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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912107/limits-to-tdcs-effects-in-language-failures-to-modulate-word-production-in-healthy-participants-with-frontal-or-temporal-tdcs
#1
Samuel J Westwood, Andrew Olson, R Chris Miall, Raffaele Nappo, Cristina Romani
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a method of non-invasive brain stimulation widely used to modulate cognitive functions. Recent studies, however, suggests that effects are unreliable, small and often non-significant at least when stimulation is applied in a single session to healthy individuals. We examined the effects of frontal and temporal lobe anodal tDCS on naming and reading tasks and considered possible interactions with linguistic activation and selection mechanisms as well as possible interactions with item difficulty and participant individual variability...
November 3, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908060/individual-differences-in-the-perception-of-regional-nonnative-and-disordered-speech-varieties
#2
Tessa Bent, Melissa Baese-Berk, Stephanie A Borrie, Megan McKee
Speech perception abilities vary substantially across listeners, particularly in adverse conditions including those stemming from environmental degradation (e.g., noise) or from talker-related challenges (e.g., nonnative or disordered speech). This study examined adult listeners' recognition of words in phrases produced by six talkers representing three speech varieties: a nonnative accent (Spanish-accented English), a regional dialect (Irish English), and a disordered variety (ataxic dysarthria). Semantically anomalous phrases from these talkers were presented in a transcription task and intelligibility scores, percent words correct, were compared across the three speech varieties...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898341/tracking-competition-and-cognitive-control-during-language-comprehension-with-multi-voxel-pattern-analysis
#3
Elizabeth Musz, Sharon L Thompson-Schill
To successfully comprehend a sentence that contains a homonym, readers must select the ambiguous word's context-appropriate meaning. The outcome of this process is influenced both by top-down contextual support and bottom-up, word-specific characteristics. We examined how these factors jointly affect the neural signatures of lexical ambiguity resolution. We measured the similarity between multi-voxel patterns evoked by the same homonym in two distinct linguistic contexts: once after subjects read sentences that biased interpretation toward each homonym's most frequent, dominant meaning, and again after interpretation was biased toward a weaker, subordinate meaning...
November 26, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895605/social-cognition-in-preschoolers-effects-of-early-experience-and-individual-differences
#4
Daniela Bulgarelli, Paola Molina
Social cognition is the way in which people process, remember, and use information in social contexts to explain and predict their own behavior and that of others. Children's social cognition may be influenced by multiple factors, both external and internal to the child. In the current study, two aspects of social cognition were examined: Theory of Mind and Emotion Understanding. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of type of early care (0-3 years of age), maternal education, parents' country of birth, and child's language on the social cognition of 118 Italian preschoolers...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894901/bilingualism-yields-language-specific-plasticity-in-left-hemisphere-s-circuitry-for-learning-to-read-in-young-children
#5
K K Jasińska, M S Berens, I Kovelman, L A Petitto
How does bilingual exposure impact children's neural circuitry for learning to read? Theories of bilingualism suggests that exposure to two languages may yield a functional and neuroanatomical adaptation to support the learning of two languages (Klein et al., 2014). To test the hypothesis that this neural adaptation may vary as a function of structural and orthographic characteristics of bilinguals' two languages, we compared Spanish-English and French-English bilingual children, and English monolingual children, using functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy neuroimaging (fNIRS, ages 6-10, N = 26)...
November 25, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894378/an-experimental-approach-to-linguistic-representation
#6
Holly P Branigan, Martin J Pickering
Within the cognitive sciences, most researchers assume that it is the job of linguists to investigate how language is represented, and that they do so largely by building theories based on explicit judgments about patterns of acceptability - whereas it is the task of psychologists to determine how language is processed, and that in doing so, they do not typically question the linguists' representational assumptions. We challenge this division of labor, by arguing that structural priming provides an implicit method of investigating linguistic representations that should end the current reliance on acceptability judgments...
November 29, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893252/developing-knowledge-of-nonadjacent-dependencies
#7
Jennifer Culbertson, Elena Koulaguina, Nayeli Gonzalez-Gomez, Géraldine Legendre, Thierry Nazzi
Characterizing the nature of linguistic representations and how they emerge during early development is a central goal in the cognitive science of language. One area in which this development plays out is in the acquisition of dependencies-relationships between co-occurring elements in a word, phrase, or sentence. These dependencies often involve multiple levels of representation and abstraction, built up as infants gain experience with their native language. The authors used the Headturn Preference Procedure to systematically investigate the early acquisition of 1 such dependency, the agreement between a subject and verb in French, at 6 different ages between 14 and 24 months...
