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Supplementary motor area

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822654/polarity-independent-effects-of-tdcs-on-paired-associative-stimulation-induced-plasticity
#1
Hanna Faber, Alexander Opitz, Florian Müller-Dahlhaus, Ulf Ziemann
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can polarize the cortex of the human brain. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We sought to verify the hypothesis that posterior-anterior (PA) but not anterior-posterior (AP) tDCS of primary motor cortex (M1) produces cooperative effects with corticospinal plasticity induced by paired associative stimulation of the supplementary motor area (SMA) to M1 projection (PASSMA→M1) in a highly controlled experimental design...
July 27, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817417/brain-processing-of-the-temporal-dimension-of-acute-pain-in-short-term-memory
#2
Mina Khoshnejad, Mathieu Roy, Kristina Martinu, Jen-I Chen, Julien Cohen-Adad, Simon Grondin, Pierre Rainville
The dynamics of noxious sensation shapes pain perception, yet the memory of the temporal dimension of pain remains almost completely unexplored. Here, brain activity during the memory of pain duration was contrasted with that associated with the memory of pain intensity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a delayed-reproduction task. Participants encoded, maintained during a short delay, and reproduced (1) the 'duration' of pain (i.e. onset-to-offset), (2) the 'dynamics' of pain (i.e. evolution of pain over time), or (3) the intensity of pain (i...
July 3, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813981/a-magnetic-compatible-supernumerary-robotic-finger-for-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-fmri-acquisitions-device-description-and-preliminary-results
#3
Irfan Hussain, Emiliano Santarnecchi, Andrea Leo, Emiliano Ricciardi, Simone Rossi, Domenico Prattichizzo
The Supernumerary robotic limbs are a recently introduced class of wearable robots that, differently from traditional prostheses and exoskeletons, aim at adding extra effectors (i.e., arms, legs, or fingers) to the human user, rather than substituting or enhancing the natural ones. However, it is still undefined whether the use of supernumerary robotic limbs could specifically lead to neural modifications in brain dynamics. The illusion of owning the part of body has been already proven in many experimental observations, such as those relying on multisensory integration (e...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808819/separating-the-idea-from-the-action-a-sloreta-study
#4
Martin Rakusa, Pierpaolo Busan, Piero Paolo Battaglini, Janez Zidar
Simple imaginary movements activate similar cortical and subcortical areas to actual movements, chiefly in the sensory-motor network. However, only a few studies also examined the imagery of more skilful movements such as reaching. Ten volunteers performed reaching movements or imagined the same movements. EEG was simultaneously recorded and analysed with sLORETA, which compared the preparation for actual and imagined reaching with respect to their baseline and between tasks. Major differences between them were found at three time intervals after target presentation, always in favour of the actual reaching condition...
August 14, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804457/association-between-hypometabolism-in-the-supplementary-motor-area-and-fear-of-falling-in-older-adults
#5
Ryota Sakurai, Yoshinori Fujiwara, Masashi Yasunaga, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Kazuyuki Kanosue, Manuel Montero-Odasso, Kenji Ishii
Background: A better understanding of the neural mechanisms that underlie the development of fear of falling (FoF) in seniors may help to detect potential treatable factors and reduce future falls. We therefore investigate the neural correlates of FoF in older adults using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Methods: This cohort study included 117 community-dwelling older adults. At baseline, participants were assessed for FoF, psychiatric symptoms, walking speed, global cognition and cerebral glucose metabolism with FDG-PET...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801826/brain-activity-changes-in-somatosensory-and-emotion-related-areas-with-medial-patellofemoral-ligament-deficiency
#6
Masaru Kadowaki, Taku Tadenuma, Nobuyuki Kumahashi, Yuji Uchio
BACKGROUND: Patellar instability with medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) deficiency is a common sports injury among young people. Although nonoperative and surgical treatment can provide stability of the patella, patients often have anxiety related to the knee. We speculate that neural dysfunction may be related to anxiety in these patients; however, the mechanism in the brain that generates this anxiety remains unknown. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) How does brain activity in patients with MPFL deficiency change in the areas related to somatic sensation against lateral shift of the patella? (2) How does patella instability, which can lead to continuous fear or apprehension for dislocation, influence brain activity in the areas related to emotion? METHODS: Nineteen patients with MPFL deficiency underwent surgical reconstruction in our hospital from April 2012 to March 2014...
