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Behavioural Modification

Aynsley M Smith, Daniel V Gaz, Dirk Larson, Janelle K Jorgensen, Chad Eickhoff, David A Krause, Brooke M Fenske, Katie Aney, Ashley A Hansen, Stephanie M Nanos, Michael J Stuart
BACKGROUND/AIM: To determine if Boys Bantam and Peewee and Girls U14 sustain fewer concussions, head hits, 'other injuries' and penalties in hockey tournaments governed by intensified fair play (IFP) than non-intensified fair play (NIFP). METHODS: A prospective comparison of IFP, a behaviour modification programme that promotes sportsmanship, versus control (non-intensified, NIFP) effects on numbers of diagnosed concussions, head hits without diagnosed concussion (HHWDC), 'other injuries', number of penalties and fair play points (FPPs)...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
Maria Domenica Sanna, Carla Ghelardini, Robin L Thurmond, Emanuela Masini, Nicoletta Galeotti
The functional expression of H4 receptors (H4R) within neurons of the central nervous system has been recently reported, but their role is poorly understood. The present study aims to elucidate the role of neuronal H4R by providing the first description of the behavioural phenotype of H4R-deficient (H4R knockout, H4R-KO) mice. Mice lacking H4R underwent behavioural studies to evaluate locomotor activity, pain perception, anxiety, depression, memory and feeding behaviour. H4R-KO mice showed a significant increase in ambulation in an open field as well as in exploratory activity in the absence of any modification of motor coordination...
November 26, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Adam F Henwood, Eli Zysman-Colman
This perspective illustrates our approach in the design of heteroleptic cationic iridium(iii) complexes for optoelectronic applications, especially as emitters in electroluminescent devices. We discuss changes in the photophysical properties of the complexes as a consequence of modification of the electronics of either the cyclometalating (C^N) or the ancillary (N^N) ligands. We then broach the impact on these properties as a function of modification of the structure of both types of ligands. We explain trends in the optoelectronic behaviour of the complexes using a combination of rationally designed structure-property relationship studies and theoretical modelling that serves to inform subsequent ligand design...
November 28, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Violetta Vacchini, Elena Gonella, Elena Crotti, Erica M Prosdocimi, Fabio Mazzetto, Bessem Chouaia, Matteo Callegari, Francesca Mapelli, Mauro Mandrioli, Alberto Alma, Daniele Daffonchio
The pivotal role of diet in shaping gut microbiota has been evaluated in different animal models, including insects. Drosophila flies harbour an inconstant microbiota among which acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are important components. Here, we investigated the bacterial and AAB components of the invasive pest Drosophila suzukii microbiota, by studying the same insect population separately grown on fruit-based or non-fruit artificial diet. AAB were highly prevalent in the gut under both diets (90 and 92% infection rates with fruits and artificial diet, respectively)...
November 25, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Venkatakrishnan Parthasarathy, Ramakrishna Jagarapu
π-Expanded butterfly-like 2D fluorenes and 3D spirobifluorenes 1-5 were synthesized via DDQ-mediated oxidative cyclization strategy with a high regioselectivity. Through structural modification via π-expansion, it was possible to achieve near-visible absorption, bright-blue emission, very high close-to-unity fluorescence quantum yields in solution as well as in film states, and deep-lying HOMO energy levels with excellent thermal stabilities. Further, these electron-rich compounds revealed notable behaviour towards sensing of nitroaromatic explosives, such as, picric acid, up to a detection limit of 0...
November 24, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Xuechuan Gao, Xiao Hai, Huricha Baigude, Weihua Guan, Zhiliang Liu
An advanced multifunctional, hollow metal-organic framework (MOF) drug delivery system with a high drug loading level and targeted delivery was designed and fabricated for the first time and applied to inhibit tumour cell growth. This hollow MOF targeting drug delivery system was prepared via a simple post-synthetic surface modification procedure, starting from hollow ZIF-8 successfully obtained for the first time via a mild phase transformation under solvothermal conditions. As a result, the hollow ZIF-8 exhibits a higher loading capacity for the model anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
Melanie Gallagher, Hamish J McLeod, Thomas M McMillan
Due to diverse cognitive, emotional and interpersonal changes that can follow brain injury, psychological therapies often need to be adapted to suit the complex needs of this population. The aims of the study were to synthesise published recommendations for therapy modifications following brain injury from non-progressive traumatic, vascular, or metabolic causes and to determine how often such modifications have been applied to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for post-injury emotional adjustment problems...
