keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Direct Reprogramming

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107961/new-approach-of-a-transient-icp-ms-measurement-method-for-samples-with-high-salinity
#1
Christina Hein, Jonas Michael Sander, Ralf Kautenburger
In the near future it is necessary to establish a disposal for high level nuclear waste (HLW) in deep and stable geological formations. In Germany typical host rocks are salt or claystone. Suitable clay formations exist in the south and in the north of Germany. The geochemical conditions of these clay formations show a strong difference. In the northern ionic strengths of the pore water up to 5M are observed. The determination of parameters like Kd values during sorption experiments of metal ions like uranium or europium as homologues for trivalent actinides onto clay stones are very important for long term safety analysis...
March 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100871/in-vivo-direct-reprogramming-of-liver-cells-to-insulin-producing-cells-by-virus-free-overexpression-of-defined-factors
#2
Xiao-Fei Yang, Li-Wei Ren, Lu Yang, Chun-Yan Deng, Fu-Rong Li
Direct reprogramming of autologous cells from diabetes patients to insulin producing cells is a new method for pancreatic cell replacement therapy. At present, transdifferentiation among mature cells is achieved mainly by introducing foreign genes into the starting tissue with viral vector, but there are potentical safety problems. In the present study, we delivered plasmids carrying Pdx1, Neurog3 and MafA genes (PNM) into mouse hepatocytes by hydrodynamics tail vein injection, investigated islet β cells markers in transfected cells from protein and mRNA level, and then observed the long-term control of blood glucose in diabetic mice...
January 18, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099929/modeling-the-phenotype-of-spinal-muscular-atrophy-by-the-direct-conversion-of-human-fibroblasts-to-motor-neurons
#3
Qi-Jie Zhang, Jin-Jing Li, Xiang Lin, Ying-Qian Lu, Xin-Xin Guo, En-Lin Dong, Miao Zhao, Jin He, Ning Wang, Wan-Jin Chen
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a lethal autosomal recessive neurological disease characterized by selective degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord. In recent years, the development of cellular reprogramming technology has provided an alternative and effective method for obtaining patient-specific neurons in vitro. In the present study, we applied this technology to the field of SMA to acquire patient-specific induced motor neurons that were directly converted from fibroblasts via the forced expression of 8 defined transcription factors...
January 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099079/lymphangioleiomyomatosis-a-monogenic-model-of-malignancy
#4
Vera P Krymskaya, Francis X McCormack
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, low-grade, metastasizing neoplasm that arises from an unknown source, spreads via the lymphatics, and targets the lungs. All pulmonary structures become infiltrated with benign-appearing spindle and epithelioid cells (LAM cells) that express smooth-muscle and melanocyte-lineage markers, harbor mTOR-activating mutations in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) genes, and recruit abundant stromal cells. Elaboration of lymphangiogenic growth factors and matrix remodeling enzymes by LAM cells enables their access to lymphatic channels and likely drives the cystic lung remodeling that often culminates in respiratory failure...
January 14, 2017: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098820/applying-human-adar1p110-and-adar1p150-for-site-directed-rna-editing-g-c-substitution-stabilizes-guidernas-against-editing
#5
Madeleine Heep, Pia Mach, Philipp Reautschnig, Jacqueline Wettengel, Thorsten Stafforst
Site-directed RNA editing is an approach to reprogram genetic information at the RNA level. We recently introduced a novel guideRNA that allows for the recruitment of human ADAR2 to manipulate genetic information. Here, we show that the current guideRNA design is already able to recruit another human deaminase, ADAR1, in both isoforms, p110 and p150. However, further optimization seems necessary as the current design is less efficient for ADAR1 isoforms. Furthermore, we describe hotspots at which the guideRNA itself is edited and show a way to circumvent this auto-editing without losing editing efficiency at the target...