December 2016: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893232/narrative-production-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd-and-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-similarities-and-differences
#8
Sanne J M Kuijper, Catharina A Hartman, Suzanne T M Bogaerds-Hazenberg, Petra Hendriks
The present study focuses on the similarities and differences in language production between children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In addition, we investigated whether Theory of Mind (ToM), working memory, and response inhibition are associated with language production. Narratives, produced by 106 Dutch-speaking children (36 with ASD, 34 with ADHD, and 36 typically developing) aged 6 to 12 during ADOS assessment, were examined on several linguistic measures: verbal productivity, speech fluency, syntactic complexity, lexical semantics, and discourse pragmatics...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891100/a-review-about-functional-illiteracy-definition-cognitive-linguistic-and-numerical-aspects
#9
REVIEW
Réka Vágvölgyi, Andra Coldea, Thomas Dresler, Josef Schrader, Hans-Christoph Nuerk
Formally, availability of education for children has increased around the world over the last decades. However, despite having a successful formal education career, adults can become functional illiterates. Functional illiteracy means that a person cannot use reading, writing, and calculation skills for his/her own and the community's development. Functional illiteracy has considerable negative effects not only on personal development, but also in economic and social terms. Although functional illiteracy has been highly publicized in mass media in the recent years, there is limited scientific knowledge about the people termed functional illiterates; definition, assessment, and differential diagnoses with respect to related numerical and linguistic impairments are rarely studied and controversial...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889691/development-of-a-culturally-competent-service-to-improve-academic-functioning-for-latino-survivors-of-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-methodological-considerations
#10
Laura Bava, Alexis Johns, David R Freyer, Kathleen Ruccione
Many survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) develop neurocognitive deficits that compromise academic functioning, especially in the presence of sociodemographic risk factors. The extent to which these risk factors coexist for Latino ALL survivors is not well described, but with shifts in U.S. demographics and improved survival in ALL, culturally competent interventions are needed. The Achieving Best Cognitive Successes after Cancer service was designed and implemented by a team representing nursing, medicine, psychology, and social work...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing: Official Journal of the Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884866/a-case-of-specific-language-impairment-in-a-deaf-signer-of-american-sign-language
#11
David Quinto-Pozos, Jenny L Singleton, Peter C Hauser
This article describes the case of a deaf native signer of American Sign Language (ASL) with a specific language impairment (SLI). School records documented normal cognitive development but atypical language development. Data include school records; interviews with the child, his mother, and school professionals; ASL and English evaluations; and a comprehensive neuropsychological and psychoeducational evaluation, and they span an approximate period of 7.5 years (11;10-19;6) including scores from school records (11;10-16;5) and a 3...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884462/dual-neural-network-model-for-the-evolution-of-speech-and-language
#12
REVIEW
Steffen R Hage, Andreas Nieder
Explaining the evolution of speech and language poses one of the biggest challenges in biology. We propose a dual network model that posits a volitional articulatory motor network (VAMN) originating in the prefrontal cortex (PFC; including Broca's area) that cognitively controls vocal output of a phylogenetically conserved primary vocal motor network (PVMN) situated in subcortical structures. By comparing the connections between these two systems in human and nonhuman primate brains, we identify crucial biological preadaptations in monkeys for the emergence of a language system in humans...
November 21, 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881275/the-living-with-medicines-questionnaire-translation-and-cultural-adaptation-into-the-arabic-context
#13
Amani Zidan, Ahmed Awaisu, Sanah Hasan, Nadir Kheir
BACKGROUND: The Living with Medicines Questionnaire (LMQ) was developed in English language to assess, from a patient's perspective, issues related to the burden resulting from the use of medicines. OBJECTIVES: To translate and culturally adapt the LMQ into the Arabic language and context. METHODS: Permission to translate the LMQ was obtained from the original developers, and a protocol for its translation and cultural adaptation was developed using the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research guidelines for the translation and cultural adaptation of patient-reported outcome measures...
