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Pathology methylation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343959/antitumor-effect-of-a-new-nano-vector-with-mirna-135a-on-malignant-glioma
#1
Chaofeng Liang, Weitong Sun, Haiyong He, Baoyu Zhang, Cong Ling, Bocheng Wang, Tengchao Huang, Bo Hou, Ying Guo
Introduction: MiR-135a is found to selectively induce apoptosis in glioma cell but not in normal neurons and glial cells. However, low transfection efficacy limits its application in vivo as other miRNAs. We prepared a new kind of nano-vector based on polyethylene glycol methyl ether (mPEG) and hyper-branched polyethylenimine (hy-PEI) in order to improve the miRNA delivery system into the glioma cells. Methods: The mPEG-g-PEI/miR-135a was constructed and detected by 1H NMR and FTIR analyses...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339836/the-role-of-metabolic-enzymes-in-mesenchymal-tumors-and-tumor-syndromes-genetics-pathology-and-molecular-mechanisms
#2
REVIEW
Inga-Marie Schaefer, Jason L Hornick, Judith V M G Bovée
The discovery of mutations in genes encoding the metabolic enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and fumarate hydratase (FH) has expanded our understanding not only of altered metabolic pathways but also epigenetic dysregulation in cancer. IDH1/2 mutations occur in enchondromas and chondrosarcomas in patients with the non-hereditary enchondromatosis syndromes Ollier disease and Maffucci syndrome and in sporadic tumors. IDH1/2 mutations result in excess production of the oncometabolite (D)-2-hydroxyglutarate...
January 16, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339171/dna-methylation-level-of-the-neprilysin-promoter-in-alzheimer-s-disease-brains
#3
Kenichi Nagata, Tatsuo Mano, Shigeo Murayama, Takaomi C Saido, Atsushi Iwata
Neprilysin (NEP), a membrane-bound metalloprotease, has been shown to play an essential role in the clearance of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides. Previous studies have reported that NEP expression is downregulated in the normal aging brain as well as in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, providing evidence that the downregulation of NEP expression contributes to the age-dependent deposition of Aβ-containing plaques, a pathological hallmark of AD. However, the mechanisms underlying the downregulation remain unclear...
January 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338491/the-effect-of-ketamine-on-the-consolidation-and-extinction-of-contextual-fear-memory
#4
Nicholas E Clifton, Kerrie L Thomas, Jeremy Hall
Ketamine, principally an antagonist of N-methyl-ᴅ-aspartate receptors, induces schizophrenia-like symptoms in adult humans, warranting its use in the investigation of psychosis-related phenotypes in animal models. Genomic studies further implicate N-methyl-ᴅ-aspartate receptor-mediated processes in schizophrenia pathology, together with more broadly-defined synaptic plasticity and associative learning processes. Strong pathophysiological links have been demonstrated between fear learning and psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336373/advances-of-long-noncoding-rnas-mediated-regulation-in-reproduction
#5
REVIEW
Kang-Sheng Liu, Tai-Ping Li, Hua Ton, Xiao-Dong Mao, Ya-Jun Chen
OBJECTIVE: Advances in genomics and molecular biology have led to the discovery of a large group of uncharacterized long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Emerging evidence indicated that many lncRNAs function in multiple biological processes and its dysregulation often causes diseases. Recent studies suggested that almost all regulatory lncRNAs interact with biological macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, and protein. LncRNAs regulate gene expression mainly on three levels, including epigenetic modification, transcription, and posttranscription, through DNA methylation, histone modification, and chromatin remodeling...
January 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334683/epigenetic-silencing-of-the-mlh1-promoter-in-relation-to-the-development-of-gastric-cancer-and-its-use-as-a-biomarker-for-patients-with-microsatellite-instability-a-systematic-analysis
#6
Guimei Hu, Lijun Qin, Xinjun Zhang, Guoliang Ye, Tao Huang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Human mutL homolog 1 (MLH1) promoter methylation was reported in gastric cancer (GC). This study determined the clinicopathological, prognostic, and diagnostic effects of MLH1 promoter methylation in GC. METHODS: The combined odds ratio (OR) or hazard ratio (HR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 4654 GC patients and 3669 non-malignant controls were identified in this systematic analysis...