January 14, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096174/anti-folate-receptor-%C3%AE-ige-but-not-igg-recruits-macrophages-to-attack-tumors-via-tnf-%C3%AE-mcp-1-signaling
#6
Debra H Josephs, Heather J Bax, Tihomir Dodev, Mirella Georgouli, Mano Nakamura, Giulia Pellizzari, Louise Saul, Panagiotis Karagiannis, Anthony Cheung, Cecilia Herraiz, Kristina M Ilieva, Isabel Correa, Matthew Fittall, Silvia Crescioli, Patrycja Gazinska, Natalie Woodman, Silvia Mele, Giulia Chiaruttini, Amy E Gilbert, Alexander Koers, Marguerite Bracher, Christopher Selkirk, Heike Lentfer, Claire Barton, Elliott Lever, Gareth Muirhead, Sophia Tsoka, Silvana Canevari, Mariangela Figini, Ana Montes, Noel Downes, David Dombrowicz, Christopher Corrigan, Andrew J Beavil, Frank O Nestle, Paul S Jones, Hannah J Gould, Victoria Sanz-Moreno, Philip J Blower, James Spicer, Sophia N Karagiannis
IgE antibodies are key mediators of anti-parasitic immune responses, but their potential for cancer treatment via antibody-directed cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been little studied. Recently, tumor antigen-specific IgEs were reported to restrict cancer cell growth by engaging high-affinity Fc receptors on monocytes and macrophages, however, the underlying therapeutic mechanisms were undefined and in vivo proof-of-concept was limited. Here, an immunocompetent rat model was designed to recapitulate the human IgE-Fcε receptor system for cancer studies...
January 17, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087003/in%C3%A2-vitro-generation-of-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells-from-fibroblasts-implications-for-precision-and-regenerative-medicine-in-nephrology
#7
Christina M Wyatt, Nicole Dubois
Prior efforts to generate renal epithelial cells in vitro have relied on pluripotent or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. A recent publication in Nature Cell Biology describes the generation of induced tubular epithelial cells from fibroblasts, potentially offering a novel platform for personalized drug toxicity screening and in vitro disease modeling. This report serves as a promising proof of principle study and opens future research directions, including the optimization of the reprogramming process, efficient translation to adult human fibroblasts, and the generation of highly specific functional renal cell types...
February 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077646/adenovirus-modulates-toll-like-receptor-4-signaling-by-reprogramming-orp1l-vap-protein-contacts-for-cholesterol-transport-from-endosomes-to-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#8
Nicholas L Cianciola, Stacey Chung, Danny Manor, Cathleen R Carlin
: Human adenoviruses generally cause mild self-limiting infections but can lead to serious disease and even be fatal in high-risk individuals, underscoring the importance of understanding how the virus counteracts host defense mechanisms. This study had two goals. First, determine the molecular basis of cholesterol homeostatic responses induced by the early region 3 membrane protein RIDα via its direct interaction with the sterol-binding protein ORP1L. Second, determine how this interaction regulates innate immunity to adenovirus...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077297/exosomes-key-mediators-of-metastasis-and-pre-metastatic-niche-formation
#9
REVIEW
Richard J Lobb, Luize G Lima, Andreas Möller
While tumour cells are classically known to communicate via direct cell-to-cell contact and the secretion of soluble protein-based factors such as cytokines and growth factors, alternative novel mechanisms that promote tumour progression have recently emerged. Now, new critical components of the secretome thought to be involved in tumour progression are exosomes, small vesicles of endocytic origin that carry a variety of bioactive molecules, including proteins, lipids, RNA, as well as DNA molecules. Cancer cell-derived exosomes have been shown to participate in crucial steps of metastatic spread of a primary tumour, ranging from oncogenic reprogramming of malignant cells to formation of pre-metastatic niches...
January 8, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068482/metabolic-reprogramming-in-brain-tumors
#10
Sriram Venneti, Craig B Thompson
Next-generation sequencing has substantially enhanced our understanding of the genetics of primary brain tumors by uncovering several novel driver genetic alterations. How many of these genetic modifications contribute to the pathogenesis of brain tumors is not well understood. An exciting paradigm emerging in cancer biology is that oncogenes actively reprogram cellular metabolism to enable tumors to survive and proliferate. We discuss how some of these genetic alterations in brain tumors rewire metabolism...
