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Epigenetic trauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123662/chronic-postsurgical-pain-is-there-a-possible-genetic-link
#1
Sabu Kumar James
Persistent or chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) has been defined as 'pain persisting beyond 2 months'. The cut-off limit of 2 months has been controversial, and some researchers argue for a 3-month period for the definition of CPSP. Multiple mechanisms, including both patient and surgical, have been shown to influence this transition. Patient factors include age, gender, anxiety, depression, somatisation, catastrophising, pre-existing pain anywhere and pain at the site of surgery. The various surgical factors include site and nature of surgery, infection, inflammation and repeat surgery...
November 2017: British Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116470/sex-differences-in-trauma-related-psychopathology-a-critical-review-of-neuroimaging-literature-2014-2017
#2
REVIEW
Liat Helpman, Xi Zhu, Benjamin Suarez-Jimenez, Amit Lazarov, Catherine Monk, Yuval Neria
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sex differences in the epidemiology and clinical presentation of trauma-related psychopathology have long been documented. Multiple underlying mechanisms have been examined, both psychosocial and biological. Among the most promising biological mechanisms are neural substrates of trauma-related psychopathology that have been uncovered in recent years. RECENT FINDINGS: Neuroimaging studies of sex-related heterogeneity published over the past 3 years (2014-2017) demonstrate an interaction between sex and type, timing, and load of trauma exposure...
November 8, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104801/childhood-adversities-are-not-a-predictors-of-sstr4met-in-alcoholics
#3
Dominika Berent, Michał Pogórski, Dominika Kulczycka-Wojdala, Ewa Kusideł, Marian Macander, Zofia Pawłowska
Background: Genome methylation may modulate synaptic plasticity, being a potential background for mental disorder. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), known to be frequently reported by patients with alcohol dependence (AD), have been proposed as one of environmental inequities influencing DNA methylation. The study is aiming 1.To assess a promoter region methylation in gene for somatostatin receptor subtype-4 (SSTR4), a receptor for somatostatin, a neurotransmitter engaged in neuroplasticity and memory formation, in patients with AD; 2...
2017: Translational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063484/micrornas-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#4
Clara Snijders, Laurence de Nijs, Dewleen G Baker, Richard L Hauger, Daniel van den Hove, Gunter Kenis, Caroline M Nievergelt, Marco P Boks, Eric Vermetten, Fred H Gage, Bart P F Rutten
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that can develop following exposure to or witnessing of a (potentially) threatening event. A critical issue is to pinpoint the (neuro)biological mechanisms underlying the susceptibility to stress-related disorder such as PTSD, which develops in the minority of ~15% of individuals exposed to trauma. Over the last few years, a first wave of epigenetic studies has been performed in an attempt to identify the molecular underpinnings of the long-lasting behavioral and mental effects of trauma exposure...
October 21, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059104/transfusion-strategies-are-associated-with-epigenetic-changes-following-blunt-trauma
#5
Martin Sillesen, Yongqing Li, Hasan B Alam
INTRODUCTION: Epigenetics has been identified in multiple diseases. The effect of transfusion strategy on epigenetics is unknown. We hypothesized that expression of epigenetic regulating genes would be associated with resuscitation strategy following blunt trauma. METHODS: Retrospective study using the inflammation in host response to injury (glue grant) dataset. Volume transfused over 24 hours of packed red blood cells (PRBC), Fresh Frozen Plasma(FFP), Platelets(PLT) as well as crystalloids was extracted along with leucocyte microarray data of genes with known epigenetic modulating activity from day 1 after injury...
October 20, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056292/epigenetics-and-gene-expression-profile-in-first-episode-psychosis-the-role-of-childhood-trauma
#6
REVIEW
Simona Tomassi, Sarah Tosato
Childhood Trauma (CT) mediation of the epigenome and its impact on gene expression profile could provide a mechanism for the gene-environment interaction underling psychosis. We reviewed the evidence concerning epigenetic and gene expression modifications associated with CT in both First-Episode Psychosis (FEP) and healthy subjects. In order to explore the relative role of psychosis itself in determining these modifications, evidence about FEP and epigenetics/gene expression was also summarized. We performed a systematic search on PubMed, last updated in December 2016...
