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Supplementary motor area

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642493/effects-of-tdcs-on-real-time-bci-detection-of-pedaling-motor-imagery
#1
Maria de la Soledad Rodriguez-Ugarte, Eduardo Iáñez, Mario Ortiz-Garcia, José M Azorín
The purpose of this work is to strengthen the cortical excitability over the primary motor cortex (M1) and the cerebro-cerebellar pathway by means of a new transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) configuration to detect lower limb motor imagery (MI) in real time using two different cognitive neural states: relax and pedaling MI. The anode is located over the primary motor cortex in Cz, and the cathode over the right cerebro-cerebellum. The real-time brain-computer interface (BCI) designed is based on finding, for each electrode selected, the power at the particular frequency where the most difference between the two mental tasks is observed...
April 8, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628272/altered-grey-matter-volume-and-cortical-thickness-in-patients-with-schizo-obsessive-comorbidity
#2
Yong-Ming Wang, Lai-Quan Zou, Wen-Lan Xie, Zhuo-Ya Yang, Xiong-Zhao Zhu, Eric F C Cheung, Thomas Alrik Sørensen, Arne Møller, Raymond C K Chan
Recent findings suggest that schizo-obsessive comorbidity (SOC) may be a unique diagnostic entity. We examined grey matter (GM) volume and cortical thickness in 22 patients with SOC, and compared them with 21 schizophrenia (SCZ) patients, 22 obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients and 22 healthy controls (HCs). We found that patients with SOC exhibited reduced GM volume in the left thalamus, the left inferior semi-lunar lobule of the cerebellum, the bilateral medial orbitofrontal cortex (medial oFC), the medial superior frontal gyrus (medial sFG), the rectus gyrus and the anterior cingulate cortex (aCC) compared with HCs...
March 28, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628218/effects-of-sex-hormones-and-age-on-brain-volume-in-post-menopausal-women
#3
Gwang-Won Kim, Kwangsung Park, Gwang-Woo Jeong
BACKGROUND: Investigation of the effect of sex hormones on the brain volume in women provides a unique opportunity to examine menopause-related morphometric alterations. AIM: To evaluate brain morphological alterations in post-menopausal women using voxel-based morphometry and its correlations with sex hormone levels. METHODS: 20 Pre-menopausal women and 20 post-menopausal women underwent structural MRI. OUTCOMES: T1-weighted magnetic resonance data were acquired and serum sex hormones including total estrogen, estriol, estradiol (E2), follicle-stimulating hormone, free testosterone, SHBG, and luteinizing hormone were measured...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628071/fatigue-is-associated-with-altered-monitoring-and-preparation-of-physical-effort-in-patients-with-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#4
Marieke E van der Schaaf, Karin Roelofs, Floris P de Lange, Dirk E M Geurts, Jos W M van der Meer, Hans Knoop, Ivan Toni
BACKGROUND: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is characterized by disabling fatigue, which is suggested to be maintained by dysfunctional beliefs. Fatigue and its maintenance are recently conceptualized as arising from abnormally precise expectations about bodily inputs and from beliefs of diminished control over bodily states, respectively. This study used functional neuroimaging to identify the neural correlates of fatigue and its maintenance by beliefs during a physical effort task. METHODS: We isolated behavioral adjustments and cerebral activity during feedback processing and motor preparation, in the context of a task in which patients with CFS (n = 85) and healthy control subjects (n = 29) produced 30%, 50%, and 70% of their right-hand maximal voluntary contraction, and received directional feedback on performance (e...
April 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605698/left-frontal-meningioangiomatosis-associated-with-type-iiic-focal-cortical-dysplasia-causing-refractory-epilepsy-and-literature-review
#5
Alexandre Roux, Charles Mellerio, Emmanuelle Lechapt-Zalcman, Megan Still, Michel Zerah, Marie Bourgeois, Johan Pallud
BACKGROUND: We report the surgical management of a lesional drug-resistant epilepsy caused by a meningioangiomatosis associated with a type IIIc focal cortical dysplasia located in the left supplementary motor area in a young male patient. CASE DESCRIPTION: A first anatomical-based partial surgical resection was performed at 11 years old under general anaesthesia without intraoperative mapping, which allowed for postoperative seizure control (Engel IA) for six years...
March 29, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603414/glt-1-mediates-exercise-induced-fatigue-through-modulation-of-glutamate-and-lactate-in-rats
#6
Dongmei Wang, Xingtong Wang
Glutamate has been implicated in exercise-induced fatigue, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. This study aimed to determine whether glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) has a key role in the regulation of exercise-induced fatigue. The expressions of GLT-1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the supplementary motor area of rats exposed to exhaustion were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The expression of GLT-1 was further confirmed by Western blotting. The effects of GLT-1 on extracellular levels of glutamate and lactate and on exercise endurance were studied by microdialysis...
