Read by QxMD icon Read

Transient ischemic stroke

Felicia C Chow, Michael R Wilson, Kunling Wu, Ronald J Ellis, Ronald J Bosch, Benjamin P Linas
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of first-ever stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) and associated risk factors in a cohort of persons living with HIV infection (PLWH). DESIGN: Observational cohort study METHODS:: We determined incidence rates of first-ever stroke/TIA in PLWH after ART initiation from the AIDS Clinical Trials Group ALLRT cohort and its parent trials. Poisson regression models evaluated baseline and time-varying covariates as risk factors for stroke/TIA...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
William F McIntyre, David Conen, Brian Olshansky, Jonathan L Halperin, Emil Hayek, Menno V Huisman, Gregory Y H Lip, Shihai Lu, Jeff S Healey
BACKGROUND: Antithrombotic prophylaxis with oral anticoagulation (OAC) substantially reduces stroke and mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). HYPOTHESIS: Analysis of data in GLORIA-AF, an international, observational registry of patients with newly-diagnosed AF, can identify factors associated with treatment decisions and outcomes. METHODS: Multivariable regression identified patient, physician, and temporal factors associated with OAC prescription, versus management with antiplatelet drugs or no antithrombotic drugs in North American patients enrolled between November 2011 and February 2014...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
Pil Hyung Lee, Jae-Kwan Song, Jong S Kim, Ran Heo, Sahmin Lee, Dae-Hee Kim, Jong-Min Song, Duk-Hyun Kang, Sun U Kwon, Dong-Wha Kang, Dongwhane Lee, Hyuk Sung Kwon, Sung-Cheol Yun, Byung Joo Sun, Jae-Hyeong Park, Jae-Hwan Lee, Hye Seon Jeong, Hee-Jung Song, Jei Kim, Seung-Jung Park
BACKGROUND: Recent reports showing the favorable role of patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure in patients with cryptogenic stroke have raised the issue of selecting optimal candidates. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated whether the benefits of PFO closure can be determined based on the morphologic characteristics of the PFO, as evaluated by transesophageal echocardiography. METHODS: Patients with cryptogenic stroke and high-risk PFO were divided between a transcatheter PFO closure and a medication-only group...
February 28, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Hongbei Xu, Wenyi Qin, Xiao Hu, Song Mu, Jun Zhu, Wenhao Lu, Yong Luo
BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke-induced neuroinflammation is mainly mediated by microglial cells. The nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway is the key transcriptional pathway that initiates inflammatory responses following cerebral ischemia. OTULIN, a critical negative regulator of the NF-κΒ signaling pathway, exerts robust effects on peripheral immune cell-mediated inflammation and is regarded as an essential mediator for repressing inflammation in vivo. The effect of OTULIN on inflammatory responses in the central nervous system (CNS) was previously unstudied...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Ekaterina Turlova, Zhong-Ping Feng, Hong-Shuo Sun
Stroke is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide, yet novel therapeutic treatments for this condition are lacking. This review focuses on the roles of the transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) ion channels in cellular damage following hypoxia-ischemia and their potential as a future therapeutic target for stroke. Here, we highlight the complex molecular signaling that takes place in neurons, glial cells and the blood-brain barrier following ischemic insult. We also describe the evidence of TRPM2 involvement in these processes, as shown from numerous in vitro and in vivo studies that utilize genetic and pharmacological approaches...
March 15, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Charlotte Zerna, Amy Y X Yu, Jayesh Modi, Shiel K Patel, Jonathan I Coulter, Eric E Smith, Shelagh B Coutts
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesions (WML) are associated with cognitive decline, increased stroke risk, and disability in old age. We hypothesized that superimposed acute cerebrovascular occlusion on chronic preexisting injury (leukoaraiosis) leads to worse outcome after minor cerebrovascular event, both using quantitative (volumetric) and qualitative (Fazekas scale) assessment, as well as relative total brain volume. METHODS: WML volume assessment was performed in 425 patients with high-risk transient ischemic attack (TIA; motor/speech deficits >5 minutes) or minor strokes from the CATCH study (CT and MRI in the Triage of TIA and Minor Cerebrovascular Events to Identify High Risk Patients)...
March 14, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Arthur Stacey, Claire Toolis, Vijeya Ganesan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recurrent ischemic events are common in children with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) and put patients at risk for further neurological impairment. This study sought to identify rates and risk factors for recurrent AIS or transient ischemic attack in a cohort of children seen after index AIS and uniformly investigated and managed using contemporary clinical guidelines. METHODS: Case note and radiology review of children >28 days and <18 years of age who presented to Great Ormond Street Hospital from 2005 to 2015 with index AIS...
