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Behavioural Modification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647384/impulsivity-moderates-the-effect-of-approach-bias-modification-on-healthy-food-consumption
#1
Naomi Kakoschke, Eva Kemps, Marika Tiggemann
The study aimed to modify approach bias for healthy and unhealthy food and to determine its effect on subsequent food consumption. In addition, we investigated the potential moderating role of impulsivity in the effect of approach bias re-training on food consumption. Participants were 200 undergraduate women (17-26 years) who were randomly allocated to one of five conditions of an approach-avoidance task varying in the training of an approach bias for healthy food, unhealthy food, and non-food cues in a single session of 10 min...
June 21, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645092/examining-effectiveness-of-tailorable-computer-assisted-therapy-programmes-for-substance-misuse-programme-usage-and-clinical-outcomes-data-from-breaking-free-online
#2
Sarah Elison, Andrew Jones, Jonathan Ward, Glyn Davies, Stephanie Dugdale
RATIONALE: When evaluating complex, tailorable digital behavioural interventions, additional approaches may be required alongside established methodologies such as randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Research evaluating a computer-assisted therapy (CAT) programme for substance misuse, Breaking Free Online (BFO), is informed by Medical Research Council (MRC) guidance recommending examination of 'mechanisms of action' of individual intervention strategies, which is relevant when evaluating digital interventions with content that may evolve over time...
May 23, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644871/predicting-the-bounds-of-large-chaotic-systems-using-low-dimensional-manifolds
#3
Asger M Haugaard
Predicting extrema of chaotic systems in high-dimensional phase space remains a challenge. Methods, which give extrema that are valid in the long term, have thus far been restricted to models of only a few variables. Here, a method is presented which treats extrema of chaotic systems as belonging to discretised manifolds of low dimension (low-D) embedded in high-dimensional (high-D) phase space. As a central feature, the method exploits that strange attractor dimension is generally much smaller than parent system phase space dimension...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640825/olfactory-learning-without-the-mushroom-bodies-spiking-neural-network-models-of-the-honeybee-lateral-antennal-lobe-tract-reveal-its-capacities-in-odour-memory-tasks-of-varied-complexities
#4
HaDi MaBouDi, Hideaki Shimazaki, Martin Giurfa, Lars Chittka
The honeybee olfactory system is a well-established model for understanding functional mechanisms of learning and memory. Olfactory stimuli are first processed in the antennal lobe, and then transferred to the mushroom body and lateral horn through dual pathways termed medial and lateral antennal lobe tracts (m-ALT and l-ALT). Recent studies reported that honeybees can perform elemental learning by associating an odour with a reward signal even after lesions in m-ALT or blocking the mushroom bodies. To test the hypothesis that the lateral pathway (l-ALT) is sufficient for elemental learning, we modelled local computation within glomeruli in antennal lobes with axons of projection neurons connecting to a decision neuron (LHN) in the lateral horn...
June 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629006/a-colon-targeted-drug-delivery-system-based-on-alginate-modificated-graphene-oxide-for-colorectal-liver-metastasis
#5
Bin Zhang, Yayuan Yan, Qiujuan Shen, Dong Ma, Langhuan Huang, Xiang Cai, Shaozao Tan
A major problem associated with colon cancer is liver metastasis. A colon-targeted drug delivery system is one way to address this problem after the resection of colorectal cancer. However, traditional drug delivery systems face many challenges, such as an inability to control the release rate, inaccurate targeting, susceptibility to the microenvironment and poor stability. Here, we report the development of a graphene oxide (GO)-based, sodium alginate (ALG) functionalized colon-targeting drug delivery system, that is loaded with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) as the anti-cancer drug (denoted as GO-ALG/5-FU)...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628298/selective-electrocatalytic-degradation-of-odorous-mercaptans-derived-from-s-au-bond-recognition-on-a-dendritic-gold-boron-doped-diamond-composite-electrode
#6
Shouning Chai, Yujing Wang, Ya-Nan Zhang, Meichuan Liu, Yanbin Wang, Guohua Zhao
To improve selectivity of electrocatalytic degrading to toxic, odorous thiophenol in wastewater, the fractal-structured dendritic Au/BDD (boron doped diamond) anode with molecular recognition is fabricated through facile replacement method. The characterizations of SEM and TEM show that the gold dendrites compose of single crystalline and have high population of the Au (111) facet. The distinctive structure endows the electrode with advantages of low resistivity, high active surface area, and prominent electrocatalytic activity...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618907/lifestyle-modification-in-secondary-prevention
#7
Massimo F Piepoli, Giovanni Q Villani
A healthy lifestyle is the cornerstone of prevention. Its promotion is a major task for all healthcare providers with the collaboration of the family and caregivers. It includes intervention in personal behaviour and risk factors (such as lack of physical activity, use of tobacco, unhealthy food habits and overweight), and all interventions aimed at changing lifestyle should be lifelong.
