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Tissue engineering

Pei-Tseng Lee, Jonathan Zirin, Oguz Kanca, Wen-Wen Lin, Karen L Schulze, David Li-Kroeger, Rong Tao, Colby Devereaux, Yanhui Hu, Verena Chung, Ying Fang, Yuchun He, Hongling Pan, Ming Ge, Zhongyuan Zuo, Benjamin E Housden, Stephanie E Mohr, Shinya Yamamoto, Robert W Levis, Allan C Spradling, Norbert Perrimon, Hugo J Bellen
We generated a library of ~1,000 Drosophila stocks in which we inserted a construct in the intron of genes allowing expression of GAL4 under control of endogenous promoters while arresting transcription with a polyadenylation signal 3' of the GAL4. This allows numerous applications. First, ~90% of insertions in essential genes cause a severe loss-of-function phenotype, an effective way to mutagenize genes. Interestingly, 12/14 chromosomes engineered through CRISPR do not carry second-site lethal mutations. Second, 26/36(70%) of lethal insertions tested are rescued with a single UAS- cDNA construct...
March 22, 2018: ELife
Xiaozhao Wang, Zun Chen, Beibei Zhou, Xiyue Duan, Wen-Jian Weng, Kui Cheng, Huiming Wang, Jun Lin
Extracellular matrix (ECM) provides a dynamic and complex environment to determine the fate of stem cells. In this work, in vitro cultured cell sheets were treated with paraformaldehyde or ethanol and eventually become ECM. Such ECM was then immobilized on titanium substrates via polydopamine chemistry. Their effects on bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) behaviors were investigated. It was found that paraformaldehyde treated ECM coatings (PT-ECM) showed well-maintained microstructure, whereas that of ethanol treated (ET-ECM) were completely changed...
March 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Zhilan Ye, Tao Zhang, Wenshan He, Honglin Jin, Cuiwei Liu, Zhe Yang, Jinghua Ren
Despite promising in-vitro evidence for effective glioblastoma treatment, most drugs are hindered from entering the central nervous system due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Thus, successful modification of drug delivery and novel therapeutic strategies are needed to overcome this obstacle. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), cell-derived membrane-encapsulated structures with diameters ranging from 50-1000 nm, have been explored as drug delivery system to deliver their cargo to the brain tissue...
March 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Sarath Chandra Veerla, Da Reum Kim, Sung Yun Yang
Background: Controlled drug delivery system is highly important for not only prolonged the efficacy of drug but also cellular development for tissue engineering. A number of biopolymer composites and nanostructured carriers behave been used for the controlled drug delivery of therapeutics. Recently, in vitro microfluidic devices that mimic the human body have been developed for drug-delivery applications. Methods: A microfluidic channel was fabricated via a two-step process: (i) polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) and curing agent were poured with a 10:2 mass ratio onto an acrylic mold with two steel pipes, and (ii) calcium alginate beads were synthesized using sodium alginate and calcium chloride solutions...
2018: Biomaterials Research
G Kate Park, Hoseok, Gaon Sandy Kim, Nathaniel S Hwang, Hak Soo Choi
Cell-based therapies hold great potential to treat a wide range of human diseases, yet the mechanisms responsible for cell migration and homing are not fully understood. Emerging molecular imaging technology enables in vivo tracking of transplanted cells and their therapeutic efficacy, which together will improve the clinical outcome of cell-based therapy. Particularly, optical imaging provides highly sensitive, safe (non-radioactive), cost-effective, and fast solutions for real-time cellular trafficking compared to other conventional molecular imaging modalities...
