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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324761/cross-linguistic-regularities-and-learner-biases-reflect-core-mechanics
#1
Brent Strickland, Emmanuel Chemla
Recent research in infant cognition and adult vision suggests that the mechanical object relationships may be more salient and naturally attention grabbing than similar but non-mechanical relationships. Here we examine two novel sources of evidence from language related to this hypothesis. In Experiments 1 and 2, we show that adults preferentially infer that the meaning of a novel preposition refers to a mechanical as opposed to a non-mechanical relationship. Experiments 3 and 4 examine cross-linguistic adpositions obtained on a large scale from machines or from experts, respectively...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324240/cognitive-science-in-the-era-of-artificial-intelligence-a-roadmap-for-reverse-engineering-the-infant-language-learner
#2
Emmanuel Dupoux
Spectacular progress in the information processing sciences (machine learning, wearable sensors) promises to revolutionize the study of cognitive development. Here, we analyse the conditions under which 'reverse engineering' language development, i.e., building an effective system that mimics infant's achievements, can contribute to our scientific understanding of early language development. We argue that, on the computational side, it is important to move from toy problems to the full complexity of the learning situation, and take as input as faithful reconstructions of the sensory signals available to infants as possible...
January 8, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314421/cognate-effects-and-cognitive-control-in-patients-with-parallel-and-differential-bilingual-aphasia
#3
Lize Van der Linden, Nele Verreyt, Miet De Letter, Dimitri Hemelsoet, Peter Mariën, Patrick Santens, Michaël Stevens, Arnaud Szmalec, Wouter Duyck
BACKGROUND: Until today, there is no satisfying explanation for why one language may recover worse than another in differential bilingual aphasia. One potential explanation that has been largely unexplored is that differential aphasia is the consequence of a loss of language control rather than a loss of linguistic representations. Language control is part of a general control mechanism that also manages non-linguistic cognitive control. If this system is impaired, patients with differential aphasia could still show bilingual language activation, but they may be unable to manage activation in non-target languages, so that performance in another language is hindered...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313729/linguistic-factors-associated-with-phonemic-fluency-performance-in-a-sample-of-bilingual-hispanic-undergraduate-students
#4
Jennifer Bennett, Steven P Verney
Research has demonstrated that bilingualism impacts neuropsychological performance, but the findings on its effects on verbal fluency have been mixed. This study compared the verbal fluency performance of non-Hispanic White monolingual speakers with a Hispanic bilingual population. Ninety-nine Spanish-English bilingual Hispanic and thirty English-speaking monolingual non-Hispanic White undergraduates completed the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT). Students also completed a general cognitive and English reading measure...
January 9, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309294/speed-of-language-comprehension-at-18-months-old-predicts-school-relevant-outcomes-at-54-months-old-in-children-born-preterm
#5
Virginia A Marchman, Elizabeth C Loi, Katherine A Adams, Melanie Ashland, Anne Fernald, Heidi M Feldman
OBJECTIVE: Identifying which preterm (PT) children are at increased risk of language and learning differences increases opportunities for participation in interventions that improve outcomes. Speed in spoken language comprehension at early stages of language development requires information processing skills that may form the foundation for later language and school-relevant skills. In children born full-term, speed of comprehending words in an eye-tracking task at 2 years old predicted language and nonverbal cognition at 8 years old...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305759/gender-and-neural-substrates-subserving-implicit-processing-of-death-related-linguistic-cues
#6
Jungang Qin, Zhenhao Shi, Yina Ma, Shihui Han
Our recent functional magnetic resonance imaging study revealed decreased activities in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and bilateral insula for women during the implicit processing of death-related linguistic cues. Current work tested whether aforementioned activities are common for women and men and explored potential gender differences. We scanned twenty males while they performed a color-naming task on death-related, negative-valence, and neutral-valence words. Whole-brain analysis showed increased left frontal activity and decreased activities in the ACC and bilateral insula to death-related versus negative-valence words for both men and women...
