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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454934/time-scale-properties-of-task-and-resting-state-functional-connectivity-detrended-partial-cross-correlation-analysis
#1
Jaime S Ide, Chiang-Shan R Li
Functional connectivity analysis is an essential tool for understanding brain function. Previous studies showed that brain regions are functionally connected through low-frequency signals both within the default mode network (DMN) and task networks. However, no studies have directly compared the time scale (frequency) properties of network connectivity during task versus rest, or examined how they relate to task performance. Here, using fMRI data collected from sixty-eight subjects at rest and during a stop signal task, we addressed this issue with a novel functional connectivity measure based on detrended partial cross-correlation analysis (DPCCA)...
February 15, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449186/the-reorganization-of-functional-architecture-in-the-early-stages-of-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Noora Tuovinen, Klaus Seppi, Francesco de Pasquale, Christoph Müller, Michael Nocker, Michael Schocke, Elke R Gizewski, Christian Kremser, Gregor K Wenning, Werner Poewe, Atbin Djamshidian, Christoph Scherfler, Morinobu Seki
INTRODUCTION: The study aim was to identify longitudinal abnormalities of functional connectivity and its relation with motor disability in early to moderately advanced stages of Parkinson's disease patients. METHODS: 3.0T structural and resting-state functional MRI was performed in healthy subjects (n = 16) and Parkinson's disease patients (n = 16) with mean disease duration of 2.2 ± 1.2 years at baseline with a clinical follow-up of 1.5 ± 0.3 years. Resting-state fMRI analysis included region-to-region connectivity in correlation with UPDRS-III scores and computation of Global Efficiency and Degree Centrality...
February 8, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449183/altered-resting-state-voxel-level-whole-brain-functional-connectivity-in-depressed-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Hansheng Wang, Huiyue Chen, Jiahui Wu, Li Tao, Ya Pang, Min Gu, Fajin Lv, Tianyou Luo, Oumei Cheng, Ke Sheng, Jin Luo, Yida Hu, Weidong Fang
BACKGROUND: Depression is one of the most common non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), but its pathogenesis is still not very clear. Recently, degree centrality, a voxel-level whole-brain functional connectivity (FC) analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, has provided the most promising way to explore the neural network mechanisms underlying depressed PD. METHODS: Degree centrality, voxel-wise image and clinical symptoms correlation and secondary seed-based FC analyses were performed in twenty-seven drug-naïve, early stage depressed PD patients, 27 non-depressed PD patients and 27 healthy controls (HCs) to reveal voxel-level whole-brain FC changes in depressed PD...
February 9, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447256/modulation-of-neural-circuits-underlying-temporal-production-by-facial-expressions-of-pain
#4
Daniela Ballotta, Fausta Lui, Carlo Adolfo Porro, Paolo Frigio Nichelli, Francesca Benuzzi
According to the Scalar Expectancy Theory, humans are equipped with a biological internal clock, possibly modulated by attention and arousal. Both emotions and pain are arousing and can absorb attentional resources, thus causing distortions of temporal perception. The aims of the present single-event fMRI study were to investigate: a) whether observation of facial expressions of pain interferes with time production; and b) the neural network subserving this kind of temporal distortions. Thirty healthy volunteers took part in the study...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443731/recovery-of-an-injured-corticofugal-tract-from-the-supplementary-motor-area-in-a-patient-with-traumatic-brain-injury-a-case-report
#5
Sung Ho Jang, Seong Ho Kim, Jeong Pyo Seo
RATIONALE: We report on a patient with traumatic brain injury who showed motor recovery concurrent with recovery of injured corticofugal tracts (CFTs), diagnosed by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). PATIENT CONCERNS: Four weeks after onset, when the patient started rehabilitation, he showed severe weakness of both upper and lower extremities [Motricity Index (MI, full score: 100/100): 9/30]. DIAGNOSES: A 29-year-old male patient underwent conservative management for traumatic hemorrhages in both frontal lobes and right thalamus resulting from a car accident...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434543/altered-functional-connectivity-of-fronto-cingulo-striatal-circuits-during-error-monitoring-in-adolescents-with-a-history-of-childhood-abuse
#6
Heledd Hart, Lena Lim, Mitul A Mehta, Charles Curtis, Xiaohui Xu, Gerome Breen, Andrew Simmons, Kah Mirza, Katya Rubia