November 22, 2016: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Mathias Foo, Rucha Sawlekar, Declan G Bates
BACKGROUND: Cycles of covalent modification are ubiquitous motifs in cellular signalling. Although such signalling cycles are implemented via a highly concise set of chemical reactions, they have been shown to be capable of producing multiple distinct input-output mapping behaviours - ultrasensitive, hyperbolic, signal-transducing and threshold-hyperbolic. RESULTS: In this paper, we show how the set of chemical reactions underlying covalent modification cycles can be exploited for the design of synthetic analog biomolecular circuitry...
2016: Journal of Biological Engineering
Andrew F Hayes, Nicholas J Rockwood
There have been numerous treatments in the clinical research literature about various design, analysis, and interpretation considerations when testing hypotheses about mechanisms and contingencies of effects, popularly known as mediation and moderation analysis. In this paper we address the practice of mediation and moderation analysis using linear regression in the pages of Behaviour Research and Therapy and offer some observations and recommendations, debunk some popular myths, describe some new advances, and provide an example of mediation, moderation, and their integration as conditional process analysis using the PROCESS macro for SPSS and SAS...
November 5, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Johan Bélteky, Beatrix Agnvall, Martin Johnsson, Dominic Wright, Per Jensen
The domestication of animals has generated a set of phenotypic modifications, affecting behaviour, appearance, physiology and reproduction, which are consistent across a range of species. We hypothesized that some of these phenotypes could have evolved because of genetic correlation to tameness, an essential trait for successful domestication. Starting from an outbred population of red junglefowl, ancestor of all domestic chickens, we selected birds for either high or low fear of humans for five generations...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Angela S Alberga, Shelly Russell-Mayhew, Kristin M von Ranson, Lindsay McLaren
Weight-related issues (including excess weight, disordered eating and body concerns) are often considered as comprising distinct domains of 'obesity' and 'eating disorders'. In this commentary we argue that the concept of weight bias is an important variable when considering wellbeing across the spectrum of weight-related issues. We make the following six points in support of this argument: i) weight bias is common and has adverse health consequences, ii) shaming individuals for their body weight does not motivate positive behaviour change, iii) internalized weight bias is particularly problematic, iv) public health interventions, if not carefully thought out, can perpetuate weight bias, v) weight bias is a manifestation of social inequity, and vi) action on weight bias requires an upstream, population-level approach...
2016: Journal of Eating Disorders
Ines Barone, Cinzia Giordano, Daniela Bonofiglio, Sebastiano Andò, Stefania Catalano
Obesity has a complicated connection to both breast cancer risk and the clinical behaviour of the established disease. The obese setting provides a unique adipose tissue microenvironment that, in association with systemic endocrine modifications, promotes tumor initiation, primary growth, invasion, and metastatic progression. This review presents an overview of the clinical and experimental evidences highlighting the adipokine leptin as the most important molecular mediator of obesity-breast cancer axis. The research of leptin network operating in this context could launch a new field not only in the knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer but also in the development of leptin targeting drugs as promising anticancer agents...
November 2, 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Kaori Fujishiro, Eileen Lividoti Hibert, Eva Schernhammer, Janet W Rich-Edwards
OBJECTIVES: The effects of job strain and shift work on weight gain have not been studied jointly. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on shift work and weight gain have reported different results. This study examines potential effect modification by job strain on the link between shift work and weight gain, and concurrent and delayed effects of shift work on weight gain. METHODS: Data came from 52 622 women who participated in the Nurses' Health Study II, a prospective cohort study...