January 6, 2018: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305746/verbal-and-nonverbal-anticipatory-mechanisms-in-bilinguals
#7
Lorenzo Desideri, Paola Bonifacci
Empirical evidence collected so far has revealed that the bilingual advantage cannot be reduced to a single component of the executive functioning, and point to the need to understand the effects of bilingual experience on cognition as influencing a wider family of mental processes, including, but not limited to, cognitive control. The present study aims to explore a relatively underinvestigated domain of bilingual cognitive processes, namely anticipation, through a series of different paradigms tapping proactive and reactive mechanisms at different levels of cognitive complexity and linguistic components...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303425/existing-knowledge-of-linguistic-structure-mitigates-associative-memory-deficits-in-older-adults
#8
Andrea C Smyth, Moshe Naveh-Benjamin
Background/Study Context: Older adults show lower memory performance than younger adults when a task requires them to create associations (Naveh-Benjamin, 2000, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 26, 1170-1187). In this study, associative memory was examined in order to assess whether age differences in performance were mitigated when the word pairs to be learned utilized a familiar pattern seen in everyday language (adjective-noun), which we propose as a type of schematic support that capitalizes upon linguistic structure...
January 5, 2018: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300756/behavioral-and-subcortical-signatures-of-musical-expertise-in-mandarin-chinese-speakers
#9
Caitlin Dawson, Mari Tervaniemi, Daniel Aalto
Both musical training and native language have been shown to have experience-based plastic effects on auditory processing. However, the combined effects within individuals are unclear. Recent research suggests that musical training and tone language speaking are not clearly additive in their effects on processing of auditory features and that there may be a disconnect between perceptual and neural signatures of auditory feature processing. The literature has only recently begun to investigate the effects of musical expertise on basic auditory processing for different linguistic groups...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298550/maximising-recovery-from-aphasia-with-central-and-peripheral-agraphia-the-benefit-of-sequential-treatments
#10
Pélagie M Beeson, Chelsea Bayley, Christine Shultz, Kindle Rising
Maximal recovery from acquired language impairment may require progression from one behavioural treatment protocol to the next in order to build upon residual and relearned cognitive-linguistic and sensory-motor processes. We present a five-stage treatment sequence that was initiated at one year post stroke in a woman with acquired impairments of spoken and written language. As is typical of individuals with left perisylvian damage, she demonstrated marked impairment of phonological retrieval and sublexical phonology, but she also faced additional challenges due to impaired letter shape knowledge and visual attention...
January 3, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298470/translation-and-linguistic-validation-of-the-korean-version-of-the-treatment-satisfaction-visual-analogue-scale-and-the-overactive-bladder-satisfaction-with-treatment-questionnaire
#11
Ha Na Lee, Ji Yun Chae, Hyo Serk Lee, Min Soo Choo, Min Gu Park, Seo Yeon Lee, Seung-June Oh, Sung Yong Cho
PURPOSE: This study reports the development of the Korean Version of the Treatment Satisfaction Visual Analogue Scale (TS-VAS) and the Overactive Bladder Satisfaction with Treatment Questionnaire (OAB-SAT-q) based on the original versions, with subsequent linguistic validation by Korean patients with overactive bladder receiving active treatment from a physician. METHODS: Translation and linguistic validation were performed in 2016. The validation process included permission for translation, forward translation, reconciliation, backward translation, cognitive debriefing, and proofreading...
December 2017: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276804/how-first-year-students-expressed-their-transition-to-college-experiences-differently-depending-on-the-affordances-of-two-writing-contexts
#12
Philip Kreniske
Drawing on theory that positions writing as a social process, this study compares how two distinct contexts influenced the linguistic features of college students' writing over time. In one context, students blogged and received comments, while in the other context students word-processed and received no comments. Systematic qualitative and quantitative analyses of these natural language posts and comments indicated the bloggers used greater rates of cognitive and intensifying expressions in their writing over time than students who word-processed...
September 2017: Computers and Composition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276529/neurobiological-bases-of-reading-disorder-part-ii-the-importance-of-developmental-considerations-in-typical-and-atypical-reading
#13
Jessica M Black, Zhichao Xia, Fumiko Hoeft
Decoding-based reading disorder (RD; aka developmental dyslexia) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders, affecting approximately 5-10% of school-aged children across languages. Even though neuroimaging studies suggest an impairment of the left reading network in RD, the onset of this deficit and its developmental course, which may include constancy and change, is largely unknown. There is now growing evidence that the recruitment of brain networks underlying perceptual, cognitive and linguistic processes relevant to reading acquisition varies with age...
October 2017: Language and Linguistics Compass
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275004/handling-or-being-the-concept-an-fmri-study-on-metonymy-representations-in-coverbal-gestures
#14
Gina Joue, Linda Boven, Klaus Willmes, Vito Evola, Liliana R Demenescu, Julius Hassemer, Irene Mittelberg, Klaus Mathiak, Frank Schneider, Ute Habel
In "Two heads are better than one," "head" stands for people and focuses the message on the intelligence of people. This is an example of figurative language through metonymy, where substituting a whole entity by one of its parts focuses attention on a specific aspect of the entity. Whereas metaphors, another figurative language device, are substitutions based on similarity, metonymy involves substitutions based on associations. Both are figures of speech but are also expressed in coverbal gestures during multimodal communication...
