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Caroline Charette, Krista L Best, Emma M Smith, William C Miller, François Routhier
Background: Mobility limitations represent the third most prevalent cause of disability, affecting more than 1.9 million community-dwelling Canadians. Walking aids are often prescribed to reduce the impacts of mobility impairments. There are limited data on walking aids since 2004. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of walking aid use in Canada and to explore demographic characteristics among users of walking aids. Design: The design used was a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional national survey...
March 14, 2018: Physical Therapy
Kevin D Martin, Jeffrey Wake, Laura Dawson, J Preston Van Buren
Background: The prevalence of Achilles tendon (AT) pathology is common and can result in disability. Understanding normal AT properties can improve our ability to prevent AT injuries. We examined the cross-sectional area of the AT at multiple levels in an asymptomatic population of Army Rangers. Methods: This is a prospective cohort study composed of 41 voluntarily recruited United States Army Rangers deployed in a combat theater. All subjects were members of the Ranger Regiment participating in more than 20 h of intense bipedal non-sport weekly training with no history of AT pathology...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Davis C Woodworth, Langston T Holly, Emeran A Mayer, Noriko Salamon, Benjamin M Ellingson
BACKGROUND: Advanced cervical spondylosis (CS) can cause structural damage to the spinal cord resulting in long-term neurological impairment including neck pain and motor weakness. We hypothesized long-term structural reorganization within the brain in patients with CS. OBJECTIVE: To explore the associations between cortical thickness, subcortical volumes, neurological symptoms, and pain severity in CS patients with or without myelopathy and healthy controls (HCs)...
March 14, 2018: Neurosurgery
Douglas P Beall, M R Chambers, Sam Thomas, John Amburgy, James R Webb, Bradly S Goodman, Devin K Datta, Richard W Easton, Douglas Linville, Sanjay Talati, John B Tillman
BACKGROUND: Osteoporotic and neoplastic vertebral compression fractures (VCF) are common and painful, threatening quality of life and increasing risk of morbidity and mortality. Balloon kyphoplasty is a percutaneous option for treating painful cancer- and osteoporosis-related VCFs, supported by 2 randomized trials demonstrating efficacy benefits of BKP over nonsurgical care. OBJECTIVE: To investigate 12-mo disability, quality of life, and safety outcomes specifically in a Medicare-eligible population, representing characteristic patients seen in routine clinical practice...
March 14, 2018: Neurosurgery
Patrick C Kennedy, Helen Purtill, Kieran O'Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Many patients reporting musculoskeletal pain present to Primary Care Physiotherapy with costly comorbid overlapping complaints that remain medically unexplained. These subjective health complaints (SHC) incorporate coexisting multi-site musculoskeletal pain and varied non-musculoskeletal complaints (e.g. anxiety, tiredness). The role of these non-musculoskeletal complaints is acknowledged in spinal musculoskeletal disorders, but less so for peripheral musculoskeletal disorders...
March 8, 2018: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
Paula A Aduen, Michael J Kofler, Dustin E Sarver, Erica L Wells, Elia F Soto, Daniel J Cox
ADHD is associated with automobile crashes, traffic fatalities, and serious road trauma, but it is unclear whether this risk is (a) driven by ADHD symptoms specifically, and (b) unique to ADHD or transdiagnostic across psychiatric disabilities, such as depression, that also have concentration problems as core symptoms. The current study provides the first prospective, continuously-monitored evaluation of crash risk related to ADHD symptoms, including the first on-road comparison of ADHD with another high-prevalence psychiatric disability (depression)...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Matthew J Murray, Nicholas E Peters, Matthew B Reeves
The host cell represents a hostile environment that viruses must counter in order to establish infection. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is no different and encodes a multitude of functions aimed at disabling, re-directing or hijacking cellular functions to promulgate infection. However, during the very early stages of infection the virus relies on the outcome of interactions between virion components, cell surface receptors and host signalling pathways to promote an environment that supports infection. In the context of latent infection-where the virus establishes an infection in an absence of many gene products specific for lytic infection-these initial interactions are crucial events...
March 16, 2018: Pathogens
Lois D Hedman, Lori Quinn, Kathleen Gill-Body, David A Brown, Myla Quiben, Nora Riley, Patricia L Scheets
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The APTA recently established a vision for physical therapists to transform society by optimizing movement to promote health and wellness, mitigate impairments, and prevent disability. An important element of this vision entails the integration of the movement system into the profession, and necessitates the development of movement system diagnoses by physical therapists. At this point in time, the profession as a whole has not agreed upon diagnostic classifications or guidelines to assist in developing movement system diagnoses that will consistently capture an individual's movement problems...
April 2018: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
Yang Xiong, Lin Xu, Xing Yu, Yongdong Yang, Dingyan Zhao, Zhengguo Hu, Chuanhong Li, He Zhao, Lijun Duan, Bingbing Zhang, Sixue Chen, Tao Liu
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study. OBJECTIVE: To compare the mid-term outcomes of hybrid surgery and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion for the treatment of contiguous 2-segment cervical degenerative disc diseases. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Hybrid surgery has become one of the most controversial subjects in spine communities, and the comparative studies of hybrid surgery and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion in the mid- and long-term follow-up are rarely reported...
