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Cognitive linguistic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535071/aphasia-from-the-inside-the-cognitive-world-of-the-aphasic-patient
#1
Alfredo Ardila, Silvia Rubio-Bruno
The purpose of this study was to analyze the question: how do people with aphasia experience the world? Three questions are approached: (1) how is behavior controlled in aphasia, considering that a normal linguistic control is no longer available; (2) what is the pattern of intellectual abilities in aphasia; and (3) what do aphasia patients' self-report regarding the experience of living without language. In aphasia, behavior can no longer be controlled through the "second signal system" and only the first signal system remains...
May 23, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531644/safety-evaluation-of-driver-cognitive-failures-and-driving-errors-on-right-turn-filtering-movement-at-signalized-road-intersections-based-on-fuzzy-cellular-automata-fca-model
#2
Chen Chai, Yiik Diew Wong, Xuesong Wang
This paper proposes a simulation-based approach to estimate safety impact of driver cognitive failures and driving errors. Fuzzy Logic, which involves linguistic terms and uncertainty, is incorporated with Cellular Automata model to simulate decision-making process of right-turn filtering movement at signalized intersections. Simulation experiments are conducted to estimate the relationships between cognitive failures and driving errors with safety performance. Simulation results show Different types of cognitive failures are found to have varied relationship with driving errors and safety performance...
May 19, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529495/determining-the-association-between-language-and-cognitive-tests-in-poststroke-aphasia
#3
Kylie J Wall, Toby B Cumming, David A Copland
BACKGROUND: Individuals with aphasia are often excluded from studies exploring poststroke cognition because so many of the standard cognitive assessments rely on language ability. Our primary objective was to examine the association between performance on cognitive tests and performance on comprehension and naming tests in poststroke aphasia. Second, we aimed to determine the association between language performance and a real-life measure of cognition (Kettle Test). Third, we explored the feasibility of administering cognitive tests in aphasia...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527600/translation-and-adaptation-of-the-disability-assessment-for-dementia-scale-in-the-spanish-population
#4
Alicia Sánchez-Pérez, Sofia López-Roig, Ana Pampliega Pérez, Paula Peral Gómez, María Ángeles Pastor, Miriam Hurtado-Pomares
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Functional assessment is especially relevant in patients with cognitive impairment (CI). The Disability Assessment for Dementia (DAD) scale assesses functional ability and its use is becoming increasingly popular. This study aims to perform the translation and cultural adaptation of the DAD scale in order to create a Spanish version: DAD-E. PATIENTS AND METHOD: A double translation/back-translation process was developed, as well as a pilot study with 14 caregivers of patients with CI, and 3 review meetings to achieve general agreement...
May 17, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523225/a-meta-analysis-of-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies-of-eye-movements-and-visual-word-reading
#5
Wei Zhou, Hua Shu
INTRODUCTION: The pattern of eye movements during reading is substantially correlated with linguistic factors. While there have been a large number of studies on the neural mechanisms of eye movements and word reading separately, a limited number of studies have compared the activation patterns of these two processes and discussed the associations of their corresponding brain regions within the framework of naturalistic reading. METHODS: This study conducted a meta-analysis of the existing functional magnetic resonance imaging literature on prosaccades and visual word reading using the activation likelihood estimation algorithm...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516959/adaptive-psychological-structure-in-childhood-hearing-impairment-audiological-correlations
#6
A Serra, G Spinato, S Cocuzza, L Licciardello, P Pavone, L Maiolino
The present research deals with the clinical and social problems present during linguistic and cognitive development of deaf children. Currently, the development of Theory of Mind represents an important research field in deafness studies. These international studies highlighted a significant alteration in the development of Theory of Mind in deaf children compared to normal hearing children, especially in cases of congenital or preverbal hearing loss. In particular, the research focuses on the skills of deaf children in recognising emotions and desires, through both perceptive and cognitive methods, by evaluation of psycho-cognitive skills of children with severe hearing loss using a set of questions to be administered to hearing loss patients...
