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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427970/structured-evaluation-of-glioma-patients-by-an-occupational-therapist-is-our-clinical-examination-enough
#1
Christian Franz Freyschlag, Johannes Kerschbaumer, Daniel Pinggera, Gabriele Bacher, Claudius Thomé
BACKGROUND: Preservation of neurological function is mandatory when offering a surgical intervention to patients with low-grade gliomas (LGG), given that the goal of any treatment is the patient's return to their normal everyday life. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a structured evaluation by an occupational therapist can reveal deficits that might be overseen in routine clinical examination of patients with a surgically treated LGG. METHODS: 20 patients with radiographically suspected LGG have been examined in a standardized fashion at three stages: pre-, postoperatively and three months thereafter...
April 17, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427306/prefrontal-tdcs-and-sertraline-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Ulrich Palm, Bianka Leitner, Beatrice Kirsch, Nora Behler, Ulrike Kumpf, Linda Wulf, Frank Padberg, Alkomiet Hasan
Obsessive-compulsive (OC) disorder is a disabling disorder resulting in tremendous individual and social burden. It has a large overlap with depression and anxiety disorders and shows treatment resistance in a relevant proportion of patients. Since a couple of years, different noninvasive brain stimulation methods have been investigated to improve OC symptoms. The application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has shown inconsistent results which can probably be attributed to a lack in randomized controlled trials with adequate sample size...
April 21, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425061/gray-matter-and-white-matter-changes-in-non-demented-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-patients-with-or-without-cognitive-impairment-a-combined-voxel-based-morphometry-and-tract-based-spatial-statistics-whole-brain-analysis
#3
Foteini Christidi, Efstratios Karavasilis, Franz Riederer, Ioannis Zalonis, Panagiotis Ferentinos, Georgios Velonakis, Sophia Xirou, Michalis Rentzos, Georgios Argiropoulos, Vasiliki Zouvelou, Thomas Zambelis, Athanasios Athanasakos, Panagiotis Toulas, Konstantinos Vadikolias, Efstathios Efstathopoulos, Spyros Kollias, Nikolaos Karandreas, Nikolaos Kelekis, Ioannis Evdokimidis
The phenotypic heterogeneity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) implies that patients show structural changes within but also beyond the motor cortex and corticospinal tract and furthermore outside the frontal lobes, even if frank dementia is not detected. The aim of the present study was to investigate both gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) changes in non-demented amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients with or without cognitive impairment (ALS-motor and ALS-plus, respectively). Nineteen ALS-motor, 31 ALS-plus and 25 healthy controls (HC) underwent 3D-T1-weighted and 30-directional diffusion-weighted imaging on a 3 T MRI scanner...
April 19, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424607/multivariate-analysis-of-18-f-dmfp-pet-data-to-assist-the-diagnosis-of-parkinsonism
#4
Fermín Segovia, Juan M Górriz, Javier Ramírez, Francisco J Martínez-Murcia, Johannes Levin, Madeleine Schuberth, Matthias Brendel, Axel Rominger, Kai Bötzel, Gaëtan Garraux, Christophe Phillips
An early and differential diagnosis of parkinsonian syndromes still remains a challenge mainly due to the similarity of their symptoms during the onset of the disease. Recently, (18)F-Desmethoxyfallypride (DMFP) has been suggested to increase the diagnostic precision as it is an effective radioligand that allows us to analyze post-synaptic dopamine D2/3 receptors. Nevertheless, the analysis of these data is still poorly covered and its use limited. In order to address this challenge, this paper shows a novel model to automatically distinguish idiopathic parkinsonism from non-idiopathic variants using DMFP data...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424387/-cortical-areas-for-controlling-voluntary-movements
#5
Yoshihisa Nakayama, Eiji Hoshi
The primary motor cortex is located in Brodmann area 4 at the most posterior part of the frontal lobe. The primary motor cortex corresponds to an output stage of motor signals, sending motor commands to the brain stem and spinal cord. Brodmann area 6 is rostral to Brodmann area 4, where multiple higher-order motor areas are located. The premotor area, which is located in the lateral part, is involved in planning and executing action based on sensory signals. The premotor area contributes to the reaching for and grasping of an object to achieve a behavioral goal...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419641/neural-correlates-of-experimental-trauma-memory-retrieval
#6
Geraldine A Gvozdanovic, Philipp Stämpfli, Erich Seifritz, Björn Rasch
OBJECTIVES: Traumatic memories such as intrusions and flashbacks play a major role in the development and maintenance of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A thorough understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying traumatic memories is indispensable for precise diagnosis, for personalized treatment and prevention. In particular, the identification of early neural predictor variables for intrusion development shortly after trauma exposure requires detailed investigation. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Here, we examined the neural correlates of early experimental trauma memory retrieval in a traumatic film paradigm in 42 young healthy females, using both implicit and explicit retrieval tasks...
