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Pathology methylation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779103/dopamine-synthesis-as-a-mechanism-of-brain-plasticity-in-nigrostriatal-system-pathology
#1
A A Kolacheva, M V Ugrumov
Using an experimental Parkinson's disease model (symptoms develop in mice after the injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine), we studied the characteristics of the synthesis of dopamine as a possible compensatory mechanism aimed at maintaining the dopamine level in the dopaminergic neurons that survived in this pathology. We found no correlation between the content and activity of tyrosine hydroxylase in the nigrostriatal system. The enzyme activity and the dopamine content showed unidirectional changes in the substantia nigra, but not in the striatum, which is apparently due to triggering other compensatory mechanisms...
March 2018: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775897/the-gastric-mucosal-protective-effects-of-astragaloside-iv-in-mnng-induced-gpl-rats
#2
Tiantian Cai, Chengzhe Zhang, Ziming Zhao, Siyi Li, Haobin Cai, Xiaodong Chen, Dake Cai, Wei Liu, Yan Yan, Kaifeng Xie, Huafeng Pan, Xiaohui Zeng
Gastric Cancer is one of the most common types of cancer. And the occurrence of gastric carcinoma is an evolutionary histopathological stage. As a result, further research of GPL, which is a borderline of gastric cancer, is indispensable for preventing the formation and development of gastric carcinoma. Several studies have demonstrated a correlation between the expression of autophagy, apoptosis and Gastric cancer (GC). However, the effects of autophagy and apoptosis on human gastric cancer progression, particularly on gastric precancerous lesions (GPL), have not totally been investigated...
May 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774131/methylation-of-dna-and-chromatin-as-a-mechanism-of-oncogenesis-and-therapeutic-target-in-neuroblastoma
#3
REVIEW
Ram Mohan Ram Kumar, Nina Felice Schor
Neuroblastoma (NB), a developmental cancer, is often fatal, emphasizing the need to understand its pathogenesis and identify new therapeutic targets. The heterogeneous pathological and clinical phenotype of NB underscores the cryptic biological and genetic features of this tumor that result in outcomes ranging from rapid progression to spontaneous regression. Despite recent genome-wide mutation analyses, most primary NBs do not harbor driver mutations, implicating epigenetically-mediated gene regulatory mechanisms in the initiation and maintenance of NB...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773426/stem-cell-transcription-factor-sox2-in-synovial-sarcoma-and-other-soft-tissue-tumors
#4
Heba Zayed, Iver Petersen
BACKGROUND: SOX2 has gained considerable interest as a pluripotency inducing gene. Co-transfection of SOX2 together with NANOG, KLF4 and c-MYC into adult fibroblasts was able to generate pluripotent stem cells. SOX2 has been reported to be expressed in synovial sarcoma, a tumor being characterized by the SS18-SSX gene fusion forming part of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex that affects histone methylation. The role of SOX2 in this tumor type as well as other soft tissue tumor entities however is still poorly characterized...
May 4, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768655/let-7e-inhibits-tnf-%C3%AE-expression-by-targeting-the-methyl-transferase-ezh2-in-denv2-infected-thp-1-cells
#5
Yingke Zhang, Qianqian Zhang, Lian Gui, Yan Cai, Xiaohong Deng, Cheukfai Li, Qi Guo, Xiaoshun He, Junqi Huang
Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), an important inflammatory cytokine, is associated with dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS), a severe pathological manifestation of dengue virus (DENV) infection. However, the regulatory mechanism of microRNA on TNFα is currently unknown. Our study showed that the TNFα expression increased immediately and then later decreased, while a marked increase for the miRNA let-7e was detected in dengue virus type 2 (DENV2)-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767839/jak2-v617f-positive-acute-myeloid-leukaemia-aml-a-comparison-between-de-novo-aml-and-secondary-aml-transformed-from-an-underlying-myeloproliferative-neoplasm-a-study-from-the-bone-marrow-pathology-group
#6
Jason Aynardi, Rashmi Manur, Paul R Hess, Seble Chekol, Jennifer J D Morrissette, Daria Babushok, Elizabeth Hexner, Heesun J Rogers, Eric D Hsi, Elizabeth Margolskee, Attilio Orazi, Robert Hasserjian, Adam Bagg
The JAK2 V617F mutation is characteristic of most Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and occurs rarely in de novo acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). We sought to characterize AMLs that harbour this mutation and distinguish those that arise de novo (AML-DN) from those that reflect transformation of an underlying MPN (AML-MPN). Forty-five patients with JAK2 V617F-mutated AML were identified; 15 were AML-DN and 30 were AML-MPN. AML-MPN cases were more likely to have splenomegaly (P = 0·02), MPN-like megakaryocytes and higher mean JAK2 V617F VAF at diagnosis (P = 0·04)...