Childhood maltreatment is associated with error hypersensitivity. We examined the effect of childhood abuse and abuse-by-gene ( 5-HTTLPR, MAOA ) interaction on functional brain connectivity during error processing in medication/drug-free adolescents. Functional connectivity was compared, using generalized psychophysiological interaction (gPPI) analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, between 22 age- and gender-matched medication-naïve and substance abuse-free adolescents exposed to severe childhood abuse and 27 healthy controls, while they performed an individually adjusted tracking stop-signal task, designed to elicit 50% inhibition failures...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433615/a-haplotype-of-the-dopamine-transporter-gene-modulates-regional-homogeneity-gray-matter-volume-and-visual-memory-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#7
C Y Shang, H Y Lin, W Y Tseng, S S Gau
BACKGROUND: The dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) and visual memory deficits have been consistently reported to be associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to examine whether a DAT1 haplotype affected functional and structural brain alterations in children with ADHD and whether those alterations were associated with visual memory. METHOD: We recruited a total of 37 drug-naïve children with ADHD (17 with the DAT1 rs27048 (C)/rs429699 (T) haplotype and 20 without the CT haplotype) and 37 typically developing children (17 with the CT haplotype and 20 without the CT haplotype)...
February 13, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427654/motor-sequence-learning-in-the-brain-the-long-and-short-of-it
#8
C C Gonzalez, M R Burke
Motor sequence learning involves predictive processing that results in the anticipation of each component of a sequence of actions. In smooth pursuit, this predictive processing is required to decrease tracking errors between the eye and the stimulus. Current models for motor sequence learning suggest parallel mechanisms in the brain for acquiring sequences of differing complexity. We examined this model by comparing shorter versus longer sequences of pursuit eye movements during fMRI. In this way we were able to identify overlapping and distinct brain areas involved in simple versus more complex oculomotor learning...
February 8, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427079/dopamine-and-response-selection-an-acute-phenylalanine-tyrosine-depletion-study
#9
Céline Ramdani, Franck Vidal, Alain Dagher, Laurence Carbonnell, Thierry Hasbroucq
The role of dopaminergic system in decision-making is well documented, and evidence suggests that it could play a significant role in response selection processes. The N-40 is a fronto-central event-related potential, generated by the supplementary motor areas (SMAs) and a physiological index of response selection processes. The aim of the present study was to determine whether infraclinical effects of dopamine depletion on response selection processes could be evidenced via alterations of the N-40. We obtained a dopamine depletion in healthy volunteers with the acute phenylalanine and tyrosine depletion (APTD) method which consists in decreasing the availability of dopamine precursors...
February 9, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426874/oxytocin-curbs-calorie-intake-via-food-specific-increases-in-the-activity-of-brain-areas-that-process-reward-and-establish-cognitive-control
#10
Maartje S Spetter, Gordon B Feld, Matthias Thienel, Hubert Preissl, Maike A Hege, Manfred Hallschmid
The hypothalamic neurohormone oxytocin decreases food intake via largely unexplored mechanisms. We investigated the central nervous mediation of oxytocin's hypophagic effect in comparison to its impact on the processing of generalized rewards. Fifteen fasted normal-weight, young men received intranasal oxytocin (24 IU) or placebo before functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements of brain activity during exposure to food stimuli and a monetary incentive delay task (MID). Subsequently, ad-libitum breakfast intake was assessed...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423665/a-meta-analysis-of-the-effectiveness-of-different-cortical-targets-used-in-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-rtms-for-the-treatment-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd
#11
REVIEW
Simone Rehn, Guy D Eslick, Vlasios Brakoulias
Randomised and sham-controlled trials (RCTs) of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have yielded conflicting results, which may be due to the variability in rTMS parameters used. We performed an updated systematic review and meta-analysis on the effectiveness of rTMS for the treatment of OCD and aimed to determine whether certain rTMS parameters, such as cortical target, may be associated with higher treatment effectiveness. After conducting a systematic literature review for RCTs on rTMS for OCD through to 1 December 2016 using MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Google, and Google Scholar, we performed a random-effects meta-analysis with the outcome measure as pre-post changes in Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) scores...
