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Epigenetic trauma

Linda Witek Janusek, Dina Tell, Noni Gaylord-Harden, Herbert L Mathews
African American men (AAM) who are exposed to trauma and adversity during their early life are at greater risk for poor health over their lifespan. Exposure to adversity during critical developmental windows may embed an epigenetic signature that alters expression of genes that regulate stress response systems, including those genes that regulate the inflammatory response to stress. Such an epigenetic signature may increase risk for diseases exacerbated by inflammation, and may contribute to health disparity...
October 17, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Joanne Ryan, Isabelle Chaudieu, Marie-Laure Ancelin, Richard Saffery
Certain individuals are more susceptible to stress and trauma, as well as the physical and mental health consequences following such exposure, including risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This differing vulnerability is likely to be influenced by genetic predisposition and specific characteristics of the stress itself (nature, intensity and duration), as well as epigenetic mechanisms. In this review we provide an overview of research findings in this field. We highlight some of the key genetic risk factors identified for PTSD, and the evidence that epigenetic processes might play a role in the biological response to trauma, as well as being potential biomarkers of PTSD risk...
September 30, 2016: Epigenomics
S Yeo, M-A Enoch, E Gorodetsky, L Akhtar, K Schuebel, A Roy, D Goldman
The FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5), an intrinsic regulator of the glucocorticoid receptor, has been associated with pathological behaviors particularly in the context of childhood trauma (CT), via a putatively regulatory polymorphism, rs1360780. However, trans- and cis-acting effects of this locus and its interaction with CT are incompletely understood. To study its effects on the expression of glucocorticoid-regulated genes including FKBP5, we used lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from 16 CT-exposed patients with greater than two substance dependence/suicidal behavior diagnoses (casesCT+) and 13 non-CT-exposed controls (controlsCT-)...
September 20, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Sonja Entringer, Claudia Buss, Christine Heim
BACKGROUND: The rapidly growing research field of developmental programming of health and disease risk investigates the early life origins of individual vulnerability for common, complex disorders that confer a major burden of disease. OBJECTIVES: The present article introduces the concept of developmental programming of disease vulnerability and summarizes studies on the mental and physical health consequences of exposure to childhood trauma and prenatal stress...
October 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Marta de Castro-Catala, Martine van Nierop, Neus Barrantes-Vidal, Paula Cristóbal-Narváez, Tamara Sheinbaum, Thomas R Kwapil, Elionora Peña, Nele Jacobs, Catherine Derom, Evert Thiery, Jim van Os, Ruud van Winkel, Araceli Rosa
Childhood trauma exposure is a robust environmental risk factor for psychosis. However, not all exposed individuals develop psychotic symptoms later in life. The Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265) has been suggested to moderate the psychosis-inducing effects of childhood trauma in clinical and nonclinical samples. Our study aimed to explore the interaction effect between childhood trauma and the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on subclinical psychotic experiences (PEs). This was explored in two nonclinical independent samples: an undergraduate and technical-training school student sample (n = 808, sample 1) and a female twin sample (n = 621, sample 2)...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Livio Provenzi, Roberto Giorda, Silvana Beri, Rosario Montirosso
The application of epigenetics to the study of behavioral and socio-emotional development in humans has revealed that DNA methylation could be a potential marker of adversity exposure and long-lasting programming of health and disease. The serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) is a stress-related gene which has well-documented implications for behavioral and socio-emotional development and which has been shown to be susceptible to transcriptional regulation via epigenetic mechanisms. In the present paper, a systematic review of papers assessing the association among adversity exposures, SLC6A4 methylation and developmental outcomes is reported...
