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Behavioural Modification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529160/do-unfavourable-alcohol-smoking-nutrition-and-physical-activity-predict-sustained-leisure-time-sedentary-behaviour-a-population-based-cohort-study
#1
Carla F J Nooijen, Jette Möller, Yvonne Forsell, Maria Ekblom, Maria R Galanti, Karin Engström
Comparing lifestyle of people remaining sedentary during longer periods of their life with those favourably changing their behaviour can provide cues to optimize interventions targeting sedentary behaviour. The objective of this study was to determine lifestyle predictors of sustained leisure time sedentary behaviour and assess whether these predictors were dependent on gender, age, socioeconomic position and occupational sedentary behaviour. Data from a large longitudinal population-based cohort of adults (aged 18-97years) in Stockholm responding to public health surveys in 2010 and 2014 were analysed (n=49,133)...
May 18, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526047/the-paradigm-of-eave-tubes-scaling-up-house-improvement-and-optimizing-insecticide-delivery-against-disease-transmitting-mosquitoes
#2
Fredros Okumu
Control of mosquito-borne diseases is greatly compromised by spread of insecticide resistance, high implementation costs and sub-optimal compliance among users. Improved housing has potential to reduce malaria transmission nearly as much as long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs), while also preventing other arthropod-borne diseases and improving overall well-being. Yet, it is hardly promoted as mainstream intervention, partly because of high costs, minimal communal benefits to people in non-improved houses, and low scalability...
May 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515203/wild-birds-respond-to-flockmate-loss-by-increasing-their-social-network-associations-to-others
#3
Josh A Firth, Bernhard Voelkl, Ross A Crates, Lucy M Aplin, Dora Biro, Darren P Croft, Ben C Sheldon
Understanding the consequences of losing individuals from wild populations is a current and pressing issue, yet how such loss influences the social behaviour of the remaining animals is largely unexplored. Through combining the automated tracking of winter flocks of over 500 wild great tits (Parus major) with removal experiments, we assessed how individuals' social network positions responded to the loss of their social associates. We found that the extent of flockmate loss that individuals experienced correlated positively with subsequent increases in the number of their social associations, the average strength of their bonds and their overall connectedness within the social network (defined as summed edge weights)...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515005/dynamics-of-a-true-moving-bed-separation-process-linear-model-identification-and-advanced-process-control
#4
Idelfonso B R Nogueira, Ana M Ribeiro, Márcio A F Martins, Alírio E Rodrigues, Hannu Koivisto, José M Loureiro
The control of Simulated Moving Bed (SMB) units is challenging due to their complex dynamic behaviour and the difficulty of measuring their main properties. Furthermore, for the SMB units, the transfer function identification when the unit is operating at its optimal point is not easy to be done through the usual way. This work presents the development of a novel strategy to identify transfer functions of TMB/SMB and its application on classical linear model predictive controllers (MPC). However, for the process in study, due its unique dynamics, only the identification of the linear model is not enough to solve its control problem...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510688/two-component-systems-required-for-virulence-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#5
V I Francis, E C Stevenson, S L Porter
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a versatile opportunistic pathogen capable of infecting a broad range of hosts, in addition to thriving in a broad range of environmental conditions outside of hosts. With this versatility comes the need to tightly regulate its genome to optimise its gene expression and behaviour to the prevailing conditions. Two-component systems (TCSs) comprising sensor kinases and response regulators, play a major role in this regulation. This minireview discusses the growing number of two-component systems that have been implicated in the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with a special focus on the emerging theme of multikinase networks, which are networks comprising multiple sensor kinases working together, sensing and integrating multiple signals to decide upon the best response...
May 16, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500085/the-most-common-vices-of-men-can-damage-fertility-and-the-health-of-the-next-generation
#6
Tod Fullston, Nicole O McPherson, Deirdre Zander-Fox, Michelle Lane
There is growing evidence from animal and human studies that demonstrate that acquired paternal traits can impair both a male's fertility and the health of his offspring, including advanced age, smoking, stress, trauma, under-nutrition, infection, toxin exposure, and obesity. Curiously, many of these factors manifest as impaired neurological, behavioural, and/or metabolic functioning in offspring. The underlying molecular mechanisms that respond to the paternal environment and act as vectors of intergenerational transmission are beginning to emerge...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497787/locus-specific-histone-deacetylation-using-a-synthetic-crispr-cas9-based-hdac
#7
Deborah Y Kwon, Ying-Tao Zhao, Janine M Lamonica, Zhaolan Zhou
Efforts to manipulate locus-specific histone acetylation to assess their causal role in gene expression and cellular and behavioural phenotypes have been impeded by a lack of experimental tools. The Cas9 nuclease has been adapted to target epigenomic modifications, but a detailed description of the parameters of such synthetic epigenome remodellers is still lacking. Here we describe a Cas9-based histone deacetylase (HDAC) and the design principles required to achieve locus-specific histone deacetylation. We assess its range of activity and specificity, and analyse target gene expression in two different cell types to investigate cellular context-dependent effects...
