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Supplementary motor area

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044874/information-processing-from-the-motor-cortices-to-the-subthalamic-nucleus-and-globus-pallidus-and-their-somatotopic-organizations-revealed-electrophysiologically-in-monkeys
#1
Hirokazu Iwamuro, Yoshihisa Tachibana, Yoshikazu Ugawa, Nobuhito Saito, Atsushi Nambu
To understand how the information derived from different motor cortical areas representing different body parts is organized in the basal ganglia, we examined the neuronal responses in the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and the external (GPe) and internal (GPi) segments of the globus pallidus, input, relay, and output nuclei, respectively, to stimulation of the orofacial, forelimb, and hindlimb regions of the primary motor cortex (MI) and supplementary motor area (SMA) in macaque monkeys under awake state. Most STN and GPe/GPi neurons responded exclusively to stimulation of either the MI or SMA, and one-fourth to one-third of neurons responded to both...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038030/dynamic-functional-connectivity-impairments-in-early-schizophrenia-and-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis
#2
REVIEW
Yuhui Du, Susanna L Fryer, Zening Fu, Dongdong Lin, Jing Sui, Jiayu Chen, Eswar Damaraju, Eva Mennigen, Barbara Stuart, Daniel H Mathalon, Vince D Calhoun
Individuals at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis are characterized by attenuated psychotic symptoms. Only a minority of CHR individuals convert to full-blown psychosis. Therefore, there is a strong interest in identifying neurobiological abnormalities underlying the psychosis risk syndrome. Dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) captures time-varying connectivity over short time scales, and has the potential to reveal complex brain functional organization. Based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 70 healthy controls (HCs), 53 CHR individuals, and 58 early illness schizophrenia (ESZ) patients, we applied a novel group information guided ICA (GIG-ICA) to estimate inherent connectivity states from DFC, and then investigated group differences...
October 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036632/mapping-compulsivity-in-the-dsm-5-obsessive-compulsive-and-related-disorders-cognitive-domains-neural-circuitry-and-treatment
#3
Naomi A Fineberg, Annemieke M Apergis-Schoute, M Matilde Vaghi, Paula Banca, Claire M Gillan, Valerie Voon, Samuel R Chamberlain, Cinosi Eduardo, Reid Jemma, Sonia Shahper, Edward T Bullmore, Barbara J Sahakian, Trevor W Robbins
Compulsions are repetitive, stereotyped thoughts and behaviors designed to reduce harm. Growing evidence suggests that the neurocognitive mechanisms mediating behavioural inhibition (motor inhibition, cognitive inflexibility) reversal learning and habit formation (shift from goal-directed to habitual responding) contribute toward compulsive activity in a broad range of disorders. In obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), distributed network perturbation appears focussed around the pre-frontal cortex, caudate, putamen and associated neuro-circuitry...
September 23, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033811/altered-local-spatiotemporal-consistency-of-resting-state-bold-signals-in-patients-with-generalized-tonic-clonic-seizures
#4
Shuai Ma, Sisi Jiang, Rui Peng, Qiong Zhu, Hongbin Sun, Jianfu Li, Xiaoyan Jia, Ilan Goldberg, Liang Yu, Cheng Luo
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the spatiotemporal Consistency of spontaneous activities in local brain regions in patients with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS). The resting-state fMRI data were acquired from nineteen patients with GTCS and twenty-two matched healthy subjects. FOur-dimensional (spatiotemporal) Consistency of local neural Activities (FOCA) metric was used to analyze the spontaneous activity in whole brain. The FOCA difference between two groups were detected using a two sample t-test analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026661/tenth-case-of-bilateral-hemifacial-spasm-treated-by-microvascular-decompression-review-of-the-pathophysiology
#5
REVIEW
Warley Carvalho da Silva Martins, Lucas Alverne Freitas de Albuquerque, Gervásio Teles Cardoso de Carvalho, Jules Carlos Dourado, Marcos Dellaretti, Atos Alves de Sousa
BACKGROUND: Bilateral hemifacial spasm (BHFS) is a rare neurological syndrome whose diagnosis depends on excluding other facial dyskinesias. We present a case of BHFS along with a literature review. METHODS: A 64-year-old white, hypertense male reported involuntary left hemiface contractions in 2001 (aged 50). In 2007, right hemifacial symptoms appeared, without spasm remission during sleep. Botulinum toxin type A application produced partial temporary improvement...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020291/reward-sensitivity-and-waiting-impulsivity-shift-towards-reward-valuation-away-from-action-control
#6
Daisy J Mechelmans, Daniela Strelchuk, Nuria Donamayor-Alonso, Paula Banca, Trevor W Robbins, Kwangyeol Baek, Valerie Voon
Background: Impulsivity and reward expectancy are commonly inter-related. Waiting impulsivity, measured using the rodent 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time (5-CSRT) task, predicts compulsive cocaine seeking and sign (or cue) tracking. Here we assess human waiting impulsivity using a novel translational task, the 4-CSRT, and the relationship with reward cues. Methods: Healthy volunteers (n=29) performed the monetary incentive delay task as a functional MRI study where subjects observe a cue predicting reward (cue) and wait to respond for high (£5), low (£1) or no reward...