August 24, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Eric P Ratliff, Ayeh Barekat, Marta M Lipinski, Kim D Finley
Drosophila models have been successfully used to identify many genetic components that affect neurodegenerative disorders. Recently, there has been a growing interest in identifying innate and environmental factors that influence the individual outcomes following traumatic brain injury (TBI). This includes both severe TBI and more subtle, mild TBI (mTBI), which is common in people playing contact sports. Autophagy, as a clearance pathway, exerts protective effects in multiple neurological disease models. In a recent publication, we highlighted the development of a novel repetitive mTBI system using Drosophila, which recapitulates several phenotypes associated with trauma in mammalian models...
August 25, 2016: Autophagy
Royce Ellen Clifford, Michael Hoffer, Rick Rogers
OBJECTIVE: Using Reactome, a curated Internet database, noise-induced hearing loss studies were aggregated into cellular pathways for organization of the emerging genomic and epigenetic data in the literature. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and, a relational data base program systematizing biological processes into interactive pathways and subpathways based on ontology, cellular constituents, gene expression, and molecular components. STUDY SELECTION: Peer-reviewed population and laboratory studies for the previous 15 years relating genomics and noise and hearing loss were identified in PubMed...
September 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Karen Jones-Mason, Isabel Elaine Allen, Nicole Bush, Steve Hamilton
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic processes act as a link between environment and individual development. This pilot study examined the association between socioeconomic status (SES), attachment, and methylation of the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4). METHODS: Attachment classification and SLC6A4 methylation was determined in 100 late adolescents. We hypothesized that (1) SES would interact with methylation to predict higher unresolved loss (UL) or trauma scores on the Adult Attachment Interview; (2) across SES, participants with unresolved attachment would have lower levels of methylation than organized or secure participants; and (3) within the unresolved classification, SES would predict methylation...
July 2016: Brain and Behavior
Nikita N Burke, David P Finn, Brian E McGuire, Michelle Roche
A wealth of research over the past 2 decades has expanded our understanding of the impact of early-life adversity on physiological function and, consequently, health and wellbeing in later life. Early-life adversity increases the risk of developing a number of disorders, such as chronic pain, fibromyalgia, and irritable bowel syndrome. Although much of the research has examined the impact of physical maltreatment, an increasing number of studies have been published over the past few years examining the effect of childhood psychological stress and trauma on the development of various types of chronic pain conditions...
July 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Shaurya Jhamb, Venkat N Vangaveti, Usman H Malabu
Diabetic Foot Ulcers (DFUs) are major complications associated with diabetes and often correlate with peripheral neuropathy, trauma and peripheral vascular disease. It is necessary to understand the molecular and genetic basis of diabetic foot ulcers in order to tailor patient centred care towards particular patient groups. This review aimed to evaluate whether current literature was indicative of an underlying molecular and genetic basis for DFUs and to discuss clinical applications. From a molecular perspective, wound healing is a process that transpires following breach of the skin barrier and is usually mediated by growth factors and cytokines released by specialised cells activated by the immune response, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, phagocytes, platelets and keratinocytes...
June 25, 2016: Journal of Tissue Viability
Ronald L Simons, Man Kit Lei, Steven R H Beach, Carolyn E Cutrona, Robert A Philibert
Building upon various lines of research, we posited that methylation of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) would mediate the effect of adult adversity on increased commitment to negative schemas and in turn the development of depression. We tested our model using structural equation modeling and longitudinal data from a sample of 100 middle-aged, African American women. The results provided strong support for the model. Analysis of the 12 CpG sites available for the promoter region of the OXTR gene identified four factors...
June 20, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Phillip R Zoladz, David M Diamond
Research on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is faced with the challenge of understanding how a traumatic experience produces long-lasting detrimental effects on behavior and brain functioning, and more globally, how stress exacerbates somatic disorders, including cardiovascular disease. Moreover, the design of translational research needs to link animal models of PTSD to clinically relevant risk factors which address why only a subset of traumatized individuals develop persistent psychopathology. In this review, we have summarized our psychosocial stress rodent model of PTSD which is based on well-described PTSD-inducing risk factors, including a life-threatening experience, a sense of horror and uncontrollability, and insufficient social support...
