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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446009/applications-of-microfluidic-devices-for-urology
#1
REVIEW
Se Jik Han, Hun-Kuk Park, Kyung Sook Kim
Microfluidics is considered an important technology that is suitable for numerous biomedical applications, including cancer diagnosis, metastasis, drug delivery, and tissue engineering. Although microfluidics is still considered to be a new approach in urological research, several pioneering studies have been reported in recent years. In this paper, we reviewed urological research works using microfluidic devices. Microfluidic devices were used for the detection of prostate and bladder cancer and the characterization of cancer microenvironments...
April 2017: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445803/jetvalve-rapid-manufacturing-of-biohybrid-scaffolds-for-biomimetic-heart-valve-replacement
#2
Andrew K Capulli, Maximillian Y Emmert, Francesco S Pasqualini, Debora Kehl, Etem Caliskan, Johan U Lind, Sean P Sheehy, Sung Jin Park, Seungkuk Ahn, Benedikt Weber, Josue A Goss, Simon P Hoerstrup, Kevin Kit Parker
Tissue engineered scaffolds have emerged as a promising solution for heart valve replacement because of their potential for regeneration. However, traditional heart valve tissue engineering has relied on resource-intensive, cell-based manufacturing, which increases cost and hinders clinical translation. To overcome these limitations, in situ tissue engineering approaches aim to develop scaffold materials and manufacturing processes that elicit endogenous tissue remodeling and repair. Yet despite recent advances in synthetic materials manufacturing, there remains a lack of cell-free, automated approaches for rapidly producing biomimetic heart valve scaffolds...
April 18, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445607/fractal-characteristics-of-the-microvascular-network-a-useful-index-to-assess-vascularization-level-of-porous-silk-fibroin-biomaterial
#3
Kuihua Zhan, Lun Bai, Qinqin Wu, Derong Lei, Guangqian Wang
The neovascularization of biomaterials for tissue engineering is not only related to growth of capillaries but also involves appropriate hierarchy distribution of the microvessels. In this study, we proposed hierarchy distribution contrast method which can assess vascular transport capacity, in order to examine the hierarchy distribution of the neovessels during vascularization of the porous silk fibroin biomaterials implanted into rats and its evolution. The results showed that the fractal characteristics appeared toward the end of the vascularization stages, and the structure of the microvascular network after 3 weeks of implantation was similar to the fractal microvascular tree with bifurcation exponent x=3 and fractal dimension D=1...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445526/biosynthesis-of-the-oxygenated-diterpene-nezukol-in-the-medicinal-plant-isodon-rubescens-is-catalyzed-by-a-pair-of-diterpene-synthases
#4
Kyle A Pelot, David M Hagelthorn, J Bennett Addison, Philipp Zerbe
Plants produce an immense diversity of natural products (i.e. secondary or specialized metabolites) that offer a rich source of known and potentially new pharmaceuticals and other desirable bioproducts. The Traditional Chinese Medicinal plant Isodon rubescens (Lamiaceae) contains an array of bioactive labdane-related diterpenoid natural products. Of these, the ent-kauranoid oridonin is the most prominent specialized metabolite that has been extensively studied for its potent antimicrobial and anticancer efficacy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445366/biomechanical-integrity-in-craniofacial-surgery-calvarial-reconstruction-in-favorable-and-infected-defects-with-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2
#5
Zoe M MacIsaac, Sarah E Henderson, Sameer Shakir, Sanjay Naran, Darren M Smith, Liliana Camison, James J Cray, Alejandro J Almarza, Gregory M Cooper, Joseph E Losee
BACKGROUND: The limitations of autologous and alloplastic reconstruction for craniofacial bone defects have created a clinical need for viable tissue-engineering strategies. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) has shown promise in this setting. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term biomechanical properties of rhBMP-2-mediated calvarial reconstruction. METHODS: Twelve-week-old New Zealand White rabbits underwent subtotal calvarectomy...
May 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444473/contrasting-effects-of-engineered-carbon-nanotubes-on-plants-a-review
#6
Meththika Vithanage, Mihiri Seneviratne, Mahtab Ahmad, Binoy Sarkar, Yong Sik Ok
Rapid surge of interest for carbon nanotube (CNT) in the last decade has made it an imperative member of nanomaterial family. Because of the distinctive physicochemical properties, CNTs are widely used in a number of scientific applications including plant sciences. This review mainly describes the role of CNT in plant sciences. Contradictory effects of CNT on plants physiology are reported. CNT can act as plant growth inducer causing enhanced plant dry biomass and root/shoot lengths. At the same time, CNT can cause negative effects on plants by forming reactive oxygen species in plant tissues, consequently leading to cell death...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443322/crassulacean-acid-metabolism-as-a-continuous-trait-variability-in-the-contribution-of-crassulacean-acid-metabolism-cam-in-populations-of-portulacaria-afra
#7
Lonnie J Guralnick, Kate Gladsky
Portulacaria afra L. is a dominant facultative CAM species growing in the Southeastern Cape of South Africa. P. afra is well adapted to regions of the Spekboom thicket in areas of limited and sporadic rainfall. P. afra populations occur in isolated drainages. We hypothesized the utilization of CAM would vary in the different populations in response to rainfall and temperature gradients. Carbon isotope composition can be used to determine the contribution of CAM in leaf tissue. P. afra leaves of populations were analyzed in transects running south to north and east to west in locations from the coast to elevations of 1400 m...
