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Tissue engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103515/strong-synergistic-effects-in-pla-pcl-blends-impact-of-pla-matrix-viscosity
#1
Aleksandra Ostafinska, Ivan Fortelný, Jiří Hodan, Sabina Krejčíková, Martina Nevoralová, Jana Kredatusová, Zdeněk Kruliš, Jiří Kotek, Miroslav Šlouf
Blends of two biodegradable polymers, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL), with strong synergistic improvement in mechanical performance were prepared by melt-mixing using the optimized composition (80/20) and the optimized preparation procedure (a melt-mixing followed by a compression molding) according to our previous study. Three different PLA polymers were employed, whose viscosity decreased in the following order: PLC ≈ PLA1 > PLA2 > PLA3. The blends with the highest viscosity matrix (PLA1/PCL) exhibited the smallest PCL particles (d∼0...
January 10, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103423/adipose-derived-perivascular-mesenchymal-stromal-stem-cells-promote-functional-vascular-tissue-engineering-for-cardiac-regenerative-purposes
#2
Justin Morrissette-McAlmon, Adriana Blazeski, Sarah Somers, Geran Kostecki, Leslie Tung, Warren L Grayson
Cardiac tissue engineering approaches have the potential to regenerate functional myocardium with intrinsic vascular networks. In this study, we compared the relative effects of human adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (hASCs) and human dermal fibroblasts (hDFs) in co-cultures with neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVCMs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We found that at the same ratios of NRVCM:hASC and NRVCM:hDF, the hASC co-cultures displayed shorter action potentials and maintained capture at faster pacing rates...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103270/cold-atmospheric-plasma-created-at-the-tip-of-an-elongated-flexible-capillary-using-low-electric-current-can-slow-the-progression-of-melanoma
#3
Y Binenbaum, G Ben-David, Z Gil, Ya Z Slutsker, M A Ryzhkov, J Felsteiner, Ya E Krasik, J T Cohen
INTRODUCTION: Cold Atmospheric Plasma Jet (CAPJ), with ion temperature close to room temperature, has tremendous potential in biomedical engineering, and can potentially offer a therapeutic option that allows cancer cell elimination without damaging healthy tissue. We developed a hand-held flexible device for the delivery of CAPJ to the treatment site, with a modified high-frequency pulse generator operating at a RMS voltage of <1.2 kV and gas flow in the range 0.3-3 l/min. The aims of our study were to characterize the CAPJ emitted from the device, and to evaluate its efficacy in elimination of cancer cells in-vitro and in-vivo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103165/burn-wound-healing-present-concepts-treatment-strategies-and-future-directions
#4
A Oryan, E Alemzadeh, A Moshiri
Burns are the most extensive forms of soft tissue injuries occasionally resulting in extensive and deep wounds and death. Burns can lead to severe mental and emotional distress, because of excessive scarring and skin contractures. Treatment of burns has always been a difficult medical problem and many different methods have been used to treat such injuries, locally. Biofilms are a collection of microorganisms that delay wound healing. One of the new methods of prevention and treatment of burn wound infections is application of antimicrobials, which act on biofilms and prevent the wound infection...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102640/activated-macrophages-as-key-mediators-of-capsule-formation-on-adipose-constructs-in-tissue-engineering-chamber-models
#5
Weiqing Zhan, Feng Lu
In plastic and reconstructive field, it would be much beneficial to fabricate an engineered adipose tissue substitute allowing reliable and complete fat tissue regeneration. Tissue engineering chamber (TEC) holds the promise to optimize an adipogenic configuration that is efficacious as well as reproducible. A frequently occurring complication involves the adipose tissue flap encapsulation and, effectively, its shielding, by a thick fibrous membrane, which hinders development into the proliferative stage. The reason for the deposition of the collagen capsule remains unclear...
January 19, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102609/immunogenicity-of-hepatic-differentiated-human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promoted-by-porcine-decellularized-liver-scaffolds
#6
Yi Li, Qiong Wu, Yujia Wang, Li Li, Fei Chen, Yujun Shi, Hong Bu, Ji Bao
Cell-based approaches, including hepatocyte transplantation and tissue-engineered livers, offer promising alternatives and are expected to help support patients with liver diseases until liver transplantation or recovery via regeneration of the damaged liver. However, the success of cell therapies remains dependent on how well the cells are accepted after transplantation and is directly related to their degree of immunogenicity. In this study, hepatic differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) was induced in the traditional monolayer (2D) culture and newly established three-dimensional (3D) aggregation culture with the porcine decellularized liver scaffold (DLS) system (3D-DLS)...
January 19, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102490/genome-engineering-of-stem-cell-organoids-for-disease-modeling
#7
REVIEW
Yingmin Sun, Qiurong Ding
Precision medicine emerges as a new approach that takes into account individual variability. Successful realization of precision medicine requires disease models that are able to incorporate personalized disease information and recapitulate disease development processes at the molecular, cellular and organ levels. With recent development in stem cell field, a variety of tissue organoids can be derived from patient specific pluripotent stem cells and adult stem cells. In combination with the state-of-the-art genome editing tools, organoids can be further engineered to mimic disease-relevant genetic and epigenetic status of a patient...
