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Behavioural Modification

Oriol Blázquez, Gemma Martín, Ivan Camps, Antonio Mariscal, Julian López-Vidrier, Joan Manel Ramirez, Sergi Hernández, Sonia Estrade, Francesca Peiro, Rosalía Serna, Blas Garrido
The resistive switching properties of silicon-aluminium oxynitride (SiAlON) based devices have been studied. Electrical transport mechanisms at both resistance states were determined, exhibiting an ohmic behaviour at low resistant state and a defect-related Poole-Frenkel mechanism at high resistant state. Nevertheless, some features on the Al top-electrode are generated during the initial electroforming, suggesting some material modifications. An in-depth microscopic study at the nanoscale have been performed after the electroforming process, by acquiring scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images...
March 16, 2018: Nanotechnology
Paulomi M Sudhir
Cognitive behaviour therapy is a structured, time limited, psychological intervention that has is empirically supported across a wide variety of psychological disorders. CBT for addictive behaviours can be traced back to the application of learning theories in understanding addiction and subsequently to social cognitive theories. The focus of CBT is manifold and the focus is on targeting maintaining factors of addictive behaviours and preventing relapse. Relapse prevention programmes are based on social cognitive and cognitive behavioural principles...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Eva Cepova, Martina Cicvakova, Peter Kolarcik, Neda Markovska, Andrea Madarasova Geckova
BACKGROUND: Modification of health literacy (HL) is an important factor for improving and maintaining oral health. The aim of the study is to examine the association of HL with oral health-promoting behaviour (OHPB) and assess possible mediating effects of HL on the impact of socioeconomic status on OHPB. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey on the Slovak general adult population (N = 360, mean age 39) was conducted in 2014 and 2015. The association of HL (9 domains of the Health Literacy Questionnaire) and OHPB was analysed using logistic regression models adjusted for gender, age and educational level...
March 14, 2018: BMC Oral Health
Berta J Summers, Jesse R Cougle
BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that computerized interpretation bias modification (IBM) techniques may be useful for modifying thoughts and behaviours relevant to eating pathology; however, little is known about the utility of IBM for decreasing specific eating disorder (ED) symptoms (e.g. bulimia, drive for thinness). AIMS: The current study sought to further examine the utility of IBM for ED symptoms via secondary analyses of an examination of IBM for individuals with elevated body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) symptoms (see Summers and Cougle, 2016), as these disorders are both characterized by threat interpretation biases of ambiguous appearance-related information...
March 13, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Dewaele Aurélie, Persuy Marie-Annick, Badonnel Karine, Meunier Nicolas, Durieux Didier, Castille Johan, Favreau-Peigné Angélique, Baly Christine
Exposure to specific odorants in the womb during pregnancy or in the milk during early nursing is known to impact morpho-functional development of the olfactory circuitry of pups. This can be associated with a modification in olfactory sensitivity and behavioural olfactory-based preferences to the perinatally encountered odorants measured at birth, weaning or adult stage. Effects depend on a multitude of factors, such as odorant type, concentration, administration mode and frequency, as well as timing and mice strain...
March 8, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Ray Pritchard
One fundamental aspect of promoting utilitarian bicycle use involves making modifications to the built environment to improve the safety, efficiency and enjoyability of cycling. Revealed preference data on bicycle route choice can assist greatly in understanding the actual behaviour of a highly heterogeneous group of users, which in turn assists the prioritisation of infrastructure or other built environment initiatives. This systematic review seeks to compare the relative strengths and weaknesses of the empirical approaches for evaluating whole journey route choices of bicyclists...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Shukun Wang, Danyang Meng, Sisi Wang, Zhong Zhang, Ruijin Yang, Wei Zhao
In this study, enzymatic hydrolysis and cationization with epoxypropyldodecyldimethylammonium chloride of wheat protein, an economic protein complex containing great amount of disulfide bonds, were conducted to improve properties such as solubility and disassociation behaviour for recovery of damaged hair when used in shampoo. The optimal conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis were pH 8.2, 55°C with Alcalase for 60 min. After the selected hydrolysis, the degree of hydrolysis, nitrogen solubility index, foaming capacity index, foam stability index, emulsifying activity index and emulsion stability index of hydrolysate with 58...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Rossella Arrigo, Rosalia Teresi, Cristian Gambarotti, Filippo Parisi, Giuseppe Lazzara, Nadka Tzankova Dintcheva
The aim of this work is the investigation of the effect of ultrasound treatment on the structural characteristics of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the consequent influence that the shortening induced by sonication exerts on the morphology, rheological behaviour and thermo-oxidative resistance of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)-based nanocomposites. First, CNTs have been subjected to sonication for different time intervals and the performed spectroscopic and morphological analyses reveal that a dramatic decrease of the CNT's original length occurs with increased sonication time...