August 11, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797973/frontal-fibers-connecting-the-superior-frontal-gyrus-to-broca-s-area-a-cortico-cortical-evoked-potential-study
#7
Satoshi Ookawa, Rei Enatsu, Aya Kanno, Satoko Ochi, Yukinori Akiyama, Tamaki Kobayashi, Yukihiro Yamao, Takayuki Kikuchi, Riki Matsumoto, Takeharu Kunieda, Nobuhiro Mikuni
BACKGROUND: The frontal aslant tract (FAT) is a deep frontal pathway connecting the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) to Broca's area. This fiber is assumed to be associated with language functions, especially speech initiation and spontaneity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to electrophysiologically investigate this network using cortico-cortical evoked potentials (CCEPs). METHOD: Eight patients with brain tumors or medically intractable focal epilepsies who underwent frontal craniotomy over the language dominant side were enrolled in this study...
August 7, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790959/brain-processing-of-contagious-itch-in-patients-with-atopic-dermatitis
#8
Christina Schut, Hideki Mochizuki, Shoshana K Grossman, Andrew C Lin, Christopher J Conklin, Feroze B Mohamed, Uwe Gieler, Joerg Kupfer, Gil Yosipovitch
Several studies show that itch and scratching cannot only be induced by pruritogens like histamine or cowhage, but also by the presentation of certain (audio-) visual stimuli like pictures on crawling insects or videos showing other people scratching. This phenomenon is coined "Contagious itch" (CI). Due to the fact that CI is more profound in patients with the chronic itchy skin disease atopic dermatitis (AD), we believe that it is highly relevant to study brain processing of CI in this group. Knowledge on brain areas involved in CI in AD-patients can provide us with useful hints regarding non-invasive treatments that AD-patients could profit from when they are confronted with itch-inducing situations in daily life...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790831/spontaneous-alterations-of-regional-brain-activity-in-patients-with-adult-generalized-anxiety-disorder
#9
Likun Xia, Shumei Li, Tianyue Wang, Yaping Guo, Lihong Meng, Yunping Feng, Yu Cui, Fan Wang, Jian Ma, Guihua Jiang
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine how spontaneous brain activity might be related to the pathophysiology of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using resting-state functional MRI, we examined spontaneous regional brain activity in 31 GAD patients (mean age, 36.87±9.16 years) and 36 healthy control participants (mean age, 39.53±8.83 years) matched for age, education, and sex from December 2014 to October 2015. We performed a two-sample t-test on the voxel-based analysis of the regional homogeneity (ReHo) maps...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782869/distinguishing-stimulus-and-response-codes-in-theta-oscillations-in-prefrontal-areas-during-inhibitory-control-of-automated-responses
#10
Moritz Mückschel, Gabriel Dippel, Christian Beste
Response inhibition mechanisms are mediated via cortical and subcortical networks. At the cortical level, the superior frontal gyrus, including the supplementary motor area (SMA) and inferior frontal areas, is important. There is an ongoing debate about the functional roles of these structures during response inhibition as it is unclear whether these structures process different codes or contents of information during response inhibition. In the current study, we examined this question with a focus on theta frequency oscillations during response inhibition processes...
