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Transient ischemic stroke

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909732/early-vegf-inhibition-attenuates-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-in-ischemic-rat-brains-by-regulating-the-expression-of-mmps
#1
Hai-Tao Zhang, Ping Zhang, Yi Gao, Chen-Long Li, Hong-Jun Wang, Ling-Chao Chen, Yan Feng, Rui-Yan Li, Yong-Li Li, Chuan-Lu Jiang
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition has been demonstrated to be an effective strategy in preserving the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Loss of the BBB is the key event associated with morbidity and mortality in these patients. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the present study, the effects of VEGF inhibition and the possible mechanism that underlies acute cerebral ischemia in rats was investigated. Following the induction of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion for a 90‑min period, either an anti‑VEGF neutralizing antibody (RB‑222; 5 or 10 µg), or IgG (control), was administered by intracerebroventricular injection at 1 h following reperfusion...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909474/efficacy-high-procedural-safety-and-rapid-optimization-of-cryoballoon-atrial-fibrillation-ablation-in-the-hands-of-a-new-operator
#2
Eberhard Scholz, Patrick Lugenbiel, Patrick A Schweizer, Panagiotis Xynogalos, Claudia Seyler, Edgar Zitron, Rüdiger Becker, Hugo A Katus, Dierk Thomas
BACKGROUND: Cryoballoon (CB) ablation is successful in eliminating atrial fibrillation (AF). PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess procedural efficacy and safety of CB ablation performed by a newly trained operator. METHODS: Forty patients with documented paroxysmal AF (58 ± 11 years, 26 male) undergoing CB catheter ablation were prospectively enrolled. RESULTS: Electrical pulmonary vein (PV) isolation was achieved in all patients (156 PVs)...
February 2016: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909098/reversible-disruption-of-neuronal-mitochondria-by-ischemic-and-traumatic-injury-revealed-by-quantitative-two-photon-imaging-in-the-neocortex-of-anesthetized-mice
#3
Mikhail Kislin, Jeremy Sword, Ioulia V Fomitcheva, Deborah Croom, Evgeny Pryazhnikov, Eero Lihavainen, Dmytro Toptunov, Heikki Rauvala, Andre S Ribeiro, Leonard Khiroug, Sergei A Kirov
: Mitochondria play a variety of functional roles in cortical neurons, from metabolic support and neuroprotection to the release of cytokines that trigger apoptosis. In dendrites, mitochondrial structure is closely linked to their function, and fragmentation (fission) of the normally elongated mitochondria indicates loss of their function under such pathological conditions as stroke and brain trauma. Using in vivo two-photon microscopy in mouse brain, we quantified mitochondrial fragmentation in a full spectrum of cortical injuries ranging from severe to mild...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904593/the-role-of-endothelial-progenitor-cells-in-transient-ischemic-attack-patients-for-future-cerebrovascular-events
#4
Rokhsareh Meamar, Hamidreza Nikyar, Leila Dehghani, Maedeh Talebi, Marzieh Dehghani, Marzieh Ghasemi, Behnaz Ansari, Mohammad Saadatnia
BACKGROUND: The role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the maintenance of vascularization following ischemic brain after experimental stroke has been established. Accordingly, in this study, we evaluated the role of circulating EPCs in transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients for future cerebrovascular (CV) events. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The level of circulating EPCs (staining markers: CD34, CD309) were determined using flow cytometry at 24 h after TIA in thirty consecutive patients...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904159/copeptin-as-a-biomarker-for-prediction-of-prognosis-of-acute-ischemic-stroke-and-transient-ischemic-attack-a-meta-analysis
#5
Qian Xu, Yunfan Tian, Hao Peng, Hongmei Li
This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the predictive effect of copeptin as a biomarker for the prognosis of acute ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack. Electronic databases including PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane Central were searched for studies assessing the association of copeptin level on admission with prognosis of acute ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack. The Newcastle-Ottawa Quality assessment scale for cohort study was used to evaluate quality. A total of 1976 acute ischemic stroke patients from 6 studies were included, and 59% of patients were male...