March 30, 2018: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598890/closed-loop-intracranial-stimulation-alters-movement-timing-in-humans
#7
Bartlett D Moore, Adam R Aron, Nitin Tandon
BACKGROUND: A prime objective driving the recent development of human neural prosthetics is to stimulate neural circuits in a manner time-locked to ongoing brain activity. The human supplementary motor area (SMA) is a particularly useful target for this objective because it displays characteristic neural activity just prior to voluntary movement. OBJECTIVE: Here, we tested a method that detected activity in the human SMA related to impending movement and then delivered cortical stimulation with intracranial electrodes to influence the timing of movement...
March 8, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593607/observation-of-point-light-walker-locomotion-induces-motor-resonance-when-explicitly-represented-an-eeg-source-analysis-study
#8
Alberto Inuggi, Claudio Campus, Roberta Vastano, Ghislain Saunier, Alejo Keuroghlanian, Thierry Pozzo
Understanding human motion, to infer the goal of others' actions, is thought to involve the observer's motor repertoire. One prominent class of actions, the human locomotion, has been object of several studies, all focused on manipulating the shape of degraded human figures like point-light walker (PLW) stimuli, represented as walking on the spot. Nevertheless, since the main goal of the locomotor function is to displace the whole body from one position to the other, these stimuli might not fully represent a goal-directed action and thus might not be able to induce the same motor resonance mechanism expected when observing a natural locomotion...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590181/modulation-of-inhibitory-control-by-prefrontal-anodal-tdcs-a-crossover-double-blind-sham-controlled-fmri-study
#9
Etienne Sallard, Michael Mouthon, Michael De Pretto, Lucas Spierer
Prefrontal anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been proposed as a potential approach to improve inhibitory control performance. The functional consequences of tDCS during inhibition tasks remain, however, largely unresolved. We addressed this question by analyzing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recorded while participants completed a Go/NoGo task after right-lateralized prefrontal anodal tDCS with a crossover, sham-controlled, double-blind experimental design. We replicated previous evidence for an absence of offline effect of anodal stimulation on Go/NoGo performance...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584917/the-effects-of-nicotine-and-tobacco-use-on-brain-reward-function-interaction-with-nicotine-dependence-severity
#10
Merideth A Addicott, Maggie Sweitzer, F Joseph McClernon
Introduction: This study investigated the effects of nicotine/tobacco on neural activation during performance of a monetary incentivized delay task. Methods: Prior to each scan, nonsmokers received nicotine or placebo nasal spray and smokers were smoking satiated or 24-hours withdrawn. During the scan, participants made timed responses to reward-related cues and received feedback. Parameter estimates from cue- and feedback-related activation in medial prefrontal regions and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) were extracted and underwent within- and between-group analyses...
March 23, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580968/correlation-of-neural-activity-with-behavioral-kinematics-reveals-distinct-sensory-encoding-and-evidence-accumulation-processes-during-active-tactile-sensing
#11
Ioannis Delis, Jacek P Dmochowski, Paul Sajda, Qi Wang
Many real-world decisions rely on active sensing, a dynamic process for directing our sensors (e.g. eyes or fingers) across a stimulus to maximize information gain. Though ecologically pervasive, limited work has focused on identifying neural correlates of the active sensing process. In tactile perception, we often make decisions about an object/surface by actively exploring its shape/texture. Here we investigate the neural correlates of active tactile decision-making by simultaneously measuring electroencephalography (EEG) and finger kinematics while subjects interrogated a haptic surface to make perceptual judgments...
March 23, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574551/the-dysfunction-of-the-cerebellum-and-its-cerebellum-reward-sensorimotor-loops-in-chronic-spontaneous-urticaria
#12
Yuming Wang, Jiliang Fang, Ping Song, Yan Bao, Wenwen Song, Jiao Liu, Courtney Lang, Kristen Jorgenson, Minyoung Jung, Dong Shen, Shasha Li, Ruirui Sun, Xu Ding, Jiao Yang, Xiao Meng, Ning Wang, Zhifang Yan, Yuhe Yan, Qian Kong, Ying Dong, Fangyuan Cui, Yiheng Tu, Bingnan Cui, Jian Kong
Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is a common itchy skin disease. Despite its prevalence, the neuropathology of CSU is uncertain. In this study, we explored resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) changes in CSU, as well as how the symptom changes following intervention can modulate rs-FC. Forty patients and 40 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. Following an intervention, 32 patients participated in a second scan approximately 6 weeks after the first scan. Compared with healthy controls, CSU subjects exhibited higher regional homogeneity (ReHo) values in the cerebellum, which were positively associated with urticaria activity scores over 7 days (UAS7) at baseline...
March 24, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573046/meta-analytic-evidence-for-altered-mesolimbic-responses-to-reward-in-schizophrenia
#13
Henry W Chase, Polina Loriemi, Tobias Wensing, Simon B Eickhoff, Thomas Nickl-Jockschat
Dysfunction of reward-related neural circuitry in schizophrenia (SCZ) has been widely reported, and may provide insight into the motivational and cognitive disturbances that characterize the disorder. Although previous meta-analyses of reward learning paradigms in SCZ have been performed, a meta-analysis of whole-brain coordinate maps in SCZ alone has not been conducted. In this study, we performed an activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta-analysis, and performed a follow-up analysis of functional connectivity and functional decoding of identified regions...
