise Lafontaine, Sylvain Chouinard, Oury Monchi
INTRODUCTION: Depressive symptoms are very common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and have a significant impact on the quality of life. METHODS: The present study analyzed the correlations between over-time changes in depressive symptoms and gray matter parameters of cortical thickness and subcortical volumes in non-demented PD patients. RESULTS: A significant correlation was observed, between increased scores for depression over time and lower cortical thickness over time in the right temporo-parietal junction, right occipital medial region, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right posterior cingulate region, left middle temporal as well as left supplementary motor area...
December 2, 2016: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909747/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-to-the-supplementary-motor-area-sma-influences-performance-on-motor-tasks
#2
K E Hupfeld, C J Ketcham, H D Schneider
The supplementary motor area (SMA) is believed to be highly involved in the planning and execution of both simple and complex motor tasks. This study aimed to examine the role of the SMA in planning the movements required to complete reaction time, balance, and pegboard tasks using anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), which passes a weak electrical current between two electrodes, in order to modulate neuronal activity. Twenty healthy adults were counterbalanced to receive either tDCS (experimental condition) or no tDCS (control condition) for 3 days...
December 1, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909403/cortical-sensorimotor-processing-of-painful-pressure-in-patients-with-chronic-lower-back-pain-an-optical-neuroimaging-study-using-fnirs
#3
Andrea Vrana, Michael L Meier, Sabina Hotz-Boendermaker, Barry K Humphreys, Felix Scholkmann
In this study we investigated sensorimotor processing of painful pressure stimulation on the lower back of patients with chronic lower back pain (CLBP) by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to measure changes in cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation. The main objectives were whether patients with CLBP show different relative changes in oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin ([O2Hb] and [HHb]) in the supplementary motor area (SMA) and primary somatosensory cortex (S1) compared to healthy controls (HC). Twelve patients with CLBP (32 ± 6...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894828/the-effect-of-strategies-goals-and-stimulus-material-on-the-neural-mechanisms-of-emotion-regulation-a-meta-analysis-of-fmri-studies
#4
REVIEW
Carmen Morawetz, Stefan Bode, Birgit Derntl, Hauke R Heekeren
Emotion regulation comprises all extrinsic and intrinsic control processes whereby people monitor, evaluate and modify the occurrence, intensity and duration of emotional reactions. Here we sought to quantitatively summarize the existing neuroimaging literature to investigate a) whether different emotion regulation strategies are based on different or the same neural networks; b) which brain regions in particular support the up- and down-regulation of emotions, respectively; and c) to which degree the neural networks realising emotion regulation depend on the stimulus material used to elicit emotions...
November 25, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892762/functional-inter-cortical-connectivity-among-motor-related-cortices-during-motor-imagery-a-magnetoencephalographic-study
#5
Yota Obayashi, Jun-Ichi Uemura, Minoru Hoshiyama
Neural connectivity was measured during motor imagery (MI) and motor execution (ME) using magnetoencephalography in nine healthy subjects, MI, and at rest. Lower coherence values during ME and MI between sensorimotor areas than at rest, and lower values during MI between the left supplementary motor area and inferior frontal gyrus than ME suggested the sensorimotor network of MI functioned with similar connectivity to ME and that the inhibitory activity functioned continuously during MI, respectively.
November 28, 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891099/reduced-phrenic-motoneuron-recruitment-during-sustained-inspiratory-threshold-loading-compared-to-single-breath-loading-a-twitch-interpolation-study
#6
Mathieu Raux, Alexandre Demoule, Stefania Redolfi, Capucine Morelot-Panzini, Thomas Similowski
In humans, inspiratory constraints engage cortical networks involving the supplementary motor area. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) shows that the spread and intensity of the corresponding respiratory-related cortical activation dramatically decrease when a discrete load becomes sustained. This has been interpreted as reflecting motor cortical reorganization and automatisation, but could proceed from sensory and/or affective habituation. To corroborate the existence of motor reorganization between single-breath and sustained inspiratory loading (namely changes in motor neurones recruitment), we conducted a diaphragm twitch interpolation study based on the hypothesis that motor reorganization should result in changes in the twitch interpolation slope...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891090/disrupted-nodal-and-hub-organization-account-for-brain-network-abnormalities-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Yuko Koshimori, Sang-Soo Cho, Marion Criaud, Leigh Christopher, Mark Jacobs, Christine Ghadery, Sarah Coakeley, Madeleine Harris, Romina Mizrahi, Clement Hamani, Anthony E Lang, Sylvain Houle, Antonio P Strafella
The recent application of graph theory to brain networks promises to shed light on complex diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aimed to investigate functional changes in sensorimotor and cognitive networks in Parkinsonian patients, with a focus on inter- and intra-connectivity organization in the disease-associated nodal and hub regions using the graph theoretical analyses. Resting-state functional MRI data of a total of 65 participants, including 23 healthy controls (HCs) and 42 patients, were investigated in 120 nodes for local efficiency, betweenness centrality, and degree...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891079/contribution-of-tms-and-rtms-in-the-understanding-of-the-pathophysiology-and-in-the-treatment-of-dystonia