December 1, 2016: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903814/blink-associated-contralateral-eccentric-saccades-as-a-rare-sign-of-unilateral-brain-injury
#6
Ilaria Zivi, Eugenio Bertelli, Giacinta Bilotti, Ignazio Alessandro Clemente, Leopold Saltuari, Giuseppe Frazzitta
OBJECTIVE: To describe a rare sign of unilateral brain injury as a form of unwanted blink-associated contralateral eccentric saccades. METHODS: A 62-year-old patient who underwent an ischemic stroke affecting the entire right middle cerebral artery territory came to our attention 1 year after stroke, manifesting with transient contralateral conjugate gaze deviations associated with spontaneous blinking. We complemented the regular neurologic evaluation with brain MRI, study of evoked potentials, electroneurography of the facial nerve, and infrared video-oculoscopy...
November 30, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903337/-risk-factors-for-perioperative-stroke-in-aged-patients-undergoing-nonneurologic-and-noncardiovascular-surgery
#7
B L Jiang, L Yao, Y Feng, J H Liu
Objective: To assess the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of perioperative stroke in aged patients undergoing nonneurologic and noncardiovascular surgery. Methods: A total of 21 419 in-patients who were older than 65 years undergoing nonneurologic and noncardiovascular surgery in Peking University People's Hospital from January 2010 to May 2016 were retrospectively recruited in this study.The patients were divided into two groups: patients with perioperative stroke were allocated in stroke group, and the other patients were in the non-stroke group...
November 22, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902774/intravenous-treatment-with-a-long-chain-omega-3-lipid-emulsion-provides-neuroprotection-in-a-murine-model-of-ischemic-stroke-a-pilot-study
#8
Dirk Berressem, Konrad Koch, Nicole Franke, Jochen Klein, Gunter P Eckert
Single long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (e.g. docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) are known for their neuroprotective properties associated with ischemic stroke. This pilot study aimed to test the effectiveness of an acute treatment with a long-chain omega-3 lipid emulsion (Omegaven 10%®, OGV) that contains fish oil (DHA 18 mg/ml; EPA 21 mg/ml) and α-tocopherol (0.2 mg/ml) in a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of ischemic stroke in mice. For this purpose, female CD-1 mice were anesthetized and subjected to 90 minutes of MCAO...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902730/spectrum-of-cerebrovascular-disease-in-patients-with-multiple-myeloma-undergoing-chemotherapy-results-of-a-case-control-study
#9
Archana Hinduja, Kaustubh Limaye, Rahul Ravilla, Appalnaidu Sasapu, Xenofon Papanikolaou, Lai Wei, Michel Torbey, Sarah Waheed
OBJECTIVES: Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) are at increased risk of arterial thrombosis. Our aim was to determine the risk factors, mechanisms and outcome of strokes in these patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective matched case-control study from our database of MM patients enrolled in Total Therapy (TT) 2, TT3a and TT3b protocols who developed a vascular event (transient ischemic attack, ischemic stroke, or intracerebral hemorrhage) from October 1998 to January 2014...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901323/safety-of-carotid-revascularization-within-48-hours-of-symptomatic-presentation
#10
Kosmas I Paraskevas, Ian M Loftus
In the last few years, there has been a gradual shift in the recommendations of carotid guidelines towards performance of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) earlier in patients with >70% carotid artery stenosis suffering an ipsilateral transient ischemic attack (TIA)/minor stroke episode. The "6-month" threshold in the early guidelines was subsequently replaced with a "14-day" target. More recently, an even earlier intervention (i.e. "within 48 hours") gains support as the optimal timing for the performance of CEA in patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899752/patent-foramen-ovale-and-cryptogenic-strokes-in-the-stroke-in-young-fabry-patients-study
#11
Roman Huber, Ulrike Grittner, Frank Weidemann, Vincent Thijs, Christian Tanislav, Christian Enzinger, Franz Fazekas, Markus Wolf, Michael G Hennerici, Dominick J H McCabe, Jukaa Putaala, Turgut Tatlisumak, Christoph Kessler, Bettina von Sarnowski, Peter Martus, Edwin Kolodny, Bo Norrving, Arndt Rolfs
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is disproportionately prevalent in patients with cryptogenic stroke. Without alternative explanations, it is frequently considered to be causative. A detailed stratification of these patients may improve the identification of incidental PFO. METHODS: We investigated the PFO prevalence in 3497 transient ischemic attack and ischemic stroke patients aged 18 to 55 years in the prospective multicenter SIFAP1 study (Stroke in Young Fabry Patients 1) using the ASCO classification...
