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Supplementary motor area

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720981/cerebral-reorganization-in-subacute-stroke-survivors-after-virtual-reality-based-training-a-preliminary-study
#1
Xiang Xiao, Qiang Lin, Wai-Leung Lo, Yu-Rong Mao, Xin-Chong Shi, Ryan S Cates, Shu-Feng Zhou, Dong-Feng Huang, Le Li
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a promising method for quantifying brain recovery and investigating the intervention-induced changes in corticomotor excitability after stroke. This study aimed to evaluate cortical reorganization subsequent to virtual reality-enhanced treadmill (VRET) training in subacute stroke survivors. METHODS: Eight participants with ischemic stroke underwent VRET for 5 sections per week and for 3 weeks. fMRI was conducted to quantify the activity of selected brain regions when the subject performed ankle dorsiflexion...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716966/hierarchically-organized-medial-frontal-cortex-basal-ganglia-loops-selectively-control-task-and-response-selection
#2
Franziska M Korb, Jiefeng Jiang, Joseph A King, Tobias Egner
Adaptive behavior requires context-sensitive configuration of task-sets that specify time-varying stimulus-response mappings. Intriguingly, response time costs associated with changing task-sets and motor responses are known to be strongly interactive: switch costs at the task-level are small in the presence of a response-switch but large when accompanied by a response-repetition, and vice versa for response-switch costs. The reasons behind this well-known inter-dependence between task- and response-level control processes are currently not well understood...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711737/subthalamic-deep-brain-stimulation-sweet-spots-and-hyperdirect-cortical-connectivity-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Harith Akram, Stamatios N Sotiropoulos, Saad Jbabdi, Dejan Georgiev, Philipp Mahlknecht, Jonathan Hyam, Thomas Foltynie, Patricia Limousin, Enrico De Vita, Marjan Jahanshahi, Marwan Hariz, John Ashburner, Tim Behrens, Ludvic Zrinzo
OBJECTIVES: Firstly, to identify subthalamic region stimulation clusters that predict maximum improvement in rigidity, bradykinesia and tremor, or emergence of side-effects; and secondly, to map-out the cortical fingerprint, mediated by the hyperdirect pathways which predict maximum efficacy. METHODS: High angular resolution diffusion imaging in twenty patients with advanced Parkinson's disease was acquired prior to bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation...
July 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708864/abnormal-lateralization-of-fine-motor-actions-in-tourette-syndrome-persists-into-adulthood
#4
D Martino, C Delorme, E Pelosin, A Hartmann, Y Worbe, L Avanzino
Youth with Tourette syndrome (TS) exhibit, compared to healthy, abnormal ability to lateralize digital sequential tasks. It is unknown whether this trait is related to inter-hemispheric connections, and whether it is preserved or lost in patients with TS persisting through adult life. We studied 13 adult TS patients and 15 age-matched healthy volunteers. All participants undertook: 1) a finger opposition task, performed with the right hand (RH) only or with both hands, using a sensor-engineered glove in synchrony with a metronome at 2 Hz; we calculated a lateralization index [(single RH-bimanual RH)/single RH X 100) for percentage of correct movements (%CORR); 2) MRI-based diffusion tensor imaging and probabilistic tractography of inter-hemispheric corpus callosum (CC) connections between supplementary motor areas (SMA) and primary motor cortices (M1)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702352/automatized-smoking-related-action-schemata-are-reflected-by-reduced-fmri-activity-in-sensorimotor-brain-regions-of-smokers
#5
Ayse Ilkay Isik, Marcus J Naumer, Jochen Kaiser, Christian Buschenlange, Sandro Wiesmann, Stefan Czoschke, Yavor Yalachkov
In the later stages of addiction, automatized processes play a prominent role in guiding drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior. However, little is known about the neural correlates of automatized drug-taking skills and drug-related action knowledge in humans. We employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while smokers and non-smokers performed an orientation affordance task, where compatibility between the hand used for a behavioral response and the spatial orientation of a priming stimulus leads to shorter reaction times resulting from activation of the corresponding motor representations...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701494/loss-of-phosphodiesterase-4-in-parkinson-disease-relevance-to-cognitive-deficits
#6
Flavia Niccolini, Heather Wilson, Gennaro Pagano, Christopher Coello, Mitul A Mehta, Graham E Searle, Roger N Gunn, Eugenii A Rabiner, Thomas Foltynie, Marios Politis
OBJECTIVE: To assess in vivo the expression of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) and its relevance to cognitive symptoms in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) using [(11)C]rolipram PET. METHODS: We studied 12 levodopa-treated patients with PD with no concurrent diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Their data were compared with those from 12 healthy controls. All participants underwent neuropsychiatric and cognitive assessment using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery...