January 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330124/manipulating-the-epigenome-for-the-treatment-of-disorders-with-thrombotic-complications
#7
REVIEW
Faith A A Kwa, Denise E Jackson
The haemostatic system is tightly regulated to maintain homeostasis to avoid unwanted bleeding or thrombotic complications. Recent research has highlighted the importance of epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and miRNA-based mechanisms, that alter gene expression. This can give rise to dysregulated haemostatic or vascular expressed molecules contributing to the development of thrombotic complications. Targeting these epigenetic changes could provide a new avenue for the treatment of pathological blood clots...
January 9, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330110/epigenetics-and-pathogenesis-of-systemic-sclerosis-the-ins-and-outs
#8
REVIEW
Saeed Aslani, Soheila Sobhani, Farhad Gharibdoost, Ahmadreza Jamshidi, Mahdi Mahmoudi
The pathogenesis of many diseases is influenced by environmental factors which can affect human genome and be inherited from generation to generation. Adverse environmental stimuli are recognized through the epigenetic regulatory complex, leading to gene expression alteration, which in turn culminates in disease outcomes. Three epigenetic regulatory mechanisms modulate the manifestation of a gene, namely DNA methylation, histone changes, and microRNAs. Both epigenetics and genetics have been implicated in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc) disease...
January 9, 2018: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329581/microrna-124-regulates-the-expression-of-mekk3-in-the-inflammatory-pathogenesis-of-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Longping Yao, Yongyi Ye, Hengxu Mao, Fengfei Lu, Xiaozheng He, Guohui Lu, Shizhong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder that is characterised by selective loss of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Chronic inflammation of the central nervous system is mediated by microglial cells and plays a critical role in the pathological progression of PD. Brain-specific microRNA-124 (miR-124) expression is significantly downregulated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated BV2 cells and in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of PD...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318692/promoter-hypermethylation-inactivate-tumour-suppressor-fam134b-and-is-associated-with-poor-prognosis-in-colorectal-cancer
#10
Farhadul Islam, Vinod Gopalan, Suja Pillai, Cu-Tai Lu, Kais Kasem, Alfred King-Yin Lam
The present study aims to examine promoter methylation status of FAM134B in a large cohort of patients with colorectal adenocarcinomas. The clinical significances and correlations of FAM134B promoter methylation with its expression are also analysed. Methylation-specific high-resolution melt-curve analysis followed by sequencing was used to identify FAM134B promoter methylation in colorectal adenomas (n=32), colorectal adenocarcinomas (n=164), matched adjacent non-neoplastic colorectal mucosae (n=83) and colon cancer cell lines (n=4)...
January 10, 2018: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311653/meta-analysis-of-epigenome-wide-association-studies-of-cognitive-abilities
#11
Riccardo E Marioni, Allan F McRae, Jan Bressler, Elena Colicino, Eilis Hannon, Shuo Li, Diddier Prada, Jennifer A Smith, Letizia Trevisi, Pei-Chien Tsai, Dina Vojinovic, Jeannette Simino, Daniel Levy, Chunyu Liu, Michael Mendelson, Claudia L Satizabal, Qiong Yang, Min A Jhun, Sharon L R Kardia, Wei Zhao, Stefania Bandinelli, Luigi Ferrucci, Dena G Hernandez, Andrew B Singleton, Sarah E Harris, John M Starr, Douglas P Kiel, Robert R McLean, Allan C Just, Joel Schwartz, Avron Spiro, Pantel Vokonas, Najaf Amin, M Arfan Ikram, Andre G Uitterlinden, Joyce B J van Meurs, Tim D Spector, Claire Steves, Andrea A Baccarelli, Jordana T Bell, Cornelia M van Duijn, Myriam Fornage, Yi-Hsiang Hsu, Jonathan Mill, Thomas H Mosley, Sudha Seshadri, Ian J Deary
Cognitive functions are important correlates of health outcomes across the life-course. Individual differences in cognitive functions are partly heritable. Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, are susceptible to both genetic and environmental factors and may provide insights into individual differences in cognitive functions. Epigenome-wide meta-analyses for blood-based DNA methylation levels at ~420,000 CpG sites were performed for seven measures of cognitive functioning using data from 11 cohorts...