May 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493335/response-of-htr3a-ko-mice-to-antidepressant-treatment-and-chronic-stress
#8
Vincent Martin, Armance Riffaud, Tevrasamy Marday, Charly Brouillard, Bernard Franc, Jean-Pol Tassin, Caroline Sevoz-Couche, Raymond Mongeau, Laurence Lanfumey
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It has recently been suggested that 5-HT3 receptor blockade enhances selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants efficacy and may reverse stress-induced deficits in rodents. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: To further explore this hypothesis, we used mice lacking the 5-HT3 receptor (Htr3a KO) and their wild-type (WT) controls to assess their response in behavioural paradigms relevant to anxiety and depression. Mice were studied under basal, antidepressant treatments and chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) conditions...
May 10, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490797/action-on-diabetic-macular-oedema-achieving-optimal-patient-management-in-treating-visual-impairment-due-to-diabetic-eye-disease
#9
R Gale, P H Scanlon, M Evans, F Ghanchi, Y Yang, G Silvestri, M Freeman, A Maisey, J Napier
This paper identifies best practice recommendations for managing diabetes and sight-threatening diabetic eye disease. The authors provide an update for ophthalmologists and allied healthcare professionals on key aspects of diabetes management, supported by a review of the pertinent literature, and recommend practice principles for optimal patient management in treating visual impairment due to diabetic eye disease. In people with diabetes, early optimal glycaemic control reduces the long-term risk of both microvascular and macrovascular complications...
May 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490627/concerted-and-mosaic-evolution-of-functional-modules-in-songbird-brains
#10
Jordan M Moore, Timothy J DeVoogd
Vertebrate brains differ in overall size, composition and functional capacities, but the evolutionary processes linking these traits are unclear. Two leading models offer opposing views: the concerted model ascribes major dimensions of covariation in brain structures to developmental events, whereas the mosaic model relates divergent structures to functional capabilities. The models are often cast as incompatible, but they must be unified to explain how adaptive changes in brain structure arise from pre-existing architectures and developmental mechanisms...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490260/emerging-treatments-for-alzheimer-s-disease-for-non-amyloid-and-non-tau-targets
#11
Ayesha Khan, Anne Corbett, Clive Ballard
The number of people with dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, is growing as a result of an ageing global population. Treatments available for AD only alleviate the symptoms of the disease, and are effective in some people with AD for a limited time. There is no disease-modifying treatment available, and despite research efforts, the underlying mechanisms of AD and optimal treatment targets have not been fully elucidated. Amyloid and tau are key pathological markers of AD with ongoing trials targeting both...
May 11, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486906/safety-and-toxicological-considerations-of-nanomedicines-the-future-directions
#12
Parmi Patel, Jigna Shah
Nanomedicine, an emerging nanotechnology, imparts special biological features due to their quantum size and is a promising candidate for targeted drug delivery. At present, in spite of its novel applications in medical sciences, certain existing gaps still needs to be addressed such as fate of nanoparticles and its toxicity assessment on human health. Behaviour of the entities post human body exposure and its deposition up to certain extent are some of the crucial factors to be considered for a successful treatment approach...
May 9, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485378/phf8-loss-confers-resistance-to-depression-like-and-anxiety-like-behaviors-in-mice
#13
Ryan M Walsh, Erica Y Shen, Rosemary C Bagot, Anthony Anselmo, Yan Jiang, Behnam Javidfar, Gregory J Wojtkiewicz, Jennifer Cloutier, John W Chen, Ruslan Sadreyev, Eric J Nestler, Schahram Akbarian, Konrad Hochedlinger
PHF8 is a histone demethylase with specificity for repressive modifications. While mutations of PHF8 have been associated with cognitive defects and cleft lip/palate, its role in mammalian development and physiology remains unexplored. Here, we have generated a Phf8 knockout allele in mice to examine the consequences of Phf8 loss for development and behaviour. Phf8 deficient mice neither display obvious developmental defects nor signs of cognitive impairment. However, we report a striking resiliency to stress-induced anxiety- and depression-like behaviour on loss of Phf8...
