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Epigenetic trauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418087/traumatic-stress-induced-persistent-changes-in-dna-methylation-regulate-neuropeptide-y-expression-in-rat-jejunum
#1
S Sagarkar, S Mahajan, A G Choudhary, C D Borkar, D M Kokare, A J Sakharkar
BACKGROUND: Stress-induced chronic neuropsychiatric conditions such as anxiety are often co-morbid with gastrointestinal malfunctions. While we find enduring anxiety-like symptoms following minimal traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in rats, gastrointestinal consequences of MTBI remain elusive. METHODS: In this study, we examined the effects of MTBI on a major gut peptide, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and gut motility. DNA methylation was studied as a possible epigenetic mechanism operative in the regulation of NPY expression in the gut...
April 18, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400482/epigenetic-programming-of-the-neuroendocrine-stress-response-by-adult-life-stress
#2
Bart Dirven, Judith Homberg, Tamas Kozicz, Marloes Henckens
The hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis is critically involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of stress adaptation, and the restoration of homeostasis following stress exposure. Dysregulation of this axis is associated with stress-related pathologies like major depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, and chronic anxiety. It has long been understood that stress during early life can have a significant lasting influence on the development of the neuroendocrine system and its neural regulators, partially by modifying epigenetic regulation of gene expression, with implications for health and well-being in later life...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398339/animal-models-to-improve-our-understanding-and-treatment-of-suicidal-behavior
#3
REVIEW
T D Gould, P Georgiou, L A Brenner, L Brundin, A Can, P Courtet, Z R Donaldson, Y Dwivedi, S Guillaume, I I Gottesman, S Kanekar, C A Lowry, P F Renshaw, D Rujescu, E G Smith, G Turecki, P Zanos, C A Zarate, P A Zunszain, T T Postolache
Worldwide, suicide is a leading cause of death. Although a sizable proportion of deaths by suicide may be preventable, it is well documented that despite major governmental and international investments in research, education and clinical practice suicide rates have not diminished and are even increasing among several at-risk populations. Although nonhuman animals do not engage in suicidal behavior amenable to translational studies, we argue that animal model systems are necessary to investigate candidate endophenotypes of suicidal behavior and the neurobiology underlying these endophenotypes...
April 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364364/possible-reversal-of-ptsd-related-dna-methylation-by-sympathetic-blockade
#4
REVIEW
Eugene G Lipov, Kenneth Candido, Elspeth C Ritchie
Studies have shown that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level increase is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) risk. BDNF may be a "missing-link" that mediates the interaction between genetics, environment, and the sympathetic system. Trauma has been shown to induce DNA methylation that in turn can increase BDNF concentration due to increased gene expression. Therapies that focus on the reduction of beta-NGF (BNGF) levels may impact PTSD symptoms. The focus of this paper is to discuss possible effect of stellate ganglion block (SGB) on epigenetic changes noted with PTSD mediated by BDNF and NGF...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332171/sport-and-male-sexuality
#5
REVIEW
P Sgrò, L Di Luigi
The relationships between sport and sexuality in males are of great social and clinical interest, because of sports and motor activities that highly promote social and sexual relationships. Even if few literature exist, two main questions should be taken into account: whether and how physical exercise and sport positively or negatively influence sexual health and behavior and/or whether and how sexual behavior may affect a sub-sequent sport performance. Physical exercise and sport per se can influence, positively or negatively, the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis function and, consequently, the individual's reproductive and/or sexual health...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319850/methylation-of-hpa-axis-related-genes-in-men-with-hypersexual-disorder
#6
Jussi Jokinen, Adrian E Boström, Andreas Chatzittofis, Diana M Ciuculete, Katarina Görts Öberg, John N Flanagan, Stefan Arver, Helgi B Schiöth
Hypersexual Disorder (HD) defined as non-paraphilic sexual desire disorder with components of compulsivity, impulsivity and behavioral addiction, and proposed as a diagnosis in the DSM 5, shares some overlapping features with substance use disorder including common neurotransmitter systems and dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. In this study, comprising 67 HD male patients and 39 male healthy volunteers, we aimed to identify HPA-axis coupled CpG-sites, in which modifications of the epigenetic profile are associated with hypersexuality...
