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Directed Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230916/design-principles-for-covalent-organic-frameworks-as-efficient-electrocatalysts-in-clean-energy-conversion-and-green-oxidizer-production
#1
Chun-Yu Lin, Lipeng Zhang, Zhenghang Zhao, Zhenhai Xia
Covalent organic frameworks (COFs), an emerging class of framework materials linked by covalent bonds, hold potential for various applications such as efficient electrocatalysts, photovoltaics, and sensors. To rationally design COF-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions in fuel cells and metal-air batteries, activity descriptors, derived from orbital energy and bonding structures, are identified with the first-principle calculations for the COFs, which correlate COF structures with their catalytic activities...
February 23, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230714/assessment-of-skeletal-tumour-burden-on-18f-naf-pet-ct-using-a-new-quantitative-method
#2
Paula Lapa, Margarida Marques, Gracinda Costa, Andrei Iagaru, João Pedroso de Lima
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to test a method of quantifying skeletal tumour burden with F-NaF PET/CT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 117 patients who underwent F-NaF PET/CT for the detection of bone metastases, 68 women and 49 men, 16-82 years old (mean±SD: 62.9±10.7 years). Mean standardized uptake values (SUVmean) were measured in five anatomic sites to evaluate normal skeleton activity. The influence of sex and age was investigated...
February 22, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230293/influence-of-complex-childhood-diseases-on-variation-in-growth-and-skeletal-development
#3
REVIEW
Babette S Zemel
The study of human growth and skeletal development by human biologists is framed by the larger theoretical concerns regarding the underpinnings of population variation and human evolution. This unique perspective is directly relevant to the assessment of child health and well-being at the individual and group level, as well as the construction of growth charts. Environmental, behavioral (nutrition and physical activity), and disease-related factors can prevent attainment of full genetic potential for growth...
February 23, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230223/observation-of-charge-transfer-cascades-in-%C3%AE-fe2o3-irox-photoanodes-by-operando-x-ray-absorption-spectroscopy
#4
Alessandro Minguzzi, Alberto Naldoni, Ottavio Lugaresi, Elisabetta Achilli, Francesco D'Acapito, Francesco Malara, Cristina Locatelli, Alberto Vertova, Sandra Rondinini, Paolo Ghigna
Electrochemical devices for energy conversion and storage are central for a sustainable economy. The performance of electrodes is driven by charge transfer across different layer materials and an understanding of the mechanistics is pivotal to gain improved efficiency. Here, we directly observe the transfer of photogenerated charge carriers in a photoanode made of hematite (α-Fe2O3) and a hydrous iridium oxide (IrOx) overlayer, which plays a key role in photoelectrochemical water oxidation. Through the use of operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), we probe the change in occupancy of the Ir 5d levels during optical band gap excitation of α-Fe2O3...
February 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229846/-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-approach-of-chronic-spontaneous-urticaria-recommendations-in-portugal
#5
Célia Costa, Margarida Gonçalo
Chronic spontaneous urticaria is a complex disorder, of unclear etiology, easily diagnosed although often difficult to treat. It has a significant impact on the patients' quality of life and results in high direct and indirect costs. The diagnosis of chronic spontaneous urticaria is mainly clinical and a limited number of tests is recommended for differential diagnosis and/or for the investigation/exclusion of possible causes. In addition to the complete blood count and C-reactive protein, and/or erythrocyte sedimentation rate, additional tests must be selected according to clinical criteria...
November 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229542/condition-dependence-and-sexual-ornamentation-effects-of-immune-challenges-on-a-highly-sexually-dimorphic-grasshopper
#6
J Pablo Valverde, Hendrik Eggert, Joachim Kurtz, Holger Schielzeth
Sexual ornaments contribute substantially to phenotypic diversity and it is particularly relevant to understand their evolution. Ornaments can assume the function of signals-of-quality that the choosy sex uses to evaluate potential mating partners. Often there are no obvious direct benefits and investment into mate choice is primarily rewarded by beneficial alleles that are inherited to the offspring. Inter-sexual communication via sexual ornaments requires honesty of the sexual signal, yet the question of what maintains honesty remains only partially solved...
February 23, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228539/three-dimensional-printing-spiders-back-and-forth-glue-application-yields-silk-anchorages-with-high-pull-off-resistance-under-varying-loading-situations
#7
Jonas O Wolff, Marie E Herberstein
The anchorage of structures is a crucial element of construction, both for humans and animals. Spiders use adhesive plaques to attach silk threads to substrates. Both biological and artificial adhesive structures usually have an optimal loading angle, and are prone to varying loading situations. Silk anchorages, however, must cope with loading in highly variable directions. Here we show that the detachment forces of thread anchorages of orb-web spiders are highly robust against pulling in different directions...
