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Tissue engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793157/energy-dissipation-in-quasi-linear-viscoelastic-tissues-cells-and-extracellular-matrix
#1
Behzad Babaei, A J Velasquez-Mao, Kenneth M Pryse, William B McConnaughey, Elliot L Elson, Guy M Genin
Characterizing how a tissue's constituents give rise to its viscoelasticity is important for uncovering how hidden timescales underlie multiscale biomechanics. These constituents are viscoelastic in nature, and their mechanics must typically be assessed from the uniaxial behavior of a tissue. Confounding the challenge is that tissue viscoelasticity is typically associated with nonlinear elastic responses. Here, we experimentally assessed how fibroblasts and extracellular matrix (ECM) within engineered tissue constructs give rise to the nonlinear viscoelastic responses of a tissue...
May 21, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792959/fabrication-and-cytotoxicity-assessment-of-cellulose-nanofibrils-using-bassia-eriophora-biomass
#2
Jegan Athinarayanan, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan Periasamy, Ali A Alshatwi
Cellulose nanofibrils (CNs) are eco-friendly, biodegradable, biocompatible, renewable, cost-effective, and possess excellent mechanical properties. We fabricated CNs from Bassia eriophora biomass, and the structure and morphology were investigated by transmission electron microscopy that revealed 2-6 μm long fibrillated structures with diameters of 15-40 nm. CNs biocompatibility was assessed using in vitro based assays, including cell viability assay, AO/EB staining, Hoechst staining, JC-1 staining, and gene expression analysis...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792795/tuning-the-morphology-of-nanostructured-peptide-films-by-introduction-of-a-secondary-structure-conformational-constraint-a-case-study-of-hierarchical-self-assembly
#3
Marta De Zotti, Beatrice Muzzi, Emanuela Gatto, Benedetta Di Napoli, Claudia Mazzuca, Antonio Palleschi, Ernesto Placidi, Fernando Formaggio, Claudio Toniolo, Mariano Venanzi
Peptide self-assembly is ubiquitous in nature. It governs the organization of proteins, controlling their folding kinetics and preserving their structure stability and bioactivity. In this connection, model oligopeptides may give important insights on the molecular mechanisms and elementary forces driving the formation of supramolecular structures. In this contribution we show that a single residue substitution, i.e. Aib (α-aminoisobutyric acid) in place of Ala at position 4 of an -(L-Ala)5- homo-oligomer, strongly alters the aggregation process...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792385/an-organotypic-reconstructed-human-urethra-to-study-c-trachomatis-infection
#4
Bart Versteeg, Lenie J van den Broek, Sylvia Bruisten, Margriet Mullender, Henry J C de Vries, Susan Gibbs
Organotypic models to investigate host-microbiome interactions are still a challenge for the field of tissue engineering. This is particularly the case for organs such as the urethra. Several cell line, animal and tissue models are available to study C. trachomatis infections, but none fully reflect natural infection in native human tissue. Therefore, we developed an organotypic reconstructed human urethral model (RhU) to study invasive and non-invasive strains of C. trachomatis. Primary urethra cells were used to reconstruct epithelium on a fibroblast populated collagen-fibrin hydrogel, yielding a RhU...
May 24, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792343/plasma-initiated-graft-polymerization-as-an-immobilization-platform-for-metal-free-russian-propolis-ethanol-extracts-designed-specifically-for-biomaterials
#5
Ashwin Ambi, Carolina Vera, Nisharg Parikh, Naidel Perez, Anthony Lopez Rojas, Sanket Kumar, Christopher Stradford, Katherine Borbon, Julia Bryan, Christian Traba
The antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of propolis have been intensively reported. However, the application of this folk remedy as a means to prevent biomedical implant contamination has yet to be completely evaluated. In response to the significant resistant and infectious attributes of biofilms, biomaterials engineered to possess specific chemical and physical properties were immobilized with metal free Russian propolis ethanol extracts (MFRPEE), a known antibacterial agent. The results obtained from this study begin to examine the application of MFRPEE as a novel alternative method for the prevention of medical and biomedical implant infections...