March 10, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277975/weaponized-sex-defensive-pseudo-erotic-aggression-in-the-service-of-safety
#7
Richard P Kluft
Problematic sexual behaviors are frequently encountered in the treatment of patients suffering Dissociative Identity Disorder and related forms of dissociative disorders. These may include unfortunate patterns of ready acquiescence or submission to overtly or potentially aggressive or sexual approaches/encounters, subtle and/or overt seductive signaling and behaviors, and even overt sexually provocative patterns of verbalizations and actions. This paper discusses the possibility that in some instances, sexual behavior has become weaponized; that is, deployed in circumstances under which assertiveness and/or aggression or other self-protective measures might be expected, probably because such behaviors were not within the range of the possible or were not understood as potentially successful for some victims of trauma...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272133/how-well-do-we-understand-the-long-term-health-implications-of-childhood-bullying
#8
Pablo Patricio Zarate-Garza, Bridget K Biggs, Paul Croarkin, Brooke Morath, Jarrod Leffler, Alfredo Cuellar-Barboza, Susannah J Tye
Once dismissed as an innocuous experience of childhood, bullying is now recognized as having significant psychological effects, particularly with chronic exposure. Victims of bullying are at risk for a number of psychiatric disturbances, and growing evidence suggests that the pathophysiological effects of bullying, as with other forms of trauma and chronic stress, create additional health risks. We review the literature on the known sequelae of bullying, including psychiatric and physiological health effects, with a focus on implications for the victim...
March 2017: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242325/genetic-approaches-for-the-study-of-ptsd-advances-and-challenges
#9
REVIEW
Sunayana B Banerjee, Filomene G Morrison, Kerry J Ressler
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly debilitating stress and anxiety-related disorder that occurs in response to specific trauma or abuse. Genetic risk factors may account for up to 30-40% of the heritability of PTSD. Understanding the gene pathways that are associated with PTSD, and how those genes interact with the fear and stress circuitry to mediate risk and resilience for PTSD will enable the development of targeted therapies to prevent the occurrence of or decrease the severity of this complex multi-gene disorder...
February 24, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241754/dna-methylation-profiles-of-elderly-individuals-subjected-to-indentured-childhood-labor-and-trauma
#10
Zoya Marinova, Andreas Maercker, Andreas Küffer, Mark D Robinson, Tomasz K Wojdacz, Susanne Walitza, Edna Grünblatt, Andrea Burri
BACKGROUND: Childhood trauma is associated with increased vulnerability to mental and somatic disorders later in life. Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation are one potential mechanism through which such long-lasting impairments/consequences can be explained. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether childhood trauma is associated with long-term DNA methylation alterations in old age. METHODS: We assessed genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in a cohort of former indentured child laborers ("Verdingkinder") who suffered severe childhood adversities (N = 30; M age = 75...
February 27, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197553/the-role-of-sirt1-in-epileptogenesis
#11
Alicia M Hall, Gary P Brennan, Tiffany M Nguyen, Akanksha Singh-Taylor, Hyun-Seung Mun, Mary J Sargious, Tallie Z Baram
The mechanisms by which brain insults lead to subsequent epilepsy remain unclear. Insults, including trauma, stroke, tumors, infections, and long seizures [status epilepticus (SE)], create a neuronal state of increased metabolic demand or decreased energy supply. Neurons express molecules that monitor their metabolic state, including sirtuins (Sirts). Sirtuins deacetylate cytoplasmic proteins and nuclear histones, and their epigenetic modulation of the chromatin governs the expression of many genes, influencing neuronal properties...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123700/circulating-nucleic-acids-an-analysis-of-their-occurrence-in-malignancies
#12
Shankar Suraj, Chirag Dhar, Sweta Srivastava
Through a regulated or fortuitous phenomenon, small portions of cell nucleic acids are thrown into circulation. Since the discovery of these circulating nucleic acids (CNAs) in 1948, numerous studies have been published to elucidate their clinical implications in multifarious diseases. Scientists have now discovered disease-specific genetic aberrations, such as mutations, microsatellite alterations, epigenetic modulations (including aberrant methylation), as well as viral DNA/RNA from nucleic acids in plasma and serum...
January 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081379/direct-gingival-fibroblast-osteoblast-transdifferentiation-via-epigenetics
#13
Y Cho, B Kim, H Bae, W Kim, J Baek, K Woo, G Lee, Y Seol, Y Lee, Y Ku, I Rhyu, H Ryoo
Alveolar bone resorption caused by trauma or periodontal diseases has represented a challenge for both dental clinicians and researchers. In this study, we evaluate the osteogenic potential of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) through a direct transdifferentiation from HGFs to functional osteoblasts via epigenetic modification and osteogenic signaling with bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) in vitro and in vivo. HGF treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) induced demethylation in the hypermethylated CpG islands of the osteogenic lineage marker genes RUNX2 and ALP, and subsequent BMP2 treatment successfully drove the fibroblasts to the osteoblasts' lineage...
May 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042663/all-our-sons-the-developmental-neurobiology-and-neuroendocrinology-of-boys-at-risk
#14
Allan N Schore
Why are boys at risk? To address this question, I use the perspective of regulation theory to offer a model of the deeper psychoneurobiological mechanisms that underlie the vulnerability of the developing male. The central thesis of this work dictates that significant gender differences are seen between male and female social and emotional functions in the earliest stages of development, and that these result from not only differences in sex hormones and social experiences but also in rates of male and female brain maturation, specifically in the early developing right brain...
