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Cheng Fu, Jie Luo, Shaotang Ye, Ziguo Yuan, Shoujun Li
Avian-like H5N1 canine influenza virus (CIV) causes severe respiratory infections in dogs. However, the mechanism underlying H5N1 CIV infection in dogs is unknown. The present study aimed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs in the lungs and trachea in H5N1 CIV-infected dogs through a next-generation sequencing-based method. Eighteen 40-day-old beagles were inoculated intranasally with CIV, A/canine/01/Guangdong/2013 (H5N1) at a tissue culture infectious dose 50 (TCID50 ) of 106 , and lung and tracheal tissues were harvested at 3 and 7 d post-inoculation...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Helmut Trimmel, Christoph Beywinkler, Sonja Hornung, Janett Kreutziger, Wolfgang G Voelckel
BACKGROUND: Competence in emergency airway management is key in order to improve patient safety and outcome. The scope of compulsory training for emergency physicians or paramedics is quite limited, especially in Austria. The purpose of this study was to review the difficult airway management performance of an emergency medical service (EMS) in a region that has implemented a more thorough training program than current regulations require, comprising 3 months of initial training and supervised emergency practice and 3 days/month of on-going in-hospital training as previously reported...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
Aaron Scholl, Yuyang Yang, Patrick McBride, Kelly Irwin, Lan Jiang
The Drosophila trachea is a premier genetic system to investigate the fundamental mechanisms of tubular organ formation. Development of the trachea consists of the well understood early branch specification and migration processes, and the less clear later branch maturation process including the apical membrane expansion, cytoskeleton rearrangement, luminal matrix clearance, and air-filling. We identified seven members of the Osiris (Osi) gene family with obvious tracheal expression in trachea. In addition, HA-tagged Osi proteins are highly concentrated in vesicle-like structures at and near the apical membrane...
March 13, 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Long Jiang, Jun Liu, Diego Gonzalez-Rivas, Yaron Shargall, Martin Kolb, Wenlong Shao, Qinglong Dong, Lixia Liang, Jianxing He
OBJECTIVES: To describe and assess the techniques of spontaneous-ventilation video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (SV-VATS) for tracheal/carinal resections and compare the outcomes with the conventional thoracoscopic intubated method. METHODS: From May 2015 to November 2016, some 18 consecutive patients with malignant or benign diseases invading distal trachea and carina who met the criteria for SV were treated by SV-VATS resection. To evaluate the feasibility of this novel technique, they were compared with a control group consisting of 14 consecutive patients with the same diseases who underwent VATS resection using intubated general anesthesia from October 2014 to April 2015...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Makoto Mori, Frank C Detterbeck
Primary carcinoma of the trachea is an exceeding rare entity. We present a case of radiation-induced primary squamous cell carcinoma of the trachea in a young woman. The case highlights a diagnostic challenge of this atypical disease entity.
March 15, 2018: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Asad Zaman Khan, Aslam Khan, Arshad Naseem
OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety of percutaneous tracheostomy when performed by physician intensivists. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Adult Medical ICU in the Department of Critical Care Medicine, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from September 2013 to August 2016. METHODOLOGY: Departmental record for percutaneous tracheostomies, performed by physician intensivifts, was evaluated...
March 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Shazia Imran, Maryam Shan, Shazia Muazam
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of Shisha smoke on submucosal glands of trachea of mice; and compare it with tracheal glands of mice exposed to cigarette smoke. STUDY DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Anatomy, Islamic International Medical College, Rawalpindi, in collaboration with National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad from October 2013 till April 2014. METHODOLOGY: Sample comprised of 40 adult male mice of strain BALB/c...