#8
REVIEW
Pierre Lozeron, Aurélia Poujois, Alexandra Richard, Sana Masmoudi, Elodie Meppiel, France Woimant, Nathalie Kubis
Dystonias represent a heterogeneous group of movement disorders responsible for sustained muscle contraction, abnormal postures, and muscle twists. It can affect focal or segmental body parts or be generalized. Primary dystonia is the most common form of dystonia but it can also be secondary to metabolic or structural dysfunction, the consequence of a drug's side-effect or of genetic origin. The pathophysiology is still not elucidated. Based on lesion studies, dystonia has been regarded as a pure motor dysfunction of the basal ganglia loop...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884739/structural-and-functional-improvements-due-to-robot-assisted-gait-training-in-the-stroke-injured-brain
#9
Hea Eun Yang, Sunghyon Kyeong, Seung Hwa Lee, Won-Jae Lee, Sang Won Ha, Seung Min Kim, Hyunkoo Kang, Won Min Lee, Chang Soon Kang, Dae Hyun Kim
Robot-assisted gait training (RAGT) can improve walking ability after stroke. Because the underlying mechanisms are still unknown, we analyzed changes in post-stroke injured brains after RAGT. Ten non-ambulatory patients receiving inpatient rehabilitation were examined within 3 months of stroke onset. RAGT consisted of 45minutes of training, 3days per week. We acquired diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data before and after 20 sessions of RAGT. Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were then used to determine neural changes after RAGT...
November 21, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883017/differential-neural-encoding-of-sensorimotor-and-visual-body-representations
#10
David Perruchoud, Lars Michels, Marco Piccirelli, Roger Gassert, Silvio Ionta
Sensorimotor processing specifically impacts mental body representations. In particular, deteriorated somatosensory input (as after complete spinal cord injury) increases the relative weight of visual aspects of body parts' representations, leading to aberrancies in how images of body parts are mentally manipulated (e.g. mental rotation). This suggests that a sensorimotor or visual reference frame, respectively, can be relatively dominant in local (hands) versus global (full-body) bodily representations. On this basis, we hypothesized that the recruitment of a specific reference frame could be reflected in the activation of sensorimotor versus visual brain networks...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882295/neuroanatomical-correlates-of-childhood-apraxia-of-speech-a-connectomic-approach
#11
Simona Fiori, Andrea Guzzetta, Jhimli Mitra, Kerstin Pannek, Rosa Pasquariello, Paola Cipriani, Michela Tosetti, Giovanni Cioni, Stephen E Rose, Anna Chilosi
Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a paediatric speech sound disorder in which precision and consistency of speech movements are impaired. Most children with idiopathic CAS have normal structural brain MRI. We hypothesize that children with CAS have altered structural connectivity in speech/language networks compared to controls and that these altered connections are related to functional speech/language measures. Whole brain probabilistic tractography, using constrained spherical deconvolution, was performed for connectome generation in 17 children with CAS and 10 age-matched controls...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860025/low-level-alcohol-consumption-during-adolescence-and-its-impact-on-cognitive-control-development
#12
Sarah Jurk, Eva Mennigen, Thomas Goschke, Michael N Smolka
Adolescence is a critical period for maturation of cognitive control and most adolescents start experimenting with alcohol around that time. On the one hand, recent studies indicate that low control abilities predict future problematic alcohol use. On the other hand, binge drinking during young adulthood can (further) impair cognitive control. However, so far no study examined the effects of low-level alcohol use during adolescence. In the present longitudinal fMRI study, we therefore investigated the development of cognitive control in a community-based sample of 92 adolescents at ages 14, 16 and 18...
November 17, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857686/novelty-seeking-harm-avoidance-and-cerebral-responses-to-conflict-anticipation-an-exploratory-study
#13
Jianping Hu, Sien Hu, Julianna R Maisano, Herta H Chao, Sheng Zhang, Chiang-Shan R Li
Proactive control allows us to maneuver a changing environment and individuals are distinct in how they anticipate and approach such changes. Here, we examined how individual differences in personality traits influence cerebral responses to conflict anticipation, a critical process of proactive control. We explored this issue in an fMRI study of the stop signal task, in which the probability of stop signal - p(Stop) - was computed trial by trial with a Bayesian model. Higher p(Stop) is associated with prolonged go trial reaction time, indicating conflict anticipation and proactive control of motor response...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856331/supplementary-motor-area-as-key-structure-for-domain-general-sequence-processing-a-unified-account
#14
REVIEW
Giorgia Cona, Carlo Semenza
The Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) is considered as an anatomically and functionally heterogeneous region and is implicated in several functions. We propose that SMA plays a crucial role in domain-general sequence processes, contributing to the integration of sequential elements into higher-order representations regardless of the nature of such elements (e.g., motor, temporal, spatial, numerical, linguistic, etc.). This review emphasizes the domain-general involvement of the SMA, as this region has been found to support sequence operations in a variety of cognitive domains that, albeit different, share an inherent sequence processing...