June 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514238/the-influence-of-maternal-pragmatics-on-the-language-skills-of-children-with-autism
#7
Yael S Stern, Nell Maltman, Megan Y Roberts
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the relationship between mothers' pragmatics and child language in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and non-ASD language delay (LD) mother-child dyads. METHODS: Participants consisted of 20 dyads of mothers and their toddlers aged 24 to 48 months, with ASD (n = 10) or non-ASD LD (n = 10). Groups were matched on child chronological age, language, and cognition. Maternal pragmatic language was qualified based on the degree of pragmatic violations during a semistructured interview, and was examined in relation to both child language, as measured by the Preschool Language Scale-4 and maternal use of language facilitation strategies during play...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509117/the-theory-of-multiple-stupidities-education-technology-and-organisation-in-arabia
#8
Abdulrahman Essa Al Lily, Ahmed Ali Alhazmi, Saleh Alzahrani
Traditional perspectives have envisaged intelligence as one entity dominated by a single set of abilities (i.e. cognitive abilities), whereas modern perspectives have defined intelligence in various shapes (e.g. linguistic, musical and interpersonal intelligences). By the same token, traditional perspectives have examined stupidity as one set of inabilities (i.e. cognitive inabilities). However, it is not clear whether modern perspectives have discussed whether stupidity exists in various forms-in the same way as they have envisaged intelligence...
May 16, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503906/more-than-words-the-role-of-multiword-sequences-in-language-learning-and-use
#9
Morten H Christiansen, Inbal Arnon
The ability to convey our thoughts using an infinite number of linguistic expressions is one of the hallmarks of human language. Understanding the nature of the psychological mechanisms and representations that give rise to this unique productivity is a fundamental goal for the cognitive sciences. A long-standing hypothesis is that single words and rules form the basic building blocks of linguistic productivity, with multiword sequences being treated as units only in peripheral cases such as idioms. The new millennium, however, has seen a shift toward construing multiword linguistic units not as linguistic rarities, but as important building blocks for language acquisition and processing...
May 14, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503462/predictors-for-depressive-mood-in-geriatric-patients-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study
#10
Je Kyung Kim, Na Young Kim, Yong Wook Kim
OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors for depressive mood in geriatric patients after traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: A retrospective review of patients' medical charts was performed in TBI patients who were older than 60 years and referred to the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine at Severance Hospital in 2002-2016. The patients were classified into two groups based on the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS): non-depressive group (0≤GDS≤16) and depressive group (17≤GDS≤30)...
April 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502406/steering-the-conversation-a-linguistic-exploration-of-natural-language-interactions-with-a-digital-assistant-during-simulated-driving
#11
David R Large, Leigh Clark, Annie Quandt, Gary Burnett, Lee Skrypchuk
Given the proliferation of 'intelligent' and 'socially-aware' digital assistants embodying everyday mobile technology - and the undeniable logic that utilising voice-activated controls and interfaces in cars reduces the visual and manual distraction of interacting with in-vehicle devices - it appears inevitable that next generation vehicles will be embodied by digital assistants and utilise spoken language as a method of interaction. From a design perspective, defining the language and interaction style that a digital driving assistant should adopt is contingent on the role that they play within the social fabric and context in which they are situated...
September 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482683/problem-solving-styles-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-the-development-of-higher-cognitive-functions
#12
Paul A Constable, Melanie Ring, Sebastian B Gaigg, Dermot M Bowler
The Vygotsky Blocks Test assesses problem-solving styles within a theoretical framework for the development of higher mental processes devised by Vygotsky. Because both the theory and the associated test situate cognitive development within the child's social and linguistic context, they address conceptual issues around the developmental relation between language and thought that are pertinent to development in autism. Our aim was to document the performance of adults with autism spectrum disorder on the Vygotsky Blocks Test, and our results showed that they made more errors than the typically developing participants and that these errors correlated with performance IQ...
May 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481476/computational-investigations-of-multiword-chunks-in%C3%A2-language-learning
#13
Stewart M McCauley, Morten H Christiansen
Second-language learners rarely arrive at native proficiency in a number of linguistic domains, including morphological and syntactic processing. Previous approaches to understanding the different outcomes of first- versus second-language learning have focused on cognitive and neural factors. In contrast, we explore the possibility that children and adults may rely on different linguistic units throughout the course of language learning, with specific focus on the granularity of those units. Following recent psycholinguistic evidence for the role of multiword chunks in online language processing, we explore the hypothesis that children rely more heavily on multiword units in language learning than do adults learning a second language...
May 8, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476571/identification-and-intensity-of-disgust-distinguishing-visual-linguistic-and-facial-expressions-processing-in-parkinson-disease
#14
Anna Sedda, Sara Petito, Maria Guarino, Andrea Stracciari
OBJECTIVES & METHODS: Most of the studies since now show an impairment for facial displays of disgust recognition in Parkinson disease. A general impairment in disgust processing in patients with Parkinson disease might adversely affect their social interactions, given the relevance of this emotion for human relations. However, despite the importance of faces, disgust is also expressed through other format of visual stimuli such as sentences and visual images. The aim of our study was to explore disgust processing in a sample of patients affected by Parkinson disease, by means of various tests tackling not only facial recognition but also other format of visual stimuli through which disgust can be recognized...