May 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484096/modifications-of-silk-film-for-dual-delivery
#14
Vartika Dhyani, Neetu Singh
Silk biomaterials can be designed to provide architectural framework comparable of connate extracellular matrix in order to boost cell growth and eventual tissue regeneration. Silk (Bombyx mori) fibroins self-assemble into hydrophobic crystalline β sheets, which provide mechanical strength and tunable degradability. The next generation tissue engineering scaffolds aim at providing spatially controlled modulation of cell adhesion and differentiation, which can be achieved by spatially controlled surface functionalization of the scaffolds...
May 9, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483701/prevention-of-bacterial-adhesion-to-zwitterionic-biocompatible-mesoporous-glasses
#15
S Sánchez-Salcedo, A García, María Vallet-Regí
Novel materials, based on Mesoporous Bioactive Glasses (MBGs) in the ternary system SiO2-CaO-P2O5, decorated with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and subsequently with amino acid Lysine (Lys), by post-grafting method on the external surface of the glasses (named MBG-NH2 and MBG-Lys), are reported. The surface functionalization with organic groups did not damage the mesoporous network and their structural and textural properties were also preserved despite the high solubility of MBG matrices. The incorporation of Lys confers a zwitterionic nature to these MBG materials due to the presence of adjacent amine and carboxylic groups in the external surface...
May 5, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482530/stretchable-conductive-polypyrrole-films-modified-with-dopaminated-hyaluronic-acid
#16
Robert Texidó, Antonio Orgaz, Victor Ramos-Pérez, Salvador Borrós
In this paper, we report the modification of polypirrole (PPy) with dopaminated hyaluronic acid (HADA). This design improves PPy adhesion onto stretchable materials such as poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) allowing the formation of conducting films on this kind of very flexible, hydrophobic materials. The results revealed that described PPy modification allows to obtain stable PPy:HADA nano-suspension able to cast films directly on PDMS. The comparison of PPy:HADA films with conventional PPy and other modified PPy shows that the modification improved the strength of the films under tension stress and their water resistance...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474184/behavioural-modification-of-personality-traits-testing-the-effect-of-a-trematode-on-nymphs-of-the-red-damselfly-xanthocnemis-zealandica
#17
Antoine Filion, Clément Lagrue, Bronwen Presswell, Robert Poulin
Research on animal personality is increasingly demonstrating that individuals in a population are characterised by distinct sets of behavioural traits that show consistency over time and across different situations. Parasites are known to alter the behaviour of their hosts, although their role in shaping host personality remains little studied. Here, we test the effect of trematode infection on two traits of their host's personality, activity and boldness, in nymphs of the red damselfly Xanthocnemis zealandica...
May 4, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470858/choice-of-reference-measurements-affects-quantification-of-long-diffusion-time-behaviour-using-stimulated-echoes
#18
Michiel Kleinnijenhuis, Jeroen Mollink, Wilfred W Lam, Paul Kinchesh, Alexandre A Khrapitchev, Sean C Smart, Saad Jbabdi, Karla L Miller
PURPOSE: To demonstrate how reference data affect the quantification of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in long diffusion time measurements with diffusion-weighted stimulated echo acquisition mode (DW-STEAM) measurements, and to present a modification to avoid contribution from crusher gradients in DW-STEAM. METHODS: For DW-STEAM, reference measurements at long diffusion times have significant b0 value, because b = 0 cannot be achieved in practice as a result of the need for signal spoiling...
May 3, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465827/does-level-of-motivation-for-change-impact-post-treatment-outcomes-in-the-eating-disorders-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-with-quantitative-analysis
#19
Jeanne Sansfaçon, Howard Steiger, Lise Gauvin, Émilie Fletcher, Mimi Israël
BACKGROUND: Eating Disorders are highly prevalent and widespread mental health problems, with marked risk of chronicity and refractoriness to treatment. Affected individuals are hesitant to change their behaviours and therefore struggle to maintain motivation for therapy. This review aims to produce the first high-quality meta-analysis of the literature on the impact of level of motivation for change on post-treatment outcomes in anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, and other specified feeding or eating disorder (OSFED)...
2017: Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454517/findings-from-a-prospective-cohort-study-evaluating-the-effects-of-international-health-advisors-work-on-recently-settled-migrants-health
#20
Susanne Sundell Lecerof, Martin Stafström, Maria Emmelin, Ragnar Westerling, Per-Olof Östergen
BACKGROUND: Several interventions have been carried out to tackle health inequalities between migrant groups, especially refugees, and native-born European populations. These initiatives are often address language or cultural barriers. One of them is the International Health Advisors (IHA) in Sweden; a peer education intervention aimed at providing health information for recently settled migrants. It is known that social determinants, such as educational level and access to social capital, affect health...
April 28, 2017: BMC Public Health
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