March 5, 2018: Materials
Britt Klein, Lisa Clinnick, Jessica Chesler, Andrew Stranieri, Adam Bignold, Richard Dazeley, Suzanne McLaren, Sue Lauder, Venki Balasubramanian
BACKGROUND: This regional pilot site 'end-user attitudes' study explored nurses' experiences and impressions of using the Nurses' Behavioural Assistant (NBA) (a knowledge-based, interactive ehealth system) to assist them to better respond to behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and will be reported here. METHODS: Focus groups were conducted, followed by a four-week pilot site 'end-user attitudes' trial of the NBA at a regional aged care residential facility (ACRF)...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Volodymyr Pavlyuk, Damian Kulawik, Wojciech Ciesielski, Nazar Pavlyuk, Grygoriy Dmytriv
Magnesium alloys are the basis for the creation of light and ultra-light alloys. They have attracted attention as potential materials for the accumulation and storage of hydrogen, as well as electrode materials in metal-hydride and magnesium-ion batteries. The search for new metal hydrides has involved magnesium alloys with rare-earth transition metals and doped by p- or s-elements. The synthesis and characterization of a new quaternary carbide, namely dimagnesium lithium aluminium carbide, Mg1.52 Li0.24 Al0...
March 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
Else Guthrie, Mathew Harrison, Richard Brown, Rajdeep Sandhu, Peter Trigwell, Seri Abraham, Shazada Nawaz, Peter Kelsall, Rachel Thomasson
Aims and method To develop and pilot a clinician-rated outcome scale to evaluate symptomatic outcomes in liaison psychiatry services. Three hundred and sixty patient contacts with 207 separate individuals were rated using six subscales (mood, psychosis, cognition, substance misuse, mind-body problems and behavioural disturbance) plus two additional items (side-effects of medication and capacity to consent for medical treatment). Each item was rated on a five-point scale from 0 to 5 (nil, mild, moderate, severe and very severe)...
March 4, 2018: BJPsych Bulletin
Hina Ahmed, Inayat Thaver, Iram Manzoor
Objectives: To identify factors (sociodemographic characteristic, behavioural factors, health care advice and physical measurements like weight, height, waist and hip circumferences) associated with diabetes. Methods: This study was conducted in the Nain Sukh which is a peri-urban area near Lahore between January till August 2016. A sum of 1080 households of both gender with age between 15-69 years were interviewed through a structured questionnaire and necessary measurements were taken...
November 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Nor Baizura Md Yusop, Zalilah Mohd Shariff, Ting Tzer Hwu, Ruzita Abd Talib, Nicola Spurrier
BACKGROUND: Interventions that encompass behavioural modifications of dietary intake and physical activity are essential for the management of obesity in children. This study assessed the effectiveness of a stage-based lifestyle modification intervention for obese children. METHODS: A total of 50 obese children (7-11 years old) were randomized to the intervention group (IG, n = 25) or the control group (CG, n = 25). Data were collected at baseline, at follow-up (every month) and at six months after the end of the intervention...
March 1, 2018: BMC Public Health
Abshar Hasan, Varun Saxena, Lalit M Pandey
Although metallic biomaterials find numerous biomedical applications, their inherent low bioactivity and poor osteointegration had been a great challenge since decades. Surface modification via silanization can serve as an attractive method for improving aforementioned properties of such substrates. However, its effect on protein adsorption/conformation and subsequent cell adhesion and spreading, has rarely been investigated. This work reports the in-depth study of the effect of Ti6Al4V surface functionalization on protein adsorption and cell behaviour...
