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Direct Reprogramming

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921169/effects-of-acute-salt-stress-on-modulation-of-gene-expression-in-a-malaysian-salt-tolerant-indigenous-rice-variety-bajong
#1
Brandon Pei Hui Yeo, Mrinal Bhave, Siaw San Hwang
The small genome size of rice relative to wheat and barley, together with its salt sensitivity, make it an ideal candidate for studies of salt stress response. Transcriptomics has emerged as a powerful technique to study salinity responses in many crop species. By identifying a large number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) simultaneously after the stress induction, it can provide crucial insight into the immediate responses towards the stressor. In this study, a Malaysian salt-tolerant indigenous rice variety named Bajong and one commercial rice variety named MR219 were investigated for their performance in plant growth and ion accumulation properties after salt stress treatment...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920951/srebp-controlled-glucose-metabolism-is-essential-for-nk-cell-functional-responses
#2
Nadine Assmann, Katie L O'Brien, Raymond P Donnelly, Lydia Dyck, Vanessa Zaiatz-Bittencourt, Róisín M Loftus, Paul Heinrich, Peter J Oefner, Lydia Lynch, Clair M Gardiner, Katja Dettmer, David K Finlay
Activated natural killer (NK) cells engage in a robust metabolic response that is required for normal effector function. Using genetic, pharmacological and metabolic analyses, we demonstrated an essential role for Srebp transcription factors in cytokine-induced metabolic reprogramming of NK cells that was independent of their conventional role in the control of lipid synthesis. Srebp was required for elevated glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation and promoted a distinct metabolic pathway configuration in which glucose was metabolized to cytosolic citrate via the citrate-malate shuttle...
September 18, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918023/repression-of-coup-tfi-improves-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-differentiation-into-insulin-producing-cells
#3
Tao Zhang, Xiao-Hang Li, Dian-Bao Zhang, Xiao-Yu Liu, Feng Zhao, Xue-Wen Lin, Rui Wang, Hong-Xin Lang, Xi-Ning Pang
Identifying molecular mechanisms that regulate insulin expression in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs) can provide clues on how to stimulate the differentiation of bmMSCs into insulin-producing cells (IPCs), which can be used as a therapeutic approach against type 1 diabetes (T1D). As repression factors may inhibit differentiation, the efficiency of this process is insufficient for cell transplantation. In this study, we used the mouse insulin 2 (Ins2) promoter sequence and performed a DNA affinity precipitation assay combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify the transcription factor, chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcriptional factor I (COUP-TFI)...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916499/-re-programming-of-subtype-specific-cardiomyocytes
#4
Frauke Hausburg, Julia Jeannine Jung, Matti Hoch, Markus Wolfien, Arash Yavari, Christian Rimmbach, Robert David
Adult cardiomyocytes (CMs) possess a highly restricted intrinsic regenerative potential -a major barrier to the effective treatment of a range of chronic degenerative cardiac disorders characterised by cellular loss and/or irreversible dysfunction and which underlies the majority of deaths in developed countries. Both stem cell programming and direct cell reprogramming hold promise as novel, potentially curative approaches to address this therapeutic challenge. The advent of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has introduced a second pluripotent stem cell source besides embryonic stem cells (ESCs), enabling even autologous cardiomyocyte production...
September 12, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916494/transflammation-innate-immune-signaling-in-nuclear-reprogramming
#5
Shu Meng, Palas Chanda, Rajarajan A Thandavarayan, John P Cooke
Induction of pluripotency in somatic cells by retroviral overexpression of four transcription factors has revolutionized the field of stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. The efficient induction of pluripotency requires the activation of innate immune signaling in a process termed "transflammation" [1]. Specifically, the stimulation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) causes global alterations in the expression and activity of epigenetic modifiers to favor an open chromatin configuration. Activation of toll-like receptors (TLR) or RIG-1-like receptors (RLR) [2] trigger signaling cascades that result in NFκB or IRF-3 mediated changes in epigenetic plasticity that facilitate reprogramming...