August 7, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780219/neurofunctionally-dissecting-the-reading-system-in-children
#11
Johanna Liebig, Eva Froehlich, Carmen Morawetz, Mario Braun, Arthur M Jacobs, Hauke R Heekeren, Johannes C Ziegler
The reading system can be broken down into four basic subcomponents in charge of prelexical, orthographic, phonological, and lexico-semantic processes. These processes need to jointly work together to become a fluent and efficient reader. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we systematically analyzed differences in neural activation patterns of these four basic subcomponents in children (N=41, 9-13 years) using tasks specifically tapping each component (letter identification, orthographic decision, phonological decision, and semantic categorization)...
July 17, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777703/structural-alterations-in-chronic-capsular-versus-pontine-stroke
#12
Lin Jiang, Jingchun Liu, Caihong Wang, Jun Guo, Jingliang Cheng, Tong Han, Peifang Miao, Chen Cao, Chunshui Yu
Purpose To investigate whether patients with capsular stroke (CS) and patients with pontine stroke (PS) involving the motor pathway have different types of structural damage and reorganization. Materials and Methods With institutional review board approval and after obtaining written informed consent, structural magnetic resonance imaging data were prospectively acquired in 115 patients with CS, 47 patients with PS, and 116 control subjects by using four imagers from three hospitals. Patients with stroke lesions in the left and right hemispheres were analyzed (timing of follow-up imaging: mean, 597 days; range, 180-2070 days)...
August 4, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763879/-study-of-fraction-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuation-on-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-adultperipheral-facial-paralysis
#13
Y J Zhu, G L Ma, T B Song, L Du, R C Guo, S L Sun, H Li, L G Sun
Objective: To analysis the change of brain functional activity in the left and right peripheral facial paralysis by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) of fraction amplitude of low frequency fluctuation(fALFF) measurement technique, and research the abnormal brain region with different side patients whether there are differences. Methods: A total of 43 patients with peripheral facial paralysis patients (patient groups, divided into left / right two subgroups) and 21 healthy volunteers (control group) in this study...
July 18, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759567/functional-neural-circuits-that-underlie-developmental-stuttering
#14
Jianping Qiao, Zhishun Wang, Guihu Zhao, Yuankai Huo, Carl L Herder, Chamonix O Sikora, Bradley S Peterson
The aim of this study was to identify differences in functional and effective brain connectivity between persons who stutter (PWS) and typically developing (TD) fluent speakers, and to assess whether those differences can serve as biomarkers to distinguish PWS from TD controls. We acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in 44 PWS and 50 TD controls. We then used Independent Component Analysis (ICA) together with Hierarchical Partner Matching (HPM) to identify networks of robust, functionally connected brain regions that were highly reproducible across participants, and we assessed whether connectivity differed significantly across diagnostic groups...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758644/smri-biomarkers-predict-electroconvulsive-treatment-outcomes-accuracy-with-independent-data-sets
#15
Rongtao Jiang, Christopher C Abbott, Tianzi Jiang, Yuhui Du, Randall Espinoza, Katherine L Narr, Benjamin Wade, Qingbao Yu, Ming Song, Dongdong Lin, Jiayu Chen, Thomas Jones, Miklos Argyelan, Georgios Petrides, Jing Sui, Vince D Calhoun
Due to the rapid and robust clinical effects, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) represents an optimal model to develop and test treatment predictors for major depressive disorders (MDD), while imaging markers can be informative in identifying MDD patients who will respond to a specific antidepressant treatment or not. Here, we aim to predict post-ECT depressive rating changes and remission status using pre-ECT grey matter (GM) in 38 MDD patients and validate in two independent datasets. Six GM regions including right hippocampus/parahippocampus, right orbitofrontal gyrus, right inferior temporal gyrus, left postcentral gyrus/precuneus, left supplementary motor area, and left lingual gyrus were identified as predictors of ECT response, achieving accuracy of 89, 90 and 86% for remission prediction in three independent, age-matched datasets respectively...