May 16, 2018: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764956/spotlight-on-the-transglutaminase-2-gene-a-focus-on-genomic-and-transcriptional-aspects
#7
REVIEW
Nicoletta Bianchi, Simone Beninati, Carlo M Bergamini
The type 2 isoenzyme is the most widely expressed transglutaminase in mammals displaying several intra- and extracellular activities depending on its location (protein modification, modulation of gene expression, membrane signalling and stabilization of cellular interactions with the extracellular matrix) in relation to cell death, survival and differentiation. In contrast with the appreciable knowledge about the regulation of the enzymatic activities, much less is known concerning its inducible expression, which is altered in inflammatory and neoplastic diseases...
May 15, 2018: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764501/eya4-inhibits-hepatocellular-carcinoma-growth-and-invasion-by-suppressing-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-dependent-rap1-transactivation
#8
Shi-Jing Mo, Xun Hou, Xiao-Yi Hao, Jian-Peng Cai, Xin Liu, Wei Chen, Dong Chen, Xiao-Yu Yin
BACKGROUND: Our previous studies demonstrated that eyes absent homolog 4 (EYA4), a member of the eye development-related EYA family in Drosophila, is frequently methylated and silenced in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) specimens and associated with shorter survival. The current work aimed to explore the mechanisms through which EYA4 functions as a tumor suppressor in HCC. METHODS: Stable EYA4-expressing plasmid (pEYA4) transfectants of the human HCC cell lines Huh-7 and PLC/PRF/5 (PLC) were established...
April 3, 2018: Cancer communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762634/lineage-associated-underrepresented-permutations-laups-of-mammalian-genomic-sequences-based-on-a-jellyfish-based-laups-analysis-application-jbla
#9
Le Zhang, Ming Xiao, Jingsong Zhou, Jun Yu
Motivation: The present study addresses several important questions related to naturally underrepresented sequences: (1) Are there permutations of real genomic DNA sequences in a defined length (k-mer) and a given lineage that do not actually exist or underrepresented? (2) If there are such sequences, what are their characteristics in terms of k-mer length and base composition? Are they related to CpG or TpA underrepresentation known for human sequences? We propose that the answers to these questions are of great significance for the study of sequence-associated regulatory mechanisms, such cytosine methylation and chromosomal structures in physiological or pathological conditions such as cancer...
May 14, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752117/antifertility-effectiveness-of-a-novel-copper-containing-intrauterine-device-material-and-its-influence-on-the-endometrial-environment-in-rats
#10
Shifu Hu, Yingying Wang, Dandan Ke, Fang Zhou, Guiping Cheng, Wei Xia, Changhong Zhu
This study was designed to investigate the antifertility effectiveness of a novel copper-containing intrauterine device material containing a composite of micro-copper (Cu), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), and methyl vinyl silicone rubber (MVQ) and its effects on the endometrial environment in rats. The contraceptive effectiveness was examined 12 days after pregnancy. The pathological changes; factors associated with bleeding, pain, and inflammation in the endometrium; and the surface condition of the implants were investigated after insertion for 90 days...