July 12, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690225/-grey-matter-concentration-revealed-by-voxel-based-morphometry-in-individuals-with-cognitive-vulnerability-to-depression
#7
Shuwen Yuan, Hui Lei, Shuqiao Yao, Xiaocui Zhang
To explore the grey matter concentration in individuals with cognitive vulnerability to depression.
 Methods: Thirty individuals with cognitive vulnerability to depression and thirty age- and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study, and they were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination. The grey matter concentration differences were compared between the two groups by using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) following MRI.
 Results: Individuals with cognitive vulnerability to depression showed significantly lower grey matter density in bilateral insular, left cerebellum, right supplementary motor area, and left precentral gyrus than those in the healthy controls, while the healthy controls showed significantly lower grey density in the right inferior frontal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, and left cuneus than those in the individuals with cognitive vulnerability to depression...
June 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688264/the-role-of-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-volume-in-the-association-of-expressive-suppression-and-externally-oriented-thinking
#8
Xu Li, Jiamei Lu, Bingbing Li, Haijiang Li, Li Jin, Jiang Qiu
BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested that expressive suppression (ES) is linked to externally oriented thinking (EOT) through the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and there are gender differences in their association. The present structural magnetic resonance imaging study was to investigate the neural bases of ES and EOT and their association in females versus males in a Chinese college sample. METHODS: A total of 142 participants (83 females) were enrolled, and they completed the ES subscale of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and anatomical scanning...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687447/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-of-the-supplementary-motor-area-in-treatment-resistant-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-an-open-label-pilot-study
#9
Young-Ji Lee, Bon-Hoon Koo, Wan-Seok Seo, Hye-Geum Kim, Ji-Yean Kim, Eun-Jin Cheon
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severely distressing disorder represented by obsessions and compulsions. A significant proportion of OCD patients fail to improve with conventional treatment methods. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been proposed as an alternative for OCD treatment. Functional neuroimaging studies indicate that OCD is associated with increased activity in the supplementary motor area (SMA), a region that plays an important role in the pathophysiology of this disorder...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685455/cortical-oxyhemoglobin-elevation-persists-after-moderate-intensity-cycling-exercise-a-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#10
Atsuhiro Tsubaki, Nana Takehara, Daisuke Sato, Shinichiro Morishita, Yuta Tokunaga, Kazuhiro Sugawara, Sho Kojima, Hiroyuki Tamaki, Yudai Yamazaki, Hideaki Onishi
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can measure cortical activity during gross motor tasks based on the cerebral hemodynamic response. Although some reports suggest that cycling exercise improves cortical oxygenation, its after-effects are unknown. We examined the after-effects of low- and moderate-intensity cycling exercise on cortical oxygenation. Ten healthy volunteers (mean age 21.3 ± 0.7 years; 4 women) underwent cycle ergometer exercise at 30% or 50% of VO2peak for 20 min, followed by an 8-min post-exercise rest (PER)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685451/site-specificity-of-changes-in-cortical-oxyhaemoglobin-concentration-induced-by-water-immersion
#11
D Sato, K Yamashiro, Y Yamazaki, A Tsubaki, H Onishi, N Takehara, A Maruyama