February 9, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421324/effects-of-propofol-anesthesia-on-the-processing-of-noxious-stimuli-in-the-spinal-cord-and-the-brain
#12
Gregor Lichtner, Ryszard Auksztulewicz, Evgeniya Kirilina, Helena Velten, Dionysios Mavrodis, Michael Scheel, Felix Blankenburg, Falk von Dincklage
Drug-induced unconsciousness is an essential component of general anesthesia, commonly attributed to attenuation of higher-order processing of external stimuli and a resulting loss of information integration capabilities of the brain. In this study, we investigated how the hypnotic drug propofol at doses comparable to those in clinical practice influences the processing of somatosensory stimuli in the spinal cord and in primary and higher-order cortices. Using nociceptive reflexes, somatosensory evoked potentials and functional magnet resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that propofol abolishes the processing of innocuous and moderate noxious stimuli at low to medium concentration levels, but that intense noxious stimuli evoked spinal and cerebral responses even during deep propofol anesthesia that caused profound electroencephalogram (EEG) burst suppression...
February 5, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417490/motor-and-extra-motor-gray-matter-integrity-may-underlie-neurophysiologic-parameters-of-motor-function-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-a-combined-voxel-based-morphometry-and-transcranial-stimulation-study
#13
Foteini Christidi, Efstratios Karavasilis, Georgios Velonakis, Michail Rentzos, Thomas Zambelis, Vasiliki Zouvelou, Sophia Xirou, Panagiotis Ferentinos, Efstathios Efstathopoulos, Nikolaos Kelekis, Ioannis Evdokimidis, Nikolaos Karandreas
The association between gray matter (GM) density and neurophysiologic changes is still unclear in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We evaluated the relationship between GM density and motor system integrity combining voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in ALS. We included 17 ALS patients and 22 healthy controls (HC) who underwent 3D-T1-weighted imaging. Among the ALS group, we applied left motor cortex single-pulse TMS. We used whole-brain VBM comparing ALS and HC in GM density...
February 7, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410136/pretherapeutic-functional-imaging-allows-prediction-of-head-tremor-arrest-after-thalamotomy-for-essential-tremor-the-role-of-altered-interconnectivity-between-thalamolimbic-and-supplementary-motor-circuits
#14
Constantin Tuleasca, Jean Régis, Elena Najdenovska, Tatiana Witjas, Nadine Girard, Jérôme Champoudry, Mohamed Faouzi, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Meritxell Bach Cuadra, Marc Levivier, Dimitri Van De Ville
OBJECTIVE: To correlate pretherapeutic resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) measures with pretherapeutic head tremor presence and/or further improvement 1 year after stereotactic radiosurgical thalamotomy (SRS-T) for essential tremor (ET). METHODS: We prospectively collected head tremor scores (range 0-3) and rs-fMRI data for a cohort of 17 consecutive ET patients in pretherapeutic and 1 year after SRS-T states. We additionally acquired rs-fMRI data for a healthy control (HC) group (n=12)...
