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Behavioural Modification

John G Lawrenson, Ella Graham-Rowe, Fabiana Lorencatto, Jennifer Burr, Catey Bunce, Jillian J Francis, Patricia Aluko, Stephen Rice, Luke Vale, Tunde Peto, Justin Presseau, Noah Ivers, Jeremy M Grimshaw
BACKGROUND: Despite evidence supporting the effectiveness of diabetic retinopathy screening (DRS) in reducing the risk of sight loss, attendance for screening is consistently below recommended levels. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of the review was to assess the effectiveness of quality improvement (QI) interventions that seek to increase attendance for DRS in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.Secondary objectives were:To use validated taxonomies of QI intervention strategies and behaviour change techniques (BCTs) to code the description of interventions in the included studies and determine whether interventions that include particular QI strategies or component BCTs are more effective in increasing screening attendance;To explore heterogeneity in effect size within and between studies to identify potential explanatory factors for variability in effect size;To explore differential effects in subgroups to provide information on how equity of screening attendance could be improved;To critically appraise and summarise current evidence on the resource use, costs and cost effectiveness...
January 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Sizheng Zhao, Daniel Thong, Stephen J Duffield, David Hughes, Nicola J Goodson
The objective of this study was to explore associations between alcohol consumption and disease activity in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). We conducted a cross-sectional study of axSpA participants meeting the ASAS criteria. Associations between self-reported current alcohol use and disease activity (BASDAI, spinal pain, ASDAS), functional impairment (BASFI), and quality of life were explored using multivariable linear models, adjusting for age, gender, symptom duration, use of TNF inhibition therapy, smoking, deprivation, and anxiety and depression (A&D)...
January 10, 2018: Rheumatology International
Eric Chung, Dominic Lee, Johan Gani, Michael Gillman, Christopher Maher, Janelle Brennan, Lydia Johns Putra, Laura Ahmad, Lewis Lw Chan
Overactive bladder (OAB) is a highly prevalent medical condition that has an adverse impact on various health-related quality-of-life domains, including a significant psychosocial and financial burden. This position statement, formulated by members of the Urological Society of Australia and New Zealand and the UroGynaecological Society of Australasia, summarises the current recommendations for clinical diagnosis and treatment strategies in patients with non-neurogenic OAB, and guides clinicians in the decision-making process for managing the condition using evidence-based medicine...
January 15, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
Antonio Di Guardo, Todd Gouin, Matthew MacLeod, Martin Scheringer
Environmental fate and exposure models are a powerful means to integrate information on chemicals, their partitioning and degradation behaviour, the environmental scenario and the emissions in order to compile a picture of chemical distribution and fluxes in the multimedia environment. A 1995 pioneering book, resulting from a series of workshops among model developers and users, reported the main advantages and identified needs for research in the field of multimedia fate models. Considerable efforts were devoted to their improvement in the past 25 years and many aspects were refined; notably the inclusion of nanomaterials among the modelled substances, the development of models at different spatial and temporal scales, the estimation of chemical properties and emission data, the incorporation of additional environmental media and processes, the integration of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis in the simulations...
January 9, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Claudia Ferrario, Marco Parolini, Beatrice De Felice, Sara Villa, Antonio Finizio
The main objective of the present study was to investigate possible links between sub-individual and supra-individual levels (i.e. population level) biomarkers in D. magna exposed to sublethal concentrations of the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). To achieve the aim, 8-day old individuals were exposed for 96 h to two environmentally relevant concentrations of CPF (50 and 250 ng/L). Sub-individual level effects were investigated by measuring the activity of antioxidant (SOD, CAT, and GPx) and detoxifying (GST) enzymes, as well as by measuring the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition...
January 4, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Christopher M Jones, Ka S Lim, Jason W Chapman, Chris Bass
The genes and genomes of insect pests are shaped by the wide array of selective forces encountered in their environments. While the molecular adaptations that evolve are beginning to be understood at the genomic and transcriptomic level they have been less well characterised at an epigenetic level. Here, we present a genome-wide map of DNA methylation, at single-nucleotide resolution for the cotton bollworm moth, Helicoverpa armigera; a globally invasive pest of agriculture. We show that methylation is almost identical in the larvae and adults of H...
