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Behavioural Modification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921589/susceptibility-behaviour-and-retention-of-the-parasitic-salmon-louse-lepeophtheirus-salmonis-differ-with-atlantic-salmon-population-origin
#1
S Bui, S Dalvin, T Dempster, O F Skulstad, R B Edvardsen, A Wargelius, F Oppedal
Atlantic salmon populations across the world have diverse ecological and evolutionary histories, from wild anadromous or landlocked, to domestication and genetic modification. The natural host behaviours confer protection from infestation by ectoparasitic salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis, yet whether genetic origin results in different behaviours and thus susceptibility to infestation is unknown. In common garden experiments, we tested antiparasite behaviours, susceptibility and retention of salmon lice in wild anadromous, wild landlocked, domesticated and genetically modified domesticated strains...
September 17, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921125/exogenous-cannabinoid-efficacy-merely-a-pharmacokinetic-interaction
#2
Jennifer H Martin, Jennifer Schneider, Catherine J Lucas, Peter Galettis
Endocannabinoid pharmacology is now relatively well understood with a number of endocannabinoids and endogenous cannabinoid neurotransmitters identified and the pharmacokinetics relatively well ascertained. Further, the cannabinoid receptors are now molecularly and pharmacologically characterised and the cell processes involved in endocannabinoid transcription, synthesis, post-translational modification and protein expression are reported. Endogenous cannabinoids have been shown to have key roles in immune and pain pathways and neuro-behavioural signalling including appetite regulation...
September 18, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919119/global-regional-and-national-comparative-risk-assessment-of-84-behavioural-environmental-and-occupational-and-metabolic-risks-or-clusters-of-risks-1990-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#3
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of risk factor exposure and attributable burden of disease. By providing estimates over a long time series, this study can monitor risk exposure trends critical to health surveillance and inform policy debates on the importance of addressing risks in context. METHODS: We used the comparative risk assessment framework developed for previous iterations of GBD to estimate levels and trends in exposure, attributable deaths, and attributable disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), by age group, sex, year, and location for 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks from 1990 to 2016...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917581/an-engineering-insight-into-the-relationship-of-selective-cytoskeletal-impairment-and-biomechanics-of-hela-cells
#4
Daniele Borin, Luca Puzzi, Valentina Martinelli, Matteo Cibinel, Romano Lapasin, Orfeo Sbaizero
It is widely accepted that the pathological state of cells is characterized by a modification of mechanical properties, affecting cellular shape and viscoelasticity as well as adhesion behaviour and motility. Thus, assessing these parameters could represent an interesting tool to monitor disease development and progression, but also the effects of drug treatments. Since biomechanical properties of cells are strongly related to cytoskeletal architecture, in this work we extensively studied the effects of selective impairments of actin microfilaments and microtubules on HeLa cells through force-deformation curves and stress relaxation tests with atomic force microscopy...
September 8, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915501/is-there-an-observational-effect-an-exploratory-study-into-speed-cameras-and-self-reported-offending-behaviour
#5
J Freeman, S-A Kaye, V Truelove, J Davey
Fixed and mobile speed cameras are an important element of enforcement initiatives designed to create a strong deterrent effect and improve road safety. Despite the widespread use of the technology and the need to create a strong deterrent effect, research has yet to determine if there is a relationship between levels of exposure to the devices and subsequent self-reported deterrent effects. As a result, licensed motorists (N=536; 51% female) in Queensland (Australia) were recruited to complete a questionnaire that measured exposure to speed cameras and associated offending behaviours...
September 12, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913493/an-evaluation-of-operating-room-throughput-in-a-stand-alone-soft-tissue-trauma-operating-theatre
#6
Brian D O'Donnell, Ken Walsh, Aileen Murphy, Brendan McElroy, Gabriella Iohom, George D Shorten
BACKGROUND: Operating room time is a limited, expensive commodity in acute hospitals. Strategies aimed at reduction of non-operative time improve operating room throughput and capacity. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate and augment operating room throughput and capacity using context-specific work practice changes. METHODS: Following institutional and ethical approval, an interdisciplinary group designed and introduced a series of work practice changes specific to a stand-alone soft tissue trauma theatre, comprising modifications to patient processing, staff behaviours and additional anaesthesiologist hours...