December 21, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260487/bilingual-cancer-genetic-education-modules-for-the-deaf-community-development-and-evaluation-of-the-online-video-material
#15
Patrick Boudreault, Alicia Wolfson, Barbara Berman, Vickie L Venne, Janet S Sinsheimer, Christina Palmer
Health information about inherited forms of cancer and the role of family history in cancer risk for the American Sign Language (ASL) Deaf community, a linguistic and cultural community, needs improvement. Cancer genetic education materials available in English print format are not accessible for many sign language users because English is not their native or primary language. Per Center for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations, the level of literacy for printed health education materials should not be higher than 6th grade level (~ 11 to 12 years old), and even with this recommendation, printed materials are still not accessible to sign language users or other nonnative English speakers...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260399/stigma-perceived-and-experienced-by-adults-with-type-1-diabetes-linguistic-adaptation-and-psychometric-validation-of-the-danish-version-of-the-type-1-diabetes-stigma-assessment-scale-dsas-1-dk
#16
Ulla Møller Hansen, Ingrid Willaing, Adriana D Ventura, Kasper Olesen, Jane Speight, Jessica L Browne
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to (a) culturally and linguistically adapt the Type 1 Diabetes Stigma Assessment Scale (DSAS-1) from English (for Australia) into Danish and (b) examine psychometric properties of the measure among Danish adults with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We performed a forward-backward translation, face validity interviews with experts and cognitive debriefing of the Danish version (DSAS-1 DK) with ten adults from the target group. The DSAS-1 DK was then completed by 1594 adults with type 1 diabetes...
December 19, 2017: Patient
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248926/comprehension-of-narrow-focus-by-adolescents-in-the-autism-spectrum
#17
Osnat Segal, Dafna Kaplan, Smadar Patael, Liat Kishon-Rabin
OBJECTIVE: The study compared the performance of adolescents with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) to that of age-matched peers with typical development (TD) and cognitive language-matched peers with TD on measures of identification and comprehension of "narrow focus." PARTICIPANTS: Forty-nine participants, 17 autistic, 17 TD peers matched for age and sex, and 15 TD children matched for expressive vocabulary participated in the study. METHOD: The Hebrew Narrow Focus Test (HNFT) was used...
2017: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246484/testing-native-language-neural-commitment-at-the-brainstem-level-a-cross-linguistic-investigation-of-the-association-between-frequency-following-response-and-speech-perception
#18
Luodi Yu, Yang Zhang
A current topic in auditory neurophysiology is how brainstem sensory coding contributes to higher-level perceptual, linguistic and cognitive skills. This cross-language study was designed to compare frequency following responses (FFRs) for lexical tones in tonal (Mandarin Chinese) and non-tonal (English) language users and test the correlational strength between FFRs and behavior as a function of language experience. The behavioral measures were obtained in the Garner paradigm to assess how lexical tones might interfere with vowel category and duration judgement...
December 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240549/interpreter-mediated-cognitive-assessments-who-wins-and-who-loses
#19
Betty Haralambous, Jean Tinney, Dina LoGiudice, Sook Meng Lee, Xiaoping Lin
OBJECTIVES: The number of people with dementia from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds is increasing dramatically in Australia. Accurate cognitive assessments of people from CALD backgrounds can be achieved with the use of skilled interpreters. This study aimed to explore the experience of interpreter-mediated assessments from the perspectives of clinicians, interpreters and carers. METHODS: Consultations with interpreters, clinicians and carers were conducted through individual interviews and focus groups...
November 16, 2017: Clinical Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235071/computationally-constructing-a-repository-of-compound-remote-associates-test-items-in-american-english-with-comrat-g
#20
Ana-Maria Olteţeanu, Holger Schultheis, Jonathan B Dyer
The Remote Associates Test (RAT) has been used to measure creativity, however few repositories or standardizations of test items exist, like the normative data on 144 items provided by Bowden and Jung-Beeman. comRAT is a computational solver which has been used to solve the compound RAT in linguistic and visual forms, showing correlation to human performance over the normative data provided by Bowden and Jung-Beeman. This paper describes using a variant of comRAT, comRAT-G, to generate and construct a repository of compound RAT items for use in the cognitive psychology and cognitive modeling community...
December 12, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
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