March 14, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Gabriel DeVela, J Michael Taylor, Bin Zhang, Luke L Linscott, Alan M Chen, Kunal B Karani, Andrew Furthmiller, James L Leach, Sudhakar Vadivelu, Todd Abruzzo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Quantitative arterial tortuosity (QAT) is a ratio of vessel length between 2 points to the shortest linear distance between same points. QAT has been reported as an imaging biomarker of arteriopathy in pediatric arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) because of dissection and transient cerebral arteriopathy. We sought to determine whether QAT abnormalities are present in other subtypes of pediatric AIS. METHODS: Children with AIS-absent conventional biomarkers of arteriopathy and case-controls who underwent magnetic resonance angiography were classified by stroke mechanism...
March 14, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Huisheng Wu, Chaoliang Tang, Lydia Wai Tai, Weifeng Yao, Peipei Guo, Junmou Hong, Xin Yang, Xinyi Li, Zhao Jin, Jianjuan Ke, Yanlin Wang
Background & Aims:  Ischemic stroke has been ranked the second cause of death in patients worldwide.Inflammation which is activated during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion is an important mechanism leading to brain injury. This study aimed to investigate the effect of flurbiprofen axetil on cerebral I/R injury and the role of inflammation in this process. Methods:  Rats were subjected to sham operation or global cerebral I/R with or without flurbiprofen axetil (5 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg). Global cerebral ischemia was achieved by occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries combined with hypotension for 20 min followed by reperfusion for 72 h...
March 14, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Valerio De Stefano, Alessandra Carobbio, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro, Paola Guglielmelli, Alessandra Iurlo, Maria Chiara Finazzi, Elisa Rumi, Francisco Cervantes, Elena Maria Elli, Maria Luigia Randi, Martin Griesshammer, Francesca Palandri, Massimiliano Bonifacio, Juan-Carlos Hernandez-Boluda, Rossella Cacciola, Palova Miroslava, Giuseppe Carli, Eloise Beggiato, Martin H Ellis, Caterina Musolino, Gianluca Gaidano, Davide Rapezzi, Alessia Tieghi, Francesca Lunghi, Giuseppe Gaetano Loscocco, Daniele Cattaneo, Agostino Cortelezzi, Silvia Betti, Elena Rossi, Guido Finazzi, Bruno Censori, Mario Cazzola, Marta Bellini, Eduardo Arellano-Rodrigo, Irene Bertozzi, Parvis Sadjadian, Nicola Vianelli, Luigi Scaffidi, Montse Gomez, Emma Cacciola, Alessandro M Vannucchi, Tiziano Barbui
We analyzed 597 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) who presented transient ischemic attacks (TIA, n = 270) or ischemic stroke (IS, n = 327). Treatment included aspirin, oral anticoagulants, and cytoreductive drugs. The composite incidence of recurrent TIA and IS, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and cardiovascular (CV) death was 4.21 and 19.2%, respectively at one and five years after the index event, an estimate unexpectedly lower than reported in the general population. Patients tended to replicate the first clinical manifestation (hazard ratio, HR: 2...
February 28, 2018: Blood Cancer Journal
Dennis T Ko, Harlan M Krumholz, Jack V Tu, Peter C Austin, Therese A Stukel, Maria Koh, Alice Chong, Jose Francisco de Melo, Cynthia A Jackevicius
BACKGROUND: Clopidogrel is one of the most commonly prescribed medications because of its ability to improve clinical outcomes for a broad range of cardiovascular conditions. After patent protection expired for Plavix in 2012, many healthcare systems adopted generic clopidogrel as a strategy to reduce healthcare costs. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a population-based observational study to determine whether generic clopidogrel was noninferior to Plavix. Patients who were hospitalized with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) from 2009 to 2014 in Ontario, Canada, >65 years, survived ≥7 days after discharge, were eligible for inclusion...
March 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
Nupoor Narula, Daniella Kadian-Dodov, Jeffrey W Olin
Fibromuscular dyplasia (FMD) is an under-recognized non-atherosclerotic, non-inflammatory arteriopathy that occurs most commonly in middle-aged women, but may affect individuals of all age groups. FMD may result in stenosis, aneurysm, dissection, occlusion, or arterial tortuosity. Recently published data demonstrated a genetic association of FMD with a variant in the phosphatase and actin regulator 1 gene (PHACTR1), substantiating that the pathogenesis of this condition has genetic contribution. The renal and extracranial carotid and vertebral arteries are most often involved, although any arterial bed may be affected...
March 10, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Lars O Karlsson, Staffan Nilsson, Magnus Bång, Lennart Nilsson, Emmanouil Charitakis, Magnus Janzon
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with substantial morbidity, in particular stroke. Despite good evidence for the reduction of stroke risk with anticoagulant therapy, there remains significant undertreatment. The main aim of the current study was to investigate whether a clinical decision support tool (CDS) for stroke prevention integrated in the electronic health record could improve adherence to guidelines for stroke prevention in patients with AF. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cluster-randomized trial where all 43 primary care clinics in the county of Östergötland, Sweden (population 444,347), were randomized to be part of the CDS intervention or to serve as controls...