June 6, 2016: Experimental Neurology
J A McLachlan
The landmark report (Herbst et al. 1971) linking prenatal treatment with a synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol (DES), to cancer at puberty in women whose mothers took the drug while pregnant ushered in an era of research on delayed effects of such exposures on functional outcomes in offspring. An animal model developed in our laboratory at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences confirmed that DES was the carcinogen and exposure to DES caused, as well, functional alterations in the reproductive, endocrine, and immune systems of male and female mice treated in utero...
July 2016: Andrology
Pallavi Bhattaram, Unnikrishnan Chandrasekharan
The synovium constitutes the envelope of articular joints and is a critical provider of synovial fluid components and articular cartilage nutrients. Its inflammation is a predominant feature and cause of joint degeneration in diseases as diverse as rheumatoid, psoriatic, juvenile and idiopathic arthritis, and lupus, gout and lyme disease. These inflammatory joint diseases (IJDs) are due to a wide variety of genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors that trigger, promote, and perpetuate joint destabilization...
May 19, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Nicole Gröger, Emmanuel Matas, Tomasz Gos, Alexandra Lesse, Gerd Poeggel, Katharina Braun, Jörg Bock
The view that the functional maturation of the brain is the result of an environmentally driven adaptation of genetically preprogrammed neuronal networks is an important current concept in developmental neuroscience and psychology. This hypothesis proposes that early traumatic experiences or early life stress (ELS) as a negative environmental experience provide a major risk factor for the development of dysfunctional brain circuits and as a consequence for the emergence of behavioral dysfunctions and mental disorders in later life periods...
September 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Denny Vågerö, Kristiina Rajaleid
BACKGROUND: A recent epigenetic hypothesis postulates that 'a sex-specific male-line transgenerational effect exists in humans', which can be triggered by childhood trauma during 'the slow growth period' just before puberty. The evidence is based on a few rather small epidemiological studies. We examine what response childhood trauma predicts, if any, in the birth size and prematurity risk of almost 800 000 offspring. METHODS: Children of parity 1, 2 or 3, born 1976-2002 in Sweden, for whom we could trace both parents and all four grandparents, constituted generation 3 (G3, n = 764 569)...
May 4, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Lauren A M Lebois, Jonathan D Wolff, Kerry J Ressler
Neuroimaging genetic studies that associate genetic and epigenetic variation with neural activity or structure provide an opportunity to link genes to psychiatric disorders, often before psychopathology is discernable in behavior. Here we review neuroimaging genetics studies with participants who have Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Results show that genes related to the physiological stress response (e.g., glucocorticoid receptor and activity, neuroendocrine release), learning and memory (e.g., plasticity), mood, and pain perception are tied to neural intermediate phenotypes associated with PTSD...
April 21, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Naomi Sadeh, Erika J Wolf, Mark W Logue, Jasmeet P Hayes, Annjanette Stone, L Michelle Griffin, Steven A Schichman, Mark W Miller
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation of the SKA2 gene has recently been implicated as a biomarker of suicide risk and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To examine the specificity and reliability of these findings, we examined associations between SKA2 DNA methylation, broad dimensions of psychiatric symptoms, and suicide phenotypes in adults with high levels of trauma exposure. METHODS: A total of 466 White, non-Hispanic veterans and their intimate partners (65% male) underwent clinical assessment and had blood drawn for genotyping and methylation analysis...
April 2016: Depression and Anxiety
E Jane Costello, William Copeland, Adrian Angold
AIMS: To describe the Great Smoky Mountains Study (GSMS). METHODS: GSMS is a longitudinal study of child psychiatric disorders that began in 1992 to look at need for mental health services in a rural area of the USA. Over 20 years it has expanded its range to include developmental epidemiology more generally, not only the development of psychiatric and substance abuse problems but also their correlates and predictors: family and environmental risk, physical development including puberty, stress and stress-related hormones, trauma, the impact of poverty, genetic markers, and epigenetics...
May 2016: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
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