2018: Applied Spectroscopy Reviews
J Scott Crowe, Kevin J Roberts, Timothy M Carlton, Luana Maggiore, Marion F Cubitt, Simon Clare, Katherine Harcourt, Jill Reckless, Thomas T MacDonald, Keith P Ray, Anna Vossenkämper, Michael R West
TNFα is an important cytokine in inflammatory bowel disease. V565 is a novel anti-TNFα domain antibody developed for oral administration in IBD patients, derived from a llama domain antibody and engineered to enhance intestinal protease resistance. V565 activity was evaluated in TNFα-TNFα receptor-binding ELISAs as well as TNFα responsive cellular assays and demonstrated neutralisation of both soluble and membrane TNFα with potencies similar to those of adalimumab. Although sensitive to pepsin, V565 retained activity after lengthy incubations with trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pancreatin, as well as mouse small intestinal and human ileal and faecal supernatants...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lucie Bacakova, Jana Zarubova, Martina Travnickova, Jana Musilkova, Julia Pajorova, Petr Slepicka, Nikola Slepickova Kasalkova, Vaclav Svorcik, Zdenka Kolska, Hooman Motarjemi, Martin Molitor
Stem cells can be defined as units of biological organization that are responsible for the development and the regeneration of organ and tissue systems. They are able to renew their populations and to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Therefore, these cells have great potential in advanced tissue engineering and cell therapies. When seeded on synthetic or nature-derived scaffolds in vitro, stem cells can be differentiated towards the desired phenotype by an appropriate composition, by an appropriate architecture, and by appropriate physicochemical and mechanical properties of the scaffolds, particularly if the scaffold properties are combined with a suitable composition of cell culture media, and with suitable mechanical, electrical or magnetic stimulation...
March 18, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Evelia Y Salinas, Jerry C Hu, Kyriacos A Athanasiou
The use of tissue-engineered articular cartilage (AC) constructs has the potential to become a powerful treatment option for cartilage lesions resulting from trauma or early stages of pathology. Although fundamental tissue-engineering strategies based on the use of scaffolds, cells, and signals have been developed, techniques that lead to biomimetic AC constructs that can be translated to in-vivo use have yet to be fully confirmed. Mechanical stimulation during tissue culture can be an effective strategy to enhance the mechanical, structural, and cellular properties of tissue-engineered constructs toward mimicking those of native AC...
March 21, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Adhi Anindyajati, Philip Boughton, Andrew J Ruys
Electrospun fibres have gained broad interest in biomedical applications, including tissue engineering scaffolds, due to their potential in mimicking extracellular matrix and producing structures favourable for cell and tissue growth. The development of scaffolds often involves multivariate production parameters and multiple output characteristics to define product quality. In this study on electrospinning of polycaprolactone (PCL), response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to investigate the determining parameters and find optimal settings to achieve the desired properties of fibrous scaffold for acetabular labrum implant...
March 17, 2018: Materials
Jie Gao, Jun Li, Wen-Chao Geng, Fang-Yuan Chen, Xingchen Duan, Zhe Zheng, Dan Ding, Dong-Sheng Guo
Activatable phototheranostics is highly appealing to meet the demand of precision medicine. However, although displaying the efficacy in construction of activatable photosensitizers (PSs), direct covalent decoration still shows some inevitable issues, such as complex molecular design, tedious synthesis, possible photoactivity changes and potential toxicity. Herein, we propose a novel concept of biomarker displacement activation (BDA) using host-guest strategy. To exemplify BDA, we engineered a PS-loaded nanocarrier by utilizing a macrocyclic amphiphile, where the fluorescence and photoactivity of PS were completely annihilated by the complexation of macrocyclic receptor (OFF state)...
March 21, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Eduardo Guisasola, Laura Asín, Lillianne Beola, Jesús M De La Fuente, Alejandro Baeza, María Vallet Regí
This work presents an innovation in the tumor treatment in vivo mediated by magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MMSNs). This device was built with iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles embedded in a mesoporous silica matrix and coated with an engineered thermoresponsive polymer. The magnetic nanoparticles act as internal heating sources under an alternating magnetic field (AMF) that increase the temperature of the surroundings, provoking the polymer transition and consequently the release of a drug trapped inside the silica pores...
March 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Andres Canales, Seongjun Park, Antje Kilias, Polina Anikeeva
Multifunctional devices for modulation and probing of neuronal activity during free behavior facilitate studies of functions and pathologies of the nervous system. Probes composed of stiff materials, such as metals and semiconductors, exhibit elastic and chemical mismatch with the neural tissue, which is hypothesized to contribute to sustained tissue damage and gliosis. Dense glial scars have been found to encapsulate implanted devices, corrode their surfaces, and often yield poor recording quality in long-term experiments...