March 2018: PLoS Medicine
Toshihiro Ueda, Tatsuro Takada, Shinji Nogoshi, Tomohide Yoshie, Satoshi Takaishi, Takayuki Fukano
PURPOSE: A recent randomized controlled trial demonstrated that aggressive medical management was superior to angioplasty with stenting for intracranial stenosis. The purpose of this study was to assess initial and long-term outcomes of balloon angioplasty without stenting for symptomatic middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 72 patients (mean age, 58.9 years old) with 84 balloon angioplasties without stenting for high-grade (>70%) atherosclerotic stenosis of the main trunk of the MCA...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Priyanka Bose, Andrew Wilson, Amit Mistri
INTRODUCTION Many patients who suffer a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) present to their general practitioner (GP). Early identification and treatment reduces the risk of subsequent stroke, disability and mortality. AIM To review the accuracy of TIA diagnosis in primary care, immediate management and interventions to assist GPs with the condition. METHODS This study included the search of Medline, Embase, Web of Science and Scopus databases (1995-2015). Relevant titles and abstracts were obtained using structured criteria (diagnosis, immediate management or intervention of TIAs in primary care), with full review and data extraction for eligible publications...
June 2017: Journal of Primary Health Care
Kelly M DeMars, Austin O McCrea, David M Siwarski, Brian D Sanz, Changjun Yang, Eduardo Candelario-Jalil
Ischemic stroke occurs when a clot forms in the brain vasculature that starves downstream tissue of oxygen and nutrients resulting in cell death. The tissue immediately downstream of the blockage, the core, dies within minutes, but the surrounding tissue, the penumbra is potentially salvageable. Prostaglandin E2 binds to four different G-protein coupled membrane receptors EP1-EP4 mediating different and sometimes opposing responses. Pharmacological activation of the EP4 receptor has already been established as neuroprotective in stroke, but the mechanism(s) of protection are not well-characterized...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Patrizio Mazzone, Giuseppe D'Angelo, Damiano Regazzoli, Giulio Molon, Gaetano Senatore, Salvatore Saccà, Guido Canali, Claudia Amellone, Riccardo Turri, Paolo Della Bella
PURPOSE: The WATCHMAN device for Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion (LAAO) has proven to be an effective alternative to oral anticoagulation (OAC) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), and has now been adopted in clinical practice. In the present study, we analyzed the safety and efficacy profile of the LAAO procedure at mid-term follow-up. METHODS: The TRAPS Registry is an observational, multicenter registry involving four Italian centers. Consecutive patients who had undergone LAAO with WATCHMAN device were enrolled...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
Scott E Kasner, Pablo Lavados, Mukul Sharma, Yongjun Wang, Yilong Wang, Antoni Dávalos, Nikolay Shamalov, Luis Cunha, Arne Lindgren, Robert Mikulik, Antonio Arauz, Wilfried Lang, Anna Czlonkowska, Jens Eckstein, Rubens Gagliardi, Pierre Amarenco, Sebastián F Ameriso, Turgut Tatlisumak, Roland Veltkamp, Graeme J Hankey, Danilo S Toni, Daniel Bereczki, Shinichiro Uchiyama, George Ntaios, Byung-Woo Yoon, Raf Brouns, M M DeVries Basson, Matthias Endres, Keith Muir, Natan Bornstein, Serefnur Ozturk, Martin O'Donnell, Hardi Mundl, Calin Pater, Jeffrey Weitz, W Frank Peacock, Balakumar Swaminathan, Bodo Kirsch, Scott D Berkowitz, Gary Peters, Guillaume Pare, Ellison Themeles, Ashkan Shoamanesh, Stuart J Connolly, Robert G Hart
BACKGROUND: The New Approach Rivaroxaban Inhibition of Factor Xa in a Global Trial vs. ASA to Prevent Embolism in Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source (NAVIGATE-ESUS) trial is a randomized phase-III trial comparing rivaroxaban versus aspirin in patients with recent ESUS. AIMS: We aimed to describe the baseline characteristics of this large ESUS cohort to explore relationships among key subgroups. METHODS: We enrolled 7213 patients at 459 sites in 31 countries...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Cecilia Becattini, Francesco Dentali, Giuseppe Camporese, Agnese Sembolini, Elena Rancan, Chiara Tonello, Giorgia Manina, Seena Padayattil, Giancarlo Agnelli
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Whether carotid atherosclerosis is associated with an increased risk for ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) on anticoagulant treatment is undefined. To explore this association, patients with AF on treatment with vitamin K antagonists were included in a multicenter, prospective study. METHODS: At inclusion in the study, patients underwent Doppler-ultrasonography for the assessment of carotid atherosclerosis and then were prospectively followed...
March 2, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Bian Liu, Kui Kai Lau, Linxin Li, Caroline Lovelock, Ming Liu, Wilhelm Kuker, Peter M Rothwell
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It has been hypothesized that cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) and chronic renal impairment may be part of a multisystem small-vessel disorder, but their association may simply be as a result of shared risk factors (eg, hypertension) rather than to a systemic susceptibility to premature SVD. However, most previous studies were hospital based, most had inadequate adjustment for hypertension, many were confined to patients with lacunar stroke, and none stratified by age...
March 9, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"