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Pathology methylation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924165/assessment-of-global-dna-methylation-in-the-first-trimester-fetal-tissues-exposed-to-maternal-cigarette-smoking
#1
Svetlana Fa, Trine Vilsbøll Larsen, Katrine Bilde, Tina F Daugaard, Emil H Ernst, Rasmus H Olesen, Linn S Mamsen, Erik Ernst, Agnete Larsen, Anders L Nielsen
AIMS: Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of negative health consequences for the exposed child. Epigenetic mechanisms constitute a likely link between the prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking and the increased risk in later life for diverse pathologies. Maternal smoking induces gene-specific DNA methylation alterations as well as global DNA hypermethylation in the term placentas and hypomethylation in the cord blood. Early pregnancy represents a developmental time where the fetal epigenome is remodeled and accordingly can be expected to be highly prone to exposures with an epigenetic impact...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920803/bone-pain-mechanism-in-osteoporosis-a-narrative-review
#2
REVIEW
Consalvo Mattia, Flaminia Coluzzi, Ludovica Celidonio, Renato Vellucci
Bone pain in elderly people dramatically affects their quality of life, with osteoporosis being the leading cause of skeletal related events. Peripheral and central mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of the nervous system sensitization. Osteoporosis in the elderly has been associated with increased density of bone sensory nerve fibers and their pathological modifications, together with an over-expression of nociceptors sensitized by the lowering pH due to the osteoclastic activity. The activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and the microglia, as a response to a range of pathological conditions, represent the leading cause of central sensitization...
May 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915032/reelin-expression-is-up-regulated-in-mice-colon-in-response-to-acute-colitis-and-provides-resistance-against-colitis
#3
Ana E Carvajal, María D Vázquez-Carretero, Pablo García-Miranda, María J Peral, María L Calonge, Anunciación A Ilundain
Reelin is an extracellular matrix protein first known for its key role in neuronal migration. Studies in rodent small intestine suggested that reelin protects the organism from intestinal pathology. Here we determined in mice colon, by real time-PCR and immunological assays, the expression of the reelin signalling system; its response to dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) and the response of wild-type and reeler mice to DSS. DNA methylation was determined by bisulfite modification and sequencing of genomic DNA. In the colon mucosa reelin expression is restricted to the myofibroblasts, whereas both epithelial cells and myofibroblasts express reelin receptors (ApoER2 and VLDLR) and its effector protein Dab1...
November 30, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910065/pathology-of-endometrial-carcinoma
#4
Sigurd F Lax
On a clinicopathological and molecular level, two distinctive types of endometrial carcinoma, type I and type II, can be distinguished. Endometrioid carcinoma, the typical type I carcinoma, seems to develop through an estrogen-driven "adenoma carcinoma" pathway from atypical endometrial hyperplasia/endometrioid intraepithelial neoplasia (AEH/EIN). It is associated with elevated serum estrogen and high body mass index and expresses estrogen and progesterone receptors. They are mostly low grade and show a favorable prognosis...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908408/protective-effect-of-magnesium-acetyltaurate-against-nmda-induced-retinal-damage-involves-restoration-of-minerals-and-trace-elements-homeostasis
#5
Azliana Jusnida Ahmad Jafri, Natasha Najwa Nor Arfuzir, Lidawani Lambuk, Igor Iezhitsa, Renu Agarwal, Puneet Agarwal, Norhafiza Razali, Anna Krasilnikova, Maria Kharitonova, Vasily Demidov, Evgeny Serebryansky, Anatoly Skalny, Alexander Spasov, Ahmad Pauzi Md Yusof, Nafeeza Mohd Ismail
Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity involving N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors has been recognized as a final common outcome in pathological conditions involving death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Overstimulation of NMDA receptors results in influx of calcium (Ca) and sodium (Na) ions and efflux of potassium (K). NMDA receptors are blocked by magnesium (Mg). Such changes due to NMDA overstimulation are also associated with not only the altered levels of minerals but also that of trace elements and redox status...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901066/greater-efficacy-of-atorvastatin-versus-a-non-statin-lipid-lowering-agent-against-renal-injury-potential-role-as-a-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor
#6
Ravi Shankar Singh, Dharmendra Kumar Chaudhary, Aradhana Mohan, Praveen Kumar, Chandra Prakash Chaturvedi, Carolyn M Ecelbarger, Madan M Godbole, Swasti Tiwari
Statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors have been shown to improve diabetic nephropathy. However, whether they provide protection via Histone deacetylases (HDAC) inhibition is not clear. We conducted a comparative evaluation of Atorvastatin (AT) versus the non-statin cholesterol-lowering drug, Ezetimibe (EZT) on severity of diabetic nephropathy. Streptozotocin-treated male Wistar rats were fed a cholesterol-supplemented diet and gavaged daily with vehicle, AT or EZT. Control rats received normal diet and gavaged vehicle (n = 8-9/group)...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899997/testin-tes-as-a-candidate-tumour-suppressor-and-prognostic-marker-in-human-astrocytoma
#7
Giedrius Steponaitis, Arunas Kazlauskas, Daina Skiriute, Indre Valiulyte, Kestutis Skauminas, Arimantas Tamasauskas, Paulina Vaitkiene
Astrocytomas are one of the most common brain tumours; however, the current methods used to characterize these tumours are inadequate. The establishment of molecular markers may identify variables required to improve tumour characterization and subtyping, and may aid to specify targets for improved treatment with essential prognostic value for patient survival. One such candidate is testin (TES), which was reported to have prognostic value for glioblastoma patients. However, the role of TES protein in gliomagenesis is currently unknown...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893464/the-h3k9-dimethyltransferases-ehmt1-2-protect-against-pathological-cardiac-hypertrophy
#8
Bernard Thienpont, Jan Magnus Aronsen, Emma Louise Robinson, Hanneke Okkenhaug, Elena Loche, Arianna Ferrini, Patrick Brien, Kanar Alkass, Antonio Tomasso, Asmita Agrawal, Olaf Bergmann, Ivar Sjaastad, Wolf Reik, Hywel Llewelyn Roderick
Cardiac hypertrophic growth in response to pathological cues is associated with reexpression of fetal genes and decreased cardiac function and is often a precursor to heart failure. In contrast, physiologically induced hypertrophy is adaptive, resulting in improved cardiac function. The processes that selectively induce these hypertrophic states are poorly understood. Here, we have profiled 2 repressive epigenetic marks, H3K9me2 and H3K27me3, which are involved in stable cellular differentiation, specifically in cardiomyocytes from physiologically and pathologically hypertrophied rat hearts, and correlated these marks with their associated transcriptomes...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890431/neuroprotective-mechanisms-of-plant-extracts-against-mptp-induced-neurotoxicity-future-applications-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
Abdelrahman Ibrahim Abushouk, Ahmed Negida, Hussien Ahmed, Mohamed M Abdel-Daim
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease, affecting about seven to 10 million patients worldwide. The major pathological features of PD are loss of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway and accumulation of alpha-synuclein molecules, forming Lewy bodies. Until now, there is no effective cure for PD, and investigators are searching for neuroprotective strategies to stop or slow the disease progression. The MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) induced neurotoxicity of the nigrostriatal pathway has been used to initiate PD in animal models...
November 24, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889782/molecular-pathology-a-requirement-for-precision-medicine-in-cancer
#10
Manfred Dietel
The increasing importance of targeting drugs and check-point inhibitors in the treatment of several tumor entities (breast, colon, lung, malignant melanoma, lymphoma, etc.) and the necessity of a companion diagnostic (HER2, (pan)RAS, EGFR, ALK, BRAF, ROS1, MET, PD-L1, etc.) is leading to new challenges for surgical pathology. Since almost all the biomarkers to be specifically detected are tissue based, a precise and reliable diagnostic is absolutely crucial. To meet this challenge surgical pathology has adapted a number of molecular methods (semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridization, PCR and its multiple variants, (pyro/Sanger) sequencing, next generation sequencing (amplicon, whole exome, whole genome), DNA arrays, methylation analyses, etc...