January 8, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307300/epigenetic-modifications-in-brain-and-immune-cells-of-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#12
Kamilah Castro, Patrizia Casaccia
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating neurological disease whose onset and progression are influenced by the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Epigenetic modifications, which include post-translational modification of the histones and DNA, are considered mediators of gene-environment interactions and a growing body of evidence suggests that they play an important role in MS pathology and could be potential therapeutic targets. Since epigenetic events regulate transcription of different genes in a cell type-specific fashion, we caution on the distinct functional consequences that targeting the same epigenetic modifications might have in distinct cell types...
January 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305854/astrocytes-in-primary-cultures-express-serine-racemase-synthesize-d-serine-and-acquire-a1-reactive-astrocyte-features
#13
Suyan Li, Yota Uno, Uwe Rudolph, Johanna Cobb, Jing Liu, Thea Anderson, Deborah Levy, Darrick T Balu, Joseph T Coyle
D-Serine is a co-agonist at forebrain N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) and is synthesized by serine racemase (SR). Although D-serine and SR were originally reported to be localized to glia, recent studies have provided compelling evidence that under healthy physiologic conditions both are localized primarily in neurons. However, in pathologic conditions, reactive astrocytes can also express SR and synthesize D-serine. Since cultured astrocytes exhibit features of reactive astrocytes, we have characterized D-serine synthesis and the expression of enzymes involved in its disposition in primary glial cultures...
January 3, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305749/dna-methylation-variability-in-a-single-locus-of-the-rxr%C3%AE-promoter-from-umbilical-vein-blood-at-term-pregnancy
#14
Diana Chávez-Lizárraga, Paola Zárate-Segura, Jorge Beltrán-Montoya, Carmen Canchola-Sotelo, Felipe Vadillo-Ortega, Erika Chavira-Suárez
DNA methylation status of RXRα gene promoter has been correlated with maternal diet during early pregnancy, and associated with offspring's adiposity and bone mineral content. In adult life, increased methylation of RXRα promoter region is associated with myocardium pathologies. Early growth response proteins (EGR) are zinc finger transcription factors associated with several cellular pathways such as inflammation, apoptosis, and cardiopathies. DNA-binding sequences of EGR proteins have been reported in the RXRα gene promoter using chromatin immunoprecipitation methods...
January 6, 2018: Biochemical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298401/penile-lichen-sclerosus-treated-with-1927%C3%A2-nm-thulium-fiber-laser-and-photodynamic-therapy-a-new-possible-therapeutic-approach
#15
Santo Raffaele Mercuri, Pina Brianti, Antonio Foti, Marco Bartolucci, Annunziata Dattola, Steven Paul Nisticò
OBJECTIVE: We treated two patients with recalcitrant lichen sclerosus (LS) of the penis with a combination of 1927 nm thulium fiber laser and methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL) photodynamic therapy (PDT). BACKGROUND DATA: Therapy of LS is based on topical potent steroids, emollients, and topical calcineurin inhibitors. Circumcision is effective, but not always accepted. PDT represents a valid therapeutic option in refractory cases, but there are no reports about the association with 1927 nm thulium laser in the treatment of this pathology...
