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Behavioural Modification

Alexis De Tiège, Yves Van de Peer, Johan Braeckman, Koen B Tanghe
Although classical evolutionary theory, i.e., population genetics and the Modern Synthesis, was already implicitly 'gene-centred', the organism was, in practice, still generally regarded as the individual unit of which a population is composed. The gene-centred approach to evolution only reached a logical conclusion with the advent of the gene-selectionist or gene's eye view in the 1960s and 1970s. Whereas classical evolutionary theory can only work with (genotypically represented) fitness differences between individual organisms, gene-selectionism is capable of working with fitness differences among genes within the same organism and genome...
November 22, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
Hermann Edlbauer, Shintaro Takada, Grégoire Roussely, Michihisa Yamamoto, Seigo Tarucha, Arne Ludwig, Andreas D Wieck, Tristan Meunier, Christopher Bäuerle
The electron wave function experiences a phase modification at coherent transmission through a quantum dot. This transmission phase undergoes a characteristic shift of π when scanning through a Coulomb blockade resonance. Between successive resonances either a transmission phase lapse of π or a phase plateau is theoretically expected to occur depending on the parity of quantum dot states. Despite considerable experimental effort, this transmission phase behaviour has remained elusive for a large quantum dot...
November 22, 2017: Nature Communications
Zhenrong Ye, Yunyu Sun, Hui Zhang, Bo Song, Bin Dong
In this paper, we report a unique phototactic (both positive and negative) micromotor based on platinum nanoparticle decorated carbon nitride. The phototaxis relies on the self-diffusiophoretic mechanism and different surface modifications. The micromotor reported in the current study does not require the addition of any external fuels and shows versatile motion behaviour, i.e. start, stop, directional and programmable motion, which is controlled by light. In addition, since the actuation of the precipitated micromotors at the bottom of a solution using light results in the opacity changes from transparent to translucent, we anticipate that the current micromotor may have potential application in the field of smart windows...
November 22, 2017: Nanoscale
Lea Godino, Leigh Jackson, Daniela Turchetti, Catherine Hennessy, Heather Skirton
Enabling informed choice is an essential component of care when offering young adults presymptomatic testing for a genetic condition. A systematic review on this topic revealed that many young adults grew up with little information regarding their genetic risk and that parents had applied pressure to them during the testing decision-making process. However, none of the studies retrieved were conducted in South European countries. To address this gap, we undertook a qualitative study based on grounded theory to explore the psychosocial implications of presymptomatic testing for hereditary cancer in Italian young adults aged 18-30 years...
November 21, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Kiran Liversage, Kristiina Nurkse, Jonne Kotta, Leili Järv
Spatiotemporal environmental variation affects fish feeding behaviour and capacity for piscivorous control of prey populations, which is important for management when prey include invasive species causing ecosystem impacts. We assessed gut-contents of an important piscivore (European perch Perca fluviatilis) over two years, and analysed variables affecting initiation and amounts of feeding, focusing on an important invasive prey species, round goby (Neogobius melanostomus). We show that predation is primarily controlled by variation of physical and habitat characteristics surrounding perch...
November 2, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Sudhir Mittapalli, D Sravanakumar Perumalla, Jagadeesh Babu Nanubolu, Ashwini Nangia
The design and synthesis of mechanically responsive materials is interesting because they are potential candidates to convert thermal energy into mechanical work. Reported in this paper are thermosalient effects in a series of halogen derivatives of salinazids. The chloro derivative, with higher electronegativity and a weaker inter-halogen bond strength (Cl⋯Cl) exhibits an excellent thermal response, whereas the response is weaker in the iodo derivative with stronger I⋯I halogen bonding. 3,5-Di-chloro-salinazid (Compound-A) exists in three polymorphic forms, two room-temperature polymorphs (Forms I and II) and one high-temperature modification (Form III)...