January 31, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403348/training-for-micrographia-alters-neural-connectivity-in-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Evelien Nackaerts, Jochen Michely, Elke Heremans, Stephan P Swinnen, Bouwien C M Smits-Engelsman, Wim Vandenberghe, Christian Grefkes, Alice Nieuwboer
Despite recent advances in clarifying the neural networks underlying rehabilitation in Parkinson's disease (PD), the impact of prolonged motor learning interventions on brain connectivity in people with PD is currently unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare cortical network changes after 6 weeks of visually cued handwriting training (= experimental) with a placebo intervention to address micrographia, a common problem in PD. Twenty seven early Parkinson's patients on dopaminergic medication performed a pre-writing task in both the presence and absence of visual cues during behavioral tests and during fMRI...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392232/gray-matter-alteration-associated-with-pain-catastrophizing-in-patients-6-months-after-lumbar-disk-surgery-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#16
Omar Chehadi, Boris Suchan, Kerstin Konietzny, Odo Köster, Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke, Monika I Hasenbring
Introduction: Pain catastrophizing (PC), the increased attention to harmful aspects of pain (magnification), and the belief of low controllability (helplessness) has been shown to be important in the maintenance of pain. A growing research on structural alterations in chronic pain revealed an association between PC and brain areas that are involved in affective and cognitive pain processing. However, little is known about a differential effect of the components magnification and helplessness...
September 2017: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391824/altered-perfusion-of-the-sensorimotor-cortex-in-patients-with-cervical-spondylotic-myelopathy-an-arterial-spin-labeling-study
#17
Fuqing Zhou, Muhua Huang, Lin Wu, Yongming Tan, Jianqiang Guo, Yong Zhang, Laichang He, Honghan Gong
Objective: Advanced magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown functional plasticity or reorganization and metabolite alterations of N-acetyl aspartate in the sensorimotor cortex (SMC), a hallmark region and key brain network, in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). However, the nature of perfusion in the SMC and the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow (CBF), motor function scores, and structural damage of the cervical cord in patients with CSM are not fully understood...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390431/limb-kinetic-apraxia-in-a-patient-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-case-report
#18
Sung Ho Jang, Jeong Pyo Seo
RATIONALE: We report on a patient who developed limb-kinetic apraxia (LKA) due to an injured corticofugal tract (CFT) from the secondary motor area following mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), demonstrated on diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). PATIENT CONCERNS: She was struck in the right leg by a sedan at a crosswalk and fell to the ground. She lost consciousness and experienced post-traumatic amnesia for approximately ten minutes. She was obliged to wear a cast for a left humerus fracture for two months, and she found she could not move her left hand quickly with intention after removal of the cast; consequently her left hand was almost non-functional...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390334/degeneration-of-the-corticofugal-tract-from-the-secondary-motor-area-in-a-parkinson-s-disease-patient-with-limb-kinetic-apraxia-a-case-report
#19
Han Do Lee, Min Cheol Chang
RATIONALE: In this case report, we describe a Parkinson's disease (PD) patient with limb-kinetic apraxia (LKA) in whom degeneration of the corticofugal tract (CFT) from the supplementary motor area (SMA) was observed in diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). PATIENT CONCERNS: A 63-year-old woman presented with a loss of dexterity in both upper extremities, which indicated LKA, and typical PD-related symptoms, including a gait disturbance with a short step, resting tremor in both upper extremities, and rigidity, and these symptoms had been present for 2 years...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387530/connectivity-derived-thalamic-segmentation-in-deep-brain-stimulation-for-tremor
#20
Harith Akram, Viswas Dayal, Philipp Mahlknecht, Dejan Georgiev, Jonathan Hyam, Thomas Foltynie, Patricia Limousin, Enrico De Vita, Marjan Jahanshahi, John Ashburner, Tim Behrens, Marwan Hariz, Ludvic Zrinzo
The ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) of the thalamus is an established surgical target for stereotactic ablation and deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the treatment of tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD) and essential tremor (ET). It is centrally placed on a cerebello-thalamo-cortical network connecting the primary motor cortex, to the dentate nucleus of the contralateral cerebellum through the dentato-rubro-thalamic tract (DRT). The VIM is not readily visible on conventional MR imaging, so identifying the surgical target traditionally involved indirect targeting that relies on atlas-defined coordinates...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
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