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Behavioural Modification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093555/variance-and-invariance-of-neuronal-long-term-representations
#1
REVIEW
Claudia Clopath, Tobias Bonhoeffer, Mark Hübener, Tobias Rose
The brain extracts behaviourally relevant sensory input to produce appropriate motor output. On the one hand, our constantly changing environment requires this transformation to be plastic. On the other hand, plasticity is thought to be balanced by mechanisms ensuring constancy of neuronal representations in order to achieve stable behavioural performance. Yet, prominent changes in synaptic strength and connectivity also occur during normal sensory experience, indicating a certain degree of constitutive plasticity...
March 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091639/gold-nanoparticles-stabilized-by-cationic-carbosilane-dendrons-synthesis-and-biological-properties
#2
Cornelia E Peña-González, Elzbieta Pedziwiatr-Werbicka, Dzmitry Shcharbin, Carlos Guerrero-Beltrán, Viktar Abashkin, Svetlana Loznikova, José L Jiménez, M Ángeles Muñoz-Fernández, Maria Bryszewska, Rafael Gómez, Javier Sánchez-Nieves, F Javier de la Mata
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and polycationic macromolecules are used as gene carriers. Their behaviour is dependent on several factors, such as the size and type of the framework, charge, etc. We have combined both types of systems and prepared AuNPs covered with cationic carbosilane dendrons with the aim to evaluate their biocompatibility. Water soluble dendronized cationic AuNPs were prepared following a straightforward procedure from dendrons, a gold precursor and a reducing agent in water and were characterized by (1)H NMR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV), and zeta potential (ZP)...
January 16, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089649/magnetic-resonance-imaging-conditional-devices-luxury-or-real-clinical-need
#3
REVIEW
Sophie I Mavrogeni, George Poulos, Genovefa Kolovou, George Theodorakis
Although the risk of MRI scanning on patients with conventional devices is rather lower than initially thought, the patient's safety can only be assured by using MRI-conditional devices. The most important modifications in MRI-conditional devices include: a) Reduction in ferromagnetic components to reduce magnetic attraction and susceptibility artefacts b) Replacement of reed switch by Hall sensor in order to avoid unpredictable reed switch behaviour c) Lead coil design to minimize lead heating and electrical current induction d) Filter circuitry to prevent damage to internal power supply e) Dedicated pacemaker programming to prevent inappropriate pacemaker inhibition and competing rhythms...
January 9, 2017: Hellenic Journal of Cardiology: HJC, Hellēnikē Kardiologikē Epitheōrēsē
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077072/diabetes-mellitus-medication-use-and-catastrophic-healthcare-expenditure-among-adults-aged-50-years-in-china-and-india-results-from-the-who-study-on-global-ageing-and-adult-health-sage
#4
Shingai Douglas Gwatidzo, Jennifer Stewart Williams
BACKGROUND: Expenditure on medications for highly prevalent chronic conditions such as diabetes mellitus (DM) can result in financial impoverishment. People in developing countries and in low socioeconomic status groups are particularly vulnerable. China and India currently hold the world's two largest DM populations. Both countries are ageing and undergoing rapid economic development, urbanisation and social change. This paper assesses the determinants of DM medication use and catastrophic expenditure on medications in older adults with DM in China and India...
January 11, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072533/coupled-cluster-valence-bond-singles-and-doubles-for-strongly-correlated-systems-block-tensor-based-implementation-and-application-to-oligoacenes
#5
Joonho Lee, David W Small, Evgeny Epifanovsky, Martin Head-Gordon
We demonstrate a block-tensor based implementation of coupled-cluster valence- bond singles and doubles (CCVB-SD) [J. Chem. Phys. 2012, 137, 114103] which is a simple modification to restricted CCSD (RCCSD) that provides a qualitatively correct description of valence correlations even in strongly correlated systems. We derive the Λ-equation of CCVB-SD and the corresponding unrelaxed density matrices. The resulting production-level implementation is applied to oligoacenes, correlating up to 318 electrons in 318 orbitals...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069500/solution-blow-spinning-fibres-new-immunologically-inert-substrates-for-the-analysis-of-cell-adhesion-and-motility
#6
Rafaella T Paschoalin, Bruna Traldi, Gülcan Aydin, Juliano E Oliveira, Stephan Rütten, Luiz H C Mattoso, Martin Zenke, Antonio Sechi
The control of cell behaviour through material geometry is appealing as it avoids the requirement for complex chemical surface modifications. Significant advances in new technologies have been made to the development of polymeric biomaterials with controlled geometry and physico-chemical properties. Solution blow spinning technique has the advantage of ease of use allowing the production of nano or microfibres and the direct fibre deposition on any surface in situ. Yet, in spite of these advantages, very little is known about the influence of such fibres on biological functions such as immune response and cell migration...