September 2016: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880882/the-regularity-game-investigating-linguistic-rule-dynamics-in-a-population-of-interacting-agents
#14
Christine Cuskley, Claudio Castellano, Francesca Colaiori, Vittorio Loreto, Martina Pugliese, Francesca Tria
Rules are an efficient feature of natural languages which allow speakers to use a finite set of instructions to generate a virtually infinite set of utterances. Yet, for many regular rules, there are irregular exceptions. There has been lively debate in cognitive science about how individual learners acquire rules and exceptions; for example, how they learn the past tense of preach is preached, but for teach it is taught. However, for most population or language-level models of language structure, particularly from the perspective of language evolution, the goal has generally been to examine how languages evolve stable structure, and neglects the fact that in many cases, languages exhibit exceptions to structural rules...
November 20, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876508/a-behavioural-and-electrophysiological-investigation-of-the-effect-of-bilingualism-on-aging-and-cognitive-control
#15
Shanna Kousaie, Natalie A Phillips
Given previous, but inconsistent, findings of language group differences on cognitive control tasks the current investigation examined whether such differences could be demonstrated in a sample of older bilingual adults. Monolingual and bilingual older adults performed three cognitive control tasks that have previously been used in the literature (i.e., Stroop, Simon and flanker tasks) while brain electrophysiological recordings took place. Both behavioural (response time and accuracy) and event-related brain potentials (ERPs; N2 and P3 amplitude and latency) were compared across the two language groups...
November 20, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873185/regressions-during-reading-the-cost-depends-on-the-cause
#16
Michael A Eskenazi, Jocelyn R Folk
The direction and duration of eye movements during reading is predominantly determined by cognitive and linguistic processing, but some low-level oculomotor effects also influence the duration and direction of eye movements. One such effect is inhibition of return (IOR), which results in an increased latency to return attention to a target that has been previously attended (Posner & Cohen, Attention and Performance X: Control of Language Processes, 32, 531-556, 1984). Although this is a low level effect, it has also been found in the complex task of reading (Henderson & Luke, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19(6), 1101-1107, 2012; Rayner, Juhasz, Ashby, & Clifton, Vision Research, 43(9), 1027-1034, 2003)...
November 21, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872377/towards-a-theory-of-individual-differences-in-statistical-learning
#17
REVIEW
Noam Siegelman, Louisa Bogaerts, Morten H Christiansen, Ram Frost
In recent years, statistical learning (SL) research has seen a growing interest in tracking individual performance in SL tasks, mainly as a predictor of linguistic abilities. We review studies from this line of research and outline three presuppositions underlying the experimental approach they employ: (i) that SL is a unified theoretical construct; (ii) that current SL tasks are interchangeable, and equally valid for assessing SL ability; and (iii) that performance in the standard forced-choice test in the task is a good proxy of SL ability...
January 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872372/do-infants-retain-the-statistics-of-a-statistical-learning-experience-insights-from-a-developmental-cognitive-neuroscience-perspective
#18
REVIEW
Rebecca L Gómez
Statistical structure abounds in language. Human infants show a striking capacity for using statistical learning (SL) to extract regularities in their linguistic environments, a process thought to bootstrap their knowledge of language. Critically, studies of SL test infants in the minutes immediately following familiarization, but long-term retention unfolds over hours and days, with almost no work investigating retention of SL. This creates a critical gap in the literature given that we know little about how single or multiple SL experiences translate into permanent knowledge...
January 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872370/language-learning-language-use-and-the-evolution-of-linguistic-variation
#19
Kenny Smith, Amy Perfors, Olga Fehér, Anna Samara, Kate Swoboda, Elizabeth Wonnacott
Linguistic universals arise from the interaction between the processes of language learning and language use. A test case for the relationship between these factors is linguistic variation, which tends to be conditioned on linguistic or sociolinguistic criteria. How can we explain the scarcity of unpredictable variation in natural language, and to what extent is this property of language a straightforward reflection of biases in statistical learning? We review three strands of experimental work exploring these questions, and introduce a Bayesian model of the learning and transmission of linguistic variation along with a closely matched artificial language learning experiment with adult participants...
January 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872286/linguistic-positivity-in-historical-texts-reflects-dynamic-environmental-and-psychological-factors
#20
Rumen Iliev, Joe Hoover, Morteza Dehghani, Robert Axelrod
People use more positive words than negative words. Referred to as "linguistic positivity bias" (LPB), this effect has been found across cultures and languages, prompting the conclusion that it is a panhuman tendency. However, although multiple competing explanations of LPB have been proposed, there is still no consensus on what mechanism(s) generate LPB or even on whether it is driven primarily by universal cognitive features or by environmental factors. In this work we propose that LPB has remained unresolved because previous research has neglected an essential dimension of language: time...
November 21, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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