March 24, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571872/alterations-of-regional-homogeneity-in-freezing-of-gait-in-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Caihong Zhou, Xiaoling Zhong, Yongzhe Yang, Wanqun Yang, Lijuan Wang, Yuhu Zhang, Kun Nie, Jianmin Xu, Biao Huang
INTRODUCTION: Freezing of gait (FOG) is a serious complication in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and is more common in the late state of the disease. The high risk of falling in patients with FOG impacts their quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To explore altered neuroactivity related to cognitive and executive function of PD patients with FOG. METHODS: Fourteen PD patients with FOG (FOG+), 20 PD patients without FOG (FOG-), and 18 normal controls (NC) were enrolled...
April 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556184/suppressing-systemic-interference-in-fnirs-monitoring-of-the-hemodynamic-cortical-response-to-motor-execution-and-imagery
#15
Shijing Wu, Jun Li, Lantian Gao, Changshui Chen, Sailing He
Hemodynamic response to motor execution (ME) and motor imagery (MI) was investigated using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We used a 31 channel fNIRS system which allows non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation changes induced by cortical activation. Sixteen healthy subjects (mean-age 24.5 yeas) were recruited and the changes in concentration of hemoglobin were examined during right and left hand finger tapping tasks and kinesthetic MI. To suppress the systemic physiological interference, we developed a preprocessing procedure which prevents over-activated reporting in NIRS-SPM...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545745/monetary-reward-and-punishment-to-response-inhibition-modulate-activation-and-synchronization-within-the-inhibitory-brain-network
#16
Rupesh K Chikara, Erik C Chang, Yi-Chen Lu, Dar-Shong Lin, Chin-Teng Lin, Li-Wei Ko
A reward or punishment can modulate motivation and emotions, which in turn affect cognitive processing. The present simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging-electroencephalography study examines neural mechanisms of response inhibition under the influence of a monetary reward or punishment by implementing a modified stop-signal task in a virtual battlefield scenario. The participants were instructed to play as snipers who open fire at a terrorist target but withhold shooting in the presence of a hostage...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545744/structural-covariance-of-the-prefrontal-amygdala-pathways-associated-with-heart-rate-variability
#17
Luqing Wei, Hong Chen, Guo-Rong Wu
The neurovisceral integration model has shown a key role of the amygdala in neural circuits underlying heart rate variability (HRV) modulation, and suggested that reciprocal connections from amygdala to brain regions centered on the central autonomic network (CAN) are associated with HRV. To provide neuroanatomical evidence for these theoretical perspectives, the current study used covariance analysis of MRI-based gray matter volume (GMV) to map structural covariance network of the amygdala, and then determined whether the interregional structural correlations related to individual differences in HRV...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541539/the-crossed-frontal-aslant-tract-a-possible-pathway-involved-in-the-recovery-of-supplementary-motor-area-syndrome
#18
Cordell M Baker, Joshua D Burks, Robert G Briggs, Adam D Smitherman, Chad A Glenn, Andrew K Conner, Dee H Wu, Michael E Sughrue
Introduction: Supplementary motor area (SMA) syndrome is a constellation of temporary symptoms that may occur following tumors of the frontal lobe. Affected patients develop akinesia and mutism but often recover within weeks to months. With our own case examples and with correlations to fiber tracking validated by gross anatomical dissection as ground truth, we describe a white matter pathway through which recovery may occur. Methods: Diffusion spectrum imaging from the Human Connectome Project was used for tractography analysis...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529887/gray-matter-differences-in-the-anterior-cingulate-and-orbitofrontal-cortex-of-young-adults-with-internet-gaming-disorder-surface-based-morphometry
#19
Deokjong Lee, Jinsick Park, Kee Namkoong, In Young Kim, Young-Chul Jung
Background and aims Altered risk/reward decision-making is suggested to predispose individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) to pursue short-term pleasure, despite long-term negative consequences. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) play important roles in risk/reward decision-making. This study investigated gray matter differences in the ACC and OFC of young adults with and without IGD using surface-based morphometry (SBM). Methods We examined 45 young male adults with IGD and 35 age-matched male controls...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525423/investigation-of-fmri-analysis-method-to-visualize-the-difference-in-the-brain-activation-timing
#20
Sumito Maruyama, Kenzo Muroi, Yoshiyuki Hosokai
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: In general functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis, the task onset time of the statistical model is typically set according to the timing of stimulation. In this study, using a high temporal resolution fMRI data, we examined the way of dynamically visualizing the difference in the activation timing between the brain activation areas by analyzing the task onset time of the statistical model shifted from the actual stimulation timing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: fMRI data with high temporal resolution was acquired using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging for 10 right-handed healthy volunteers...
March 7, 2018: Academic Radiology
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