January 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069041/understanding-how-primary-care-practitioners-perceive-an-online-intervention-for-the-management-of-hypertension
#7
Katherine Bradbury, Katherine Morton, Rebecca Band, Carl May, Richard McManus, Paul Little, Lucy Yardley
BACKGROUND: In order to achieve successful implementation an intervention needs to be acceptable and feasible to its users and must overcome barriers to behaviour change. The Person-Based Approach can help intervention developers to improve their interventions to ensure more successful implementation. This study provides an example of using the Person-Based Approach to refine a digital intervention for hypertension (HOME BP). METHODS: Our Person-Based Approach involved conducting qualitative focus groups with practice staff to explore their perceptions of HOME BP and to identify any potential barriers to implementation of the HOME BP procedures...
January 9, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068975/a-cost-analysis-of-complex-workplace-nutrition-education-and-environmental-dietary-modification-interventions
#8
Sarah Fitzgerald, Ann Kirby, Aileen Murphy, Fiona Geaney, Ivan J Perry
BACKGROUND: The workplace has been identified as a priority setting to positively influence individuals' dietary behaviours. However, a dearth of evidence exists regarding the costs of implementing and delivering workplace dietary interventions. This study aimed to conduct a cost-analysis of workplace nutrition education and environmental dietary modification interventions from an employer's perspective. METHODS: Cost data were obtained from a workplace dietary intervention trial, the Food Choice at Work Study...
January 9, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065181/effects-of-a-healthier-snack-on-snacking-habits-and-glycated-hb-hba1c-a-6-week-intervention-study
#9
Mary R Yan, Andrew Parsons, Gillian A Whalley, Elaine C Rush
Dietary behaviour modification may change eating habits and reduce the impact of poor nutrition. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of daily consumption of a healthier snack bar on snacking habits and glycated Hb (HbA1c) within a 6-week intervention. In all, twenty-eight participants were randomly allocated to two groups to either consume the bars as the main snack for 6 weeks (n 14) or receipt of the bars was delayed for 6 weeks (n 14) following a stepped-wedge design. All participants had HbA1c concentrations measured at weeks -1, 0, 4, 6, 10 and 12...
December 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054646/an-analysis-of-disease-gene-relationship-from-medline-abstracts-by-digsee
#10
Jeongkyun Kim, Jung-Jae Kim, Hyunju Lee
Diseases are developed by abnormal behavior of genes in biological events such as gene regulation, mutation, phosphorylation, and epigenetics and post-translational modification. Many studies of text mining attempted to identify the relationship between gene and disease by mining the literature, but they did not consider the biological events in which genes show abnormal behaviour in response to diseases. In this study, we propose to identify disease-related genes that are involved in the development of disease through biological events from Medline abstracts...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043396/cnt-polymer-interface-in-polymeric-composites-and-its-sensitivity-study-at-different-environments
#11
REVIEW
Rajesh Kumar Prusty, Dinesh Kumar Rathore, Bankim Chandra Ray
The environmental durability of polymer based composites has always been a critical concern over its short- and long-term performances. The degree of environmental degradation is supposed to have different mechanisms and kinetics at the polymer/reinforcement interfaces in comparison to the bulk polymer matrix. Differential degradation could possibly attribute a stressed state in the material, especially at the interfaces. Present review is focused on the roles of reinforcing CNT on the performance of the polymeric nanocomposites in different in-service environments (the environmental parameters include temperature, moisture, UV light, low earth orbit space environment, electromagnetic waves)...
December 28, 2016: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040610/the-impact-of-metastasis-on-the-mineral-phase-of-vertebral-bone-tissue
#12
Mikhail Burke, Ayelet Atkins, Alex Kiss, Margarete Akens, Albert Yee, Cari Whyne
The negative impact of metastases on the mechanical performance of vertebral bone is often attributed to reduced bone density and/or compromised architecture. However limited characterization has been done on the impact of metastasis on the mineralization of bone tissue and resulting changes in material behaviour. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of metastasis on micro and nano scale characteristics of the mineral phase of bone, specifically mineral crystal growth, homogeneity of mineralization and changes in intrinsic material properties...
December 23, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027636/a-social-cognitive-theory-based-programme-for-eating-patterns-and-sedentary-activity-among-overweight-adolescents-in-makassar-south-sulawesi-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Healthy Hidayanty, Saptawati Bardosono, Helda Khusun, Rita Damayanti, Risatianti Kolopaking
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Social cognitive theory provides the opportunity for program development to enhance healthy personal behvioural characteristics. We devised study to employ social cognitive theory to reduce snacking habits and sedentary activity among overweight adolescents . METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Eight junior high schools in Makassar city were randomly assigned as intervention and control schools. A total of 238 overweight students aged 11-15 years (BMI z-score >=1 SD, according to a 2007 report from the WHO) were recruited...