November 29, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899747/ticagrelor-in-acute-stroke-or-transient-ischemic-attack-in-asian-patients-from-the-socrates-trial-acute-stroke-or-transient-ischemic-attack-treated-with-aspirin-or-ticagrelor-and-patient-outcomes
#12
Yongjun Wang, Kazuo Minematsu, Ka Sing Lawrence Wong, Pierre Amarenco, Gregory W Albers, Hans Denison, J Donald Easton, Scott R Evans, Peter Held, Jenny Jonasson, Carlos A Molina, S Claiborne Johnston
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In the SOCRATES trial (Acute Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack Treated With Aspirin or Ticagrelor and Patient Outcomes), ticagrelor was not superior to aspirin. Because of differences in patient demographics and stroke disease pattern in Asia, outcomes of ticagrelor versus aspirin were assessed among Asian patients in a prespecified exploratory analysis. METHODS: Baseline demographics, treatment effects, and safety of ticagrelor and aspirin were assessed among Asian patients...
November 29, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898406/low-incidence-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-patients-with-transient-ischemic-attack
#13
Kenneth Bruun Pedersen, Alexander Chemnitz, Charlotte Madsen, Niels C F Sandgaard, Søren Bak, Axel Brandes
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major cause of stroke. Therefore, all patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) should be examined with 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and continuous monitoring to detect AF. Current guidelines recommend at least 24 h continuous ECG monitoring, which is primarily based on studies investigating patients with ischemic stroke. The aim of our study was to investigate the diagnostic yield of 12-lead ECG and Holter monitoring in patients with TIA...
November 30, 2016: Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896650/neuroprotection-by-chlorpromazine-and-promethazine-in-severe-transient-and-permanent-ischemic-stroke
#14
Xiaokun Geng, Fengwu Li, James Yip, Changya Peng, Omar Elmadhoun, Jiamei Shen, Xunming Ji, Yuchuan Ding
Previous studies have demonstrated depressive or hibernation-like roles of phenothiazine neuroleptics [combined chlorpromazine and promethazine (C + P)] in brain activity. This ischemic stroke study aimed to establish neuroprotection by reducing oxidative stress and improving brain metabolism with post-ischemic C + P administration. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to transient (2 or 4 h) middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by 6 or 24 h reperfusion, or permanent (28 h) MCAO without reperfusion...
November 28, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890765/revascularization-of-moyamoya-angiopathy-in-older-adults
#15
Richard W Williamson, Adib A Abla, Joseph M Zabramski, Peter Nakaji, Robert F Spetzler, John E Wanebo
BACKGROUND: Moyamoya angiopathy most often presents in young people in the second and third decade of life. Although uncommon, it can present later in life. In this report, we present our results with moyamoya patients older than 50 years of age who were treated with surgical revascularization via either direct bypass or indirect bypass (encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis). METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted to identify patients with moyamoya disease who were treated with surgical revascularization at our institution between 2002 and 2015...
