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Epigenetics skin

Haiyan Qin, Guang Zhang, Lianbo Zhang
Polycomb group genes (PcG) encode chromatin modification proteins that are involved in the epigenetic regulation of cell differentiation, proliferation and the aging processes. The key subunit of the PcG complex, enhancer of zeste 2 polycomb repressive complex 2 subunit (EZH2), has a central role in a variety of mechanisms, such as the formation of chromatin structure, gene expression regulation and DNA damage. In the present study, ultraviolet A (UVA) was used to radiate human dermal fibroblasts in order to construct a photo-aged cell model...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Xin Wang, Xinxin Liu, Xiaoru Duan, Ke Zhu, Song Zhang, Lu Gan, Nian Liu, Himanshu Jaypaul, Johanna T Makamure, Zhangyin Ming, Hongxiang Chen
Epigenetics plays an important role in the development and progression of many diseases. There is increasing evidence for the importance of epigenetic modifications in the progression of psoriasis. The aim of this study was to examine the role and potential mechanism of action of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) and ten-eleven translocation-2 (TET2) in psoriasiform dermatitis. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on psoriasis patients and healthy controls. Topical application of imiquimod cream to the dorsal skin of mice was used to induce psoriasiform dermatitis...
March 15, 2018: Acta Dermato-venereologica
Marie C Matrka, Katherine A Cimperman, Sarah R Haas, Geraldine Guasch, Lisa A Ehrman, Ronald R Waclaw, Kakajan Komurov, Adam Lane, Kathryn A Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Susanne I Wells
Esophageal cancer occurs as either squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) or adenocarcinoma. ESCCs comprise almost 90% of cases worldwide, and recur with a less than 15% five-year survival rate despite available treatments. The identification of new ESCC drivers and therapeutic targets is critical for improving outcomes. Here we report that expression of the human DEK oncogene is strongly upregulated in esophageal SCC based on data in the cancer genome atlas (TCGA). DEK is a chromatin-associated protein with important roles in several nuclear processes including gene transcription, epigenetics, and DNA repair...
March 14, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Pritha Bhattacharjee, Tamalika Sanyal, Sandip Bhattacharjee, Pritha Bhattacharjee
INTRODUCTION: Arsenic exposure and its adverse health outcome, including the association with cancer risk are well established from several studies across the globe. The present study aims to analyze the epigenetic regulation of key mismatch repair (MMR) genes in the arsenic-exposed population. METHOD: A case-control study was conducted involving two hundred twenty four (N=224) arsenic exposed [with skin lesion (WSL=110) and without skin lesion (WOSL=114)] and one hundred and two (N=102) unexposed individuals...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Research
Alexandra Nagy, Aparna Bhaduri, Nahid Shahmarvand, Jahanbanoo Shahryari, James L Zehnder, Roger A Warnke, Tariq Mughal, Siraj Ali, Robert S Ohgami
Castleman disease (CD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder subclassified as unicentric CD (UCD) or multicentric CD (MCD) based on clinical features and the distribution of enlarged lymph nodes with characteristic histopathology. MCD can be further subtyped based on human herpes virus 8 (HHV8) infection into HHV8-associated MCD, HHV8- /idiopathic MCD (iMCD), and polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin change (POEMS)-associated MCD. In a subset of cases of UCD, an associated follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) may be seen...