January 3, 2018: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297492/markers-of-clinical-utility-in-the-differential-diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-prostate-cancer
#16
Glen Kristiansen
Molecular diagnostics is a rapidly evolving area of surgical pathology, that is gradually beginning to transform our diagnostical procedures for a variety of tumors. Next to molecular prognostication that has begun to complement our histological diagnosis in breast cancer, additional testing to detect targets and to predict therapy response has become common practice in breast and lung cancer. Prostate cancer is a bit slower in this respect, as it is still largely diagnosed and classified on morphological grounds...
January 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288495/pan-cancer-insights-from-the-cancer-genome-atlas-the-pathologist-s-perspective
#17
REVIEW
Lee A D Cooper, Elizabeth G Demicco, Joel H Saltz, Reid T Powell, Arvind Rao, Alexander J Lazar
The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) represents one of several international consortia dedicated to performing comprehensive genomic and epigenomic analyses of selected tumor types to advance understanding of disease and provide an open-access resource for worldwide cancer research. Thirty-three tumor types (selected by histology or tissue of origin, to include both common and rare diseases), comprising over 11,000 specimens were subjected to DNA sequencing, copy number and methylation analysis, and transcriptomic, proteomic, and histologic evaluation...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287786/leptin-treatment-prevents-long-term-abnormalities-in-cognition-seizure-threshold-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-sprouting-and-znt3-cb-d28k-expression-in-a-rat-developmental-twist-seizure-model
#18
Hong Ni, Su-Hong Chen, Li-Li Li, Mei-Fang Jin
The mechanism of linking neonatal seizures with long-term brain damage is unclear, and there is no effective drug to block this long-term pathological process. Recently, the fat-derived hormone leptin has been appreciated for its neuroprotective function in neurodegenerative processes, although less is known about the effects of leptin on neonatal seizure-induced brain damage. Here, we developed a "twist" seizure model by coupling pilocarpine-induced neonatal status epilepticus (SE) with later exposure to penicillin to test whether leptin treatment immediately after neonatal SE would exert neuroprotective effects on cognition, seizure threshold and hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting, as well if leptin had any influence on the expression of zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) and calcium homeostasis-related CB-D28k in the hippocampus...
December 26, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285797/sodium-fluoride-disturbs-dna-methylation-of-nnat-and-declines-oocyte-quality-by-impairing-glucose-transport-in-porcine-oocytes
#19
Xiaoyan Liu, Zheng-Wen Nie, Ying-Ying Gao, Li Chen, Shu-Yuan Yin, Xia Zhang, Cuifang Hao, Yi-Liang Miao
Sodium fluoride (NaF) is used as a medicine to prevent tooth decay; however, excessive NaF could cause a pathological damage to the health. Recent studies showed that NaF impaired mouse oocyte maturation, included of abnormal spindle configuration, actin cap formation, cortical granule-free domain formation, and the following development after fertilization. However, few studies used large animals as models to study the toxicology of NaF on oocytes maturation. We proposed a hypothesis that NaF would affect the nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of porcine oocytes and DNA methylation pattern of imprinted genes in oocytes...
December 29, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281045/protein-phosphatase-2a-and-its-methylation-modulating-enzymes-lcmt-1-and-pme-1-are-dysregulated-in-tauopathies-of-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-and-alzheimer-disease
#20
Hye-Jin Park, Kang-Woo Lee, Stephanie Oh, Run Yan, Jie Zhang, Thomas G Beach, Charles H Adler, Michael Voronkov, Steven P Braithwaite, Jeffry B Stock, M Maral Mouradian
Hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates are characteristic of tauopathies including progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and Alzheimer disease (AD), but factors contributing to pathologic tau phosphorylation are not well understood. Here, we studied the regulation of the major tau phosphatase, the heterotrimeric AB55αC protein phosphatase 2 A (PP2A), in PSP and AD. The assembly and activity of this PP2A isoform are regulated by reversible carboxyl methylation of its catalytic C subunit, while the B subunit confers substrate specificity...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
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