January 19, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102269/from-morphogen-to-morphogenesis-and-back
#8
Darren Gilmour, Martina Rembold, Maria Leptin
A long-term aim of the life sciences is to understand how organismal shape is encoded by the genome. An important challenge is to identify mechanistic links between the genes that control cell-fate decisions and the cellular machines that generate shape, therefore closing the gap between genotype and phenotype. The logic and mechanisms that integrate these different levels of shape control are beginning to be described, and recently discovered mechanisms of cross-talk and feedback are beginning to explain the remarkable robustness of organ assembly...
January 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101863/lessons-from-animal-models-of-cytoplasmic-intermediate-filament-proteins
#9
Jamal-Eddine Bouameur, Thomas M Magin
Cytoplasmic intermediate filaments (IFs) represent a major cytoskeletal network contributing to cell shape, adhesion and migration as well as to tissue resilience and renewal in numerous bilaterians, including mammals. The observation that IFs are dispensable in cultured mammalian cells, but cause tissue-specific, life-threatening disorders, has pushed the need to investigate their function in vivo. In keeping with human disease, the deletion or mutation of murine IF genes resulted in highly specific pathologies...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101680/application-of-tissue-engineered-bone-grafts-for-alveolar-cleft-osteoplasty-in-a-rodent-model
#10
Paula Korn, Maria Hauptstock, Ursula Range, Christiane Kunert-Keil, Winnie Pradel, Günter Lauer, Matthias C Schulz
OBJECTIVES: The clinical standard for alveolar cleft osteoplasty is augmentation with autologous bone being available in limited amounts and might be associated with donor site morbidity. The aim of the present study was the creation of tissue-engineered bone grafts and their in vivo evaluation regarding their potential to promote osteogenesis in an alveolar cleft model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Artificial bone defects with a diameter of 3.3 mm were created surgically in the palate of 84 adult Lewis rats...
January 18, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100467/an-essential-role-of-cbl-and-cbl-b-ubiquitin-ligases-in-mammary-stem-cell-maintenance
#11
Bhopal Mohapatra, Neha Zutshi, Wei An, Benjamin Goetz, Priyanka Arya, Timothy A Bielecki, Insha Mustaq, Matthew D Storck, Jane L Meza, Vimla Band, Hamid Band
CBL and CBL-B ubiquitin ligases are negative regulators of tyrosine kinase signaling with established roles in the immune system. However, their physiological roles in epithelial tissues are unknown. Here we used the MMTV-Cre-mediated Cbl gene deletion on a Cbl-b-null background as well as a tamoxifen-inducible mammary stem cell (MaSC)-specific Cbl/Cbl-b double knockout (DKO), using Lgr5-GFP-CreERT, to demonstrate a mammary epithelial cell-autonomous requirement of CBL and CBL-B in the maintenance of MaSCs...
January 18, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099936/transcription-factor-hbp1-is-a-direct-anti-cancer-target-of-transcription-factor-foxo1-in-invasive-oral-cancer
#12
Chien-Yi Chan, Shih-Yi Huang, Jim Jinn-Chyuan Sheu, Mendel M Roth, I-Tai Chou, Chia-Hsien Lien, Ming-Fen Lee, Chun-Yin Huang
Either FOXO1 or HBP1 transcription factor is a downstream effector of the PI3K/Akt pathway and associated with tumorigenesis. However, the relationship between FOXO1 and HBP1 in oral cancer remains unclear. Analysis of 30 oral tumor specimens revealed that mean mRNA levels of both FOXO1 and HBP1 in non-invasive and invasive oral tumors were found to be significantly lower than that of the control tissues, and the status of low FOXO1 and HBP1 (< 0.3 fold of the control) was associated with invasiveness of oral tumors...
January 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099503/3d-functional-corneal-stromal-tissue-equivalent-based-on-corneal-stromal-stem-cells-and-multi-layered-silk-film-architecture
#13
Chiara E Ghezzi, Benedetto Marelli, Fiorenzo G Omenetto, James L Funderburgh, David L Kaplan
The worldwide need for human cornea equivalents continues to grow. Few clinical options are limited to allogenic and synthetic material replacements. We hypothesized that tissue engineered human cornea systems based on mechanically robust, patterned, porous, thin, optically clear silk protein films, in combination with human corneal stromal stem cells (hCSSCs), would generate 3D functional corneal stroma tissue equivalents, in comparison to previously developed 2D approaches. Silk film contact guidance was used to control the alignment and distribution of hCSSCs on RGD-treated single porous silk films, which were then stacked in an orthogonally, multi-layered architecture and cultured for 9 weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099082/therapeutics-targeting-drivers-of-thoracic-aortic-aneurysms-and-acute-aortic-dissections-insights-from-predisposing-genes-and-mouse-models
#14
Dianna M Milewicz, Siddharth K Prakash, Francesco Ramirez
Thoracic aortic diseases, including aneurysms and dissections of the thoracic aorta, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Risk factors for thoracic aortic disease include increased hemodynamic forces on the ascending aorta, typically due to poorly controlled hypertension, and heritable genetic variants. The altered genes predisposing to thoracic aortic disease either disrupt smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction or adherence to an impaired extracellular matrix, or decrease canonical transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling...