March 13, 2018: Blood Advances
Christina Wilms, Ioanna Krikki, Adelheid Hainzl, Sonja Kilo, Marius Alupei, Evgenia Makrantonaki, Maximilian Wagner, Carsten M Kroeger, Titus Josef Brinker, Martina Gatzka
Development and homeostasis of the epidermis are governed by a complex network of sequence-specific transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers cooperatively regulating the subtle balance of progenitor cell self-renewal and terminal differentiation. To investigate the role of histone H2A deubiquitinase 2A-DUB/Mysm1 in the skin, we systematically analyzed expression, developmental functions, and potential interactions of this epigenetic regulator using Mysm1-deficient mice and skin-derived epidermal cells...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Duncan Mitchell, Edward P Snelling, Robyn S Hetem, Shane K Maloney, W Maartin Strauss, Andrea Fuller
1.The accuracy of predictive models (also known as mechanistic or causal models) of animal responses to climate change depends on properly incorporating the principles of heat transfer and thermoregulation into those models. Regrettably, proper incorporation of these principles is not always evident. 2.We have revisited the relevant principles of thermal physiology and analyzed how they have been applied in predictive models of large mammals, which are particularly vulnerable, to climate change. We considered dry heat exchange, evaporative heat transfer, the thermoneutral zone and homeothermy, and we examined the roles of size and shape in the thermal physiology of large mammals...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Karina Oyarce, Mauricio Campos-Mora, Tania Gajardo-Carrasco, Karina Pino-Lagos
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical players of immunological tolerance due to their ability to suppress effector T cell function thereby preventing transplant rejection and autoimmune diseases. During allograft transplantation, increases of both Treg expansion and generation, as well as their stable function, are needed to ensure allograft acceptance; thus, efforts have been made to discover new molecules that enhance Treg-mediated tolerance and to uncover their mechanisms. Recently, vitamin C (VitC), known to regulate T cell maturation and dendritic cell-mediated T cell polarization, has gained attention as a relevant epigenetic remodeler able to enhance and stabilize the expression of the Treg master regulator gene Foxp3, positively affecting the generation of induced Tregs (iTregs)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
T Gambichler, I Rüddel, S Hessam, F G Bechara, E Stockfleth, L Schmitz
BACKGROUND: Koebnerized non-melanoma skin cancer following skin trauma represents a rare and obscure event. OBJECTIVES: To study molecularpathological parameters in koebnerized squamous cell carcinomas (K-SCCs) occurring after complete tumour removal. METHODS: We assessed two patients with multiple sclerosis who were on treatment with dimethylfumarate (DMF) preceded by long-term azathioprine therapy. Both patients rapidly developed several K-SCCs following histopathologically proven complete excision of cutaneous SCCs...
February 25, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Jinrong Zeng, Jianyun Lu
Ozone-therapy initially applied in medicine by an empirical approach, has now reached a new stage where most of the biological mechanisms of ozone action have been clarified, that refers to antimicrobial effects, immunoregulation, antioxidant defenses and epigenetic modification. Current ozone medical preparation in dermatology mainly classified as ozone hydrotherapy, ozonated oil externally used and ozone autohemotherapy (OAHT). Admittedly, ozone is widely used in various fields against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, viruses, and fungi...
March 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Livio Provenzi, Roberto Giorda, Monica Fumagalli, Uberto Pozzoli, Francesco Morandi, Giunia Scotto di Minico, Fabio Mosca, Renato Borgatti, Rosario Montirosso
Very preterm (VPT) infants (gestational age < 32 weeks) require long-lasting hospitalization in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), even in absence of severe morbidities. During NICU stay, life-saving interventions occur and include invasive and painful skin-breaking procedures (NICU-related stress), which constitute a major early adverse experience for VPT infants. Telomeres are repeat-sequence at the end of chromosomes, which shorten with age and are highly susceptible to life adversities: the exposure to early adverse experiences is associated with shorter telomere length (TL)...
January 20, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Walther Parson
Forensic genetics developed from protein-based techniques a quarter of a century ago and became famous as "DNA fingerprinting," this being based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) of high-molecular-weight DNA. The amplification of much smaller short tandem repeat (STR) sequences using the polymerase chain reaction soon replaced RFLP analysis and advanced to become the gold standard in genetic identification. Meanwhile, STR multiplexes have been developed and made commercially available which simultaneously amplify up to 30 STR loci from as little as 15 cells or fewer...
January 23, 2018: Gerontology
Aida Moreno-Moral, Marta Bagnati, Surya Koturan, Jeong-Hun Ko, Carmen Fonseca, Nathan Harmston, Laurence Game, Javier Martin, Voon Ong, David J Abraham, Christopher P Denton, Jacques Behmoaras, Enrico Petretto
OBJECTIVES: Several common and rare risk variants have been reported for systemic sclerosis (SSc), but the effector cell(s) mediating the function of these genetic variants remains to be elucidated. While innate immune cells have been proposed as the critical targets to interfere with the disease process underlying SSc, no studies have comprehensively established their effector role. Here we investigated the contribution of monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) in mediating genetic susceptibility to SSc...
January 17, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
J C Sunshine, N S Jahchan, J Sage, J Choi
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but lethal cancer with the highest case-by-case fatality rate among all skin cancers. Eighty percent of cancers are associated with the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). Twenty percent of MCCs are virus negative. Recent epidemiological data suggest that there are important, clinically relevant differences between these two subtypes of MCC. Recent studies in cancer genomics, mouse genetics, and virology experiments have transformed our understanding of MCC pathophysiology...