February 28, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Michael E Hasselmo, Chantal E Stern
Humans demonstrate differences in performance on cognitive rule learning tasks which could involve differences in properties of neural circuits. An example model is presented to show how gating of the spread of neural activity could underlie rule learning and the generalization of rules to previously unseen stimuli. This model uses the activity of gating units to regulate the pattern of connectivity between neurons responding to sensory input and subsequent gating units or output units. This model allows analysis of network parameters that could contribute to differences in cognitive rule learning...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Susana Martín-Iglesias, M Jesús Santamaría-Martín, Ahinoa Alonso-Álvarez, Milagros Rico-Blázquez, Isabel Del Cura-González, Ricardo Rodríguez-Barrientosn, Aurora Barberá-Martín, Teresa Sanz-Cuesta, M Isabel Coghen-Vigueras, Isabel de Antonio-Ramírez, Isabel Durand-Rincón, Felisa Garrido-Rodriguez, María Jesús Geijo-Rincón, Rebeca Mielgo-Salvador, M Soledad Morales-Montalvá, M Asunción Reviriego-Gutiérrez, Carmen Rivero-Garrido, Micaela Ruiz-Calabria, M Pilar Santamaría-Mechano, Roberto Santiago-Fernández, M Isabel Sillero-Quintana, Beatriz Soto-Almendro, María Terol-Claramonte, María Villa-Arranz
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization leads a global strategy to promote the initiation and maintenance of breast-feeding. Existing literature shows that education and supportive interventions, both for breast-feeding mothers as well as for healthcare professionals, can increase the proportion of women that use exclusive breast-feeding, however, more evidence is needed on the effectiveness of group interventions. METHODS: This study involves a community-based cluster randomised trial conducted at Primary Healthcare Centres in the Community of Madrid (Spain)...
February 26, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Pamela Prini, Franceso Rusconi, Erica Zamberletti, Marina Gabaglio, Federica Penna, Mauro Fasano, Elena Battaglioli, Daniela Parolaro, Tiziana Rubino
BACKGROUND: Increasing cannabis consumption among adolescents, studies that link its early use with mental illnesses, and the political debate on cannabis legalization together call for an urgent need to study molecular underpinnings of adolescent brain vulnerability. The emerging role of epigenetic mechanisms in psychiatric diseases led us to hypothesize that epigenetic alterations could play a role in causes and subsequent development of the depressive/psychotic-like phenotype induced by adolescent, but not adult, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure in female rats...
March 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
A G Tsai, T Histon, T K Kyle, N Rubenstein, W T Donahoo
Background: Experience suggests that some physicians view obesity as a purely lifestyle condition rather than a chronic metabolic disease. Physicians may not be aware of the role of biological factors in causing weight regain after an initial weight loss. Methods: A questionnaire was administered at continuing medical education conferences, both primary care and obesity-specific. The questionnaire included items about biological and behavioral factors that predispose to weight regain and general items about treatment of obesity...
February 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
Mónica D Fernández Ramírez, Masja N Nierop Groot, Eddy J Smid, Pascal Hols, Michiel Kleerebezem, Tjakko Abee
Next to applications in fermentations, Lactobacillus plantarum is recognized as a food spoilage organism, and its dispersal from biofilms in food processing environments might be implicated in contamination or recontamination of food products. This study provides new insights into biofilm development by L. plantarum WCFS1 through comparative analysis of wild type and mutants affected in cell surface composition, including mutants deficient in the production of Sortase A involved in the covalent attachment of 27 predicted surface proteins to the cell wall peptidoglycan (ΔsrtA) and mutants deficient in the production of capsular polysaccharides (CPS1-4, Δcps1-4)...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Terence Y Pang, Anthony J Hannan, Andrew J Lawrence
Relapse remains the most prominent hurdle to successful rehabilitation from alcoholism. The neural mechanisms underlying relapse are complex, but our understanding of the brain regions involved, the anatomical circuitry and the modulation of specific nuclei in the context of stress and cue-induced relapse have improved significantly in recent years. In particular, stress is now recognised as a significant trigger for relapse, adding to the well-established impact of chronic stress to escalate alcohol consumption...
February 22, 2018: Neuropharmacology
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