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Behavioural Modification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791509/health-outcomes-and-adherence-to-a-healthy-lifestyle-after-a-multimodal-intervention-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis-three-year-follow-up
#1
Claudia H Marck, Alysha M De Livera, Chelsea R Brown, Sandra L Neate, Keryn L Taylor, Tracey J Weiland, Emily J Hadgkiss, George A Jelinek
BACKGROUND: Modifiable risk factors such as smoking and sedentary lifestyle adversely affect multiple sclerosis (MS) progression. Few multimodal behavioural interventions have been conducted for people with MS, and follow-up beyond 1 year is rare for lifestyle interventions. This study assessed adoption and adherence to healthy lifestyle behaviours and health outcomes 3 years after a lifestyle modification intervention, using generalized estimating equation models to account for within-participant correlation over time...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788038/testing-a-longitudinal-compensation-model-in-premanifest-huntington-s-disease
#2
Sarah Gregory, Jeffrey D Long, Stefan Klöppel, Adeel Razi, Elisa Scheller, Lora Minkova, Eileanoir B Johnson, Alexandra Durr, Raymund A C Roos, Blair R Leavitt, James A Mills, Julie C Stout, Rachael I Scahill, Sarah J Tabrizi, Geraint Rees
The initial stages of neurodegeneration are commonly marked by normal levels of cognitive and motor performance despite the presence of structural brain pathology. Compensation is widely assumed to account for this preserved behaviour, but despite the apparent simplicity of such a concept, it has proven incredibly difficult to demonstrate such a phenomenon and distinguish it from disease-related pathology. Recently, we developed a model of compensation whereby brain activation, behaviour and pathology, components key to understanding compensation, have specific longitudinal trajectories over three phases of progression...
May 17, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787821/slc25a13-c-1610_1612delinsat-mutation-in-an-indian-patient-and-literature-review-of-79-cases-of-citrin-deficiency-for-genotype-phenotype-associations
#3
A Radha Rama Devi, Shaik Mohammad Naushad
Here, we report SLC25A13 c.1610_1612delinsAT mutation from India in a 13-year old boy who presented with recurrent episodes of delirium and hyperammonemia. This is the second case with this mutation; the first case was of Pakistani origin. The boy responded to diet modification, sodium benzoate and arginine supplementation. Furthermore, we have aimed to establish genotype-phenotype correlation of 79 cases of citrin deficiency (46 males and 33 females) reported in 24 studies from all over the world. Inverse association was observed between age of onset and jaundice (r = -0...
May 19, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776919/behaviour-modification-interventions-to-optimise-red-blood-cell-transfusion-practices-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Lesley J J Soril, Thomas W Noseworthy, Laura E Dowsett, Katherine Memedovich, Hannah M Holitzki, Diane L Lorenzetti, Henry Thomas Stelfox, David A Zygun, Fiona M Clement
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of behaviour modification interventions to promote restrictive red blood cell (RBC) transfusion practices. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS: Seven electronic databases were searched to January 2018. Published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or non-randomised studies examining an intervention to modify healthcare providers' RBC transfusion practice in any healthcare setting were included...
May 18, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772877/report-back-for-geo-referenced-environmental-data-a-case-study-on-personal-monitoring-of-temperature-in-outdoor-workers
#5
Laura Thompson, Maggie Sugg, Jennifer Runkle
Few studies have evaluated the benefits of reporting back participatory environmental monitoring results, particularly regarding participant motivation toward behavioural modification concerning workplace heat exposure. This study evaluated the individual data report-back for geo-located environmental temperature and time activity patterns in grounds maintenance crews in three geographic regions across the South-eastern United States. Surveys collected information on worker interpretation of their results and intended action(s) to reduce heat exposure...
May 7, 2018: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763860/ants-and-their-nests-as-indicators-for-industrial-heavy-metal-contamination
#6
Oksana Skaldina, Sirpa Peräniemi, Jouni Sorvari
Ants accumulate heavy metals and respond to pollution with modification in species composition, community structure, altered behaviour and immunity. However, the levels of heavy metals in ants' nests and explicit individual-level responses towards heavy metals have not been revealed. We found that red wood ants Formica lugubris accumulate high and correlated values of such heavy metals as Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn both in ants and nest material near cobalt smelter in Finland. Relative differences in metal concentrations were higher in nests than in ants...
May 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760428/generation-and-characterisation-of-a-parkin-pacrg-knockout-mouse-line-and-a-pacrg-knockout-mouse-line
#7
Sarah E M Stephenson, Timothy D Aumann, Juliet M Taylor, Jessica R Riseley, Ruili Li, Jeffrey R Mann, Doris Tomas, Paul J Lockhart
Mutations in PARK2 (parkin) can result in Parkinson's disease (PD). Parkin shares a bidirectional promoter with parkin coregulated gene (PACRG) and the transcriptional start sites are separated by only ~200 bp. Bidirectionally regulated genes have been shown to function in common biological pathways. Mice lacking parkin have largely failed to recapitulate the dopaminergic neuronal loss and movement impairments seen in individuals with parkin-mediated PD. We aimed to investigate the function of PACRG and test the hypothesis that parkin and PACRG function in a common pathway by generating and characterizing two novel knockout mouse lines harbouring loss of both parkin and Pacrg or Pacrg alone...