January 11, 2018: Oncogene
Christian F Guerrero-Juarez, Aliaksandr A Astrowski, Rabi Murad, Christina T Dang, Vera O Shatrova, Aksana Astrowskaja, Chae Ho Lim, Raul Ramos, Xiaojie Wang, Yuchen Liu, Hye-Lim Lee, Kim T Pham, Tsai-Ching Hsi, Ji Won Oh, Daniel Crocker, Ali Mortazavi, Mayumi Ito, Maksim V Plikus
Large excisional wounds in mice prominently regenerate new hair follicles (HFs) and fat, yet humans are deficient for this regenerative behavior. Currently, wound-induced regeneration remains a clinically desirable, but only partially understood phenomenon. We show that large excisional wounds in rats, across seven strains fail to regenerate new HFs. We compared wound transcriptomes between mice and rats at the time of scab detachment, which coincides with the onset of HF regeneration in mice. In both species, wound dermis and epidermis share core dermal and epidermal transcriptional programs respectively, yet prominent inter-species differences exist...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Jessica C de Greef, Yvonne D Krom, Bianca den Hamer, Lauren Snider, Yosuke Hiramuki, Rob F P van den Akker, Kelsey Breslin, Miha Pakusch, Daniela C F Salvatori, Bram Slütter, Rabi Tawil, Marnie E Blewitt, Stephen J Tapscott, Silvère M van der Maarel
In humans, a copy of the DUX4 retrogene is located in each unit of the D4Z4 macrosatellite repeat that normally comprises 8-100 units. The D4Z4 repeat has heterochromatic features and does not express DUX4 in somatic cells. Individuals with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) have a partial failure of somatic DUX4 repression resulting in the presence of DUX4 protein in sporadic muscle nuclei. Somatic DUX4 derepression is caused by contraction of the D4Z4 repeat to 1-10 units (FSHD1) or by heterozygous mutations in genes responsible for maintaining the D4Z4 chromatin structure in a repressive state (FSHD2)...
December 21, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
Kave Shams, Mariola Kurowska-Stolarska, Fabian Schütte, A David Burden, Clive S McKimmie, Gerard J Graham
Chemokines are the principal regulators of leukocyte migration and are essential for initiation and maintenance of inflammation. Atypical chemokine receptor 2 (ACKR2) binds and scavenges proinflammatory CC-chemokines, regulates cutaneous T-cell positioning, and limits the spread of inflammation in vivo. Altered ACKR2 function has been implicated in several inflammatory disorders, including psoriasis, a common and debilitating T cell-driven disorder characterized by thick erythematous skin plaques. ACKR2 expression is abnormal in psoriatic skin, with decreased expression correlating with recruitment of T cells into the epidermis and increased inflammation...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Kanad Ghosh, Kyle O'Neil, Brian C Capell
By regulating the accessibility of the genome, epigenetic regulators such as histone proteins and the chromatin-modifying enzymes that act upon them control gene expression. Proper regulation of this "histone code" allows for the precise control of transcriptional networks that are essential for establishing and maintaining cell fate and identity, disruption of which may drive carcinogenesis. How these dynamic epigenetic regulators contribute to both skin homeostasis and disease is only beginning to be understood...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
Deepti Verma, Anna-Karin Ekman, Cecilia Bivik Eding, Charlotta Enerbäck
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with both local and systemic components. Genome-wide approaches have identified more than 60 psoriasis-susceptibility loci, but genes are estimated to explain only one third of the heritability in psoriasis, suggesting additional, yet unidentified, sources of heritability. Epigenetic modifications have been linked to psoriasis and altered DNA methylation patterns in psoriatic versus healthy skin have been reported in whole-skin biopsies. In this study, focusing on epigenetic modifications in the psoriatic uninvolved skin, we compared the lesional and non-lesional epidermis from psoriasis patients with epidermis from healthy controls...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
B Palmieri, M Vadalà, C Laurino
The restoration of the skin barrier in acute and chronic wounds is controlled by several molecular mechanisms that synergistically regulate cell kinetics, enzymatic functions, and neurovascular activation. These pathways include genetic and epigenetic activation, which modulate physiological wound healing. Our review describes the genetic background of skin repair, namely transcription-independent diffusible damage signals, individual variability, epigenetic mechanism, controlled qualitative traits, post-translational mechanisms, antioxidants, nutrients, DNA modifications, bacteria activation, mitochondrial activity, and oxidative stress...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Wound Care
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