March 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Dhivya Kumar, Rebecca T Thomason, Maya Yankova, Jonathan D Gitlin, Richard E Mains, Betty A Eipper, Stephen M King
The assembly of membranous extensions such as microvilli and cilia in polarized cells is a tightly regulated, yet poorly understood, process. Peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), a membrane enzyme essential for the synthesis of amidated bioactive peptides, was recently identified in motile and non-motile (primary) cilia and has an essential role in ciliogenesis in Chlamydomonas, Schmidtea and mouse. In mammalian cells, changes in PAM levels alter secretion and organization of the actin cytoskeleton...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
John H Harris, William H Harris, Sanjay Jain, A Y Ferguson, David A Hill, Amy M Trahan
PURPOSE: CTA is routinely ordered on level II blunt thoraco-abdominally injured patients for assessment of injury to the thoracic aorta. The vast majority of such assessments are negative. The question being asked is, Does the accurate interpretation of the three mediastinal signs permit reliable determination of which patients need CTA for aortic assessment? The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the role of three specifically selected mediastinal anatomic signs on the initial supine chest radiograph (CXR) of adult level II blunt thoraco-abdominally injured patients for the presence or absence of a mediastinal hematoma...
March 13, 2018: Emergency Radiology
Hari R Desu, Laura A Thoma, George C Wood
PURPOSE: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a fatal syndrome in critically ill patients. It is characterized by lung edema and inflammation. Numerous pro-inflammatory mediators are released into alveoli. Among them, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) causes an increase in solute permeability across the alveolar-capillary barrier leading to edema. It activates key effector cells (alveolar epithelial and endothelial cells) releasing inflammatory chemokines and cytokines. The purpose of the study was to demonstrate that nebulized liposomes inhibit ALI in vivo...
March 13, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Jung-Rern Jiang, Shiao-Yu Yen, Pei-Fu Chiang, Hsiao-Chien Liu
PURPOSE: This study analyzed the clinical factors with the aim to determine the relationship between endotracheal tube (ETT) size and leakage ventilation (LV) and tracheal dilatation. METHODS: All patients with ETT intubation and ventilator support for more than 6 months were retrospectively evaluated. The inner tracheal diameter (TD) was measured over image at the starting and 6 months after ventilator initiated. We compared the clinical factors, outcomes and complications between patients with and without LV, as well as with and without a TD enlarging more than 25% after 6 months (TDn)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Anesthesia
Perrine Chaurand, Wei Liu, Daniel Borschneck, Clément Levard, Mélanie Auffan, Emmanuel Paul, Blanche Collin, Isabelle Kieffer, Sophie Lanone, Jérôme Rose, Jeanne Perrin
In this methodological study, we demonstrated the relevance of 3D imaging performed at various scales for the ex vivo detection and location of cerium oxide nanomaterials (CeO2 -NMs) in mouse lung. X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) with a voxel size from 14 µm to 1 µm (micro-CT) was combined with X-ray nano-computed tomography with a voxel size of 63 nm (nano-CT). An optimized protocol was proposed to facilitate the sample preparation, to minimize the experimental artifacts and to optimize the contrast of soft tissues exposed to metal-based nanomaterials (NMs)...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
M H Zou, L Ma, Y S Xia, S C Yang, W D Chen, F Cao, X X Chen
Objective: To review the early and mid-term results of end-to-side anastomosis technique for interrupted aortic arch in neonates and infants. Methods: Clinic data of 46 patients were diagnosed as interrupted aortic arch in Department of Cardiac Surgery, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center between January 2010 and December 2016 were analyzed retrospectively. Twenty-six cases were neonates. The median age underwent surgery was 23 days (range: 2 days to 8 years). Anatomical subtypes included 36 cases of type A and 10 cases of type B...
March 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
L V Duggan, S L Lockhart, T M Cook, E P O'Sullivan, T Dare, P A Baker
In this exploratory study we describe the utility of smartphone technology for anonymous retrospective observational data collection of emergency front-of-neck airway management. The medical community continues to debate the optimal technique for emergency front-of-neck airway management. Although individual clinicians infrequently perform this procedure, hundreds are performed annually worldwide. Ubiquitous smartphone technology and internet connectivity have created the opportunity to collect these data. We created the 'Airway App', a smartphone application to capture the experiences of healthcare providers involved in emergency front-of-neck airway procedures...