May 24, 2018: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791779/a-recent-perspective-on-noncovalently-formed-polymeric-hydrogels
#6
REVIEW
Kun Xue, Sing Shy Liow, Anis Abdul Karim, Zibiao Li, Xian Jun Loh
Chemically crosslinked covalent hydrogels form a permanent and often strong network, and have been extensively used so far in drug delivery and tissue engineering. However, it is more difficult to induce dynamic and highly tunable changes in these hydrogels. Noncovalently formed hydrogels show promise as inherently reversible systems with an ability to change in response to dynamic environments, and have garnered strong interest recently. In this Personal Account, we elucidate a few key attractive properties of noncovalent hydrogels and describe recent developments in hydrogels crosslinked using various different noncovalent interactions...
May 23, 2018: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791489/contractile-force-measurement-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiac-cell-sheet-tissue
#7
Daisuke Sasaki, Katsuhisa Matsuura, Hiroyoshi Seta, Yuji Haraguchi, Teruo Okano, Tatsuya Shimizu
We have developed our original tissue engineering technology "cell sheet engineering" utilizing temperature-responsive culture dishes. The cells are confluently grown on a temperature-responsive culture dish and can be harvested as a cell sheet by lowering temperature without enzymatic digestion. Cell sheets are high-cell-density tissues similar to actual living tissues, maintaining their structure and function. Based on this "cell sheet engineering", we are trying to create functional cardiac tissues from human induced pluripotent stem cells, for regenerative therapy and in vitro drug testing...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790811/nanoscaffolds-in-promoting-regeneration-of-the-peripheral-nervous-system
#8
Chen Aijie, Lai Xuan, Liang Huimin, Zhang Yanli, Kang Yiyuan, Lin Yuqing, Shao Longquan
The ability to surgically repair peripheral nerve injuries is urgently needed. However, traditional tissue engineering techniques, such as autologous nerve transplantation, have some limitations. Therefore, tissue engineered autologous nerve grafts have become a suitable choice for nerve repair. Novel tissue engineering techniques derived from nanostructured conduits have been shown to be superior to other successful functional neurological structures with different scaffolds in terms of providing the required structures and properties...
May 2018: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790699/evaluation-of-the-secretion-and-release-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-from-two-dimensional-culture-and-three-dimensional-cell-spheroids-formed-with-stem-cells-and-osteoprecursor-cells
#9
Hyunjin Lee, Sung-Il Lee, Youngkyung Ko, Jun-Beom Park
BACKGROUND: Co-culture has been applied in cell therapy, including stem cells, and has been reported to give enhanced functionality. OBJECTIVES: In this study, stem-cell spheroids were formed in concave micromolds at different ratios of stem cells to osteoprecursor cells, and the amount of secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Gingiva-derived stem cells and osteoprecursor cells in the amount of 6 × 105 were seeded on a 24-well culture plate or concave micromolds...