May 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754704/genetic-advances-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#8
Hernan Felipe Guillén-Burgos, Karol Gutiérrez-Ruiz
Post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD, is a condition that affects a subgroup of individuals that have suffered a previous traumatic event capable of generating changes at a psychological and behavioural level. These changes affect the personal, family, and social environment of those who suffer from this condition. Different genes have been identified as risk markers for development of this disorder. The population heterogeneity and individual differences (genetic and environmental) of each subject have made it difficult to identify valid markers in previous studies...
April 2018: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753796/the-neuroendocrinology-of-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-a-behavioural-perspective
#9
REVIEW
Sofia Cussotto, Kiran V Sandhu, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The human gut harbours trillions of symbiotic bacteria that play a key role in programming different aspects of host physiology in health and disease. These intestinal microbes are also key components of the gut-brain axis, the bidirectional communication pathway between the gut and the central nervous system (CNS). In addition, the CNS is closely interconnected with the endocrine system to regulate many physiological processes. An expanding body of evidence is supporting the notion that gut microbiota modifications and/or manipulations may also play a crucial role in the manifestation of specific behavioural responses regulated by neuroendocrine pathways...
May 10, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751762/hiv-latency-reversing-agents-act-through-tat-post-translational-modifications
#10
Georges Khoury, Talia M Mota, Shuang Li, Carolin Tumpach, Michelle Y Lee, Jonathan Jacobson, Leigh Harty, Jenny L Anderson, Sharon R Lewin, Damian F J Purcell
BACKGROUND: Different classes of latency reversing agents (LRAs) are being evaluated to measure their effects in reactivating HIV replication from latently infected cells. A limited number of studies have demonstrated additive effects of LRAs with the viral protein Tat in initiating transcription, but less is known about how LRAs interact with Tat, particularly through basic residues that may be post-translationally modified to alter the behaviour of Tat for processive transcription and co-transcriptional RNA processing...
May 11, 2018: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748545/wettability-and-friction-control-of-a-stainless-steel-surface-by-combining-nanosecond-laser-texturing-and-adsorption-of-superhydrophobic-nanosilica-particles
#11
M Conradi, A Drnovšek, P Gregorčič
In this work, we present functionalization of AISI 316 L surfaces by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser texturing and adsorption of superhydrophobic fluoroalkylsilane functionalized 30-nm silica nanoparticles. Surface modification by varying the distance between laser-produced micro(μ)-channels leads to different surface roughnesses. After nanosilica coating, the superhydrophilic laser-textured surfaces change into superhydrophobic surfaces with the same μ-roughness. A higher μ-channel density leads to more hydrophobic surfaces after coating...
May 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743535/identification-of-a-unique-radical-sam-methyltransferase-required-for-the-sp-3-c-methylation-of-an-arginine-residue-of-methyl-coenzyme-m-reductase
#12
Darja Deobald, Lorenz Adrian, Christian Schöne, Michael Rother, Gunhild Layer
The biological formation of methane (methanogenesis) is a globally important process, which is exploited in biogas technology, but also contributes to global warming through the release of a potent greenhouse gas into the atmosphere. The last and methane-releasing step of methanogenesis is catalysed by the enzyme methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR), which carries several exceptional posttranslational amino acid modifications. Among these, a 5-C-(S)-methylarginine is located close to the active site of the enzyme...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739986/the-influence-of-different-ph-on-the-electrophoretic-behaviour-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-modified-by-calcium-ions
#13
Agnieszka Rogowska, Paweł Pomastowski, Michał Złoch, Viorica Railean-Plugaru, Anna Król, Katarzyna Rafińska, Małgorzata Szultka-Młyńska, Bogusław Buszewski
The effect of a different pH on Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells modified with calcium ions was investigated by the capillary zone electrophoresis technique. For the identification of the wild strain of S. cerevisiae, the ribosomal nucleic acid sequencing and internal transcribed spacer sequencing as well as spectrometric approach were applied. The potentiometric titration and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy have shown the occurrence of active functional groups such as carboxyl, amine/hydroxyl, phosphate/hydrogen phosphate groups on the surface of native yeast cells...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739445/setting-the-pace-host-rhythmic-behaviour-and-gene-expression-patterns-in-the-facultatively-symbiotic-cnidarian-aiptasia-are-determined-largely-by-symbiodinium
#14
Michal Sorek, Yisrael Schnytzer, Hiba Waldman Ben-Asher, Vered Chalifa Caspi, Chii-Shiarng Chen, David J Miller, Oren Levy
BACKGROUND: All organisms employ biological clocks to anticipate physical changes in the environment; however, the integration of biological clocks in symbiotic systems has received limited attention. In corals, the interpretation of rhythmic behaviours is complicated by the daily oscillations in tissue oxygen tension resulting from the photosynthetic and respiratory activities of the associated algal endosymbiont Symbiodinium. In order to better understand the integration of biological clocks in cnidarian hosts of Symbiodinium, daily rhythms of behaviour and gene expression were studied in symbiotic and aposymbiotic morphs of the sea-anemone Aiptasia diaphana...