January 3, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Khurram Amjad, David Asquith, Eann A Patterson, Christopher M Sebastian, Wei-Chung Wang
This article presents an experimental study on the fatigue behaviour of cracks emanating from cold-expanded holes utilizing thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) and synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD) techniques with the aim of resolving the long-standing ambiguity in the literature regarding potential relaxation, or modification, of beneficial compressive residual stresses as a result of fatigue crack propagation. The crack growth rates are found to be substantially lower as the crack tip moved through the residual stress zone induced by cold expansion...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
S Marcelli, E Ficulle, L Piccolo, M Corbo, M Feligioni
Nowadays, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is recognized as a multifactorial neurological pathology whose complexity is the cause of our still low achievements in the understanding of the associated mechanisms as well the discovery of a possible definitive cure. Clinicians are aware of the few possibilities offered by medicine to cure Alzheimer's patients, restore their memory and take them back to normal life. Unfortunately, the therapeutic tools available today are not able to contrast the pathology. In the last years the tendency of the research is to formulate new hypotheses that can help to develop future effective drugs...
December 26, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Agnieszka Kolak, Marzena Kamińska, Katarzyna Sygit, Agnieszka Budny, Dariusz Surdyka, Bożena Kukiełka-Budny, Franciszek Burdan
INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and is the second cancer frequently occurring worldwide of newly-diagnosed cancers. There is much evidence showing the influence of life style and environmental factors on the development of mammary gland cancer (high-fat diet, alcohol consumption, lack of physical exercise), the elimination of which (primary prevention) may contribute to a decrease in morbidity and mortality. Secondary prevention, comprising diagnostic tests (e...
December 23, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Joanne Crawford, Dorcas Beaton, Farah Ahmad, Arlene S Bierman
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work was to develop a survey that considered cultural relevance and diversity of South Asian populations, with the aim of describing or predicting factors that influence colorectal cancer screening intention and adherence. The scientifically rigorous approach for survey development informed the final phase of an exploratory mixed method study. This initial survey was later cross-culturally translated and adapted into the Urdu language, and thereafter, items were cognitively tested for conceptual relevance among South Asian immigrants...
December 28, 2017: BMC Research Notes
Lennart Salmén, Per A Larsson
Moisture sorption and moisture sorption hysteresis of carbohydrates are phenomena which affect the utilisation of products made thereof. Although extensively studied, there is still no consensus regarding the mechanisms behind sorption hysteresis. Attempts have been made to link the behaviour to molecular properties, in particular to softening properties, and the moisture sorption hysteresis has therefore here been investigated by modifying cellulosic fibres to affect their softening properties. The results show that the moisture sorption hysteresis diminishes with decreasing softening temperature, and was even completely absent at the higher degrees of modification...
February 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Timo Rantalainen, Arto J Pesola, Matthew Quittner, Nicola D Ridgers, Daniel L Belavy
The World Health Organisation's (WHO) physical activity guidelines recommend 150min/week of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) accumulated in 10 min bouts. To see whether people performing habitual exercise for recreation meet these guidelines, 25 long-distance runners [mean 67 km/wk], 25 joggers [mean 28 km/wk], and 20 sedentary adults wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer for 7 days. Sedentary time and bouts were similar in runners and sedentary adults (p > 0.46). Sedentary adults performed 20 ± 16 min/day of MVPA (usual bout duration (W50%): 9...
December 25, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
Juana María Gómez Puente, Mercedes Martínez-Marcos
OBJECTIVE: To identify the most effective interventions in overweight and obese adults. METHOD: A narrative review through a search of the literature in databases PubMed, Cochrane, Joanna Briggs Institute, EMBASE, Cuiden y Cinahl with free and controlled language (MeSH terms) using Boolean operators AND and NOT. The research was limited to articles published between 2007 and 2015. Eighteen articles were selected based on the established inclusion and exclusion criteria...
December 20, 2017: Enfermería Clínica
Xiqian Huo, Erica S Spatz, Qinglan Ding, Paul Horak, Xin Zheng, Claire Masters, Haibo Zhang, Melinda L Irwin, Xiaofang Yan, Wenchi Guan, Jing Li, Xi Li, John A Spertus, Frederick A Masoudi, Harlan M Krumholz, Lixin Jiang
INTRODUCTION: Mobile health interventions have the potential to promote risk factor management and lifestyle modification, and are a particularly attractive approach for scaling across healthcare systems with limited resources. We are conducting two randomised trials to evaluate the efficacy of text message-based health messages in improving secondary coronary heart disease (CHD) prevention among patients with or without diabetes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Cardiovascular Health And Text Messaging (CHAT) Study and the CHAT-Diabetes Mellitus (CHAT-DM) Study are multicentre, single-blind, randomised controlled trials of text messaging versus standard treatment with 6 months of follow-up conducted in 37 hospitals throughout 17 provinces in China...
