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Directed Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933005/social-brain-hypothesis-vocal-and-gesture-networks-of-wild-chimpanzees
#1
Sam G B Roberts, Anna I Roberts
A key driver of brain evolution in primates and humans is the cognitive demands arising from managing social relationships. In primates, grooming plays a key role in maintaining these relationships, but the time that can be devoted to grooming is inherently limited. Communication may act as an additional, more time-efficient bonding mechanism to grooming, but how patterns of communication are related to patterns of sociality is still poorly understood. We used social network analysis to examine the associations between close proximity (duration of time spent within 10 m per hour spent in the same party), grooming, vocal communication, and gestural communication (duration of time and frequency of behavior per hour spent within 10 m) in wild chimpanzees...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932584/the-eif3-complex-of-typanosoma-brucei-composition-conservation-does-not-imply-the-conservation-of-structural-assembly-and-subunits-function
#2
Kunrao Li, Shuru Zhou, Qixuan Guo, Xin Chen, Dehua Lai, Zhaorong Lun, Xuemin Guo
The multisubunit eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) plays multiple roles in translation, but poorly understood in trypanosomes. The putative subunits eIF3a and eIF3f of Trypanosoma brucei (TbIF3a and TbIF3f) were overexpressed and purified, and 11 subunits were identified, TbIF3a through l minus j, which form a tight complex. Both TbIF3a and TbIF3f are essential for viability of T. brucei. RNAi knockdown of either of them severely reduced total translation and the ratio of polysome/80S peak area. TbIF3f and TbIF3a RNAi cell lines were modified to express tagged-TbIF3a and -TbIF3f, respectively...
December 8, 2016: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932516/global-analysis-of-regulatory-divergence-in-the-evolution-of-mouse-alternative-polyadenylation
#3
Mei-Sheng Xiao, Bin Zhang, Yi-Sheng Li, Qingsong Gao, Wei Sun, Wei Chen
Alternative polyadenylation (APA), which is regulated by both cis-elements and trans-factors, plays an important role in post-transcriptional regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. However, comparing to the extensively studied transcription and alternative splicing, the extent of APA divergence during evolution and the relative cis- and trans-contribution remain largely unexplored. To directly address these questions for the first time in mammals, by using deep sequencing-based methods, we measured APA divergence between C57BL/6J and SPRET/EiJ mouse strains as well as allele-specific APA pattern in their F1 hybrids...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930309/sox2-progenitors-in-sharks-link-taste-development-with-the-evolution-of-regenerative-teeth-from-denticles
#4
Kyle J Martin, Liam J Rasch, Rory L Cooper, Brian D Metscher, Zerina Johanson, Gareth J Fraser
Teeth and denticles belong to a specialized class of mineralizing epithelial appendages called odontodes. Although homology of oral teeth in jawed vertebrates is well supported, the evolutionary origin of teeth and their relationship with other odontode types is less clear. We compared the cellular and molecular mechanisms directing development of teeth and skin denticles in sharks, where both odontode types are retained. We show that teeth and denticles are deeply homologous developmental modules with equivalent underlying odontode gene regulatory networks (GRNs)...
December 7, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929718/lotus-japonicus-nf-ya1-plays-an-essential-role-during-nodule-differentiation-and-targets-members-of-the-shi-sty-gene-family
#5
Md Shakhawat Hossain, Arina Shrestha, Sihui Zhong, Mandana Miri, Ryan S Austin, Shusei Sato, Loretta Ross, Terry Huebert, Alexandre Tromas, Ivone Torres-Jerez, Yuhong Tang, Michael Udvardi, Jeremy Dale Murray, Krzysztof Szczyglowski
Legume plants engage in intimate relationships with rhizobial bacteria to form nitrogen-fixing nodules, root-derived organs that accommodate the micro-symbiont. Members of the Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y) gene family, which have undergone significant expansion and functional diversification during plant evolution, are essential for this symbiotic liaison. Acting in a partially redundant manner, NF-Ys were shown previously to regulate bacterial infection, including selection of a superior rhizobial strain, and to mediate nodule structure formation...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929097/aerosol-effect-on-the-evolution-of-the-thermodynamic-properties-of-warm-convective-cloud-fields
#6
Guy Dagan, Ilan Koren, Orit Altaratz, Reuven H Heiblum
Convective cloud formation and evolution strongly depend on environmental temperature and humidity profiles. The forming clouds change the profiles that created them by redistributing heat and moisture. Here we show that the evolution of the field's thermodynamic properties depends heavily on the concentration of aerosol, liquid or solid particles suspended in the atmosphere. Under polluted conditions, rain formation is suppressed and the non-precipitating clouds act to warm the lower part of the cloudy layer (where there is net condensation) and cool and moisten the upper part of the cloudy layer (where there is net evaporation), thereby destabilizing the layer...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928012/emergence-of-a-viral-rna-polymerase-variant-during-gene-copy-number-amplification-promotes-rapid-evolution-of-vaccinia-virus
#7
Kelsey R Cone, Zev N Kronenberg, Mark Yandell, Nels C Elde