August 8, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018655/the-involvement-of-sensory-motor-networks-in-reflex-seizure
#7
Hime Suzuki, Rei Enatsu, Aya Kanno, Satoko Ochi, Takashi Murahara, Shogo Yazawa, Hideaki Shiraishi, Nobuhiro Mikuni
Reflex seizures are epileptic events triggered by specific external stimuli, or less commonly, internal mental stimuli. Understanding the characteristics of reflex seizures is important to elucidate the mechanisms underlying network abnormalities in epileptic conditions. This report details a patient with medically intractable reflex seizures provoked by sensory stimuli to the patient's right foot. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) during the seizure induced by sensory stimulation showed hyperperfusion in broad sensory-motor networks (dorsal column-medial lemniscus pathway, left thalamus, bilateral postcentral gyri and posterior parietal cortices, left supplementary motor area (SMA), and left paracentral lobule) and left caudateputamen...
October 2017: NMC Case Rep J
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994360/effects-of-childhood-trauma-on-left-inferior-frontal-gyrus-function-during-response-inhibition-across-psychotic-disorders
#8
Y Quidé, N O'Reilly, O J Watkeys, V J Carr, M J Green
BACKGROUND: Childhood trauma is a risk factor for psychosis. Deficits in response inhibition are common to psychosis and trauma-exposed populations, and associated brain functions may be affected by trauma exposure in psychotic disorders. We aimed to identify the influence of trauma-exposure on brain activation and functional connectivity during a response inhibition task. METHODS: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain function within regions-of-interest [left and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right supplementary motor area, right inferior parietal lobule and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex], during the performance of a Go/No-Go Flanker task, in 112 clinical cases with psychotic disorders and 53 healthy controls (HCs)...
October 10, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984608/damage-to-the-frontal-aslant-tract-accounts-for-visuo-constructive-deficits-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Laura Serra, Giulia Bechi Gabrielli, Elisa Tuzzi, Barbara Spanò, Giovanni Giulietti, Virginia Failoni, Camillo Marra, Carlo Caltagirone, Giacomo Koch, Mara Cercignani, Marco Bozzali
The frontal aslant tract (FAT) has been described as a bundle connecting the Broca's area to the supplementary motor area (SMA) and the pre-SMA in both hemispheres. The functional properties of this tract and its role in degenerative dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), still need to be fully clarified. The aim of this study was to explore the microstructural integrity of the FAT in patients with AD and its potential relationship with cognitive functioning. Twenty-three patients with AD and 25 healthy subjects (HS) were enrolled...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983610/network-centrality-in-patients-with-acute-unilateral-open-globe-injury-a-voxel%C3%A2-wise-degree-centrality-study
#10
Hua Wang, Ting Chen, Lei Ye, Qi-Chen Yang, Rong Wei, Ying Zhang, Nan Jiang, Yi Shao
The present study aimed to investigate functional networks underlying brain‑activity alterations in patients with acute unilateral open globe injury (OGI) and associations with their clinical features using the voxel‑wise degree centrality (DC) method. In total, 18 patients with acute OGI (16 males and 2 females), and 18 healthy subjects (16 males and 2 females), closely matched in age, sex and education, participated in the present study. Each subject underwent a resting‑state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan...