March 13, 2018: Anaesthesia
Nika Karimi, Marta Kelava, Perin Kothari, Nicole M Zimmerman, A Marc Gillinov, Andra E Duncan
BACKGROUND: Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) experience intermittent hypoxia, hypercarbia, and sympathetic activation during sleep, which increases risk for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and other cardiac arrhythmias. Whether patients with OSA experience increased episodes of atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery is unclear. We examined whether patients at increased risk for OSA, assessed by the STOP-BANG (snoring, tired during the day, observed stop breathing during sleep, high blood pressure, body mass index more than 35 kg/m, age more than 50 years, neck circumference more than 40 cm, and male gender) questionnaire, had a higher incidence of new-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery...
March 12, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
L Bourgoin, L Caeymaex, F Decobert, C Jung, C Danan, X Durrmeyer
AIM: Less invasive surfactant administration (LISA) can avoid tracheal intubation for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, but can be painful because it requires laryngoscopy. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerance of intravenous atropine plus ketamine administration before LISA. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study of all premature infants hospitalised in our French neonatal intensive care unit treated with LISA between March 2015 and March 2016...
March 13, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Harry H Ching, Jacob B Kahane, Megan J Foggia, Annabel E Barber, Robert C Wang
BACKGROUND: Resection of massive goiters with suprahyoid, retropharyngeal, and substernal extension may not be amenable to standard approaches. This study evaluates a surgical approach allowing resection of massive goiters with minimal substernal and deep neck dissection. METHODS: Cases of thyroidectomy for goiters with substernal, retropharyngeal, or suprahyoid extension at a single institution from 2006 to 2017 were reviewed. The technique involves initial complete division of the medial thyroid tracheal attachments after identification of the RLN medial-inferiorly or superiorly...
March 12, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Nehat Baftiu, Islam Krasniqi, Kastriot Haxhirexha, Rudin Domi
BACKGROUND: Tracheal extubations may be performed before or after awakening from anaesthesia. The advantage of extubation during anaesthesia may avoid all the unpleasant effects of fully awake extubation such as severe hypertension and tachycardia, malignant dysrhythmias, myocardial ischemia laryngospasm, and cough induced high intraocular and intracranial pressure. AIM: To show the current practice of performing extubations in Kosovo, as well as the advantage and disadvantage in performing this procedure in an awake patient or inpatient in light anaesthesia...
February 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Hanaa Ahmed-Hassan, Mohamed Sarjoon Abdul-Cader, Upasama De Silva Senapathi, Maha Ahmed Sabry, Eman Hamza, Eva Nagy, Shayan Sharif, Mohamed Faizal Abdul-Careem
BACKGROUND: Toll like receptor (TLR) 3 is a critically important innate pattern recognizing receptor that senses many viral infections. Although, it has been shown that double stranded (ds) RNA can be used for the stimulation of TLR3 signaling pathway in a number of host-viral infection models, it's effectiveness as an antiviral agent against low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) needs further investigation. METHODS: In this study, first, we delivered TLR3 ligand, dsRNA, in ovo at embryo day (ED)18 since in ovo route is routinely used for vaccination against poultry viral and parasitic infections and infected with H4N6 LPAIV 24-h post-treatment...
March 12, 2018: Virology Journal
Steven A Zuniga, Barbara Ebersole, Nausheen Jamal
Objective Examine the incidence of penetration/aspiration in patients with unilateral vocal fold immobility and investigate the relationship with self-reported perception of dysphagia. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Academic cancer center. Subjects and Methods Adult patients with unilateral vocal fold immobility diagnosed between 2014 and 2016 were reviewed. Patients were stratified into an aspiration group and a nonaspiration group using objective findings on flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing, as scored using Rosenbek's Penetration Aspiration Scale...
March 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
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