: Viruses are under relentless selective pressure from host immune defenses. To study how poxviruses adapt to innate immune detection pathways, we performed serial infections of vaccinia virus in primary human cells. Independent courses of experimental evolution with a recombinant strain lacking E3L revealed several high frequency point mutations in conserved poxvirus genes, suggesting important roles for essential poxvirus proteins in innate immune subversion. Two distinct mutations were identified in the viral RNA polymerase gene A24R, which seem to act through different mechanisms to increase virus replication...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927995/the-biomechanics-of-seed-germination
#8
REVIEW
Tina Steinbrecher, Gerhard Leubner-Metzger
From a biomechanical perspective, the completion of seed (and fruit) germination depends on the balance of two opposing forces: the growth potential of the embryonic axis (radicle-hypocotyl growth zone) and the restraint of the seed-covering layers (endosperm, testa, and pericarp). The diverse seed tissues are composite materials which differ in their dynamic properties based on their distinct cell wall composition and water uptake capacities. The biomechanics of embryo cell growth during seed germination depend on irreversible cell wall loosening followed by water uptake due to the decreasing turgor, and this leads to embryo elongation and eventually radicle emergence...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926928/an-interactome-centered-protein-discovery-approach-reveals-novel-components-involved-in-mitosome-function-and-homeostasis-in-giardia-lamblia
#9
Samuel Rout, Jon Paulin Zumthor, Elisabeth M Schraner, Carmen Faso, Adrian B Hehl
Protozoan parasites of the genus Giardia are highly prevalent globally, and infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts including humans, with proliferation and pathology restricted to the small intestine. This narrow ecological specialization entailed extensive structural and functional adaptations during host-parasite co-evolution. An example is the streamlined mitosomal proteome with iron-sulphur protein maturation as the only biochemical pathway clearly associated with this organelle. Here, we applied techniques in microscopy and protein biochemistry to investigate the mitosomal membrane proteome in association to mitosome homeostasis...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926548/liver-transplantation-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-current-update-on-treatment-and-allocation
#10
Leigh Anne Dageforde, Kathryn J Fowler, William C Chapman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the current imaging modalities and criteria used to diagnose, and the role of liver transplantation as well as nonsurgical hepatic-directed therapies to treat hepatocellular carcinoma in the setting of chronic liver disease. RECENT FINDINGS: There has been continual evolution of guidelines, policies, and algorithms for the imaging diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma, particularly the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System...
December 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925725/analogy-between-the-hidden-order-and-the-orbital-antiferromagnetism-in-uru_-2-x-fe_-x-si_-2
#11
H-H Kung, S Ran, N Kanchanavatee, V Krapivin, A Lee, J A Mydosh, K Haule, M B Maple, G Blumberg
We study URu_{2-x}Fe_{x}Si_{2}, in which two types of staggered phases compete at low temperature as the iron concentration x is varied: the nonmagnetic "hidden order" (HO) phase below the critical concentration x_{c}, and unconventional antiferromagnetic (AFM) phase above x_{c}. By using polarization resolved Raman spectroscopy, we detect a collective mode of pseudovectorlike A_{2g} symmetry whose energy continuously evolves with increasing x; it monotonically decreases in the HO phase until it vanishes at x=x_{c}, and then reappears with increasing energy in the AFM phase...
November 25, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925615/positive-selection-in-cathelicidin-host-defense-peptides-adaptation-to-exogenous-pathogens-or-endogenous-receptors
#12
S Zhu, B Gao
The cause of adaptive protein evolution includes internal (for example, co-evolution of ligand-receptor pairs) and external (for example, adaptation to different ecological niches) mechanisms. Host defense peptides (HDPs) are a class of vertebrate-specific cationic antimicrobial peptides evolving under positive selection. Besides their antibiotic activity, HDPs also exert an effect on multiple host immune cells, thus providing an ideal model to study selective agents driving their evolution. On the basis of a combination of computational and experimental approaches, we studied the evolution of LL-37-type HDPs in mammals, the mature peptide of cathelicidin CAP18 (herein termed CAP18-MP) and investigated the driving force behind the evolution...
December 7, 2016: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925413/mechanism-of-water-oxidation-catalysed-by-a-mononuclear-manganese-complex-py2n-tbu-2mn-h2o-2-2
#13
Yingying Li, Ke Ye, Per E M Siegbahn, Rong-Zhen Liao
The design and synthesis of biomimetic Mn complexes to catalyze oxygen evolution is a very appealing goal since water oxidation in nature employs manganese. A mononuclear Mn complex 1 [LMnII(H2O)2]2+ (L=Py2N(tBu)2) was recently reported to catalyze water oxidation electrochemically with an applied potential of 1.23 V at pH=12.2 in aqueous solution. Density functional calculations have here been performed to elucidate the mechanism of water oxidation promoted by this catalyst. The calculations showed that 1 can readily lose two protons and one electron with the production of 2 [LMnIII(OH)2]+, which then undergoes two sequential proton-coupled electron transfer processes to afford 4 [LMnVOO]+...