May 2, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470961/language-ability-in-preterm-children-is-associated-with-arcuate-fasciculi-microstructure-at-term
#15
Piergiorgio Salvan, J Donald Tournier, Dafnis Batalle, Shona Falconer, Andrew Chew, Nigel Kennea, Paul Aljabar, Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz, Tomoki Arichi, A David Edwards, Serena J Counsell
In the mature human brain, the arcuate fasciculus mediates verbal working memory, word learning, and sublexical speech repetition. However, its contribution to early language acquisition remains unclear. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the role of the direct segments of the arcuate fasciculi in the early acquisition of linguistic function. We imaged a cohort of 43 preterm born infants (median age at birth of 30 gestational weeks; median age at scan of 42 postmenstrual weeks) using high b value high-angular resolution diffusion-weighted neuroimaging and assessed their linguistic performance at 2 years of age...
May 4, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465069/the-role-of-nondeclarative-memory-in-the-skill-for-language-evidence-from-syntactic-priming-in-patients-with-amnesia
#16
Evelien Heyselaar, Katrien Segaert, Serge J W Walvoort, Roy P C Kessels, Peter Hagoort
Syntactic priming, the phenomenon in which participants adopt the linguistic behaviour of their partner, is widely used in psycholinguistics to investigate syntactic operations. Although the phenomenon of syntactic priming is well documented, the memory system that supports the retention of this syntactic information long enough to influence future utterances, is not as widely investigated. We aim to shed light on this issue by assessing patients with Korsakoff's amnesia on an active-passive syntactic priming task and compare their performance to controls matched in age, education, and premorbid intelligence...
April 29, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463847/schizophrenia-and-human-self-domestication-an-evolutionary-linguistics-approach
#17
Antonio Benítez-Burraco, Lorena Di Pietro, Marta Barba, Wanda Lattanzi
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder that entails social and cognitive deficits, including marked language problems. Its complex multifactorial etiopathogenesis, including genetic and environmental factors, is still widely uncertain. SZ incidence has always been high and quite stable in human populations, across time and regardless of cultural implications, for unclear reasons. It has been hypothesized that SZ pathophysiology may involve the biological components that changed during the recent human evolutionary history, and led to our distinctive mode of cognition, which includes language skills...
May 3, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462480/helping-yourself-by-offering-help-mediators-of-expressive-helping-in-survivors-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant
#18
Timothy J Williamson, Annette L Stanton, Jane E Austin, Heiddis B Valdimarsdottir, Lisa M Wu, Jennifer L Krull, Christine M Rini
BACKGROUND: A randomized experiment by Rini et al. (Health Psychol. 33(12):1541-1551, 2014) demonstrated that expressive helping, which involves three expressive writing sessions regarding hematopoietic stem cell transplant, followed by one writing session directed toward helping other stem cell transplant recipients, reduced psychological distress and bothersome physical symptoms among stem cell transplant recipients with elevated survivorship problems, relative to a neutral writing control condition...
May 1, 2017: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458643/grammatical-language-impairment-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-exploring-language-phenotypes-beyond-standardized-testing
#19
Kacie Wittke, Ann M Mastergeorge, Sally Ozonoff, Sally J Rogers, Letitia R Naigles
Linguistic and cognitive abilities manifest huge heterogeneity in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Some children present with commensurate language and cognitive abilities, while others show more variable patterns of development. Using spontaneous language samples, we investigate the presence and extent of grammatical language impairment in a heterogeneous sample of children with ASD. Findings from our sample suggest that children with ASD can be categorized into three meaningful subgroups: those with normal language, those with marked difficulty in grammatical production but relatively intact vocabulary, and those with more globally low language abilities...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449717/a-review-of-patient-reported-outcome-measures-to-assess-female-infertility-related-quality-of-life
#20
REVIEW
Helen Kitchen, Natalie Aldhouse, Andrew Trigg, Roberto Palencia, Stephen Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Infertility has a negative impact on quality of life (QoL) and well-being of affected individuals and couples. A variety of patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures to assess infertility-related QoL are available; however, there is a concern regarding potential issues with their development methodology, validation and use. This review aimed to i) identify PRO measures used in infertility interventional studies ii) assess validation evidence to identify a reliable, valid PRO measure to assess changes in QoL or treatment satisfaction in clinical studies with female patients following treatment with novel therapies iii) identify potential gaps in evidence for validity...
April 27, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
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