December 2016: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011654/school-based-primary-ncd-risk-reduction-education-and-public-health-perspectives
#14
Jacquie L Bay, Rosemary Hipkins, Kamran Siddiqi, Rumana Huque, Robyn Dixon, Debra Shirley, Karen Tairea, Delaney Yaqona, Amanda Mason-Jones, Mark H Vickers
The rising global burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) has heightened awareness of the necessity for primary risk prevention programmes. These aim to facilitate long-term behaviour changes in children and adolescents that can reduce NCD risk factors and disease onset in later-life. School-based programmes designed to improve childhood and adolescent health behaviours and wellbeing contribute to this; however, design and impact assessment of these is complex. These programmes should be multidisciplinary, utilizing both educational and health expertise...
December 23, 2016: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990514/mixed-linker-uio-66-structure-property-relationships-revealed-by-a-combination-of-high-resolution-powder-x-ray-diffraction-and-density-functional-theory-calculations
#15
Marco Taddei, Davide Tiana, Nicola Casati, Jeroen A van Bokhoven, Berend Smit, Marco Ranocchiari
The use of mixed-linker metal-organic frameworks (MIXMOFs) is one of the most effective strategies to modulate the physical-chemical properties of MOFs without affecting the overall crystal structure. In many instances, MIXMOFs have been recognized as solid solutions, with random distribution of ligands, in agreement with the empirical rule known as Vegard's law. In this work, we have undertaken a study combining high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction (HR-PXRD) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations with the aim of understanding the reasons why UiO-66-based amino- and bromo-functionalized MIXMOFs (MIXUiO-66) undergo cell expansion obeying Vegard's law and how this behaviour is related to their physical-chemical properties...
January 4, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989962/cryptic-epitopes-and-functional-diversity-in-extracellular-proteins
#16
REVIEW
Gysell M Mortimer, Rodney F Minchin
The functional diversity of proteins is a major factor determining the complexity of cells and tissues. Both translational and post-translational modifications contribute to this diversity. Recently, protein unfolding and refolding has been recognised as another mechanism for diversity by unmasking buried or cryptic sequences (epitopes) that possess physiological functions. In the current review, we focus on extracellular proteins where folding dynamics can be influenced by mechanical forces, protein-protein interactions and denaturation...
October 27, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981521/the-influence-of-action-video-game-playing-on-eye-movement-behaviour-during-visual-search-in-abstract-in-game-and-natural-scenes
#17
Elham Azizi, Larry A Abel, Matthew J Stainer
Action game playing has been associated with several improvements in visual attention tasks. However, it is not clear how such changes might influence the way we overtly select information from our visual world (i.e. eye movements). We examined whether action-video-game training changed eye movement behaviour in a series of visual search tasks including conjunctive search (relatively abstracted from natural behaviour), game-related search, and more naturalistic scene search. Forty nongamers were trained in either an action first-person shooter game or a card game (control) for 10 hours...
December 15, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976776/probing-the-adhesion-properties-of-alginate-hydrogels-a-new-approach-towards-the-preparation-of-soft-colloidal-probes-for-direct-force-measurements
#18
Nicolas Helfricht, Elena Doblhofer, Vera Bieber, Petra Lommes, Volker Sieber, Thomas Scheibel, Georg Papastavrou
The adhesion of alginate hydrogels to solid surfaces was probed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the sphere/plane geometry. For this purpose a novel approach has been developed for the immobilization of soft colloidal probes onto AFM-cantilevers, which is inspired by techniques originating from cell biology. The aspiration and consecutive manipulation of hydrogel beads by micropipettes allows the entire manipulation sequence to be carried-out in situ. Hence, any alteration of the hydrogel beads upon drying can be excluded...
January 18, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975358/-music-in-health-promotion-and-therapeutic-practice-cultural-theoretical-and-clinical-perspectives
#19
Wolfgang Mastnak
Music can serve as a shelter and music therapy can provide spaces for symbolic experience and the modification of behavioural and cognitive patterns. Explaining the power of music, ancient theories speak of an analogy between music and man. Similar views are also found in modern music therapy such as Sound Work, a voice-body-based model. Complementary to the aspect of analogy, the principle of transformation is of vital importance, such as the transitions between the five elements, the solid organs and the pentatonic scale in Chinese music therapy, for instance...
December 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966224/the-development-of-a-culturally-appropriate-school-based-intervention-for-australian-aboriginal-children-living-in-remote-communities-a-formative-evaluation-of-the-alert-program-%C3%A2-intervention
#20
Bree Wagner, James Fitzpatrick, Martyn Symons, Tracy Jirikowic, Donna Cross, Jane Latimer
BACKGROUND/AIM: Although previous research has demonstrated the benefits of targeting self-regulation in non-Aboriginal children, it is unclear whether such programs would be effective for Aboriginal children attending school in remote communities. Some of these children have been diagnosed with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) impairing their ability to self-regulate. The aim of this article is to describe a three phase formative process to develop and pilot a curriculum version of the Alert Program(®) , a promising intervention for improving self-regulation that could be used in remote community schools...
December 13, 2016: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal
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