February 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227355/automatic-recognition-of-pertrochanteric-bone-fractures-in-femur-using-level-sets
#8
Ling Wang, Hong Cheng, Hai Lan, Yingjie Zheng, Kainan Li, Ling Wang, Hong Cheng, Hai Lan, Yingjie Zheng, Kainan Li, Ling Wang, Yingjie Zheng, Hong Cheng, Hai Lan, Kainan Li
Femur fracture is one of the common diseases in the elderly. In this paper, an automatic and efficient classification method of femoral pertrochanteric fractures is proposed based on image segmentation techniques. The types of femoral pertrochanteric fracture are defined firstly according to the difference of fracture parts. To reduce the computational complexity, only four directions images are used in each 3D femur, i.e. the anterior, the anterolateral, the posterior and the posterolateral images of a femur...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227291/development-of-a-head-phantom-and-measurement-setup-for-lightning-effects
#9
Rene Machts, Alexander Hunold, Carsten Leu, Jens Haueisen, Michael Rock, Rene Machts, Alexander Hunold, Carsten Leu, Jens Haueisen, Michael Rock, Alexander Hunold, Carsten Leu, Jens Haueisen, Michael Rock, Rene Machts
Direct lightning strikes to human heads lead to various effects ranging from Lichtenberg figures, over loss of consciousness to death. The evolution of the induced current distribution in the head is of great interest to understand the effect mechanisms. This work describes a technique to model a simplified head-phantom to investigate effects during direct lightning strike. The head-phantom geometry, conductive and dielectric parameters were chosen similar to that of a human head. Three layers (brain, skull, and scalp) were created for the phantom using agarose hydrogel doped with sodium chloride and carbon...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227104/source-and-sink-nodes-in-absence-seizures
#10
Abner C Rodrigues, Birajara S Machado, Luis Otavio S F Caboclo, Andre Fujita, Luiz A Baccaia, Koichi Sameshima, Abner C Rodrigues, Birajara S Machado, Luis Otavio S F Caboclo, Andre Fujita, Luiz A Baccala, Koichi Sameshima, Luiz A Baccala, Biraiara S Machado, Luis Otavio S F Caboclo
As opposed to focal epilepsy, absence seizures do not exhibit a clear seizure onset zone or focus since its ictal activity rapidly engages both brain hemispheres. Yet recent graph theoretical analysis applied to absence seizures EEG suggests the cortical focal presence, an unexpected feature for this type of epilepsy. In this study, we explore the characteristics of absence seizure by classifying the nodes as to their source/sink natures via weighted directed graph analysis based on connectivity direction and strength estimation using information partial directed coherence (iPDC)...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226836/myoelectric-feature-extraction-using-temporal-spatial-descriptors-for-multifunction-prosthetic-hand-control
#11
Rami N Khushaba, Ali Al-Timemy, Ahmed Al-Ani, Adel Al-Jumaily, Rami N Khushaba, Ali Al-Timemy, Ahmed Al-Ani, Adel Al-Jumaily, Ahmed Al-Ani, Rami N Khushaba, Adel Al-Jumaily, Ali Al-Timemy
We tackle the challenging problem of myoelectric prosthesis control with an improved feature extraction algorithm. The proposed algorithm correlates a set of spectral moments and their nonlinearly mapped version across the temporal and spatial domains to form accurate descriptors of muscular activity. The main processing step involves the extraction of the Electromyogram (EMG) signal power spectrum characteristics directly from the time-domain for each analysis window, a step to preserve the computational power required for the construction of spectral features...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223401/transcriptome-analyses-of-rhesus-monkey-pre-implantation-embryos-reveal-a-reduced-capacity-for-dna-double-strand-break-repair-in-primate-oocytes-and-early-embryos
#12
Xinyi Wang, Denghui Liu, Dajian He, Shengbo Suo, Xian Xia, Xiechao He, Jing-Dong Han, Ping Zheng
Pre-implantation embryogenesis encompasses several critical events including genome reprogramming, zygotic genome activation (ZGA), and cell fate commitment, most of which remain mechanistically unclear in primates. In addition, primates display a high rate of embryo wastage without any clear molecular basis. Understanding the factors involved in genome reprogramming and ZGA will help the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells with high efficiency. Moreover, explaining the molecular basis responsible for embryo wastage in primates will greatly expand our knowledge of species evolution...
February 21, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223050/tricuspid-regurgitation-associated-with%C3%A2-ischemic-mitral-regurgitation-characterization-evolution-after-mitral-surgery-and-value-of-tricuspid-repair
#13
José L Navia, Haytham Elgharably, Hoda Javadikasgari, Ahmed Ibrahim, Marijan Koprivanac, Ashley M Lowry, Eugene H Blackstone, Allan L Klein, A Marc Gillinov, Eric E Roselli, Lars G Svensson
BACKGROUND: Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) often accompanies ischemic mitral regurgitation and is generally assumed to be a secondary consequence of altered hemodynamics of the left-sided regurgitation. We hypothesized that it may also be a direct consequence of right-sided ischemic disease. Therefore, our objectives were to (1) characterize the nature of this TR and (2) describe its time course after mitral valve surgery for ischemic mitral regurgitation, with or without concomitant tricuspid valve repair...