May 18, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790251/chitosan-biphasic-calcium-phosphate-scaffolds-functionalized-with-bmp-2-encapsulated-nanoparticles-and-rgd-for-bone-regeneration
#10
Donglin Gan, Min Liu, Tong Xu, Kefeng Wang, Hui Tan, Xiong Lu
The BMP-2 encapsulated BNPs are prepared by a desolvation method, and are further coated by chitosan (CHI) coatings to obtain positively charged NPs (CBNPs). Va The BMP-2 encapsulated BNPs are prepared by a desolvation method, and are further coated by chitosan (CHI) coatings to obtain positively charged NPs (CBNPs) Advancements in bone tissue engineering require the improvement of tissue scaffolds, which should not only exhibit suitable mechanical properties and highly porous structures, but also effectively carry signaling molecules that can mediate bone formation and tissue regeneration...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790247/the-promotion-of-tissue-engineering-blood-vessel-patency-by-cgs21680-through-regulating-pro-inflammatory-activities-of-endothelial-progenitor-cell
#11
Wen Chen, Li Xiao, Jian Bai, Wen Zeng, Mingcan Yang, Bingyi Shi, Chuhong Zhu
The mobilization and homing of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute to the rapid endothelialization of tissue engineering blood vessel (TEBV). Inflammation can affect TEBV patency, and monocytes/macrophages (MM) are the main effector cells. But it is not clear how EPCs interact with MM after TEBV transplantation. Our results showed acellular materials would not directly cause acute and severe inflammatory responses but activate E-selectin expression in homing EPCs, gradually promoting the polarization of MM to the M1...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790095/full-thickness-human-skin-equivalent-models-of-atopic-dermatitis
#12
Gopu Sriram, Paul Lorenz Bigliardi, Mei Bigliardi-Qi
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease caused by complex multifactorial etiology. In the recent years, there have been significant advances in tissue engineering and the generation of in vitro skin models representative of healthy and diseased states. This chapter describes the methodology for the fabrication of in vitro human skin equivalent (HSE) from human keratinocytes and fibroblasts using a fibrin-based dermal matrix and serum-free culture conditions. Modification of the culture conditions with the supplementation of Th2 cytokines such as interleukin-4 induces the development of atopic dermatitis-like skin model...
May 23, 2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790042/orthopaedic-regenerative-tissue-engineering-en-route-to-the-holy-grail-disequilibrium-between-the-demand-and-the-supply-in-the-operating-room
#13
REVIEW
Ibrahim Fatih Cengiz, Hélder Pereira, Laura de Girolamo, Magali Cucchiarini, João Espregueira-Mendes, Rui L Reis, Joaquim Miguel Oliveira
Orthopaedic disorders are very frequent, globally found and often partially unresolved despite the substantial advances in science and medicine. Their surgical intervention is multifarious and the most favourable treatment is chosen by the orthopaedic surgeon on a case-by-case basis depending on a number of factors related with the patient and the lesion. Numerous regenerative tissue engineering strategies have been developed and studied extensively in laboratory through in vitro experiments and preclinical in vivo trials with various established animal models, while a small proportion of them reached the operating room...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789979/model-of-dissolution-in-the-framework-of-tissue-engineering-and-drug-delivery
#14
J A Sanz-Herrera, L Soria, E Reina-Romo, Y Torres, A R Boccaccini
Dissolution phenomena are ubiquitously present in biomaterials in many different fields. Despite the advantages of simulation-based design of biomaterials in medical applications, additional efforts are needed to derive reliable models which describe the process of dissolution. A phenomenologically based model, available for simulation of dissolution in biomaterials, is introduced in this paper. The model turns into a set of reaction-diffusion equations implemented in a finite element numerical framework. First, a parametric analysis is conducted in order to explore the role of model parameters on the overall dissolution process...
May 22, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788407/deregulation-of-sgk1-in-ulcerative-colitis-a-paradoxical-relationship-between-immune-cells-and-colonic-epithelial-cells
#15
Rocco Spagnuolo, Vincenzo Dattilo, Lucia D'Antona, Cristina Cosco, Rossana Tallerico, Valeria Ventura, Francesco Conforti, Caterina Camastra, Rosellina M Mancina, Giada Catalogna, Vincenzo Cosco, Rodolfo Iuliano, Ennio Carbone, Nicola Perrotti, Rosario Amato, Patrizia Doldo
Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is due to the interaction of genetic and environmental factors that trigger an unbalanced immune response ultimately resulting in the peculiar inflammatory reaction. Experimental models of IBD point to a role of T-cell-derived cytokines (Th17) and to SGK1 as mediator of the Th17 switch. We hypothesize that SGK1, a salt inducible kinase, directs lymphocytic behavior and tissue damage. Methods: Eleven controls and 32 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients were randomized according to endoscopic Mayo score...