August 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749552/genome%C3%A2-wide-dna-methylation-profiling-in-a-rat-model-with-vascular-dementia
#11
Jong-Min Park, Yoon Ju Kim, Min Kyung Song, Jae-Min Lee, Youn-Jung Kim
Vascular dementia (VaD), the second most prevalent type of dementia, is caused by reduced blood supply to the brain that results in cognitive impairment. Despite the efforts of numerous studies, the pathological mechanisms behind VaD remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to identify candidate genes that undergo changes in hippocampal DNA methylation owing to VaD. A genome‑wide DNA methylation analysis was performed, using methylated DNA‑binding domain sequencing. VaD model rats with cognitive impairment induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion were confirmed using the radial arm maze test...
May 8, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747534/binding-investigation-and-preliminary-optimisation-of-the-3-amino-1-2-4-triazin-5-2h-one-core-for-the-development-of-new-fyn-inhibitors
#12
Giulio Poli, Margherita Lapillo, Carlotta Granchi, Jessica Caciolla, Nayla Mouawad, Isabella Caligiuri, Flavio Rizzolio, Thierry Langer, Filippo Minutolo, Tiziano Tuccinardi
Fyn tyrosine kinase inhibitors are considered potential therapeutic agents for a variety of human cancers. Furthermore, the involvement of Fyn kinase in signalling pathways that lead to severe pathologies, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, has also been demonstrated. In this study, starting from 3-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-ylamino)-6-methyl-1,2,4-triazin-5(2H)-one (VS6), a hit compound that showed a micromolar inhibition of Fyn (IC50  = 4.8 μM), we computationally investigated the binding interactions of the 3-amino-1,2,4-triazin-5(2H)-one scaffold and started a preliminary hit to lead optimisation...
December 2018: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740534/genomic-dna-methylation-derived-algorithm-enables-accurate-detection-of-malignant-prostate-tissues
#13
Erfan Aref-Eshghi, Laila C Schenkel, Peter Ainsworth, Hanxin Lin, David I Rodenhiser, Jean-Claude Cutz, Bekim Sadikovic
Introduction: The current methodology involving diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) relies on the pathology examination of prostate needle biopsies, a method with high false negative rates partly due to temporospatial, molecular, and morphological heterogeneity of prostate adenocarcinoma. It is postulated that molecular markers have a potential to assign diagnosis to a considerable portion of undetected prostate tumors. This study examines the genome-wide DNA methylation changes in PCa in search of genomic markers for the development of a diagnostic algorithm for PCa screening...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736028/pm20d1-is-a-quantitative-trait-locus-associated-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Jose V Sanchez-Mut, Holger Heyn, Bianca A Silva, Lucie Dixsaut, Paula Garcia-Esparcia, Enrique Vidal, Sergi Sayols, Liliane Glauser, Ana Monteagudo-Sánchez, Jordi Perez-Tur, Isidre Ferrer, David Monk, Bernard Schneider, Manel Esteller, Johannes Gräff
The chances to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) result from a combination of genetic and non-genetic risk factors 1 , the latter likely being mediated by epigenetic mechanisms 2 . In the past, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified an important number of risk loci associated with AD pathology 3 , but a causal relationship remains difficult to establish. In contrast, locus-specific or epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) have revealed site-specific epigenetic alterations, which provide mechanistic insights for a particular risk gene but often lack the statistical power of GWAS 4 ...
May 7, 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725295/differential-hyperphosphorylation-of-tau-s199-t231-and-s396-in-organotypic-brain-slices-of-alzheimer-mice-a-model-to-study-early-tau-hyperphosphorylation-using-okadaic-acid
#15
Bettina M Foidl, Christian Humpel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the brain, characterized by extracellular aggregation of beta-amyloid (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylation of tau causing intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). There is urgent need to study the interactions between Aβ and tau, especially to solve the question of the pathological cascade. In the present study, we aim to develop a model of organotypic brain slices in which both plaque and tau pathology can be examined. Organotypic brain slices (150 μm thick, coronal, at the hippocampal level) from adult (9 month) wildtype (WT, C57BL/6N) and transgenic AD mice (TG, APP_SweDI) were cultured for 2 weeks...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724875/unusual-case-of-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartic-acid-receptor-nmda-r-encephalitis-and-autoimmune-polyglandular-syndrome-aps
#16
Simona Frunza-Stefan, Hilary B Whitlatch, Gautam G Rao, Rana Malek
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartic acid-receptor (NMDA-R) encephalitis is a novel disease discovered within the past 10 years. It is an autoimmune disease (AD) that has been associated with other ADs, such as Graves' disease. However, association with autoimmune polyglandular syndromes (APS) has not been previously described. A 58-year-old woman presented with altered mental status and an 8-month history of weight loss, apathy and somnolence. Laboratory evaluation confirmed Graves' disease with thyrotoxicosis and type 1 diabetes mellitus...