September 26, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980355/cortical-disconnection-of-the-ipsilesional-primary-motor-cortex-is-associated-with-gait-speed-and-upper-extremity-motor-impairment-in-chronic-left-hemispheric-stroke
#11
Denise M Peters, Julius Fridriksson, Jill C Stewart, Jessica D Richardson, Chris Rorden, Leonardo Bonilha, Addie Middleton, Ezequiel Gleichgerrcht, Stacy L Fritz
Advances in neuroimaging have enabled the mapping of white matter connections across the entire brain, allowing for a more thorough examination of the extent of white matter disconnection after stroke. To assess how cortical disconnection contributes to motor impairments, we examined the relationship between structural brain connectivity and upper and lower extremity motor function in individuals with chronic stroke. Forty-three participants [mean age: 59.7 (±11.2) years; time poststroke: 64.4 (±58.8) months] underwent clinical motor assessments and MRI scanning...
October 5, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972892/brain-functional-connectivity-patterns-in-children-and-adolescents-with-gender-dysphoria-sex-atypical-or-not
#12
Nienke M Nota, Baudewijntje P C Kreukels, Martin den Heijer, Dick J Veltman, Peggy T Cohen-Kettenis, Sarah M Burke, Julie Bakker
Various previous studies have reported that brains of people diagnosed with gender dysphoria (GD) show sex-atypical features. In addition, recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies found that several brain resting-state networks (RSNs) in adults with GD show functional connectivity (FC) patterns that are not sex-atypical, but specific for GD. In the current study we examined whether FC patterns are also altered in prepubertal children and adolescents with GD in comparison with non-gender dysphoric peers...
September 18, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971008/distinct-alterations-in-parkinson-s-medication-state-and-disease-state-connectivity
#13
Bernard Ng, Gael Varoquaux, Jean Baptiste Poline, Bertrand Thirion, Michael D Greicius, Kathleen L Poston
Altered brain connectivity has been described in people with Parkinson's disease and in response to dopaminergic medications. However, it is unclear whether dopaminergic medications primarily 'normalize' disease related connectivity changes or if they induce unique alterations in brain connectivity. Further, it is unclear how these disease- and medication-associated changes in brain connectivity relate differently to specific motor manifestations of disease, such as bradykinesia/rigidity and tremor. In this study, we applied a novel covariance projection approach in combination with a bootstrapped permutation test to resting state functional MRI data from 57 Parkinson's disease and 20 healthy control participants to determine the Parkinson's medication-state and disease-state connectivity changes associated with different motor manifestations of disease...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966644/cortical-activation-pattern-during-shoulder-simple-versus-vibration-exercises-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#14
Sung Ho Jang, Sang Seok Yeo, Seung Hyun Lee, Sang Hyun Jin, Mi Young Lee
To date, the cortical effect of exercise has not been fully elucidated. Using the functional near infrared spectroscopy, we attempted to compare the cortical effect between shoulder vibration exercise and shoulder simple exercise. Eight healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Two different exercise tasks (shoulder vibration exercise using the flexible pole and shoulder simple exercise) were performed using a block paradigm. We measured the values of oxygenated hemoglobin in the four regions of interest: the primary sensory-motor cortex (SM1 total, arm somatotopy, and leg and trunk somatotopy), the premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area, and the prefrontal cortex...
August 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966092/reduced-laughter-contagion-in-boys-at-risk-for-psychopathy
#15
Elizabeth O'Nions, César F Lima, Sophie K Scott, Ruth Roberts, Eamon J McCrory, Essi Viding
Humans are intrinsically social animals, forming enduring affiliative bonds [1]. However, a striking minority with psychopathic traits, who present with violent and antisocial behaviors, tend to value other people only insofar as they contribute to their own advancement [2, 3]. Extant research has addressed the neurocognitive processes associated with aggression in such individuals, but we know remarkably little about processes underlying their atypical social affiliation. This is surprising, given the importance of affiliation and bonding in promoting social order and reducing aggression [4, 5]...