April 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409354/retrosplenial-cortical-thinning-as-a-possible-major-contributor-for-cognitive-impairment-in-hiv-patients
#7
Na-Young Shin, Jinwoo Hong, Jun Yong Choi, Seung-Koo Lee, Soo Mee Lim, Uicheul Yoon
OBJECTIVES: To identify brain cortical regions relevant to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) in HIV patients. METHODS: HIV patients with HAND (n = 10), those with intact cognition (HIV-IC; n = 12), and age-matched, seronegative controls (n = 11) were recruited. All participants were male and underwent 3-dimensional T1-weighted imaging. Both vertex-wise and region of interest (ROI) analyses were performed to analyse cortical thickness. RESULTS: Compared to controls, both HIV-IC and HAND showed decreased cortical thickness mainly in the bilateral primary sensorimotor areas, extending to the prefrontal and parietal cortices...
April 13, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400816/the-cortical-activation-pattern-during-bilateral-arm-raising-movements
#8
Sung Ho Jang, Jung Pyo Seo, Seung-Hyun Lee, Sang-Hyun Jin, Sang Seok Yeo
Bilateral arm raising movements have been used in brain rehabilitation for a long time. However, no study has been reported on the effect of these movements on the cerebral cortex. In this study, using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we attempted to investigate cortical activation generated during bilateral arm raising movements. Ten normal subjects were recruited for this study. fNIRS was performed using an fNIRS system with 49 channels. Bilateral arm raising movements were performed in sitting position at the rate of 0...
February 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394483/corticobulbar-projections-from-distinct-motor-cortical-areas-to-the-reticular-formation-in-macaque-monkeys
#9
Michela Fregosi, Alessandro Contestabile, Adja Hamadjida, Eric M Rouiller
Corticospinal and corticobulbar descending pathways act in parallel with brainstem systems, such as the reticulospinal tact, to ensure the control of voluntary movements via direct or indirect influences onto spinal motoneurons. The aim of the present study was to investigate the corticobulbar projections from distinct motor cortical areas onto different nuclei of the reticular formation. Seven adult macaque monkeys were analyzed for the location of corticobulbar axonal boutons, and one monkey for reticulospinal neurons' location...
April 10, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391033/offline-continuous-theta-burst-stimulation-over-right-inferior-frontal-gyrus-and-pre-supplementary-motor-area-impairs-inhibition-during-a-go-no-go-task
#10
Neil M Drummond, Erin K Cressman, Anthony N Carlsen
In a typical go/no-go task a single imperative stimulus is presented each trial, either a go or no-go stimulus. Participants are instructed to initiate a known response upon appearance of the go-signal and withhold the response if the no-go signal is presented. It is unclear whether the go-response is prepared in advance of the imperative stimulus in a go/no-go task. Moreover, it is unclear if inhibitory control processes suppress preparatory go-activation. The purpose of the present experiment was 1) to determine whether the go-response is prepared in advance of stimulus identification with the use of a startling acoustic stimulus (SAS), and 2) investigate the inhibitory role of the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) and pre-supplementary motor area (preSMA) during the performance of a go/no-go task with the use of continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS)...
April 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377881/gray-matter-volume-changes-in-chronic-subcortical-stroke-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Qingqing Diao, Jingchun Liu, Caihong Wang, Chen Cao, Jun Guo, Tong Han, Jingliang Cheng, Xuejun Zhang, Chunshui Yu
This study aimed to investigate the effects of lesion side and degree of motor recovery on gray matter volume (GMV) difference relative to healthy controls in right-handed subcortical stroke. Structural MRI data were collected in 97 patients with chronic subcortical ischemic stroke and 79 healthy controls. Voxel-wise GMV analysis was used to investigate the effects of lesion side and degree of motor recovery on GMV difference in right-handed chronic subcortical stroke patients. Compared with healthy controls, right-lesion patients demonstrated GMV increase (P < 0...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373091/motor-planning-and-performance-in-transitive-and-intransitive-gesture-execution-and-imagination-does-eeg-rp-activity-predict-hemodynamic-fnirs-response
#12
Michela Balconi, Livia Cortesi, Davide Crivelli
The interplay between neural structures and processes underlying motor planning and proper movement initiation and guidance is still a matter of debate. The present study aimed at investigating cortical correlates of motor planning and production when execution and imagery of real-life gestures are performed, with an additional focus on potential specificities of meaningful transitive/intransitive gestures. Electrophysiological (Readiness Potential - RP) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) measures were analyzed to investigate the relationship between processes supporting action planning, execution and imagination...
March 31, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361202/swallowing-preparation-and-execution-insights-from-a-delayed-response-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-fmri-study
#13
Jillian A Toogood, Rebecca C Smith, Todd K Stevens, Joe S Gati, Ravi S Menon, Julie Theurer, Sarah Weisz, Rebecca H Affoo, Ruth E Martin
The present study sought to elucidate the functional contributions of sub-regions of the swallowing neural network in swallowing preparation and swallowing motor execution. Seven healthy volunteers participated in a delayed-response, go, no-go functional magnetic resonance imaging study involving four semi-randomly ordered activation tasks: (i) "prepare to swallow," (ii) "voluntary saliva swallow," (iii) "do not prepare to swallow," and (iv) "do not swallow." Results indicated that brain activation was significantly greater during swallowing preparation, than during swallowing execution, within the rostral and intermediate anterior cingulate cortex bilaterally, premotor cortex (left > right hemisphere), pericentral cortex (left > right hemisphere), and within several subcortical nuclei including the bilateral thalamus, caudate, and putamen...