September 12, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911331/dynamic-dna-methylation-reconfiguration-during-seed-development-and-germination
#6
Taiji Kawakatsu, Joseph R Nery, Rosa Castanon, Joseph R Ecker
BACKGROUND: Unlike animals, plants can pause their life cycle as dormant seeds. In both plants and animals, DNA methylation is involved in the regulation of gene expression and genome integrity. In animals, reprogramming erases and re-establishes DNA methylation during development. However, knowledge of reprogramming or reconfiguration in plants has been limited to pollen and the central cell. To better understand epigenetic reconfiguration in the embryo, which forms the plant body, we compared time-series methylomes of dry and germinating seeds to publicly available seed development methylomes...
September 15, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903311/development-of-hepatoma-derived-bidirectional-oval-like-cells-as-a-model-to-study-host-interactions-with-hepatitis-c-virus-during-differentiation
#7
Masahiko Ito, Suofeng Sun, Takasuke Fukuhara, Ryosuke Suzuki, Miho Tamai, Toyohiko Yamauchi, Kenji Nakashima, Yoh-Ichi Tagawa, Shigetoshi Okazaki, Yoshiharu Matsuura, Takaji Wakita, Tetsuro Suzuki
Directed differentiation of human stem cells including induced pluripotent stem cells into hepatic cells potentially leads to acquired susceptibility to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, cellular determinants that change their expression during cell reprogramming or hepatic differentiation and are pivotal for supporting the HCV life cycle remain unclear. In this study, by introducing a set of reprogramming factors, we established HuH-7-derived oval-like cell lines, Hdo-17 and -23, which possess features of bipotential liver precursors...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903069/cell-reprogramming-therapeutic-potential-and-the-promise-of-rejuvenation-for-the-aging-brain
#8
REVIEW
Micaela López-León, Tiago F Outeiro, Rodolfo G Goya
Aging is associated with a progressive increase in the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases, with Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD) disease being the most conspicuous examples. Within this context, the absence of efficacious therapies for most age-related brain pathologies has increased the interest in regenerative medicine. In particular, cell reprogramming technologies have ushered in the era of personalized therapies that not only show a significant potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases but also promise to make biological rejuvenation feasible...
September 10, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902577/post-irradiation-promotes-susceptibility-to-reprogramming-to-pluripotent-state-in-human-fibroblasts
#9
Seung Bum Lee, Sung-Hoon Han, Min-Jung Kim, Sehwan Shim, Hye-Yun Shin, Sun-Joo Lee, Hye Won Kim, Won-Suk Jang, Songwon Seo, Seongjae Jang, Yanghee Lee, Sunhoo Park
Ionizing radiation causes not only targeted effects in cells that have been directly irradiated but also non-targeted effects in several cell generations after initial exposure. Recent studies suggest that radiation can enrich for a population of stem cells, derived from differentiated cells, through cellular reprogramming. Here, we elucidate the effect of irradiation on reprogramming, subjected to two different responses, using an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) model. iPSCs were generated from non-irradiated cells, directly-irradiated cells, or cells subsequently generated after initial radiation exposure...
September 13, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886366/micrornas-induce-a-permissive-chromatin-environment-that-enables-neuronal-subtype-specific-reprogramming-of-adult-human-fibroblasts
#10
Daniel G Abernathy, Woo Kyung Kim, Matthew J McCoy, Allison M Lake, Rebecca Ouwenga, Seong Won Lee, Xiaoyun Xing, Daofeng Li, Hyung Joo Lee, Robert O Heuckeroth, Joseph D Dougherty, Ting Wang, Andrew S Yoo
Directed reprogramming of human fibroblasts into fully differentiated neurons requires massive changes in epigenetic and transcriptional states. Induction of a chromatin environment permissive for acquiring neuronal subtype identity is therefore a major barrier to fate conversion. Here we show that the brain-enriched miRNAs miR-9/9(∗) and miR-124 (miR-9/9(∗)-124) trigger reconfiguration of chromatin accessibility, DNA methylation, and mRNA expression to induce a default neuronal state. miR-9/9(∗)-124-induced neurons (miNs) are functionally excitable and uncommitted toward specific subtypes but possess open chromatin at neuronal subtype-specific loci, suggesting that such identity can be imparted by additional lineage-specific transcription factors...