March 15, 2018: Spine
Siti Azdiah Abdul Aziz, Megan Mcstea, Nor Syuhada Ahmad Bashah, Meng Li Chong, Sasheela Ponnampalavanar, Sharifah Faridah Syed Omar, Helmi Sulaiman, Iskandar Azwa, Maw Pin Tan, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Reena Rajasuriar, Shahrul Bahyah Kamaruzzaman
OBJECTIVES: In a clinic-based, treated HIV-infected cohort, we identified individuals with sarcopenia and compared with age, sex and ethnically matched controls; and investigated associated risk factors and health outcomes. DESIGN: Sarcopenia (age-related muscle loss) causes significant morbidity to the elderly, leading to frequent hospitalizations, disability and death. Few have characterized sarcopenia in the HIV-infected who experience accelerated aging. METHODS: Sarcopenia was defined as low muscle mass with weak grip strength and/or slow gait speed using lower 20th percentiles of controls...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Neil E O'Connell, Louise Marston, Sally Spencer, Lorraine H DeSouza, Benedict M Wand
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in 2010, Issue 9, and last updated in 2014, Issue 4. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques aim to induce an electrical stimulation of the brain in an attempt to reduce chronic pain by directly altering brain activity. They include repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) and reduced impedance non-invasive cortical electrostimulation (RINCE)...
March 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Vinayak Narayan, Hima Pendharkar, Bhagavatula Indira Devi, Dhananjaya I Bhat, Dhaval P Shukla
Background: The conventional medical management of cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with uncertainty of outcome and complications. Aims and Objectives: To examine the effect of direct intra-arterial nimodipine therapy on outcome in patients with delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Settings and Design: The retrospective observational study was conducted at a single neurosurgical unit and interventional neuroradiolgy suite of a center managing SAH...
March 2018: Neurology India
Clotilde Michel, Vincent Guêné, Eliane Michon, Yves Roquelaure, Audrey Petit
The objective of this study was to assess the workplace information collected and shared between professionals of the centers and occupational health professionals during functional restoration programs intended to chronic low back pain patients. A descriptive study carried out by a questionnaire sent to the French rehabilitation centers offering a functional restoration program. Data collection focused on the kinds of professionals involved in programs, professionals who approach work issues, work analysis, social and occupational information collected, existence of a specific work rehabilitation program, frequency of and methods for sharing information with occupational health professionals...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Interprofessional Care
Hamish Low, Luigi Pistaferri
We provide a life-cycle framework for comparing insurance and disincentive effects of disability benefits. The risks that individuals face and the parameters of the Disability Insurance (DI ) program are estimated from consumption, health, disability insurance, and wage data. We characterize the effects of disability insurance and study how policy reforms impact behavior and welfare. DI features high rejection rates of disabled applicants and some acceptance of healthy applicants. Despite worse incentives, welfare increases as programs become less strict or generosity increases...
October 2018: American Economic Review
Paula Nahuelhual, Carolina Giaconi, M Alejandra Machuca
INTRODUCTION: According to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), participation is defined as "the involvement of the subject in situations of life" and is fun damental in the development of children and adolescents. In case of children with disabilities, participation allows a better understanding of the possible impact of deficiencies in daily life. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate measurement scales of participation in children and adolescents with and without disabilities...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Kresimir Radic, Marko Curkovic, Dario Bagaric, Maja Vilibic, Andrea Tomic, Maja Zivkovic
Patients with schizophrenia, nowadays chronic, frequently disabling mental disorder, get initial treatment after detection of a psychotic episode, seemingly late, potentially preventable stage of illness. As our knowledge about the nature of schizophrenia and other diseases of the spectrum is growing, so are the early interventions becoming more possible, and it is important to conceptualize the clinical, legal and moral issues emerging with new preventive treatments. Every intervention, especially in pre-clinical population, demands a careful risk-benefit assessment and having basic bioethical principles - primacy of patient's welfare, beneficience/non-maleficience, autonomy and justice - in mind...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Myron Spector
The number and percentage of people throughout the world who will be 60 years of age and older are steadily growing due to reduced fertility rate and longer life expectancy. We are facing the prospect that large numbers of individuals in countries throughout the world will be living longer with disability and pain resulting from age-related disorders. We have a wide array of biomedical materials that could serve as the basis for treatments to deal with these problems. It is important to begin now to investigate how these biomaterials can be deployed in conjunction with the necessary biologics to treat lesions at an early stage of their development, while meeting the criteria of low cost and minimal invasiveness...
March 16, 2018: Biomedical Materials
Lv Jiahui, Wu Jingde, He Feng, Qu Ying, Zhang Qiuqiong, Yu Chenggong
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease and becomes one of the major causes of disability and work force loss. The presence of abnormal B cell and autoantibodies produced by most RA patients, primarily ACPA and RF, indicate that the function of B cell was involved in the development of RA disease. Accordingly, the drug targeting B cell has become a hot spot in the treatment of RA. Studies have shown that Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is involved in the regulation of B cell proliferation and activation process...
March 16, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Nora Stünkel-Grees, Jens Clausen, Alexander Wünsch
Outpatient Psychotherapy for Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disability The psychiatric morbidity risk for people with intellectual disability is considerably increased. Psychotherapy is considered as one possible treatment. Among experts the caresituation is described as substantial insufficient. This study investigated the perspective of psychotherapists for children and adolescents in the German state North Rhine-Westphalia regarding the care situation of outpatient psychotherapy for children and adolescents with intellectual disability...
March 2018: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
Lesley Uttley, Iñigo Bermejo, Shijie Ren, Marrissa Martyn-St James, Ruth Wong, David L Scott, Adam Young, Matt Stevenson
As part of its Single Technology Appraisal process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer (Pfizer) of tofacitinib (TOF; Xeljanz® ) to submit evidence of the drug's clinical and cost-effectiveness in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) after the failure of conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (cDMARDs). The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG)...
March 15, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
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