November 14, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852018/-functional-parcellation-of-frontal-higher-order-motor-cortex
#15
Hajime Mushiake, Keisetsu Shima
Motor areas in the frontal cortex are classified into medial and lateral functional groups. The dorsal premotor areas in the lateral groups are involved in motor guidance based on behavioral rules. The ventral premotor cortex contributes to motor guidance relying on spatial aspects of sensory information. The supplementary motor complex in the medial groups is related to the bimanual and temporal organization of multiple motor acts. The cingulate motor area is involved in motor control based on reward-prediction errors...
November 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848148/disrupted-functional-connectivity-density-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-patients
#16
Yifei Weng, Rongfeng Qi, Chang Liu, Jun Ke, Qiang Xu, Fangyu Wang, Long Jiang Zhang, Guang Ming Lu
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder resulting from a dysregulation of the brain-gut axis. However, its exact neural substrate still remains unclear. This study investigated the changes of intrinsic whole brain functional connectivity pattern in IBS using functional connectivity density (FCD). We acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data from thirty-two IBS patients and thirty-two healthy controls. Functional connectivity density, a data-driven algorithm, was used to compute the long-range and short-range FCD values for each voxel in the brain of each subject, implying the amount of distant and local functional connections of cortical hubs...
November 15, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847305/a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-investigation-of-theory-of-mind-impairments-in-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#17
Sophie Hennion, Xavier Delbeuck, Katja Koelkebeck, Marine Brion, Louise Tyvaert, Lucie Plomhause, Philippe Derambure, Renaud Lopes, William Szurhaj
Although patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) are known to have theory of mind (ToM) impairments, the latter's neural functional bases have yet to be explored. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to gain insights into the neural dysfunction associated with ToM impairments in patients with mTLE. Twenty-five patients (12 and 13 with right and left mTLE, respectively) and 25 healthy controls performed the "animated shapes" task during fMRI. This complex ToM task requires both explicit reasoning about mental states and implicit processing of information on biological motion and action...
November 12, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846398/cortical-activation-during-balancing-on-a-balance-board
#18
Fabian Herold, Katja Orlowski, Sabrina Börmel, Notger G Müller
BACKGROUND: Keeping one's balance is a complex motor task which requires the integration and processing of different sensory information. For this, higher cortical processes are essential. However, in the past research dedicated to the brain's involvement in balance control has predominantly used virtual reality paradigms whilst little is known about cortical activation during the challenging balancing on unstable surfaces (e.g. balance board). Hence, the main goal of this study was the simultaneous evaluation of cortical activation patterns and sway parameters during balancing on a balance board...
November 12, 2016: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829166/the-role-of-the-frontal-aslant-tract-and-premotor-connections-in-visually-guided-hand-movements
#19
Sanja Budisavljevic, Flavio Dell'Acqua, Vera Djordjilovic, Diego Miotto, Raffaella Motta, Umberto Castiello
Functional neuroimaging and brain lesion studies demonstrate that secondary motor areas of the frontal lobe play a crucial role in the cortical control of hand movements. However, no study so far has examined frontal white matter connections of the secondary motor network, namely the frontal aslant tract, connecting the supplementary motor complex and the posterior inferior frontal regions, and the U-shaped dorsal and ventral premotor fibers running through the middle frontal gyrus. The aim of the current study is to explore the involvement of the short frontal lobe connections in reaching and reach-to-grasp movements in 32 right-handed healthy subjects by correlating tractography data based on spherical deconvolution approach with kinematical data...
November 6, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811953/spatiotemporal-neurodynamics-of-automatic-temporal-expectancy-in-9-month-old-infants
#20
Giovanni Mento, Eloisa Valenza
Anticipating events occurrence (Temporal Expectancy) is a crucial capacity for survival. Yet, there is little evidence about the presence of cortical anticipatory activity from infancy. In this study we recorded the High-density electrophysiological activity in 9 month-old infants and adults undergoing an audio-visual S1-S2 paradigm simulating a lifelike "Peekaboo" game inducing automatic temporal expectancy of smiling faces. The results indicate in the S2-preceding Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) an early electrophysiological signature of expectancy-based anticipatory cortical activity...
November 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
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