September 7, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883531/engineered-proteins-with-sensing-and-activating-modules-for-automated-reprogramming-of-cellular-functions
#11
Jie Sun, Lei Lei, Chih-Ming Tsai, Yi Wang, Yiwen Shi, Mingxing Ouyang, Shaoying Lu, Jihye Seong, Tae-Jin Kim, Pengzhi Wang, Min Huang, Xiangdong Xu, Victor Nizet, Shu Chien, Yingxiao Wang
Protein-based biosensors or activators have been engineered to visualize molecular signals or manipulate cellular functions. Here we integrate these two functionalities into one protein molecule, an integrated sensing and activating protein (iSNAP). A prototype that can detect tyrosine phosphorylation and immediately activate auto-inhibited Shp2 phosphatase, Shp2-iSNAP, is designed through modular assembly. When Shp2-iSNAP is fused to the SIRPα receptor which typically transduces anti-phagocytic signals from the 'don't eat me' CD47 ligand through negative Shp1 signaling, the engineered macrophages not only allow visualization of SIRPα phosphorylation upon CD47 engagement but also rewire the CD47-SIRPα axis into the positive Shp2 signaling, which enhances phagocytosis of opsonized tumor cells...
September 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878090/histone-3-lysine-9-acetylation-is-a-biomarker-of-the-effects-of-culture-on-zygotes
#12
C Rollo, Y Li, X L Jin, C O'Neill
Acetylation of histone proteins is a major determinant of chromatin structure and function. Fertilisation triggers a round of chromatin remodelling that prepares the genome for the first round of transcription from the new embryonic genome. In this study we confirm that fertilisation leads to a marked progressive increase in the level of histone 3 lysine 9 acetylation in both the paternally and maternally derived genomes. The culture of zygotes in simple defined media caused a marked increase in the global level of acetylation and this affected the male pronucleus more than the female...
October 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875490/immune-cell-metabolism-in-tumor-microenvironment
#13
Yongsheng Li, Yisong Y Wan, Bo Zhu
Tumor microenvironment (TME) is composed of tumor cells, immune cells, cytokines, extracellular matrix, etc. The immune system and the metabolisms of glucose, lipids, amino acids, and nucleotides are integrated in the tumorigenesis and development. Cancer cells and immune cells show metabolic reprogramming in the TME, which intimately links immune cell functions and edits tumor immunology. Recent findings in immune cell metabolism hold the promising possibilities toward clinical therapeutics for treating cancer...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874788/comprehensive-transcriptome-mining-of-the-direct-conversion-of-mesodermal-cells
#14
Bijan Akbari, Ping Wee, Moein Yaqubi, Abdulshakour Mohammadnia
The direct reprogramming of somatic cells is a promising approach for regenerative medicine, especially in the production of mesoderm layer-derived cells. Meta-analysis studies provide precise insight into the undergoing processes and help increase the efficiency of reprogramming. Here, using 27 high-throughput expression data sets, we analyzed the direct reprogramming of mesodermal cells in humans and mice. Fibroblast-derived cells showed a common expression pattern of up- and down-regulated genes that were mainly involved in the suppression of the fibroblast-specific gene expression program, and may be used as markers of the initiation of reprogramming...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874583/smad7-enables-stat3-activation-and-promotes-pluripotency-independent-of-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling
#15
Yi Yu, Shuchen Gu, Wenjian Li, Chuang Sun, Fenfang Chen, Mu Xiao, Lei Wang, Dewei Xu, Ye Li, Chen Ding, Zongping Xia, Yi Li, Sheng Ye, Pinglong Xu, Bin Zhao, Jun Qin, Ye-Guang Chen, Xia Lin, Xin-Hua Feng
Smad7 is a negative feedback product of TGF-β superfamily signaling and fine tunes a plethora of pleiotropic responses induced by TGF-β ligands. However, its noncanonical functions independent of TGF-β signaling remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that Smad7 activates signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling in maintaining mouse embryonic stem cell pluripotency in a manner independent of the TGF-β receptors, yet dependent on the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) coreceptor glycoprotein 130 (gp130)...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869726/-direct-reprogramming-from-fibroblasts-into-cardiamyocytes
#16
Zhengyan Xu, Ying Li
Cardiac regenerative therapy has attracted much attention as a novel approach for heart diseases. Direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into cardiomyocytes without going through a pluripotent stem cell stage would provide a promising source of cells for cell transplantation in future. This review summarizes the research methods and problems of direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into cardiomyocytes in vitro and in vivo, and forecasts the future development of this new strategy.