January 14, 2017: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098598/science-of-intracrinology-in-postmenopausal-women
#15
Fernand Labrie, Alain Bélanger, Georges Pelletier, Céline Martel, David F Archer, Wulf H Utian
OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the marked differences between classical endocrinology that distributes hormones to all tissues of the body through the bloodstream and the science of intracrinology, whereby each cell of each peripheral tissue makes a small and appropriate amount of estrogens and androgens from the inactive precursor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA being mainly of adrenal origin. Because only the inactivated sex steroids are released in the blood, influence in the other tissues is avoided...
January 16, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098565/bio-engineering-tissue-and-v-a-c-therapy-a-new-method-for-the-treatment-of-extensive-necrotizing-infection-in-the-diabetic-foot
#16
Andrea Armenio, Daniela Anna Cutrignelli, Maria Luisa Nardulli, Giulio Maggio, Giuseppe Memeo, Valerio De Santis, Giuseppe Giudice, Cosmo Maurizio Ressa
AIM: The aim of the study is to compare the standard care for progressive necrotizing infection in diabetic foot with a treatment protocol based on the association between autologous fibroblast grafts and vacuum-assisted closure therapy (V.A.C.). MATERIAL OF STUDY: A retrospective matched Case-Control study was carried out on 20 patients with diabetic foot infection, 10 treated with the standard care and 10 with our new protocol. Inclusion criteria were: acute diabetic foot necrosis (Wagner III and IV), ulcer size (30 to 80 cm2), tendon and bone exposure...
December 6, 2016: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098320/versatile-tissue-lasers-based-on-high-q-fabry-p%C3%A3-rot-microcavities
#17
Yu-Cheng Chen, Qiushu Chen, Tingting Zhang, Wenjie Wang, Xudong Fan
Biolasers are an emerging technology for next generation biochemical detection and clinical applications. Progress has recently been made to achieve lasing from biomolecules and single living cells. Tissues, which consist of cells embedded in an extracellular matrix, mimic more closely the actual complex biological environment in a living body and therefore are of more practical significance. Here, we developed a highly versatile tissue laser platform, in which tissues stained with fluorophores are sandwiched in a high-Q Fabry-Pérot microcavity...
January 18, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098313/the-glass-transition-and-interfacial-dynamics-of-single-strand-fibers-of-polymers
#18
Hyun Woo Cho, Bong June Sung
We investigate the glass transition and interfacial dynamics of single strand fibers of flexible polymers by employing molecular dynamics (MD) simulations along with a coarse grained model. While the polymer fiber has drawn significant attention due to its applicability in tissue engineering and stretchable electronics, its dynamic properties, especially the glass transition temperature (Tg), are yet to be understood at the molecular level. For example, there has been a controversy on the effect of the polymer fiber radius (R) on Tg: Tg decreased with a decrease in R for some polymer fibers, whereas Tg of other polymer fibers was not sensitive to R...
January 18, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098169/ifn-%C3%AE-regulates-human-dental-pulp-stem-cells-behavior-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-mapk-signaling
#19
Xinyao He, Wenkai Jiang, Zhirong Luo, Tiejun Qu, Zhihua Wang, Ningning Liu, Yaqing Zhang, Paul R Cooper, Wenxi He
During caries, dental pulp expresses a range of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to the infectious challenge. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is a dimerized soluble cytokine, which is critical for immune responses. Previous study has demonstrated that IFN-γ at relative high concentration (100 ng/mL) treatment improved the impaired dentinogenic and immunosuppressive regulatory functions of disease-derived dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). However, little is known about the regulatory effects of IFN-γ at relative low concentration on healthy DPSC behavior (including proliferation, migration, and multiple-potential differentiation)...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097806/a-silicone-rubber-membrane-with-a-specific-pore-size-enhances-cell-proliferation-and-wound-regeneration-via-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#20
Rui Xu, Yang Bai, Jian Zhao, Hesheng Xia, Yi Kong, Zhihui Yao, Rongshuai Yan, Xiaorong Zhang, Xiaohong Hu, Meixi Liu, Qingwu Yang, Gaoxing Luo, Jun Wu
A porous structure is critically important for wound dressing or tissue engineering scaffolds. However, the influence of the pore sizes on cell proliferation, tissue regeneration and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, silicone rubber membranes with different pore sizes were prepared using certain constituents of liquid silicone rubber (LSR) precursor/ liquid paraffin (LP) /hexane based on our previous studies. It was found that pore size had a significant impact on cell proliferation and wound healing...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
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