December 21, 2016: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065642/mesenchymal-to-epithelial-transition-mediated-by-cdh1-promotes-spontaneous-reprogramming-of-male-germline-stem-cells-to-pluripotency
#11
Junhui An, Yu Zheng, Christina Tenenhaus Dann
Cultured spermatogonial stem cells (GSCs) can spontaneously form pluripotent cells in certain culture conditions. However, GSC reprogramming is a rare event that is largely unexplained. We show GSCs have high expression of mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) suppressors resulting in a developmental barrier inhibiting GSC reprogramming. Either increasing OCT4 or repressing transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling promotes GSC reprogramming by upregulating CDH1 and boosting MET. Reducing ZEB1 also enhances GSC reprogramming through its direct effect on CDH1...
December 24, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062037/single-molecule-insight-into-target-recognition-by-crispr-cas-complexes
#12
M Rutkauskas, A Krivoy, M D Szczelkun, C Rouillon, R Seidel
Ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes from CRISPR-Cas systems have attracted enormous interest since they can be easily and flexibly reprogrammed to target any desired locus for genome engineering and gene regulation applications. Basis for the programmability is a short RNA (crRNA) inside these complexes that recognizes the target nucleic acid by base pairing. For CRISPR-Cas systems that target double-stranded DNA this results in local DNA unwinding and formation of a so-called R-loop structure. Here we provide an overview how this target recognition mechanism can be dissected in great detail at the level of a single molecule...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053954/targeting-lipid-metabolic-reprogramming-as-anticancer-therapeutics
#13
REVIEW
Ji-Young Cha, Ho-Jae Lee
Cancer cells rewire their metabolism to satisfy the demands of growth and survival, and this metabolic reprogramming has been recognized as an emerging hallmark of cancer. Lipid metabolism is pivotal in cellular process that converts nutrients into energy, building blocks for membrane biogenesis and the generation of signaling molecules. Accumulating evidence suggests that cancer cells show alterations in different aspects of lipid metabolism. The changes in lipid metabolism of cancer cells can affect numerous cellular processes, including cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and survival...
December 2016: Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050800/micro-rna-204-participates-in-tmprss2-erg-regulation-and-androgen-receptor-reprogramming-in-prostate-cancer
#14
Krassimira Todorova, Metodi V Metodiev, Gergana Metodieva, Milcho Mincheff, Nelson Fernández, Soren Hayrabedyan
Cancer progression is driven by genome instability incurred rearrangements such as transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2)/v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene (ERG) that could possibly turn some of the tumor suppressor micro-RNAs into pro-oncogenic ones. Previously, we found dualistic miR-204 effects, acting either as a tumor suppressor or as an oncomiR in ERG fusion-dependent manner. Here, we provided further evidence for an important role of miR-204 for TMPRSS2/ERG and androgen receptor (AR) signaling modulation and fine tuning that prevents TMPRSS2/ERG overexpression in prostate cancer...
January 3, 2017: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042541/rational-development-of-a-polycistronic-plasmid-with-a-cpg-free-bacterial-backbone-as-a-potential-tool-for-direct-reprogramming
#15
Kianoush Dormiani, Hamid Mir Mohammad Sadeghi, Hojjat Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Mahboobeh Forouzanfar, Hossein Baharvand, Kamran Ghaedi, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani
OBJECTIVE: Induced pluripotent stem cells are generated from somatic cells by direct reprogramming. These reprogrammed pluripotent cells have different applications in biomedical fields such as regenerative medicine. Although viral vectors are widely used for efficient reprogramming, they have limited applications in the clinic due to the risk for immunogenicity and insertional mutagenesis. Accordingly, we designed and developed a small, non-integrating plasmid named pLENSO/Zeo as a 2A-mediated polycistronic expression vector...