November 4, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Michelle B Graczyk, Sílvio M Duarte Queirós
We study the intraday behaviour of the statistical moments of the trading volume of the blue chip equities that composed the Dow Jones Industrial Average index between 2003 and 2014. By splitting that time interval into semesters, we provide a quantitative account of the nonstationary nature of the intraday statistical properties as well. Explicitly, we prove the well-known ∪-shape exhibited by the average trading volume-as well as the volatility of the price fluctuations-experienced a significant change from 2008 (the year of the "subprime" financial crisis) onwards...
2016: PloS One
Lucie Grécias, François-Olivier Hébert, Chloé Suzanne Berger, Iain Barber, Nadia Aubin-Horth
Sticklebacks infected by the parasitic flatworm Schistocephalus solidus show dramatic changes in phenotype, including a loss of species-typical behavioural responses to predators. The timing of host behaviour change coincides with the development of infectivity of the parasite to the final host (a piscivorous bird), making it an ideal model for studying the mechanisms of infection-induced behavioural modification. However, whether the loss of host anti-predator behaviour results from direct manipulation by the parasite, or is a by-product (e...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Huy Gia Vuong, Ahmed M A Altibi, Amr Hesham Abdelhamid, Phuong Uyen Duong Ngoc, Vo Duy Quan, Mohamed Yousef Tantawi, Mohamed Elfil, Tran Le Huy Vu, Ahmed Elgebaly, Naoki Oishi, Tadao Nakazawa, Kenji Hirayama, Ryohei Katoh, Nguyen Tien Huy, Tetsuo Kondo
BACKGROUND: The genetic alterations of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) have been reported to change over the past few decades. We performed this systematic review to further examine the trends and modifications of patient demographic, clinicopathological features and molecular profiles of PTC over time. METHODS: A literature search was performed within six electronic databases to identify relevant articles. The inclusion criteria were published studies investigating BRAF mutations, RET/PTC rearrangements or RAS mutations in PTCs or classical PTCs...
October 25, 2016: Oncotarget
S B Patten, J V A Williams, D H Lavorato, J L Wang, N Jetté, T T Sajobi, K M Fiest, A G M Bulloch
AIMS: Age and sex-related patterns of association between medical conditions and major depressive episodes (MDE) are important for understanding disease burden, anticipating clinical needs and for formulating etiological hypotheses. General population estimates are especially valuable because they are not distorted by help-seeking behaviours. However, even large population surveys often deliver inadequate precision to adequately describe such patterns. In this study, data from a set of national surveys were pooled to increase precision, supporting more precise characterisation of these associations...
October 27, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Anders C Erickson, Aleck Ostry, Hing Man Chan, Laura Arbour
BACKGROUND: Maternal smoking during pregnancy negatively impacts fetal growth, but the effect is not homogenous across the population. We sought to determine how the relationship between cigarette use and fetal growth is modified by the social and physical environment. METHODS: Birth records with covariates were obtained from the BC Perinatal Database Registry (N = 232,291). Maternal smoking status was self-reported as the number of cigarettes smoked per day usually at the first prenatal care visit...
July 16, 2016: BMC Public Health
J A Fairfield, C G Rocha, C O'Callaghan, M S Ferreira, J J Boland
Nanowire networks act as self-healing smart materials, whose sheet resistance can be tuned via an externally applied voltage stimulus. This memristive response occurs due to modification of junction resistances to form a connectivity path across the lowest barrier junctions in the network. While most network studies have been performed on expensive noble metal nanowires like silver, networks of inexpensive nickel nanowires with a nickel oxide coating can also demonstrate resistive switching, a common feature of metal oxides with filamentary conduction...
October 26, 2016: Nanoscale
Lydia E Belton, Elissa Z Cameron, Fredrik Dalerum
Increasing human population growth has led to elevated levels of human-carnivore conflict. However, some carnivore populations have adapted to urban environments and the resources they supply. Such associations may influence carnivore ecology, behaviour and life-history. Pockets of urbanisation sometimes occur within protected areas, so that anthropogenic influences on carnivore biology are not necessarily confined to unprotected areas. In this study we evaluated associations between human infrastructure and related activity and space use of spotted hyaenas within one of the largest protected areas in South Africa, the Kruger National Park...
2016: PeerJ
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