February 18, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222354/modelling-with-words-narrative-and-natural-selection
#14
Dominic K Dimech
I argue that verbal models should be included in a philosophical account of the scientific practice of modelling. Weisberg (2013) has directly opposed this thesis on the grounds that verbal structures, if they are used in science, only merely describe models. I look at examples from Darwin's On the Origin of Species (1859) of verbally constructed narratives that I claim model the general phenomenon of evolution by natural selection. In each of the cases I look at, a particular scenario is described that involves at least some fictitious elements but represents the salient causal components of natural selection...
February 18, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221833/evolution-of-thermal-reaction-norms-in-seasonally-varying-environments
#15
Priyanga Amarasekare, Christopher Johnson
Thermal reaction norms of ectotherms exhibit a distinctive latitudinal pattern: the temperature at which performance is maximized coincides with the mean habitat temperature in tropical ectotherms but exceeds the mean temperature in temperate ectotherms. We hypothesize, on the basis of Jensen's inequality, that this pattern is driven by latitudinal variation in seasonal temperature fluctuations. We test this hypothesis with an eco-evolutionary model that integrates the quantitative genetics of reaction norm evolution with stage-structured population dynamics, which we parameterize with data from insects...
March 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221161/morphology-directed-self-assembly-and-pattern-transfer-from-a-high-molecular-weight-polystyrene-block-poly-dimethylsiloxane-block-copolymer-film
#16
Li-Chen Cheng, Wubin Bai, Eduardo Martin, Kun-Hua Tu, Konstantinos Ntetsikas, George Liontos, Apostolos Avgeropoulos, Caroline Ross
The self-assembly of block copolymers with large feature sizes is inherently challenging as the large kinetic barrier arising from chain entanglement of high molecular weight polymers limits the extent over which long-range ordered microdomains can be achieved. Here, we illustrate the evolution of thin film morphology from a diblock copolymer of polystyrene-block-poly(dimethylsiloxane) exhibiting total number average molecular weight of 123 kg/mol, and demonstrate the formation of layers of well-ordered cylindrical microdomains under appropriate conditions of binary solvent mix ratio, commensurate film thickness, and solvent vapor annealing time...
February 21, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220606/lamarck-rises-from-his-grave-parental-environment-induced-epigenetic-inheritance-in-model-organisms-and-humans
#17
Yan Wang, Huijie Liu, Zhongsheng Sun
Organisms can change their physiological/behavioural traits to adapt and survive in changed environments. However, whether these acquired traits can be inherited across generations through non-genetic alterations has been a topic of debate for over a century. Emerging evidence indicates that both ancestral and parental experiences, including nutrition, environmental toxins, nurturing behaviour, and social stress, can have powerful effects on the physiological, metabolic and cellular functions in an organism...
February 20, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219727/economic-botany-collections-a-source-of-material-evidence-for-exploring-historical-changes-in-chinese-medicinal-materials
#18
Eric Brand, Christine Leon, Mark Nesbitt, Ping Guo, Ran Huang, Hubiao Chen, Li Liang, Zhongzhen Zhao
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Many Chinese medicinal materials (CMMs) have changed over centuries of use, particularly in terms of their botanical identity and processing methods. In some cases, these changes have important implications for safety and efficacy in modern clinical practice. As most previous research has focused on clarifying the evolution of CMMs by analyzing traditional Chinese materia medica ("bencao") literature, assessments of historical collections are needed to validate these conclusions with material evidence...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219579/glomerular-diseases-and-renal-transplantation-pathogenic-pathways-and-evolution-of-therapeutic-interventions
#19
S Marinaki, C Skalioti, J Boletis
Glomerular diseases and renal transplantation are the main fields of nephrology in which the immune system plays a prevalent role. Glomerular diseases have traditionally been attributed to auto-immune conditions, whereas allograft rejection has been considered an allo-immune response. However, common immunopathologic mechanisms that include Toll-like receptors, complement and B-cell activation, as well as genetic and infectious factors appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of both entities. Novel therapeutic regimens directed against specific targets of the immune system show promising results in glomerulopathies as well as in renal transplantation...
March 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218673/a-high-performance-piezoelectric-sensor-for-dynamic-force-monitoring-of-landslide
#20
Ming Li, Wei Cheng, Jiangpan Chen, Ruili Xie, Xiongfei Li
Due to the increasing influence of human engineering activities, it is important to monitor the transient disturbance during the evolution process of landslide. For this purpose, a high-performance piezoelectric sensor is presented in this paper. To adapt the high static and dynamic stress environment in slope engineering, two key techniques, namely, the self-structure pressure distribution method (SSPDM) and the capacitive circuit voltage distribution method (CCVDM) are employed in the design of the sensor...
February 17, 2017: Sensors
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