October 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965838/assessment-of-intra-and-inter-regional-interrelations-between-gaba-glx-and-bold-during-pain-perception-in-the-human-brain-a-combined-1-h-fmrs-and-fmri-study
#16
Marianne Cleve, Alexander Gussew, Gerd Wagner, Karl-Jürgen Bär, Jürgen R Reichenbach
To explore brain activity and the related neurochemical processes, current research focuses increasingly on the combined acquisition of (1)H MR spectra and fMRI data to investigate potential associations between local metabolite resting-state levels and stimulus-induced BOLD signal changes. In this study, whole-brain fMRI measurements and localized functional (1)H MEGA-PRESS MRS scans were conducted at 3T in healthy subjects prior to and during acute pain stimulation to quantify resting-state GABA+/tCr and Glx/tCr levels in the insular cortex together with their stimulus-induced changes and to explore associations between these neurochemical parameters with intra-regional but also inter-regional BOLD responses...
September 28, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961762/executive-functions-brain-system-an-activation-likelihood-estimation-meta-analytic-study
#17
Alfredo Ardila, Byron Bernal, Monica Rosselli
Background and objective: To characterize commonalities and differences between two executive functions: reasoning and inhibitory control. Methods: A total of 5,974 participants in 346 fMRI experiments of inhibition or reasoning were selected. First level analysis consisted of Analysis of Likelihood Estimation (ALE) studies performed in two pooled data groups: (a) brain areas involved in reasoning and (b) brain areas involved in inhibition. Second level analysis consisted of two contrasts: (i) brain areas involved in reasoning but not in inhibition and (ii) brain areas involved in inhibition but not in reasoning...
September 11, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951832/advancing-functional-dysconnectivity-and-atrophy-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy
#18
Jesse A Brown, Alice Y Hua, Andrew Trujllo, Suneth Attygalle, Richard J Binney, Salvatore Spina, Suzee E Lee, Joel H Kramer, Bruce L Miller, Howard J Rosen, Adam L Boxer, William W Seeley
Progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome (PSP-S) results from neurodegeneration within a network of brainstem, subcortical, frontal and parietal cortical brain regions. It is unclear how network dysfunction progresses and relates to longitudinal atrophy and clinical decline. In this study, we evaluated patients with PSP-S (n = 12) and healthy control subjects (n = 20) at baseline and 6 months later. Subjects underwent structural MRI and task-free functional MRI (tf-fMRI) scans and clinical evaluations at both time points...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941812/enhanced-error-related-negativity-amplitude-in-medication-na%C3%A3-ve-comorbidity-free-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#19
Hema Nawani, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Shrinivasa Basavaraju, Anushree Bose, Sri Mahavir Agarwal, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Y C Janardhan Reddy
Error monitoring and response inhibition is a key cognitive deficit in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Frontal midline regions such as the cingulate cortex and pre-supplementary motor area are considered critical brain substrates of this deficit. Electrophysiological equivalent of the above dysfunction is a fronto-central event related potential (ERP) which occurs after an error called the error related negativity (ERN). In this study, we sought to compare the ERN parameters between medication-naïve, comorbidity-free subjects with OCD and healthy controls (HC)...
September 12, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937319/brain-activation-patterns-during-unilateral-premolar-occlusion
#20
Chun-Zhen Feng, Jin-Feng Li, Nan Hu, Hua Jiang, Yan-Yi Wang, Hong-Chen Liu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the characteristics of brain activation during unilateral premolar occlusion. METHODS: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was collected from 10 healthy volunteers during occlusion of the left first premolar (L1), left second premolar (L2), and right first premolar (R1). The brain activation patterns were analyzed, and the primary sensorimotor cortex, supplementary motor area, insula, thalamus, and prefrontal cortex were chosen as regions of interest...
September 22, 2017: Cranio: the Journal of Craniomandibular Practice
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