January 2017: Infant Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992836/deconstructing-vulnerability-for-psychosis-meta-analysis-of-environmental-risk-factors-for-psychosis-in-subjects-at-ultra-high-risk
#15
P Fusar-Poli, M Tantardini, S De Simone, V Ramella-Cravaro, D Oliver, J Kingdon, M Kotlicka-Antczak, L Valmaggia, J Lee, M J Millan, S Galderisi, U Balottin, V Ricca, P McGuire
BACKGROUND: Subjects at ultra high-risk (UHR) for psychosis have an enhanced vulnerability to develop the disorder but the risk factors accounting for this accrued risk are undetermined. METHOD: Systematic review of associations between genetic or environmental risk factors for psychosis that are widely established in the literature and UHR state, based on comparisons to controls. RESULTS: Forty-four studies encompassing 170 independent datasets and 54 risk factors were included...
December 16, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922638/enhancing-dopaminergic-signaling-and-histone-acetylation-promotes-long-term-rescue-of-deficient-fear-extinction
#16
N Whittle, V Maurer, C Murphy, J Rainer, D Bindreither, M Hauschild, A Scharinger, M Oberhauser, T Keil, C Brehm, T Valovka, J Striessnig, N Singewald
Extinction-based exposure therapy is used to treat anxiety- and trauma-related disorders; however, there is the need to improve its limited efficacy in individuals with impaired fear extinction learning and to promote greater protection against return-of-fear phenomena. Here, using 129S1/SvImJ mice, which display impaired fear extinction acquisition and extinction consolidation, we revealed that persistent and context-independent rescue of deficient fear extinction in these mice was associated with enhanced expression of dopamine-related genes, such as dopamine D1 (Drd1a) and -D2 (Drd2) receptor genes in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and amygdala, but not hippocampus...
December 6, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913254/quetiapine-treatment-reverses-depressive-like-behavior-and-reduces-dna-methyltransferase-activity-induced-by-maternal-deprivation
#17
Zuleide M Ignácio, Gislaine Z Réus, Helena M Abelaira, Amanda L Maciel, Airam B de Moura, Danyela Matos, Júlia P Demo, Júlia B I da Silva, Fernanda F Gava, Samira S Valvassori, André F Carvalho, João Quevedo
Stress in early life has been appointed as an important phenomenon in the onset of depression and poor response to treatment with classical antidepressants. Furthermore, childhood trauma triggers epigenetic changes, which are associated with the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Treatment with atypical antipsychotics such as quetiapine, exerts therapeutic effect for MDD patients and induces epigenetic changes. This study aimed to analyze the effect of chronic treatment with quetiapine (20mg/kg) on depressive-like behavior of rats submitted to maternal deprivation (MD), as well as the activity of histone acetylation by the enzymes histone acetyl transferases (HAT) and deacetylases (HDAC) and DNA methylation, through DNA methyltransferase enzyme (DNMT) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc) and hippocampus...
November 29, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900532/mir-148a-the-epigenetic-regulator-of-bone-homeostasis-is-increased-in-plasma-of-osteoporotic-postmenopausal-women
#18
Ajda Bedene, Simona Mencej Bedrač, Lea Ješe, Janja Marc, Peter Vrtačnik, Janez Preželj, Tomaž Kocjan, Tilen Kranjc, Barbara Ostanek
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a prevalent skeletal disorder characterized by reduced bone mineral density and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, resulting in bone fragility and low-trauma fractures. Imaging techniques are routinely used to detect low bone mass; however, they are unable to identify deterioration of bone quality. Recently, microRNAs have emerged as regulators of bone remodelling and potentially also as a new class of sensitive biomarkers of bone health to aid in diagnosis and treatment monitoring of osteoporosis...
December 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886370/epigenetic-alterations-of-the-bdnf-gene-in-combat-related-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#19
T Y Kim, S J Kim, H G Chung, J H Choi, S H Kim, J I Kang
OBJECTIVE: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a crucial role in modulating resilience and vulnerability to stress. The aim of this study was to investigate whether epigenetic regulation of the BDNF gene is a biomarker of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) development among veterans exposed to combat in the Vietnam War. METHODS: Using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, combat veterans were grouped into those with (n = 126) and without (n = 122) PTSD...
February 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869483/the-epigenetic-impacts-of-social-stress-how-does-social-adversity-become-biologically-embedded
#20
Vincent T Cunliffe
Epigenetic mechanisms are implicated in the processes through which social stressors erode health in humans and other animals. Here I review progress in elucidating the biological pathways underlying the social gradient in health, with particular emphasis on how behavioral stresses influence epigenomic variation linked to health. The evidence that epigenetic changes are involved in embedding of social status-linked chronic stress is reviewed in the context of current knowledge about behavior within animal dominance hierarchies and the impacts of social position on behaviors that affect health...
December 2016: Epigenomics
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