Our previous studies have shown that water immersion (WI) changes sensorimotor processing and cortical excitability in the sensorimotor regions of the brain. The present study examined the site specificity of the brain activation during WI using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Cortical oxyhaemoglobin (O2Hb) levels in the anterior and posterior parts of the supplementary motor area (pre-SMA and SMA), primary motor cortex (M1), primary somatosensory cortex (S1), and posterior parietal cortex (PPC) were recorded using fNIRS (OMM-3000; Shimadzu Co...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677224/brain-changes-following-four-weeks-of-unimanual-motor-training-evidence-from-behavior-neural-stimulation-cortical-thickness-and-functional-mri
#12
Martin V Sale, Lee B Reid, Luca Cocchi, Alex M Pagnozzi, Stephen E Rose, Jason B Mattingley
Although different aspects of neuroplasticity can be quantified with behavioral probes, brain stimulation, and brain imaging assessments, no study to date has combined all these approaches into one comprehensive assessment of brain plasticity. Here, 24 healthy right-handed participants practiced a sequence of finger-thumb opposition movements for 10 min each day with their left hand. After 4 weeks, performance for the practiced sequence improved significantly (P < 0.05 FWE) relative to a matched control sequence, with both the left (mean increase: 53...
July 5, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677154/brain-changes-following-four-weeks-of-unimanual-motor-training-evidence-from-fmri-guided-diffusion-mri-tractography
#13
Lee B Reid, Martin V Sale, Ross Cunnington, Jason B Mattingley, Stephen E Rose
We have reported reliable changes in behavior, brain structure, and function in 24 healthy right-handed adults who practiced a finger-thumb opposition sequence task with their left hand for 10 min daily, over 4 weeks. Here, we extend these findings by using diffusion MRI to investigate white-matter changes in the corticospinal tract, basal-ganglia, and connections of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Twenty-three participant datasets were available with pre-training and post-training scans. Task performance improved in all participants (mean: 52...
July 5, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675473/localization-of-orofacial-representation-in-the-corona-radiata-internal-capsule-and-cerebral-peduncle-in-macaca-mulatta
#14
R J Morecraft, A Binneboese, K S Stilwell-Morecraft, J Ge
Subcortical white matter injury is often accompanied by orofacial motor dysfunction, but little is known about the structural substrates accounting for these common neurological deficits. We studied the trajectory of the corticobulbar projection from the orofacial region of the primary (M1), ventrolateral (LPMCv), supplementary (M2), rostral cingulate (M3) and caudal cingulate (M4) motor regions through the corona radiata (CR), internal capsule (IC) and crus cerebri of the cerebral peduncle (ccCP). In the CR each pathway was segregated...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673720/schizophrenia-affects-speech-induced-functional-connectivity-of-the-superior-temporal-gyrus-under-cocktail-party-listening-conditions
#15
Juanhua Li, Chao Wu, Yingjun Zheng, Ruikeng Li, Xuanzi Li, Shenglin She, Haibo Wu, Hongjun Peng, Yuping Ning, Liang Li
The superior temporal gyrus (STG) is involved in speech recognition against informational masking under cocktail-party-listening conditions. Compared to healthy listeners, people with schizophrenia perform worse in speech recognition under informational speech-on-speech masking conditions. It is not clear whether the schizophrenia-related vulnerability to informational masking is associated with certain changes in FC of the STG with some critical brain regions. Using sparse-sampling fMRI design, this study investigated the differences between people with schizophrenia and healthy controls in FC of the STG for target-speech listening against informational speech-on-speech masking, when a listening condition with either perceived spatial separation (PSS, with a spatial release of informational masking) or perceived spatial co-location (PSC, without the spatial release) between target speech and masking speech was introduced...