June 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614659/surface-tuned-and-metal-ion-responsive-supramolecular-gels-based-on-nucleolipids
#8
Ashok Nuthanakanti, Seergazhi G Srivatsan
Supramolecular synthons based on nucleic acid components, nucleobases and nucleosides and their derivatives, have been highly useful in constructing wide varieties of nanoarchitectures. While most of the design strategies have focused on developing biocompatible delivery vehicles, the potential of nucleoside hybrids in assembling smart materials with tunable and sensing properties, though challenging, is gaining significant attention. Here, we describe the development of novel functional materials with surface tunability and metal ion responsiveness by using simple nucleolipid supramolecular synthons derived by attaching various fatty acids to the 3'-O or 3',5'-O positions of the sugar residue of thymidine nucleoside...
June 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611886/managing-acute-behavioural-disturbances-in-the-emergency-department-using-the-environment-policies-and-practices-a-systematic-review
#9
Tracey J Weiland, Sean Ivory, Jennie Hutton
INTRODUCTION: Effective strategies for managing acute behavioural disturbances (ABDs) within emergency departments (EDs) are needed given their rising occurrence and negative impact on safety, psychological wellbeing, and staff turnover. Non-pharmacological interventions for ABD management generally fall into four categories: environmental modifications; policies; practice changes; and education. Our objective was to systematically review the efficacy of strategies for ABD management within EDs that involved changes to environment, architecture, policy and practice...
June 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610629/the-use-of-imepitoin-pexion%C3%A2-on-fear-and-anxiety-related-problems-in-dogs-a-case-series
#10
Kevin J McPeake, Daniel S Mills
BACKGROUND: Fear and anxiety based problems are common in dogs. Alongside behaviour modification programmes, a range of psychopharmacological agents may be recommended to treat such problems, but few are licensed for use in dogs and the onset of action of some can be delayed. The low affinity partial benzodiazepine receptor agonist imepitoin (Pexion™, Boehringer Ingelheim) is licensed for treating canine epilepsy, has a fast onset of action in dogs and has demonstrated anxiolytic properties in rodent models...
June 13, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609784/genome-wide-profiling-of-s-mar-based-replicon-contact-sites
#11
Claudia Hagedorn, Andreas Gogol-Döring, Sabrina Schreiber, Jörg T Epplen, Hans J Lipps
Autonomously replicating vectors represent a simple and versatile model system for genetic modifications, but their localization in the nucleus and effect on endogenous gene expression is largely unknown. Using circular chromosome conformation capture we mapped genomic contact sites of S/MAR-based replicons in HeLa cells. The influence of cis-active sequences on genomic localization was assessed using replicons containing either an insulator sequence or an intron. While the original and the insulator-containing replicons displayed distinct contact sites, the intron-containing replicon showed a rather broad genomic contact pattern...
June 13, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609591/obesity-and-weight-management-at-menopause
#12
Joseph Proietto
BACKGROUND: Many women report gaining weight as they transition through menopause. For most, the weight gain is modest and can be reduced with a conscious effort to limit energy intake and increase energy expenditure. However, many women who are already overweight and obese will gain more weight as they approach menopause. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this paper are to explain the reasons for menopausal weight gain and to detail a method for achieving and sustaining a substantial weight loss...
June 2017: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601693/causal-role-for-inverse-reasoning-on-obsessive-compulsive-symptoms-preliminary-evidence-from-a-cognitive-bias-modification-for-interpretation-bias-study
#13
Shiu F Wong, Jessica R Grisham
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The inference-based approach (IBA) is a cognitive account of the genesis and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). According to the IBA, individuals with OCD are prone to using inverse reasoning, in which hypothetical causes form the basis of conclusions about reality. Several studies have provided preliminary support for an association between features of the IBA and OCD symptoms. However, there are currently no studies that have investigated the proposed causal relationship of inverse reasoning in OCD...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597296/behaviour-of-intrinsically-disordered-proteins-in-protein-protein-complexes-with-an-emphasis-on-fuzziness
#14
REVIEW
Johan G Olsen, Kaare Teilum, Birthe B Kragelund
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) do not, by themselves, fold into a compact globular structure. They are extremely dynamic and flexible, and are typically involved in signalling and transduction of information through binding to other macromolecules. The reason for their existence may lie in their malleability, which enables them to bind several different partners with high specificity. In addition, their interactions with other macromolecules can be regulated by a variable amount of chemically diverse post-translational modifications...