May 18, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788236/a-novel-adeno-associated-virus-capsid-with-enhanced-neurotropism-corrects-a-lysosomal-transmembrane-enzyme-deficiency
#16
Julie Tordo, Claire O'Leary, André S L M Antunes, Nuria Palomar, Patrick Aldrin-Kirk, Mark Basche, Antonette Bennett, Zelpha D'Souza, Hélène Gleitz, Annie Godwin, Rebecca J Holley, Helen Parker, Ai Yin Liao, Paul Rouse, Amir Saam Youshani, Larbi Dridi, Carla Martins, Thierry Levade, Kevin B Stacey, Daniel M Davis, Adam Dyer, Nathalie Clément, Tomas Björklund, Robin R Ali, Mavis Agbandje-McKenna, Ahad A Rahim, Alexey Pshezhetsky, Simon N Waddington, R Michael Linden, Brian W Bigger, Els Henckaerts
Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are popular in vivo gene transfer vehicles. However, vector doses needed to achieve therapeutic effect are high and some target tissues in the central nervous system remain difficult to transduce. Gene therapy trials using AAV for the treatment of neurological disorders have seldom led to demonstrated clinical efficacy. Important contributing factors are low transduction rates and inefficient distribution of the vector. To overcome these hurdles, a variety of capsid engineering methods have been utilized to generate capsids with improved transduction properties...
May 16, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787672/oxidized-nanocarbons-tripeptide-supramolecular-hydrogels-shape-matters
#17
Daniel Iglesias, Manuel Melle-Franco, Marina Kurbasic, Michele Melchionna, Michela Abrami, Mario Grassi, Maurizio Prato, Silvia Marchesan
Short peptide hydrogels are attractive biomaterials but typically suffer from limited mechanical properties. Inclusion of other nanomaterials can serve the dual purpose of hydrogel reinforcement and of conferring additional physico-chemical properties ( e.g., self-healing, conductivity), as long as they do not hamper peptide self-assembly. In particular, nanocarbons are ideal candidates and their physico-chemical properties have demonstrated great potential in nanocarbon-polymer gel biomaterials for tissue engineering or drug delivery...
May 22, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787331/a-customizable-low-cost-perfusion-system-for-sustaining-tissue-constructs
#18
Brian O'Grady, Jason Wang, Shannon Faley, Daniel Balikov, Ethan Lippmann, Leon M Bellan
The fabrication of engineered vascularized tissues and organs requiring sustained, controlled perfusion has been facilitated by the development of several pump systems. Currently, researchers in the field of tissue engineering require the use of pump systems that are in general large, expensive, and generically designed. Overall, these pumps often fail to meet the unique demands of perfusing clinically useful tissue constructs. Here, we describe a pumping platform that overcomes these limitations and enables scalable perfusion of large, three-dimensional hydrogels...
May 1, 2018: SLAS Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787260/recent-advances-in-biodegradable-conducting-polymers-and-their-biomedical-applications
#19
Kenry, Bin Liu
The growing importance of biodegradable conducting polymers (CPs) have fueled the rapid development of this unique class of polymeric materials in recent years. Possessing both the electrical conductivity approaching those of metallic conductors and the biodegradability of biocompatible polymers, biodegradable CPs are highly sought after. In fact, they have emerged as the ideal biomaterials, having immense potential for augmenting a wide range of practical biomedical applications. Herein, we provide a broad overview of recent advances in the development of biodegradable CPs and their biomedical applications...
May 22, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786794/protocols-for-studies-on-genetically-engineered-mouse-models-in-prostate-cancer
#20
Chris W D Armstrong, Oksana Lyubomska, Melissa J LaBonte, David J J Waugh
Cancer studies have entered an era that is heavily focused on the contribution of the tumor microenvironment. For this reason, in vivo experimentation in an immunodeficient model system is no longer fit for purpose. As a consequence, numerous genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) which self-develop tumors have been developed to allow experiments to be performed in a fully immunocompetent setting. One of the most commonly used technologies is Cre-loxP recombination due to its unique ability to control target gene expression in a specified tissue type...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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