May 9, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732172/transgenerational-epigenetic-inheritance-in-birds
#15
REVIEW
Carlos Guerrero-Bosagna, Mireille Morisson, Laurence Liaubet, T Bas Rodenburg, Elske N de Haas, Ľubor Košťál, Frédérique Pitel
While it has been shown that epigenetics accounts for a portion of the variability of complex traits linked to interactions with the environment, the real contribution of epigenetics to phenotypic variation remains to be assessed. In recent years, a growing number of studies have revealed that epigenetic modifications can be transmitted across generations in several animal species. Numerous studies have demonstrated inter- or multi-generational effects of changing environment in birds, but very few studies have been published showing epigenetic transgenerational inheritance in these species...
April 2018: Environmental Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727751/ubiquinone-modified-printed-carbon-electrodes-for-cell-culture-ph-monitoring
#16
Craig McBeth, Rajaa Al Dughaishi, Andrew Paterson, Duncan Sharp
The measurement of pH is important throughout many biological systems, but there are limited available technologies to enable its periodical monitoring in the complex, small volume, media often used in cell culture experiments across a range of disciplines. Herein, pad printed electrodes are developed and characterised through modification with: a commercially available fullerene multiwall carbon nanotube composite applied in Nafion, casting of hydrophobic ubiquinone as a pH probe to provide the electrochemical signal, and coated in Polyethylene glycol to reduce fouling and potentially enhance biocompatibility, which together are proven to enable the determination of pH in cell culture media containing serum...
April 26, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726870/unconventional-strain-dependent-conductance-oscillations-in-pristine-phosphorene
#17
S J Ray, M Venkata Kamalakar
Phosphorene is a single elemental, two-dimensional semiconductor that has quickly emerged as a high mobility material for transistors and optoelectronic devices. In addition, being a 2D material it can sustain high levels of strain, enabling sensitive modification of its electronic properties. In this paper, we investigate the strain dependent electronic properties of phosphorene nanocrystals. By performing extensive calculations we determine the electrical conductance as a function of uniaxial, as well as biaxial strain stimuli and uncover a unique zone phase diagram...
May 4, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723262/using-the-person-based-approach-to-optimise-a-digital-intervention-for-the-management-of-hypertension
#18
Katherine Bradbury, Katherine Morton, Rebecca Band, Anne van Woezik, Rebecca Grist, Richard J McManus, Paul Little, Lucy Yardley
BACKGROUND: For behaviour-change interventions to be successful they must be acceptable to users and overcome barriers to behaviour change. The Person-Based Approach can help to optimise interventions to maximise acceptability and engagement. This article presents a novel, efficient and systematic method that can be used as part of the Person-Based Approach to rapidly analyse data from development studies to inform intervention modifications. We describe how we used this approach to optimise a digital intervention for patients with hypertension (HOME BP), which aims to implement medication and lifestyle changes to optimise blood pressure control...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721338/decision-making-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Mireille Neuhaus, Pasquale Calabrese, Jean-Marie Annoni
Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is frequently associated with cognitive and behavioural deficits. A growing number of studies suggest an impact of MS on decision-making abilities. The aim of this systematic review was to assess if (1) performance of MS patients in decision-making tasks was consistently different from controls and (2) whether this modification was associated with cognitive dysfunction and emotional alterations. Methods: The search was conducted on Pubmed/Medline database...
2018: Multiple Sclerosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720416/behavioural-changes-controlled-by-catecholaminergic-systems-explain-recurrent-loss-of-pigmentation-in-cavefish
#20
Helena Bilandžija, Lindsey Abraham, Li Ma, Kenneth J Renner, William R Jeffery
Multiple cave populations of the teleost Astyanax mexicanus have repeatedly reduced or lost eye and body pigmentation during adaptation to dark caves. Albinism, the complete absence of melanin pigmentation, is controlled by loss-of-function mutations in the oca2 gene. The mutation is accompanied by an increase in the melanin synthesis precursor l-tyrosine, which is also a precursor for catecholamine synthesis. In this study, we show a relationship between pigmentation loss, enhanced catecholamine synthesis and responsiveness to anaesthesia, determined as a proxy for catecholamine-related behaviours...
May 16, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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