November 1, 2017: IUCrJ
Javier García-Cárceles, Juan M Decara, Henar Vázquez-Villa, Ramón Rodríguez, Eva Codesido, Jacobo Cruces, José Brea, María I Loza, Francisco Alén, Joaquin Botta, Peter J McCormick, Juan A Ballesteros, Bellinda Benhamú, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca, María L López-Rodríguez
The 5-HT2CR agonist lorcaserin, clinically approved for the treatment of obesity, causes important side effects mainly related to subtype selectivity. In the search for 5-HT2CR allosteric modulators as safer antiobesity drugs, a chemical library from Vivia Biotech was screened using ExviTech platform. Structural modifications of identified hit VA240 in synthesized analogues 6-41 afforded compound 11 (N-[(1-benzyl-1H-indol-3-yl)methyl]pyridin-3-amine, VA012), which exhibited dose-dependent enhancement of serotonin efficacy, no significant off-target activities, and low binding competition with serotonin or other orthosteric ligands...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Michael Reynolds, Elisavet A Arapi, Jo Cable
While group formation provides antipredatory defences, increases foraging efficiency and mating opportunities, it can be counterintuitive by promoting disease transmission amongst social hosts. Upon introduction of a pathogen, uninfected individuals often modify their social preferences to reduce infection risk. Infected hosts also exhibit behavioural changes, for example, removing themselves from a group to prevent an epidemic. Conversely, here we show how Trinidadian guppies infected with a directly transmitted ectoparasite, Gyrodactylus turnbulli, significantly increase their contact rates with uninfected conspecifics...
November 8, 2017: Parasitology
Petra Warschburger, Michaela Gmeiner, Marisa Morawietz, Mike Rinck
OBJECTIVE: Approach-avoidance training (AAT) is a promising approach in obesity treatment. The present study examines whether an AAT is feasible and able to influence approach tendencies in children and adolescents, comparing implicit and explicit training approaches. Design/Setting/Subjects Fifty-nine overweight children and adolescents (aged 8-16 years; twenty-six boys) participated in an AAT for food cues, learning to reject snack items and approach vegetable items. Reaction times in the AAT and an implicit association test (IAT) were assessed pre- and post-intervention...
November 7, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
Glenn R Yamakawa, Connor Lengkeek, Sabrina Salberg, Simon C Spanswick, Richelle Mychasiuk
Given that caffeine consumption is exponentially rising in adolescents and they are at increased risk for repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (RmTBI), we sought to examine the pathophysiological outcomes associated with early life caffeine consumption and RmTBI. Adolescent male and female Sprague Dawley rats received either caffeine in the drinking water or normal water and were then randomly assigned to 3 mild injuries using our lateral impact device or 3 sham procedures. Following injury induction, behavioral outcomes were measured with a test battery designed to examine symptoms consistent with clinical manifestation of PCS (balance and motor coordination, anxiety, short-term working memory, and depressive-like behaviours)...
2017: PloS One
Laurent Billon, Hongyao Yin, Yujun Feng
Amphiphilic copolymers are widely used in fabricating hierarchically honeycomb-structured films via "breath figure" (BF) process as the hydrophilic block plays a key role in stabilizing water templating. However, the hydrophilic blocks reported are mainly confined to acrylic acid and its derivatives, the additional functions introduction on porous films, and the polymer composition/film microstructure relationship was less documented. In this work, a novel melamine-based hydrophilic moiety was incorporated to polystyrene chains by combining atom transfer radical polymerization and post modification to afford end-functionalized polystyrenes (PS-PANME)...
November 4, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Stephanie K A Cheah, Paul H P Yeow, Sumesh R Nair, Felix B Tan
Household electricity wastage poses a sustainability issue. Ergonomic interventions that prevent wastagethrough technological innovations are expensive and complex,making consumers unwilling to adopt them.The study aimed to investigate the motivations and impediments in avoiding electricity wastage. Thirteen Repertory Grid interviews were conducted on household electricity users relating to the behaviour of those living with them.The key motivational themes found were altruistic and egoistic reasons while the impediments were perceived behavioural control, hedonism and self-efficacy...
November 2, 2017: Ergonomics
Javier Ortuño-Sierra, Rebeca Aritio-Solana, Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero
The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a well-known measuring instrument widely used for the assessment of mental health in children and adolescents. Relatively few studies have analysed the factor structure, the measurement invariance, and the internal consistency, including the information function of the SDQ in its parent version. The study included a large sample (N = 3828) from the Spanish National Survey (2016 were male; 52.7%). Mean age was 9.13 (SD = 3.21) with ages ranging from 4 to 14...