April 2017: Rom J Anaesth Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912275/nmr-reveals-the-intrinsically-disordered-domain-2-of-ns5a-protein-as-an-allosteric-regulator-of-the-hepatitis-c-virus-rna-polymerase-ns5b
#7
Luiza M Bessa, Hélène Launay, Marie Dujardin, François-Xavier Cantrelle, Guy Lippens, Isabelle Landrieu, Robert Schneider, Xavier Hanoulle
Non-structural protein 5B (NS5B) is the RNAdependent RNA polymerase that catalyses replication of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA genome, and so is central for its life cycle. NS5B interacts with the intrinsically disordered domain 2 of NS5A (NS5A-D2), another essential multifunctional HCV protein that is required for RNA replication. As a result, these two proteins represent important targets for anti-HCV chemotherapies. Despite this importance and the existence of NS5B crystal structures, our understanding of the conformational and dynamic behaviour of NS5B in solution and its relationship with NS5A-D2 remain incomplete...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903796/measurement-of-fall-prevention-awareness-and-behaviours-among-older-adults-at-home
#8
Katherine Russell, Darcie Taing, Jacqueline Roy
This study surveyed awareness of, and adherence to, six national fall prevention recommendations among community-dwelling older adults (n = 1050) in Ottawa. Although 76 per cent of respondents agreed falling is a concern and preventable, fewer perceived susceptibility to falling (63%). Respondents had high awareness that home modifications and physical activity can prevent falls. Reported modifications included grab bars (50%), night lights (44%), and raised toilet seats (19%). Half met aerobic activity recommendations; 38 per cent met strength recommendations...
September 14, 2017: Canadian Journal on Aging, la Revue Canadienne du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899330/rem-sleep-behaviour-disorder-not-just-a-bad-dream
#9
REVIEW
Elie Matar, Simon Jg Lewis
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterised by the loss of the normal atonia during the REM stage of sleep, resulting in overt motor behaviours that usually represent the enactment of dreams. Patients will seek medical attention due to sleep-related injuries or unpleasant dream content. Idiopathic RBD which occurs independently of any other disease occurs in up to 2% of the older population. Meanwhile, secondary RBD is very common in association with certain neurodegenerative conditions...
September 18, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891328/an-illness-specific-version-of-the-revised-illness-perception-questionnaire-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-af-ipq-r-unpacking-beliefs-about-treatment-control-personal-control-and-symptom-triggers
#10
Elaina C Taylor, Mark O'Neill, Lyndsay D Hughes, Rona Moss-Morris
OBJECTIVE: This study modified the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (AF). DESIGN: Qualitative interviews and think-aloud techniques informed modification of the IPQ-R to be specific to AF patients. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) (n = 198) examined the validity of the modified IPQ-R (AF-IPQ-R). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) examined the new AF-triggers scale. Construct validity examined associations between the AF-IPQ-R, quality of life (QoL) and beliefs about medicines...
September 11, 2017: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890155/antibiotic-induced-microbiota-perturbation-causes-gut-endocannabinoidome-changes-hippocampal-neuroglial-reorganization-and-depression-in-mice
#11
F Guida, F Turco, M Iannotta, D De Gregorio, I Palumbo, G Sarnelli, A Furiano, F Napolitano, S Boccella, L Luongo, M Mazzitelli, A Usiello, F De Filippis, F A Iannotti, F Piscitelli, D Ercolini, V de Novellis, V Di Marzo, R Cuomo, S Maione
The microbiota-gut-brain axis (MGBA) regulates the reciprocal interaction between chronic inflammatory bowel and psychiatric disorders. This interaction involves multiple pathways that are highly debated. We examined the behavioural, biochemical and electrophysiological alterations, as well as gut microbiota composition in a model of antibiotic-induced experimental dysbiosis. Inflammation of the small intestine was also assessed. Mice were exposed to a mixture of antimicrobials for 2weeks. Afterwards, they received Lactobacillus casei DG (LCDG) or a vehicle for up to 7days via oral gavage...
September 7, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879001/booming-far-the-long-range-vocal-strategy-of-a-lekking-bird
#12
C Cornec, Y Hingrat, T Aubin, F Rybak
The pressures of selection acting on transmission of information by acoustic signals are particularly high in long-distance communication networks. Males of the North African houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata undulata) produce extremely low-frequency vocalizations called 'booms' as a component of their courtship displays. These displays are performed on sites separated by a distance of on average 550 m, constituting exploded leks. Here, we investigate the acoustic features of booms involved in species-specific identity...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872733/cafeteria-diet-induces-neuroplastic-modifications-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-mediated-by-microglia-activation
#13
Miriam Gutiérrez-Martos, Benoit Girard, Sueli Mendonça-Netto, Julie Perroy, Emmanuel Valjent, Rafael Maldonado, Miquel Martin
High-palatable and caloric foods are widely overconsumed due to hedonic mechanisms that prevail over caloric necessities leading to overeating and overweight. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a key brain area modulating the reinforcing effects of palatable foods and is crucially involved in the development of eating disorders. We describe that prolonged exposure to high-caloric chocolate cafeteria diet leads to overeating and overweight in mice. NAc functionality was altered in these mice, presenting structural plasticity modifications in medium spiny neurons, increased expression of neuroinflammatory factors and activated microglia, and abnormal responses after amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion...
September 5, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869830/modification-of-hysteresis-behaviors-of-protein-monolayer-and-the-corresponding-structures-with-the-variation-of-protein-surface-charges
#14
Bijay K Sah, Sarathi Kundu
Successive compression-decompression cycles of the surface pressure (π) - specific molecular area (A) isotherms of protein (BSA) monolayers show that reversible hysteresis persists if the protein molecules contain effective positive or negative surface charges. However, for neutral condition, i.e., close to the isoelectric point of the protein, irreversibility in the hysteresis behaviour dominates. Out-of-plane structures obtained from the X-ray reflectivity analysis suggest that at lower surface pressure monomolecular layer of BSA is formed on the water surface...