2016: Oncology Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885689/pathogenesis-and-diagnosis-of-placental-disorders-is-related-to-abnormal-methylation-at-promoters-of-placental-vascularization-mediating-genes
#11
Beenish Rahat, Rauf Ahmad Najar, Abid Hamid, Rashmi Bagga, Jyotdeep Kaur
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of methylation levels at promoter regions of placental vascularization genes (VEGF, EGFR and c-jun) in pathogenesis and diagnosis of placental disorders. METHODS: We analyzed DNA and histone methylation at promoters of VEGF, EGFR and c-jun via methylation-sensitive high resolution melting and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay in pregnant women with normal pregnancy in first, second and third trimester (n = 30 in each group) and pregnant women with pregnancy complicated with preeclampsia (n = 30) and hydatidiform mole (n = 15)...
November 24, 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872582/separate-ionotropic-and-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-functions-in-depotentiation-vs-ltp-a-distinct-role-for-group1-mglur-subtypes-and-nmdars
#12
Amira Latif-Hernandez, Enrico Faldini, Tariq Ahmed, Detlef Balschun
Depotentiation (DP) is a mechanism by which synapses that have recently undergone long-term potentiation (LTP) can reverse their synaptic strengthening within a short time-window after LTP induction. Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) were shown to be involved in different forms of LTP and long-term depression (LTD), but little is known about their roles in DP. Here, we generated DP by applying low-frequency stimulation (LFS) at 5 Hz after LTP had been induced by a single train of theta-burst-stimulation (TBS)...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862318/genome-wide-dna-methylation-analysis-identifies-megf10-as-a-novel-epigenetically-repressed-candidate-tumour-suppressor-gene-in-neuroblastoma
#13
Jessica Charlet, Ayumi Tomari, Anthony R Dallosso, Marianna Szemes, Martina Kaselova, Thomas J Curry, Bader Almutairi, Heather C Etchevers, Carmel McConville, Karim T A Malik, Keith W Brown
Neuroblastoma is a childhood cancer in which many children still have poor outcomes, emphasising the need to better understand its pathogenesis. Despite recent genome-wide mutation analyses, many primary neuroblastomas do not contain recognisable driver mutations, implicating alternate molecular pathologies such as epigenetic alterations. To discover genes that become epigenetically deregulated during neuroblastoma tumorigenesis, we took the novel approach of comparing neuroblastomas to neural crest precursor cells, using genome-wide DNA methylation analysis...
November 15, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861902/the-molecular-basis-of-breast-cancer-pathological-phenotypes
#14
Yujing J Heng, Susan C Lester, Gary M K Tse, Rachel E Factor, Kimberly H Allison, Laura C Collins, Yunn-Yi Chen, Kristin C Jensen, Nicole B Johnson, Jong Cheol Jeong, Rahi Punjabi, Sandra J Shin, Kamaljeet Singh, Gregor Krings, David A Eberhard, Puay Hoon Tan, Konstanty Korski, Frederic M Waldman, David A Gutman, Melinda Sanders, Jorge S Reis-Filho, Sydney R Flanagan, Deena M A Gendoo, Gregory M Chen, Benjamin Haibe-Kains, Giovanni Ciriello, Katherine A Hoadley, Charles M Perou, Andrew H Beck
The histopathological evaluation of morphological features in breast tumours provides prognostic information to guide therapy. Adjunct molecular analyses provide further diagnostic, prognostic and predictive information. However, there is limited knowledge of the molecular basis of morphological phenotypes in invasive breast cancer. This study integrated genomic, transcriptomic and protein data to provide a comprehensive molecular profiling of morphological features in breast cancer. Fifteen pathologists assessed 850 invasive breast cancer cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859269/homocysteine-as-a-pathological-biomarker-for-bone-disease
#15
REVIEW
Jyotirmaya Behera, Jyoti Bala, Mohammed Nuru, Suresh C Tyagi, Neetu Tyagi
In the last few decades, perturbation in methyl-group and homocysteine (Hcy) balance have emerged as independent risk factors in a number of pathological conditions including neurodegenerative disease, cardiovascular dysfunction, cancer development, autoimmune disease and kidney disease. Recent studies report Hcy to be a newly recognized risk factor for osteoporosis. Elevated Hcy levels are known to modulate osteoclastgenesis by causing detrimental effects on bone via oxidative stress induced metalloproteinase-mediated extracellular matrix degradation and decrease in bone blood flow...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857754/protective-effect-of-tetrahydroxy-stilbene-glucoside-on-learning-and-memory-by-regulating-synaptic-plasticity
#16
Hong-Bo Luo, Yun Li, Zun-Jing Liu, Li Cao, Zhi-Qiang Zhang, Yong Wang, Xiao-Yan Zhang, Zhao Liu, Xiang-Qun Shi
Damage to synaptic plasticity induced by neurotoxicity of amyloid-beta is regarded to be one of the pathological mechanisms of learning and memory disabilities in Alzheimer's disease patients. This study assumed that the damage of amyloid-beta to learning and memory abilities was strongly associated with the changes in the Fyn/N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B (NR2B) expression. An APP695V7171 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease was used and treatment with tetrahydroxy-stilbene glucoside was administered intragastrically...