March 30, 2017: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352072/functional-insights-into-aberrant-brain-responses-and-integration-in-patients-with-lifelong-premature-ejaculation
#14
Bing Zhang, Jiaming Lu, Jiadong Xia, Fangfang Wang, Weiping Li, Fei Chen, Youfeng Han, Yun Chen, Bin Zhu, Zhao Qing, Xin Zhang, Yutian Dai
Even though lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) is highly prevalent, few studies have investigated the neural mechanisms underlying PE. The extent and pattern of brain activation can be determined through a version of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with erotic picture stimuli (task fMRI) and a resting-state fMRI (rs fMRI). We showed that the brain activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus and left insula was decreased both during the task and in the resting state, while there was higher activation in the right middle temporal gyrus during the task...
March 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345153/the-functional-architectures-of-addition-and-subtraction-network-discovery-using-fmri-and-dcm
#15
Yang Yang, Ning Zhong, Karl Friston, Kazuyuki Imamura, Shengfu Lu, Mi Li, Haiyan Zhou, Haiyuan Wang, Kuncheng Li, Bin Hu
The neuronal mechanisms underlying arithmetic calculations are not well understood but the differences between mental addition and subtraction could be particularly revealing. Using fMRI and dynamic causal modeling (DCM), this study aimed to identify the distinct neuronal architectures engaged by the cognitive processes of simple addition and subtraction. Our results revealed significantly greater activation during subtraction in regions along the dorsal pathway, including the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), middle portion of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (mDLPFC), and supplementary motor area (SMA), compared with addition...
March 27, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343333/use-of-phase-locking-value-in-sensorimotor-rhythm-based-brain-computer-interface-zero-phase-coupling-and-effects-of-spatial-filters
#16
Wenjuan Jian, Minyou Chen, Dennis J McFarland
Phase-locking value (PLV) is a potentially useful feature in sensorimotor rhythm-based brain-computer interface (BCI). However, volume conduction may cause spurious zero-phase coupling between two EEG signals and it is not clear whether PLV effects are independent of spectral amplitude. Volume conduction might be reduced by spatial filtering, but it is uncertain what impact this might have on PLV. Therefore, the goal of this study was to explore whether zero-phase PLV is meaningful and how it is affected by spatial filtering...
March 25, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340445/an-updated-meta-analysis-short-term-therapeutic-effects-of-repeated-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-treating-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#17
REVIEW
Dong-Dong Zhou, Wo Wang, Gao-Mao Wang, Da-Qi Li, Li Kuang
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to evaluate the short-term therapeutic effects of using repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and to examine potential influencing factors. METHOD: We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, Wanfang, CNKI, and Sinomed databases on September 18, 2016 and reviewed the references of previous meta-analyses. Sham-controlled, randomized clinical trials using rTMS to treat OCD were included...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338793/sensitivity-to-perception-level-differentiates-two-subnetworks-within-the-mirror-neuron-system
#18
Shiri Simon, Roy Mukamel
Mirror neurons are a subset of brain cells that discharge during action execution and passive observation of similar actions. An open question concerns the functional role of their ability to match observed and executed actions. Since understanding of goals requires conscious perception of actions, we expect that mirror neurons potentially involved in action goal coding, will be modulated by changes in action perception level. Here, we manipulated perception level of action videos depicting short hand movements and measured the corresponding fMRI BOLD responses in mirror regions...
February 17, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338267/disrupted-intrinsic-connectivity-of-the-periaqueductal-gray-in-patients-with-functional-dyspepsia-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#19
P Liu, G Wang, Y Liu, F Zeng, D Lin, X Yang, F Liang, V D Calhoun, W Qin
BACKGROUND: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder. Accumulating evidence suggests the crucial role of central nervous system in the development and maintenance of FD. In particular, periaqueductal gray (PAG) has demonstrated an important role in modulation of pain and emotion, which may be related to FD. However, the study of the PAG in FD is still limited. This study aimed to assess intrinsic connectivity of the PAG in FD patients. METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) data were collected from 66 FD patients and 42 healthy controls (HCs)...
March 24, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337694/the-posterior-fossa-and-foreign-accent-syndrome-report-of-two-new-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Stefanie Keulen, Peter Mariën, Kim van Dun, Roelien Bastiaanse, Mario Manto, Jo Verhoeven
Foreign accent syndrome is a rare motor speech disorder that causes patients to speak their language with a non-native accent. In the neurogenic condition, the disorder develops after lesions in the language dominant hemisphere, often affecting Broca's area, the insula, the supplementary motor area and the primary motor cortex. Here, we present two new cases of FAS after posterior fossa lesions. The first case is a 44-year-old, right-handed, Dutch-speaking man who suffered motor speech disturbances and a left hemiplegia after a pontine infarction...
March 23, 2017: Cerebellum
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