July 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859294/ccaat-enhancer-binding-protein-delta-promotes-intracellular-lipid-accumulation-in-m1-macrophages-of-vascular-lesions
#17
Hong-Yue Lai, Ling-Wei Hsu, Hsin-Hwa Tsai, Yu-Chih Lo, Shang-Hsun Yang, Ping-Yen Liu, Ju-Ming Wang
Aims: Lipid homeostasis is reprogrammed in the presence of inflammation, which results in excessive lipid accumulation in macrophages, and leads to the formation of lipid-laden foam cells. We aimed to link an inflammation-responsive transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta (CEBPD) with polarized macrophages and dissect its contribution to lipid accumulation. Methods and results: We found that CEBPD protein colocalized with macrophages in human and mouse (C57BL/6, Apoe-/-) atherosclerotic plaques and that Cebpd deficiency in bone marrow cells suppressed atherosclerotic lesions in hyperlipidemic Apoe-/- mice...
September 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855426/neural-differentiation-of-fibroblasts-induced-by-intracellular-co-delivery-of-ascl1-brn2-and-foxa1-via-a-non-viral-vector-of-cationic-polysaccharide
#18
Qingtong Yu, Jingjing Chen, Wenwen Deng, Xia Cao, Michael Adu-Frimpong, Jiangnan Yu, Xi-Ming Xu
Direct reprogramming of other somatic cells into neurons is an alternative strategy for the recovery of injured nervous system. In this work we developed a new non-viral gene carrier based on Porphyra yezoensis polysaccharide (PYP). After modification with ethylenediamine, the cationized Porphyra yezoensis polysaccharide (Ed-PYP) was combined with plasmids encoding Ascl1, Brn2 and FoxA1 to form spherical nanoscale particles (Ed-PYP-pABF nanoparticles). Cytotoxicity assay proved that Ed-PYP-pABF nanoparticles had a safer property than Lipofectamine2000 and polyetherimide (PEI)...
August 31, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855243/update-on-angiotensin-ii-new-endocrine-connections-between-the-brain-adrenal-glands-and-the-cardiovascular-system
#19
Frans Leenen, Mordecai P Blaustein, John Hamlyn
In the brain, angiotensinergic pathways play a major role in chronic regulation of cardiovascular and electrolyte homeostasis. Increases in plasma angiotensin II (Ang II), aldosterone, [Na+] and cytokines can directly activate these pathways. Chronically, these stimuli also activate a slow neuromodulatory pathway involving local aldosterone, mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs), epithelial sodium channels, and endogenous ouabain (EO). This pathway increases AT1R and NADPH oxidase subunits, and maintains/further increases activity of angiotensinergic pathways...
August 30, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851604/regulatory-logic-underlying-diversification-of-the-neural-crest
#20
REVIEW
Megan L Martik, Marianne E Bronner
The neural crest is a transient, multipotent population of cells that arises at the border of the developing nervous system. After closure of the neural tube, these cells undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to delaminate and migrate, often to distant locations in the embryo. Neural crest cells give rise to a diverse array of derivatives including neurons and glia of the peripheral nervous system, melanocytes, and bone and cartilage of the face. A gene regulatory network (GRN) controls the specification, delamination, migration, and differentiation of this fascinating cell type...
August 26, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
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