July 1, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673716/contribution-of-the-supplementary-motor-area-and-the-cerebellum-to-the-anticipatory-postural-adjustments-and-execution-phases-of-human-gait-initiation
#16
Aliénor Richard, Angèle Van Hamme, Xavier Drevelle, Jean-Louis Golmard, Sabine Meunier, Marie-Laure Welter
Several brain structures including the brainstem, the cerebellum and the frontal cortico-basal ganglia network, with the primary and premotor areas have been shown to participate in the functional organization of gait initiation and postural control in humans, but their respective roles remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to better understand the role of the supplementary motor area (SMA) and posterior cerebellum in the gait initiation process. Gait initiation parameters were recorded in 22 controls both before and after continuous theta burst transcranial stimulation (cTBS) of the SMA and cerebellum, and were compared to sham stimulation, using a randomized double-blind design study...
July 1, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668221/human-neuroimaging-reveals-the-subcomponents-of-grasping-reaching-and-pointing-actions
#17
Cristiana Cavina-Pratesi, Jason D Connolly, Simona Monaco, Teresa D Figley, A David Milner, Thomas Schenk, Jody C Culham
Although the neural underpinnings of visually guided grasping and reaching have been well delineated within lateral and medial fronto-parietal networks (respectively), the contributions of subcomponents of visuomotor actions have not been explored in detail. Using careful subtraction logic, here we investigated which aspects of grasping, reaching, and pointing movements drive activation across key areas within visuomotor networks implicated in hand actions. For grasping tasks, we find activation differences based on the precision required (fine > coarse grip: anterior intraparietal sulcus, aIPS), the requirement to lift the object (grip + lift > grip: aIPS; dorsal premotor cortex, PMd; and supplementary motor area, SMA), and the number of digits employed (3-/5- vs...
June 6, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667892/normal-aging-and-parkinson-s-disease-are-associated-with-the-functional-decline-of-distinct-frontal-striatal-circuits
#18
Aleksandra Gruszka, Adam Hampshire, Roger A Barker, Adrian M Owen
Impaired ability to shift attention between stimuli (i.e. shifting attentional 'set') is a well-established part of the dysexecutive syndrome in Parkinson's Disease (PD), nevertheless cognitive and neural bases of this deficit remain unclear. In this study, an fMRI-optimised variant of a classic paradigm for assessing attentional control (Hampshire and Owen 2006) was used to contrast activity in dissociable executive circuits in early-stage PD patients and controls. The results demonstrated that the neural basis of the executive performance impairments in PD is accompanied by hypoactivation within the striatum, anterior cingulate cortex (vACC), and inferior frontal sulcus (IFS) regions...
June 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667375/different-patterns-of-gray-matter-density-in-early-and-middle-late-onset-parkinson-s-disease-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#19
Min Xuan, Xiaojun Guan, Peiyu Huang, Zhujing Shen, Quanquan Gu, Xinfeng Yu, Xiaojun Xu, Wei Luo, Minming Zhang
Early-onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD) has a clinical course and characteristics distinct from middle-late-onset Parkinson's disease (M-LOPD). Although many studies have investigated these differences, the neural mechanisms of these characteristics remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the morphological differences, and their related clinical significance, between EOPD and M-LOPD patients. We recruited two groups of patients, 28 EOPD patients and 37 M-LOPD patients, and two age- and sex-matched control groups (23 controls in each group)...
June 30, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665058/decoding-saccadic-directions-using-epidural-ecog-in-non-human-primates
#20
Jeyeon Lee, Hoseok Choi, Seho Lee, Baek Hwan Cho, Kyoung Ha Ahn, In Young Kim, Kyoung Min Lee, Dong Pyo Jang
A brain-computer interface (BCI) can be used to restore some communication as an alternative interface for patients suffering from locked-in syndrome. However, most BCI systems are based on SSVEP, P300, or motor imagery, and a diversity of BCI protocols would be needed for various types of patients. In this paper, we trained the choice saccade (CS) task in 2 non-human primate monkeys and recorded the brain signal using an epidural electrocorticogram (eECoG) to predict eye movement direction. We successfully predicted the direction of the upcoming eye movement using a support vector machine (SVM) with the brain signals after the directional cue onset and before the saccade execution...
August 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
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