July 31, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758118/human-brain-mapping-of-visual-script-familiarity-between-phonological-and-logographic-language-3%C3%A2-t-functional-mri-study
#16
Nambeom Kim, Jongho Kim, Chang-Ki Kang, Chan-A Park, Mi-Ra Lim, Young-Bo Kim, Byung-Gee Bak
Neurolinguistic circuitry for two different scripts of language, such as phonological scripts (PhonoS) versus logographic scripts (LogoS) (e.g., English versus Chinese, resp.), recruits segregated neural pathways according to orthographic regularity (OrthoR). The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of VSF for cortical representation according to different OrthoR to represent Hangul versus Hanja as PhonoS versus LogoS, respectively. A total of 24 right-handed, native Korean undergraduate students with the first language of PhonoS and the second language of LogoS were divided into high- or low-competent groups for L2 of LogoS...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756144/blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-early-days-correlation-between-passive-activation-and-motor-recovery-after-unilateral-striatocapsular-cerebral-infarction
#17
Long-Jiang Zhou, Wei Wang, Yi Zhao, Chun-Feng Liu, Xin-Jiang Zhang, Zhen-Sheng Liu, Hua-Dong Li
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the correlation between the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) pattern and the motor function recovery of an affected limb during the passive movement of the affected limb at an early stage of the striatocapsular infarction (SCI). METHODS: A total of 17 patients with an acute stage of SCI and 3 healthy volunteers as controls were included in this study. fMRI scans of passive movement were performed on the affected limbs of stroke patients within 1 week of onset...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754506/the-differentiated-networks-related-to-essential-tremor-onset-and-its-amplitude-modulation-after-alcohol-intake
#18
David J Pedrosa, Christian Nelles, Peter Brown, Lukas J Volz, Esther A Pelzer, Marc Tittgemeyer, John-Stuart Brittain, Lars Timmermann
The dysregulation of endogenous rhythms within brain networks have been implicated in a broad range of motor and non-motor pathologies. Essential tremor (ET), classically the purview of a single aberrant pacemaker, has recently become associated with network-level dysfunction across multiple brain regions. Specifically, it has been suggested that motor cortex constitutes an important node in a tremor-generating network involving the cerebellum. Yet the mechanisms by which these regions relate to tremor remain a matter of considerable debate...
July 25, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752330/cortico-thalamic-disconnection-in-a-patient-with-supernumerary-phantom-limb
#19
Clémence Bourlon, Marika Urbanski, Romain Quentin, Christophe Duret, Eric Bardinet, Paolo Bartolomeo, Alexia Bourgeois
Supernumerary phantom limb (SPL) designates the experience of an illusory additional limb occurring after brain damage. Functional neuroimaging during SPL movements documented increased response in the ipsilesional supplementary motor area (SMA), premotor cortex (PMC), thalamus and caudate. This suggested that motor circuits are important for bodily related cognition, but anatomical evidence is sparse. Here, we tested this hypothesis by studying an extremely rare patient with chronic SPL, still present 3 years after a vascular stroke affecting cortical and subcortical right-hemisphere structures...
July 27, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750682/behavioural-and-neuroanatomical-correlates-of-auditory-speech-analysis-in-primary-progressive-aphasias
#20
Chris J D Hardy, Jennifer L Agustus, Charles R Marshall, Camilla N Clark, Lucy L Russell, Rebecca L Bond, Emilie V Brotherhood, David L Thomas, Sebastian J Crutch, Jonathan D Rohrer, Jason D Warren
BACKGROUND: Non-verbal auditory impairment is increasingly recognised in the primary progressive aphasias (PPAs) but its relationship to speech processing and brain substrates has not been defined. Here we addressed these issues in patients representing the non-fluent variant (nfvPPA) and semantic variant (svPPA) syndromes of PPA. METHODS: We studied 19 patients with PPA in relation to 19 healthy older individuals. We manipulated three key auditory parameters-temporal regularity, phonemic spectral structure and prosodic predictability (an index of fundamental information content, or entropy)-in sequences of spoken syllables...
July 27, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
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