December 21, 2017: BMJ Open
Suzuka Kato, Tomonori Okamura, Kazuyo Kuwabara, Hidehiro Takekawa, Masanori Nagao, Mitsumasa Umesawa, Daisuke Sugiyama, Naomi Miyamatsu, Tenyu Hino, Shinichi Wada, Takuro Arimizu, Toru Takebayashi, Gen Kobashi, Koichi Hirata, Chiaki Yokota, Kazuo Minematsu
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the effect of a stroke education programme on elementary school students and their parental guardians in a rural area in Japan that has high stroke mortality. DESIGN: School class based intervention study. SETTING: Eleven public elementary schools in Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. PARTICIPANTS: 268 students aged 11-12 years and 267 parental guardians. INTERVENTIONS: Students received lessons about stroke featuring animated cartoons and were instructed to communicate their knowledge about stroke to their parental guardians using material (comic books) distributed in the lessons...
December 21, 2017: BMJ Open
Arnaud Jean, Pauline Bonnet, Philippe Liere, Sakina Mhaouty-Kodja, Helene Hardin-Pouzet
Sexual experience in male rodents, induced by a first exposure to a receptive female, improves efficiency of following copulations. In mice, the mechanisms supporting this improvement are poorly understood. We characterized molecular modifications of the mouse hypothalamic medial preoptic area (mPOA), the main integrative structure for male sexual behaviour, after a single mating event. This paradigm induced long-lasting behavioural improvements and mPOA morphological changes, evidenced by dendritic spine maturation and an increase in the acetylated and tri-methylated forms of histone H3...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Guojun Lv, Fumin Wang, Xubin Zhang, Bernard P Binks
Design of catalyst particles bearing excellent catalytic activity and suitable surface wettability is the key to the successful application of Pickering interfacial catalysis. In this study, the epoxidations of 1-hexene and cyclohexene with aqueous hydrogen peroxide over hollow titanosilicate TS-1 zeolite were studied as probe reactions to investigate the influence of catalyst surface wettability on its catalytic activity. Hydrophobized hollow TS-1 particles (HTS-1) were fabricated via a post-synthesis desilication treatment with tetrapropylammonium hydroxide (TPAOH) and a post-synthesis silylation treatment with hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO)...
December 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Nora E Rosenberg, Audrey E Pettifor, Laura Myers, Twambilile Phanga, Rebecca Marcus, Nivedita Latha Bhushan, Nomtha Madlingozi, Dhrutika Vansia, Avril Masters, Bertha Maseko, Lulu Mtwisha, Annie Kachigamba, Jennifer Tang, Mina C Hosseinipour, Linda-Gail Bekker
INTRODUCTION: In sub-Saharan Africa, adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) face a range of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) challenges. Clinical, behavioural and structural interventions have each reduced these risks and improved health outcomes. However, combinations of these interventions have not been compared with each other or with no intervention at all. The 'Girl Power' study is designed to systematically make these comparisons. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Four comparable health facilities in Malawi and South Africa (n=8) were selected and assigned to one of the following models of care: (1) Standard of care: AGYW can receive family planning, HIV testing and counselling (HTC), and sexually transmitted infection (STI) syndromic management in three separate locations with three separate queues with the general population...
December 14, 2017: BMJ Open
Umesh Chandra Sharma, Sadhana Sachan, Rakesh Kumar Trivedi
Karanja oil (KO) is widely used for synthesis of bio-fuel karanja oil methyl ester (KOME) due to its competitive price, good energy values and environmentally friendly combustion properties. Bio-lubricant is another value added product that can be synthesized from KO via chemical modification. In this work karanja oil trimethylolpropane ester (KOTMPE) bio-lubricant was synthesized and evaluated for its viscous flow behaviour. A comparison of viscous flow behaviours of natural KO and synthesized bio-fuel KOME and bio-lubricant KOTMPE was also made...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
Kim Sterelny
Like every other species, our species is the result of descent with modification under the influence of natural selection; a tip in an increasingly large and deep series of nested clades, as we trace its ancestry back to increasingly remote antecedents. As a consequence of shared history, our species has much in common with many others; as a consequence of its production by the general mechanisms of evolution, our species carries information about the mechanisms that shaped other species as well. For reasons unconnected to biological theory, we have far more information about humans than we do about other species...
December 20, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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