November 24, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888269/internal-carotid-artery-pseudoaneurysm-and-ischemic-stroke-secondary-to-retropharyngeal-and-parapharyngeal-abscess-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
Michael W Ruff, Deena M Nasr, James P Klaas, Deborah L Renaud
Internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm is an uncommon complication of retropharyngeal and parapharyngeal abscess in children. Treatment of the pseudoaneurysm has evolved in recent years from surgical ligation to endovascular techniques. Neurologic sequelae most commonly consist of Horner's syndrome with cerebral ischemia being uncommon. The clinical course of a 2-year-old boy with retropharyngeal abscess complicated by internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm, is described and the literature is reviewed. A conventional angiogram confirmed the presence of a large pseudoaneurysm with no anterograde flow distal to the pseudoaneurysm and substantial collateral flow across the circle of Willis, with filling of the left anterior and middle cerebral arteries via the anterior and posterior communicating arteries...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888051/absence-of-oral-anticoagulation-and-subsequent-outcomes-among-outpatients-with-atrial-fibrillation
#17
Paul L Hess, Sunghee Kim, Gregg C Fonarow, Laine Thomas, Daniel E Singer, James V Freeman, Bernard J Gersh, Jack Ansell, Peter R Kowey, Kenneth W Mahaffey, Paul S Chan, Benjamin A Steinberg, Eric D Peterson, Jonathan P Piccini
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have shown a treatment gap in oral anticoagulation (OAC) use among patients with atrial fibrillation yet have incompletely characterized factors associated with failure to treat and subsequent outcomes in contemporary practice. METHODS: Using data collected between June 2010 and August 2011 from 174 ambulatory care sites in the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation, we identified factors associated with absence of OAC via stratified logistic regression...
November 22, 2016: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885100/temporal-analysis-of-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-matrix-metalloproteinases-in-rhesus-monkeys-subjected-to-transient-ischemic-stroke
#18
Yingqian Zhang, Feng Fan, Guojun Zeng, Linlin Zhou, Yinbing Zhang, Jie Zhang, He Jiao, Ting Zhang, Dan Su, Cheng Yang, Xin Wang, Kai Xiao, Hongxia Li, Zhihui Zhong
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption plays an important role in pathophysiological progress of ischemic stroke. However, our knowledge of the dynamic change of BBB permeability and its mechanism remains limited. In the current study, we used a non-human primate (NHP) MCAO model and a serial CSF sampling method that allowed us to determine the dynamic change of BBB permeability by calculating the CSF/serum albumin ratio (AR). We showed that AR increased rapidly and significantly after ischemia, and the fold increase of AR is highly correlated with the infarction size during the subacute phase...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884245/acute-kidney-injury-in-asians%C3%A2-with%C3%A2-atrial%C3%A2-fibrillation-treated%C3%A2-with%C3%A2-dabigatran%C3%A2-or-warfarin
#19
Yi-Hsin Chan, Yung-Hsin Yeh, Lai-Chu See, Chun-Li Wang, Shang-Hung Chang, Hsin-Fu Lee, Lung-Sheng Wu, Hui-Tzu Tu, Chi-Tai Kuo
BACKGROUND: Whether dabigatran is associated with a lower risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: The authors compared the risk of AKI in Asians with NVAF who were prescribed dabigatran versus warfarin. METHODS: The authors analyzed patients enrolled in the Taiwan nationwide retrospective cohort study from June 1, 2012, to December 31, 2013. Dabigatran and warfarin were taken by 7,702 and 7,885 NVAF patients without a history of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and 2,256 and 2,089 NVAF patients with a history of CKD, respectively...
November 29, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882949/sumo-specific-protease-1-protects-neurons-from-apoptotic-death-during-transient-brain-ischemia-reperfusion
#20
Huijun Zhang, Yan Wang, Aoxue Zhu, Dehua Huang, Shining Deng, Jinke Cheng, Michael X Zhu, Yong Li
SUMO-specific protease 1 (SENP1) deconjugates SUMO from modified proteins. Although post-ischemic activation of SUMO conjugation was suggested to be neuroprotective against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, the function of SENP1 in this process remained unclear. Here we show that transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice followed by 6, 12 and 24 h reperfusion significantly enhanced SENP1 levels in the affected brain area, independent of transcription. Consistent with the increase in SENP1, the levels of SUMO1-conjugated proteins were decreased by I/R in cortical neurons of control littermate mice, but unchanged in that of animals with conditional ablation of SENP1 gene from adult principal neurons, the SENP1(flox/flox):CamKIIα-Cre (SENP1 cKO) mice...
November 24, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
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