December 7, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925174/natural-selection-on-immune-defense-a-field-experiment
#14
Laura Langeloh, Jasminca Behrmann-Godel, Otto Seppälä
Predicting the evolution of phenotypic traits requires an understanding of natural selection on them. Despite its indispensability in the fight against parasites, selection on host immune defense has remained understudied. Theory predicts immune traits to be under stabilizing selection due to associated trade-offs with other fitness-related traits. Empirical studies, however, report mainly positive directional selection. This discrepancy could be caused by low phenotypic variation in the examined individuals and/or variation in host resource level that confounds trade-offs in empirical studies...
December 7, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924307/dendrites-and-pits-untangling-the-complex-behavior-of-lithium-metal-anodes-through-operando-video-microscopy
#15
Kevin N Wood, Eric Kazyak, Alexander F Chadwick, Kuan-Hung Chen, Ji-Guang Zhang, Katsuyo Thornton, Neil P Dasgupta
Enabling ultra-high energy density rechargeable Li batteries would have widespread impact on society. However the critical challenges of Li metal anodes (most notably cycle life and safety) remain unsolved. This is attributed to the evolution of Li metal morphology during cycling, which leads to dendrite growth and surface pitting. Herein, we present a comprehensive understanding of the voltage variations observed during Li metal cycling, which is directly correlated to morphology evolution through the use of operando video microscopy...
November 23, 2016: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924271/amino-acid-residues-of-bitter-taste-receptor-tas2r16-that-determine-sensitivity-in-primates-to-%C3%AE-glycosides
#16
Hiroo Imai, Nami Suzuki-Hashido, Yoshiro Ishimaru, Takanobu Sakurai, Lijie Yin, Wenshi Pan, Masaji Ishiguro, Katsuyoshi Masuda, Keiko Abe, Takumi Misaka, Hirohisa Hirai
In mammals, bitter taste is mediated by TAS2Rs, which belong to the family of seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors. Since TAS2Rs are directly involved in the interaction between mammals and their dietary sources, it is likely that these genes evolved to reflect species-specific diets during mammalian evolution. Here, we analyzed the amino acids responsible for the difference in sensitivities of TAS2R16s of various primates using a cultured cell expression system. We found that the sensitivity of TAS2R16 varied due to several amino acid residues...
2016: Biophysics and Physicobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923733/cognitive-control-of-vocalizations-in-the-primate-ventrolateral-dorsomedial-frontal-vlf-dmf-brain-network
#17
REVIEW
Loh Kep Kee, Petrides Michael, Hopkins D William, Procyk Emmanuel, Amiez Céline
This review centers on the neural mechanisms underlying the primate cognitive control of vocalizations i.e. the capacity to regulate vocal productions in a goal-directed manner. In both human and non-human primates (NHPs), two main frontal brain regions are associated with top-down vocal control: a ventrolateral frontal region (VLF), comprising the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and ventral premotor region; and a dorsomedial frontal region (DMF), comprising the mid-cingulate cortex, pre-supplementary and supplementary motor areas...
December 3, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923453/circulating-micrornas-as-biomarkers-for-metabolic-disease
#18
REVIEW
Marcelina Párrizas, Anna Novials
Incidence of diabetes and other metabolic disorders is increasing worldwide, with almost half the cases remaining undiagnosed. This is cause for concern as poor management of glucose or lipid levels causes tissue damage that may result in micro- or macrovascular complications. Current methods of diagnosing metabolic disorders do not provide any clues on disease aetiology or their posterior evolution and incidence of complications, which are the main cause of disease-associated morbidity. Circulating microRNAs found in blood change with the physiological condition of the organism and may help to: (1) identify people at risk of developing metabolic disease, (2) diagnose diabetes or other metabolic disorders on the basis of their aetiology, (3) predict the development of complications, and (4) monitor response to treatment...
October 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923349/assessing-the-effects-of-hybridization-and-precipitation-on-invasive-weed-demography-using-strength-of-selection-on-vital-rates
#19
Zachary Teitel, Agnieszka Klimowski, Lesley G Campbell
BACKGROUND: As global climate change transforms average temperature and rainfall, species distributions may meet, increasing the potential for hybridization and altering individual fitness and population growth. Altered rainfall specifically may shift the strength and direction of selection, also manipulating population trajectories. Here, we investigated the role of interspecific hybridization and selection imposed by rainfall on the evolution of weedy life-history in non-hybrid (Raphanus raphanistrum) and hybrid (R...
December 7, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922660/combined-vision-and-wearable-sensors-based-system-for-movement-analysis-in-rehabilitation
#20
Sofija Spasojević, Tihomir V Ilić, Slađan Milanović, Veljko Potkonjak, Aleksandar Rodić, José Santos-Victor
BACKGROUND: Traditional rehabilitation sessions are often a slow, tedious, disempowering and non-motivational process, supported by clinical assessment tools, i.e. evaluation scales that are prone to subjective rating and imprecise interpretation of patient's performance. Poor patient motivation and insufficient accuracy are thus critical factors that can be improved by new sensing / processing technologies. OBJECTIVES: We aim to develop a portable and affordable system, suitable for home rehabilitation, which combines vision-based and wearable sensors...
December 6, 2016: Methods of Information in Medicine
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