April 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443125/viral-vectors-for-plant-genome-engineering
#8
REVIEW
Syed Shan-E-Ali Zaidi, Shahid Mansoor
Recent advances in genome engineering (GE) has made it possible to precisely alter DNA sequences in plant cells, providing specifically engineered plants with traits of interest. Gene targeting efficiency depends on the delivery-method of both sequence-specific nucleases and repair templates, to plant cells. Typically, this is achieved using Agrobacterium mediated transformation or particle bombardment, both of which transform only a subset of cells in treated tissues. The alternate in planta approaches, stably integrating nuclease-encoding cassettes and repair templates into the plant genome, are time consuming, expensive and require extra regulations...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442778/as-a-carrier-transporter-for-hair-follicle-reconstitution-platelet-rich-plasma-promotes-proliferation-and-induction-of-mouse-dermal-papilla-cells
#9
Shun-E Xiao, Yong Miao, Jin Wang, Wei Jiang, Zhe-Xiang Fan, Xiao-Min Liu, Zhi-Qi Hu
Morphogenesis of hair follicles during development and in hair reconstitution assays involves complex interactions between epithelial cells and dermal papilla cells (DPCs). DPCs may be a source of cells for hair regeneration in alopecia patients. Reconstitution of engineered hair follicles requires in vitro culture of trichogenic cells, a three-dimensional scaffolds, and biomolecular signals. However, DPCs tend to lose their biological activity when cultured as trichogenic cells, and scaffolds currently used for hair follicle regeneration lack biological efficiency and biocompatibility...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442664/induction-of-neural-crest-cells-from-human-dental-pulp-derived-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#10
Eisuke Kawano, Taku Toriumi, Shinya Iguchi, Daigo Suzuki, Shuichi Sato, Masaki Honda
We previously generated induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from human dental pulp cells of deciduous teeth. Neural crest cells (NCCs) play a vital role in the development of the oral and maxillofacial region. Therefore, NCCs represent a cell source for bone, cartilage, and tooth-related tissue engineering. In this study, we examined whether iPS cells are capable of differentiating into NCCs through modification of the human embryonic stem cell protocol. First, iPS cells were dissociated into single cells and then reaggregated in low-cell-adhesion plates with neural induction medium for 8 days in suspension culture to form neurospheres...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442371/dynamites-a-dynamic-cell-culture-platform-for-in-vitro-drug-testing-part-1-engineering-of-microfluidic-system-and-technical-simulations
#11
Kai Mattern, Nicole Beißner, Stephan Reichl, Andreas Dietzel
Conventional safety and efficacy test models, such as animal experiments or static in vitro cell culture models, can often not reliably predict the most promising drug candidates. Therefore, a novel microfluidic cell culture platform, called Dynamic Micro Tissue Engineering System (DynaMiTES), was designed to allow online analysis of drugs permeating through barrier forming tissues under dynamic conditions combined with monitoring of the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) by electrodes optimized for homogeneous current distribution...
April 22, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441344/collagenous-extracellular-matrix-biomaterials-for-tissue-engineering-lessons-from-the-common-sea-urchin-tissue
#12
REVIEW
Kheng Lim Goh, David F Holmes
Scaffolds for tissue engineering application may be made from a collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) of connective tissues because the ECM can mimic the functions of the target tissue. The primary sources of collagenous ECM material are calf skin and bone. However, these sources are associated with the risk of having bovine spongiform encephalopathy or transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. Alternative sources for collagenous ECM materials may be derived from livestock, e.g., pigs, and from marine animals, e...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440915/unravelling-the-impact-of-lignin-on-cell-wall-mechanics-a-comprehensive-study-on-young-poplar-trees-downregulated-for-cinnamyl-alcohol-dehyrogenase-cad
#13
M Özparpucu, M Rüggeberg, N Gierlinger, I Cesarino, R Vanholme, W Boerjan, I Burgert
Lignin engineering is a promising tool to reduce the energy input and the need of chemical pre-treatments for the efficient conversion of plant biomass into fermentable sugars for downstream applications. At the same time, lignin engineering can offer new insight into structure-function relationships of plant cell walls by combined mechanical, structural and chemical analyses. Here, such a comprehensive approach was applied on poplar trees (Populus tremula x Populus alba) downregulated for CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE (CAD) for gaining insight into the impact of lignin reduction on mechanical properties...