September 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857688/modulation-plasticity-and-pathophysiology-of-the-parallel-fiber-purkinje-cell-synapse
#17
REVIEW
Eriola Hoxha, Filippo Tempia, Pellegrino Lippiello, Maria Concetta Miniaci
The parallel fiber-Purkinje cell (PF-PC) synapse represents the point of maximal signal divergence in the cerebellar cortex with an estimated number of about 60 billion synaptic contacts in the rat and 100,000 billions in humans. At the same time, the Purkinje cell dendritic tree is a site of remarkable convergence of more than 100,000 parallel fiber synapses. Parallel fiber activity generates fast postsynaptic currents via α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, and slower signals, mediated by mGlu1 receptors, resulting in Purkinje cell depolarization accompanied by sharp calcium elevation within dendritic regions...
2016: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856999/simvastatin-alleviates-pathology-in-a-rat-model-of-preeclampsia-involving-erk-mapk-pathway
#18
Xiujuan Dong, Dandan Shi
Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific condition characterized by new-onset hypertension. There is evidence suggesting that imbalances of angiogenic factors, oxidative stress, and inflammation may be central to the pathogenesis of PE. We sought to investigate whether simvastatin would reduce mean arterial pressure, restore the angiogenic balance, and ameliorate inflammation and oxidative stress in a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME)-induced rat model of PE. We found that blood pressure was significantly increased in the l-NAME group compared to normal pregnant dams (P < ...
November 16, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856995/choline-protects-against-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease-in-parenteral-nutrition-fed-immature-rats
#19
Jie Zhu, Ting Lu, Fei Chen, Junkai Yan, Fan Chen, Qiaosen Zhang, Jifan Wang, Weihui Yan, Tingxi Yu, Qingya Tang, Wei Cai
BACKGROUND: Deficiency of choline, a required nutrient, is related to intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD). Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of choline supplementation on IFALD and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (4 weeks old) were fed AIN-93G chow and administered intravenous 0.9% saline (control), parenteral nutrition (PN), or PN plus intravenous choline (600 mg/kg) for 7 days. We evaluated body weight, hepatic histology, biochemical indicators, triglycerides, oxidative status, methylation levels of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) gene promoter, expression of PPARα and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), and levels of choline metabolites...
November 17, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853645/promoter-methylation-of-the-immune-checkpoint-receptor-pd-1-pdcd1-is-an-independent-prognostic-biomarker-for-biochemical-recurrence-free-survival-in-prostate-cancer-patients-following-radical-prostatectomy
#20
Diane Goltz, Heidrun Gevensleben, Jörn Dietrich, Jörg Ellinger, Jennifer Landsberg, Glen Kristiansen, Dimo Dietrich
Biomarkers that facilitate the prediction of disease recurrence in prostate cancer (PCa) may enable physicians to personalize treatment for individual patients. In the current study, PD-1 (PDCD1) promoter methylation was assessed in a cohort of 498 PCa patients included in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and a second cohort of 300 PCa cases treated at the University Hospital of Bonn. In the TCGA cohort, the PD-1 promoter was significantly hypermethylated in carcinomas versus normal prostatic epithelium (55.5% vs...
2016: Oncoimmunology
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