March 21, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Melanie Laura Lawrence, James R Smith, Jamie Andrew Davies
The mesonephros of mammals is a transient renal structure that contributes to various aspects of mammalian fetal development including the male reproductive system, hematopoietic stem cells and vascular endothelial cells. The mesonephros develops from the intermediate mesoderm and forms tubules that are segmented in a similar way to the nephrons of the permanent kidney (but lacking loops of Henle). Early studies have suggested that the mesonephros in marsupials and some placental mammals may perform an excretory function, but these studies have not directly shown active transport of organic anions and cations...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Jeong In Kim, Cheol Sang Kim
The cells respond to their microenvironment which is comparable size to the cells. The macroscale features of three dimensional (3D) printing struts (PS) typically result in whole cell contact guidance (CCG). In contrast, at the nanoscale, where features are similar size to receptors of the cells, the response of cells is more complex. In detail, integrin that is one of the cellular receptors involved with cell adhesion is recognized as communication channels through that the cells interact with adjacent surface features...
March 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xiaowei Wu, Shang Zheng, Yuanzhou Ye, Yuchen Wu, Kaili Lin, Jiansheng Su
The reconstruction of bone defects by guiding autologous bone tissue regeneration with artificial biomaterials is a potential strategy in the area of bone tissue engineering. The development of new polymers with good biocompatibility, favorable mechanical properties, and osteoinductivity is of vital importance. Graphene and its derivatives have attracted extensive interests due to the exceptional physiochemical and biological properties of graphene. In this study, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) films incorporated by graphene nanoplates were fabricated...
March 21, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Linlin Yang, Jun Zhao, Xinling Yu, Ruilong Zhang, Guangmei Han, Renyong Liu, Zhengjie Liu, Tingting Zhao, Ming-Yong Han, Zhongping Zhang
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a key signaling molecule in the cytoprotection, vascular mediation and neurotransmission of living organisms. In-depth understanding of its production, trafficking, and transformation in cells is very important in the way H2S mediates cellular signal transductions and organism functions; it also motivates the development of H2S probes and imaging technologies. A fundamental challenge, however, is how to engineer probes with sensitivity and cellular penetrability that allow detection of spontaneous production of H2S in the entire cell space and live animals...
March 21, 2018: Analyst
Sarah E Motta, Emanuela S Fioretta, Petra E Dijkman, Valentina Lintas, Luc Behr, Simon P Hoerstrup, Maximilian Y Emmert
Tissue-engineered heart valves with self-repair and regeneration properties may overcome the problem of long-term degeneration of currently used artificial prostheses. The aim of this study was the development and in vivo proof-of-concept of next-generation off-the-shelf tissue-engineered sinus valve (TESV) for transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (TPVR). Transcatheter implantation of off-the-shelf TESVs was performed in a translational sheep model for up to 16 weeks. Transapical delivery of TESVs was successful and showed good acute and short-term performance (up to 8 weeks), which then worsened over time most likely due to a non-optimized in vitro valve design...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
Andrea Pacifici, Luigi Laino, Marco Gargari, Federico Guzzo, Andrea Velandia Luz, Antonella Polimeni, Luciano Pacifici
Nowadays, autograft and allograft techniques represent the main solution to improve bone repair. Unfortunately, autograft technique is expensive, invasive and subject to infections and hematoma, frequently affecting both donor sites and surgical sites. A recent advance in tissue engineering is the fabrication of cell-laden hydrogels with custom-made geometry, depending on the clinical case. The use of ECM (Extra-Cellular Matrix)-derived Hydrogels from bone tissue is the new opportunity to obtain good results in bone regeneration...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Shadpour Mallakpour, Elham Khadem
Chitosan nanocomposites containing 2, 5, 8 wt% of calcium carbonate-γ-aminopropyl triethoxy silane (CS/CC-ATS NCs) were prepared by ultrasonic irradiation. After characterizing of physicochemical properties of the obtained CS/CC-ATS NCs, their performance was evaluated for both the bone-like apatite mineralization and the removal of Cu(II). The field emission-scanning electron microscopy images from the in vitro bioactivity of the CS and the CS/CC-ATS NC 5 wt% displayed that the hydroxyapatite was produced on the samples surface...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Michael Mader, Valerie Jerome, Ruth Freitag, Seema Agarwal, Andreas Greiner
Ultraporous, biodegradable sponges made of either polylactide or of blends of polylactide/poly(ε caprolactone) are prepared by freeze-drying of dispersions of short electrospun fibers and subsequent thermal annealing. The sponges feature ultrahigh porosity (99.6 %), a hierarchical cellular structure, and high reversible compressibility with fast recovery from deformation in the dry as well as in wet state. The sponge properties depend on the fiber dispersion concentration and the annealing temperature. Sponge characteristics like fiber density (2...
March 20, 2018: Biomacromolecules
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