April 25, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440798/improved-gene-delivery-to-adult-mouse-spinal-cord-through-the-use-of-engineered-hybrid-adeno-associated-viral-serotypes
#14
J J Siu, N J Queen, W Huang, F Q Yin, X Liu, C Wang, D M McTigue, L Cao
Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors are often used in gene therapy for neurological disorders because of its safety profile and promising results in clinical trials. One challenge to AAV gene therapy is effective transduction of large numbers of the appropriate cell type, which can be overcome by modulating the viral capsid through DNA shuffling. Our previous study demonstrates that Rec2, among a family of novel engineered hybrid capsid serotypes (Rec1~4) transduces adipose tissue with far superior efficiency than naturally occurring AAV serotypes...
April 25, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439853/crispr-cas-mediated-in-planta-gene-targeting
#15
Simon Schiml, Friedrich Fauser, Holger Puchta
The recent emergence of the CRISPR/Cas system has boosted the possibilities for precise genome engineering approaches throughout all kingdoms of life. The most common application for plants is targeted mutagenesis, whereby a Cas9-mediated DNA double-strand break (DSB) is repaired by mutagenic nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). However, the site-specific alteration of a genomic sequence or integration of a transgene relies on the precise repair by homologous recombination (HR) using a suitable donor sequence: this poses a particular challenge in plants, as NHEJ is the preferred repair mechanism for DSBs in somatic tissue...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438703/multilayered-membranes-with-tuned-well-arrays-to-be-used-as-regenerative-patches
#16
Nádia I Martins, Maria P Sousa, Catarina A Custódio, Vânia C Pinto, Paulo J Sousa, Graça Minas, Franck Cleymand, João F Mano
Membranes have been explored as patches in tissue repair and regeneration, most of them presenting a flat geometry or a patterned texture at the nano/micrometer scale. Herein, a new concept of a flexible membrane featuring well arrays forming pore-like environments to accommodate cell culture is proposed. The processing of such membranes using polysaccharides is based on the production of multilayers using the layer-by-layer methodology over a patterned PDMS substrate. The detached multilayered membrane exhibits a layer of open pores at one side and a total thickness of 38 ± 2...
April 21, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438025/fusion-of-polymeric-material-binding-peptide-to-cell-adhesion-artificial-proteins-enhances-their-biological-function
#17
Tomonori Waku, Yuko Imanishi, Yuta Yoshino, Shigeru Kunugi, Takeshi Serizawa, Naoki Tanaka
Orientation-controlled protein immobilization on a solid substrate surface is important for the development of biomedical materials such as scaffolds used in tissue engineering. In this study, the authors demonstrated that the introduction of material-binding peptides (MBPs) in Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-fused artificial proteins called blocking peptide fragment (BPF), which are fragments (residues 419-607) of the molecular chaperone DnaK, enhances the oriented adsorption of proteins on the polymer surface and improves their cell adhesion capability...
April 24, 2017: Biointerphases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437614/engineering-highly-interconnected-neuronal-networks-on-nanowire-scaffolds
#18
Vini Gautam, Shagufta Naureen, Naeem Shahid, Qian Gao, Yi Wang, David R Nisbet, Chennupati Jagadish, Vincent R Daria
Identifying the specific role of physical guidance cues in the growth of neurons is crucial for understanding the fundamental biology of brain development and for designing scaffolds for tissue engineering. Here, we investigate the structural significance of nanoscale topographies as physical cues for neurite outgrowth and circuit formation by growing neurons on semiconductor nanowires. We monitored neurite growth using optical and scanning electron microscopy, and evaluated the spontaneous neuronal network activity using functional calcium imaging...
April 24, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437235/breast-augmentation-and-reconstruction-from-a-regenerative-medicine-point-of-view-state-of-the-art-and-future-perspectives
#19
Luke Evan Visscher, Matthew Cheng, Mohit Chhaya, Madeline Louise Hintz, Jan-Thorsten Schantz, Phong Tran, Owen Ung, Clement Wong, Dietmar Werner Hutmacher
Breast reconstruction and augmentation are very common procedures, yet the prevailing current methods utilize silicone implants that may have significant local complications requiring reoperation. Lipofillling is increasingly used to contour and is considered safe, however its utility is limited by significant volume loss. A new approach could offer an alternative and increase the scope of patient choice. A small number of teams around the world are investigating a breast tissue-engineering paradigm. Conventional breast tissue engineering concepts are based on seeding a scaffold with the patients' own stem cells...
February 24, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437180/a-novel-drug-induced-hybrid-electrospun-pcl-cell-derived-ecm-scaffold-for-liver-tissue-engineering
#20
Rhiannon Grant, David Hay, Anthony Callanan
Liver transplant is the only treatment option for patients with end-stage liver failure, however there are too few donor livers available for transplant. Whole organ tissue engineering presents a potential solution to the problem of rapidly escalating donor liver shortages world-wide. A major challenge for liver tissue engineers is the creation of a hepatocyte micro-environment; a niche in which liver cells can survive and function optimally. While polymers and decellularized tissues pose an attractive option for scaffold manufacturing, neither alone has thus far proved sufficient...
February 24, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
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