2017: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038351/microrna-29-impairs-the-early-phase-of-reprogramming-process-by-targeting-active-dna-demethylation-enzymes-and-wnt-signaling
#16
Mariane Serra Fráguas, Reto Eggenschwiler, Jeannine Hoepfner, Josiane Lilian Dos Santos Schiavinato, Rodrigo Haddad, Lucila Habib Bourguignon Oliveira, Amélia Góes Araújo, Marco Antônio Zago, Rodrigo Alexandre Panepucci, Tobias Cantz
Somatic cell reprogramming by transcription factors and other modifiers such as microRNAs has opened broad avenues for the study of developmental processes, cell fate determination, and interplay of molecular mechanisms in signaling pathways. However, many of the mechanisms that drive nuclear reprogramming itself remain yet to be elucidated. Here, we analyzed the role of miR-29 during reprogramming in more detail. Therefore, we evaluated miR-29 expression during reprogramming of fibroblasts transduced with lentiviral OKS and OKSM vectors and we show that addition of c-MYC to the reprogramming factor cocktail decreases miR-29 expression levels...
December 19, 2016: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036268/role-of-vhl-hif1a-and-sdh-on-the-expression-of-mir-210-implications-for-tumoral-pseudo-hypoxic-fate
#17
Anna Merlo, Cristóbal Bernardo-Castiñeira, Inés Sáenz-de-Santa-María, Ana S Pitiot, Milagros Balbín, Aurora Astudillo, Nuria Valdés, Bartolomé Scola, Raquel Del Toro, Simón Méndez-Ferrer, José I Piruat, Carlos Suarez, María-Dolores Chiara
The hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and its microRNA target, miR-210, are candidate tumor-drivers of metabolic reprogramming in cancer. Neuroendocrine neoplasms such as paragangliomas (PGLs) are particularly appealing for understanding the cancer metabolic adjustments because of their associations with deregulations of metabolic enzymes, such as succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and the von Hippel Lindau (VHL) gene involved in HIF-1α stabilization. However, the role of miR-210 in the pathogenesis of SDH-related tumors remains an unmet challenge...
December 27, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025745/microrna-98-suppress-warburg-effect-by-targeting-hk2-in-colon-cancer-cells
#18
Weimin Zhu, Yijiao Huang, Qi Pan, Pei Xiang, Nanlan Xie, Hao Yu
BACKGROUND: Warburg effect is a hallmark of cancer cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRs) could regulate such metabolic reprograming. Aberrant expression of miR-98 has been observed in many types of cancers. However, its functions and significance in colon cancer remain largely elusive. AIMS: To investigate miR-98 expression and the biological functions in colon cancer progression. METHODS: miR-98 expression levels were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in 215 cases of colon cancer samples...
December 26, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018147/receptor-signaling-directs-global-recruitment-of-pre-existing-transcription-factors-to-inducible-elements
#19
REVIEW
Peter N Cockerill
Gene expression programs are largely regulated by the tissue-specific expression of lineage-defining transcription factors or by the inducible expression of transcription factors in response to specific stimuli. Here I will review our own work over the last 20 years to show how specific activation signals also lead to the wide-spread re-distribution of pre-existing constitutive transcription factors to sites undergoing chromatin reorganization. I will summarize studies showing that activation of kinase signaling pathways creates open chromatin regions that recruit pre-existing factors which were previously unable to bind to closed chromatin...
December 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017657/direct-reprogramming-of-mouse-fibroblasts-toward-leydig-like-cells-by-defined-factors
#20
Yan Yang, Ziyi Li, Xupeng Wu, Haolin Chen, Wenting Xu, Qi Xiang, Qihao Zhang, Jie Chen, Ren-Shan Ge, Zhijian Su, Yadong Huang
Leydig cells (LCs) play crucial roles in producing testosterone, and their dysfunction leads to male hypogonadism. LC transplantation is a promising alternative therapy for male hypogonadism. However, the source of LCs limits this strategy for clinical applications. Here, we report our success in reprogramming mice fibroblasts into LCs by expressing three transcriptional factors, Dmrt1, Gata4, and Nr5a1. The induced Leydig-like cells (iLCs) expressed steroidogenic genes, had a global gene expression profile similar to that of adult LCs, and acquired androgen synthesis capabilities...
January 10, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
keyword
keyword
25223
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"