June 8, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597098/maximized-complexity-in-miniaturized-brains-morphology-and-distribution-of-octopaminergic-dopaminergic-and-serotonergic-neurons-in-the-parasitic-wasp-trichogramma-evanescens
#15
Emma van der Woude, Hans M Smid
The parasitic wasp, Trichogramma evanescens, is an extremely small insect, with a body length as small as 0.3 mm. To facilitate this miniaturization, their brains may have evolved to contain smaller neural components and/or reduced neural complexity than larger insects. Here, we study whether the size and number of neurons are reduced in the miniaturized brain of T. evanescens, focusing on neurons that express serotonin (5HT), octopamine (OA) and dopamine (DA). We provide the first description of the distribution, projection patterns and number of 5HT-, OA- and DA-like immunoreactive cell bodies in T...
June 9, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594105/effects-of-cucumber-mosaic-virus-infected-chilli-plants-on-non-vector-bemisia-tabaci-hemiptera-aleyrodidae
#16
Khalid A Saad, Mohamad Roff M N, Rebecca H Hallett, Idris A B
Plant virus infections are known to alter host plant attractiveness and suitability for insect herbivores. This study was conducted to determine how Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)-infected chilli plants affect the fitness and settling preferences of non-vector whitefly, Bemisia tabaci adults under dual-choice conditions with volatile organic compounds analyzed using solid phase micro-extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results showed that the presence of CMV in chilli plants substantially affects the settling preferences of the B...
June 8, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590166/teduglutide-induced-stem-cell-function-in-intestinal-repair
#17
Ferenc Sipos, Györgyi Műzes
Malabsorption is a major and common clinical characteristics of short bowel syndrome (SBS) and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Traditional treatment opportunities have focused on decreasing malabsorptive losses via dietary modifications and antisecretory/antidiarrheal agents. However, novel therapeutic modalities aim to enhance the absorptive capacity of the residual bowel by the administration of different intestinal growth factors including teduglutide. In a current study the existence of two distinct functional putative epithelial stem cell subpopulations (i...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580936/quasilinear-quantum-magnetoresistance-in-pressure-induced-nonsymmorphic-superconductor-chromium-arsenide
#18
Q Niu, W C Yu, K Y Yip, Z L Lim, H Kotegawa, E Matsuoka, H Sugawara, H Tou, Y Yanase, Swee K Goh
In conventional metals, modification of electron trajectories under magnetic field gives rise to a magnetoresistance that varies quadratically at low field, followed by a saturation at high field for closed orbits on the Fermi surface. Deviations from the conventional behaviour, for example, the observation of a linear magnetoresistance, or a non-saturating magnetoresistance, have been attributed to exotic electron scattering mechanisms. Recently, linear magnetoresistance has been observed in many Dirac materials, in which the electron-electron correlation is relatively weak...
June 5, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579221/stat3-in-cancer-a-double-edged-sword
#19
Lidia Avalle, Annalisa Camporeale, Andrea Camperi, Valeria Poli
The transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 is activated downstream of cytokines, growth factors and oncogenes to mediate their functions under both physiological and pathological conditions. In particular, aberrant/unrestrained STAT3 activity is detected in a wide variety of tumors, driving multiple pro-oncogenic functions. For that, STAT3 is widely considered as an oncogene and is the object of intense translational studies. One of the distinctive features of this factor is however, its ability to elicit different and sometimes contrasting effects under different conditions...
May 31, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576943/polysialic-acid-regulates-sympathetic-outflow-by-facilitating-information-transfer-within-the-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract
#20
Phillip Bokiniec, Shila Shahbazian, Stuart J McDougall, Britt A Berning, Delfine Cheng, Ida J Llewellyn-Smith, Peter Gr Burke, Simon McMullan, Martina Mühlenhoff, Herbert Hildebrandt, Filip Braet, Mark Connor, Nicolle H Packer, Ann K Goodchild
Expression of the large, extracellular glycan, polysialic acid (polySia) is restricted, in the adult, to brain regions exhibiting high levels of plasticity or remodelling, including the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). The NTS, located in the dorsal brainstem, receives constant viscerosensory afferent traffic as well as input from central regions controlling sympathetic nerve activity, respiration, gastrointestinal functions, hormonal release and behaviour. Our aims were to determine the ultrastructural location of polySia in the NTS and the functional effects of enzymatic removal of polySia, both in vitro and in vivo PolySia immunoreactivity was found throughout the adult rat NTS...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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