May 2, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721215/epigenetic-regulation-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-gastric-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Zhixia Zhou, Zhijuan Lin, Xin Pang, Muhammad Akram Tariq, Xiang Ao, Peifeng Li, Jianxun Wang
Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers and is the second leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Therefore, it is urgent to explore new molecular biomarkers for early diagnosis, early treatment and prognosis for gastric cancer patients. Recently, increasing evidence has shown that epigenetic changes, such as aberrant DNA methylation, histone modifications, and noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) expression, play substantial roles in the development and progression of malignancies. Among these changes, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a novel class of ncRNAs, are emerging as highly versatile actors in a variety of cellular processes by regulating gene expression at the epigenetic level as well as at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels...
April 10, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720243/fc%C3%AE-receptor-mediated-influx-of-s100a8-a9-producing-neutrophils-as-inducer-of-bone-erosion-during-antigen-induced-arthritis
#18
Irene Di Ceglie, Giuliana Ascone, Niels A J Cremers, Annet W Sloetjes, Birgitte Walgreen, Thomas Vogl, Johannes Roth, J Sjef Verbeek, Fons A J van de Loo, Marije I Koenders, Peter M van der Kraan, Arjen B Blom, Martijn H J van den Bosch, Peter L E M van Lent
BACKGROUND: Osteoclast-mediated bone erosion is a central feature of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Immune complexes, present in a large percentage of patients, bind to Fcγ receptors (FcγRs), thereby modulating the activity of immune cells. In this study, we investigated the contribution of FcγRs, and FcγRIV in particular, during antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). METHODS: AIA was induced in knee joints of wild-type (WT), FcγRI,II,III-/- , and FcγRI,II,III,IV-/- mice...
May 2, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718303/the-kdm4a-kdm4c-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-wdr5-epigenetic-cascade-regulates-the-activation-of-b-cells
#19
Kuo-Hsuan Hung, Yong H Woo, I-Ying Lin, Chin-Hsiu Liu, Li-Chieh Wang, Hsin-Yu Chen, Bor-Luen Chiang, Kuo-I Lin
T follicular helper (Tfh) cell-derived signals promote activation and proliferation of antigen-primed B cells. It remains unclear whether epigenetic regulation is involved in the B cell responses to Tfh cell-derived signals. Here, we demonstrate that Tfh cell-mimicking signals induce the expression of histone demethylases KDM4A and KDM4C, and the concomitant global down-regulation of their substrates, H3K9me3/me2, in B cells. Depletion of KDM4A and KDM4C potentiates B cell activation and proliferation in response to Tfh cell-derived signals...
April 30, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716988/structures-of-n-glycans-of-bothrops-venoms-revealed-as-molecular-signatures-that-contribute-to-venom-phenotype-in-viperid-snakes
#20
Débora Andrade-Silva, David Ashline, Thuy Tran, Aline S Lopes, Silvia Regina Travaglia Cardoso, Marcelo S Reis, André Zelanis, Solange M T Serrano, Vernon N Reinhold
The complexity of snake venoms has long been investigated to explore a myriad of biologically active proteins and peptides that are used for immobilizing or killing prey, and are responsible for the pathological effects observed upon envenomation. Glycosylation is the main post-translational modification (PTM) of viperid venoms but currently there is little understanding of how protein glycosylation impacts the variation of venom proteomes. We have previously reported that Bothrops venom glycoproteomes contain a core of components that markedly define their composition and parallel their phylogenetic classification...
May 1, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
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