October 18, 2017: Psychiatry Research
Anton Plech, Shyjumon Ibrahimkutty, Stefan Reich, Gemma Newby
Photothermal reactions of metallic nanostructures, such as gold nanorods show appealing structural relaxations, such as bubble formation or particle modification. We have employed a pump-probe method to record the structural relaxations of a suspension of gold nanorods upon femtosecond laser excitation by pulsed X-ray scattering both with wide-angle and small-angle sensitivity. Single-pulse reactions include transient bubble formation at 20 J m(-2) and irreversible nanorod reshaping at 30 J m(-2). Thus the window for reversible excitation is very narrow...
November 16, 2017: Nanoscale
Anna Grunze, Rajnish Mago, Heinz Grunze
Psychotropics are highly effective medications that, however, have adverse drug reactions attached to them. They are indispensable for many patients. How to cope with side effects - watchful waiting, dose reduction, change of medication, addition of an "antidote" and behavioural modifications - depends on their nature, severity and finally the patients wish. This review is meant to aid clinician's and patient's decisions in case of the occurrence of compromising, frequent adverse drug reactions.
November 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Dariusz Zapała, Piotr Francuz, Ewelina Zapała, Natalia Kopiś, Piotr Wierzgała, Paweł Augustynowicz, Andrzej Majkowski, Marcin Kołodziej
The challenges of research into brain-computer interfaces (BCI) include significant individual differences in learning pace and in the effective operation of BCI devices. The use of neurofeedback training is a popular method of improving the effectiveness BCI operation. The purpose of the present study was to determine to what extent it is possible to improve the effectiveness of operation of sensorimotor rhythm-based brain-computer interfaces (SMR-BCI) by supplementing user training with elements modifying the characteristics of visual feedback...
October 26, 2017: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
Laura-Jayne A Ellis, Mohammed Baalousha, Eugenia Valsami-Jones, Jamie R Lead
Understanding the environmental behaviour of nanoparticles (NPs) after release into aquatic systems is essential to predict the environmental implications of nanotechnology. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) represent a major class of engineered NPs with a significant potential for environmental impact. Therefore, investigating their transformations in natural waters will help predict their long term environmental fate and behaviour. AgNPs were characterized in natural lake water collected seasonally from the same freshwater source, using column microcosms to assess their behaviour and transport at different depths...
October 23, 2017: Chemosphere
Misa Adachi, Kazue Yamaoka, Mariko Watanabe, Asuka Nemoto, Toshiro Tango
INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a significant problem, and lifestyle modifications including self-management are important. We have developed a structured individual-based lifestyle education (SILE) programme for T2D. With attention now being paid to techniques to change behaviour, we recently developed a behavioural type-specific SILE (BETSILE) programme. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the BETSILE programme compared with the SILE programme for reducing glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in patients with T2D and special behavioural types by a cluster randomised controlled trial...
October 24, 2017: BMJ Open
Jennette P Moreno, Lydi-Anne Vézina-Im, Elizabeth M Vaughan, Tom Baranowski
INTRODUCTION: In previous studies, it has been found that on average, children consistently gained weight during the summer months at an increased rate compared with the 9-month school year. This contributed to an increased prevalence of overweight and obesity in children. Several obesity-related interventions have occurred during or targeting the summer months. We propose to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of obesity prevention and treatment interventions for school-age children conducted during the summer or targeting the summer months when children are not in school on their body mass index (BMI), or weight-related behaviours...
October 22, 2017: BMJ Open
Scott Charles McCormick, Ziqiu Tong, Angela Ivask, Mariana Morozesk, Nico Voelcker, Enzo Lombi, Craig Priest
Binding and maintaining cells inside microfluidic channels is a challenging task due to the potential release of cells from the channels with the flow and accompanying shear stress. In this work we optimized the binding of human B-lymphocyte cells (HR1K) inside a microfluidic channel and determined the strength of this binding under shear stress of flowing liquid. In order to determine the parameters required for a live/dead test in microfluidic devices, populations of both living and dead cells were tested separately...
October 23, 2017: Biofabrication
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