August 24, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866984/transmission-of-opisthorchis-viverrini-schistosoma-mekongi-and-soil-transmitted-helminthes-on-the-mekong-islands-southern-lao-pdr
#15
Youthanavanh Vonghachack, Peter Odermatt, Keoka Taisayyavong, Souphanh Phounsavath, Kongsap Akkhavong, Somphou Sayasone
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini, Schistosoma mekongi and soil-transmitted helminths (STH) remains high in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), despite control efforts including mass-drug administration, education and communication campaigns. New approaches are required to advance helminth control. METHODS: An ecohealth study was conducted on two Mekong islands in Southern Laos. Demographic and behavioural data were collected by questionnaire...
September 4, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864392/amphiphilic-lipopeptide-significantly-enhances-uptake-of-charge-neutral-splice-switching-morpholino-oligonucleotide-in-spinal-muscular-atrophy-patient-derived-fibroblasts
#16
Behnoosh Tajik-Ahmadabad, Anastasios Polyzos, Frances Separovic, Fazel Shabanpoor
Splice-switching antisense oligonucleotides (SSOs) are emerging therapeutics with two SSOs recently approved by the FDA for Duchenne muscular dystrophy and spinal muscular atrophy. SSOs are administered without any delivery vector and require large doses to achieve the therapeutic benefit, primarily due to their poor cellular uptake. Although cell-penetrating peptides (CPP) have shown great potential in delivering SSOs into cells, their capacity as delivery vector is limited. Here we have studied the effect of lipid conjugation on the cell permeability of a known CPP (ApoE)...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858262/heat-health-messages-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-preventative-messages-tool-in-the-older-population-of-south-australia
#17
Monika Nitschke, Antoinette Krackowizer, Alana L Hansen, Peng Bi, Graeme R Tucker
This study explores the efficacy of providing targeted information to older individuals to prevent adverse health outcomes during extreme heat. Participants ≥65 years of age (n = 637) were recruited from previous population-based studies and randomized into intervention and control groups. The intervention group received evidence-based information leaflets and summarised "Beat the Heat" tips. Post summer 2013-2014, participants responded to questions about their behaviours and their health experiences. Chi square analysis and risk ratios (RR) were used to determine the difference in effects...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857645/distinct-modifications-of-hippocampal-glucocorticoid-receptor-phosphorylation-and-fkbps-by-lipopolysaccharide-in-depressive-female-and-male-rats
#18
Zeljka Brkic, Ester Francija, Zorica Petrovic, Dusanka Franic, Iva Lukic, Milos Mitic, Miroslav Adzic
Inflammation plays a critical role in pathogenesis of depression and can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Accordingly, in this study we investigated the role of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor in mediating the effects of inflammation on behaviour of female and male Wistar rats. We studied the effects of lipopolysaccharide on the levels of glucocorticoid receptors and its co-chaperones FK506 binding protein 52 and FK506 binding protein 51, the levels of glucocorticoid receptor phospho-isoforms, pGR-232 and pGR-246, and glucocorticoid receptor up-stream kinases...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856911/sunlight-irradiance-and-habituation-of-visual-evoked-potentials-in-migraine-the-environment-makes-its-mark
#19
Marco Lisicki, Kevin D'Ostilio, Michel Erpicum, Jean Schoenen, Delphine Magis
Background Migraine is a complex multifactorial disease that arises from the interaction between a genetic predisposition and an enabling environment. Habituation is considered as a fundamental adaptive behaviour of the nervous system that is often impaired in migraine populations. Given that migraineurs are hypersensitive to light, and that light deprivation is able to induce functional changes in the visual cortex recognizable through visual evoked potentials habituation testing, we hypothesized that regional sunlight irradiance levels could influence the results of visual evoked potentials habituation studies performed in different locations worldwide...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841650/transparency-ethics-in-practice-revisiting-financial-conflicts-of-interest-disclosure-forms-in-clinical-practice-guidelines
#20
Yidan Lu, Derek J Jones, Nour Sharara, Tonya Kaltenbach, Loren Laine, Kenneth McQuaid, Roy Soetikno, Venkataraman Subramanian, Alan Barkun
BACKGROUND: Authors of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) disclose financial conflicts of interest (FCOIs) to promote transparency ethics. Typically, they do so on standard declaration forms containing generic open-ended questions on FCOIs. Yet, the literature is scant on the format and effect of alternative disclosure forms. Does supplementing a standard form with subsequent detailed disclosure forms tailored to the context of the CPG improve the yield or accuracy of FCOIs declarations? METHODS: For an international CPG in gastroenterology on the endoscopic surveillance for colorectal neoplasia in inflammatory bowel disease, we compared the use of a standard FCOIs disclosure form with a contextual FCOIs disclosure form that detailed commercial relations related to the CPG topic...
2017: PloS One
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