October 19, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028111/dna-methylation-of-methylation-complex-genes-in-relation-to-stress-and-genome-wide-methylation-in-mother-newborn-dyads
#7
Christopher J Clukay, David A Hughes, Nicole C Rodney, Darlene A Kertes, Connie J Mulligan
OBJECTIVES: Early life stress is known to have enduring biological effects, particularly with respect to health. Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, are a possible mechanism to mediate the biological effect of stress. We previously found correlations between maternal stress, newborn birthweight, and genome-wide measures of DNA methylation. Here we investigate ten genes related to the methylation/demethylation complex in order to better understand the impact of stress on health...
October 13, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994788/evaluating-primary-blast-effects-in-vitro
#8
Niall J Logan, Hari Arora, Claire A Higgins
Exposure to blast events can cause severe trauma to vital organs such as the lungs, ears, and brain. Understanding the mechanisms behind such blast-induced injuries is of great importance considering the recent trend towards the use of explosives in modern warfare and terrorist-related incidents. To fully understand blast-induced injury, we must first be able to replicate such blast events in a controlled environment using a reproducible method. In this technique using shock tube equipment, shock waves at a range of pressures can be propagated over live cells grown in 2D, and markers of cell viability can be immediately analyzed using a redox indicator assay and the fluorescent imaging of live and dead cells...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941093/staging-in-bipolar-disorder-from-theoretical-framework-to-clinical-utility
#9
Michael Berk, Robert Post, Aswin Ratheesh, Emma Gliddon, Ajeet Singh, Eduard Vieta, Andre F Carvalho, Melanie M Ashton, Lesley Berk, Susan M Cotton, Patrick D McGorry, Brisa S Fernandes, Lakshmi N Yatham, Seetal Dodd
Illness staging is widely utilized in several medical disciplines to help predict course or prognosis, and optimize treatment. Staging models in psychiatry in general, and bipolar disorder in particular, depend on the premise that psychopathology moves along a predictable path: an at-risk or latency stage, a prodrome progressing to a first clinical threshold episode, and one or more recurrences with the potential to revert or progress to late or end-stage manifestations. The utility and validity of a staging model for bipolar disorder depend on its linking to clinical outcome, treatment response and neurobiological measures...
October 2017: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914102/5-httlpr-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-gene-interactions-and-early-adverse-life-events-effect-on-impulsivity-in-suicide-attempters
#10
Luis Jiménez-Treviño, Pilar Alejandra Saiz, Maria Paz García-Portilla, Hilario Blasco-Fontecilla, Vladimir Carli, Miriam Iosue, Isabelle Jaussent, Jorge López-Castroman, Concepcion Vaquero-Lorenzo, Marco Sarchiapone, Enrique Baca-García, Philippe Courtet, Julio Bobes
OBJECTIVES: An expanding body of research suggests that childhood adverse experiences can lead to different negative health outcomes, including attempted suicide. Serotonergic genes such as the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) have been associated both with impulsivity in suicide attempts and reactivity to environmental stress exposure. BDNF gene may play an epigenetic role. METHODS: We studied the influence of childhood stressful events and 5-HTTLPR genotype on impulsivity measured by Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-10) in a multicentre sample of 1,655 suicide attempters (69...
September 15, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893219/a-case-of-a-four-year-old-child-adopted-at-eight-months-with-unusual-mood-patterns-and-significant-polypharmacy
#11
Magdalena Romanowicz, Alastair J McKean, Jennifer Vande Voort
BACKGROUND: Long-term effects of neglect in early life are still widely unknown. Diversity of outcomes can be explained by differences in genetic risk, epigenetics, prenatal factors, exposure to stress and/or substances, and parent-child interactions. Very common sub-threshold presentations of children with history of early trauma are challenging not only to diagnose but also in treatment. CASE PRESENTATION: A Caucasian 4-year-old, adopted at 8 months, male patient with early history of neglect presented to pediatrician with symptoms of behavioral dyscontrol, emotional dysregulation, anxiety, hyperactivity and inattention, obsessions with food, and attachment issues...
September 11, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867940/genetics-of-generalized-anxiety-disorder-and-related-traits
#12
Michael G Gottschalk, Katharina Domschke
This review serves as a systematic guide to the genetics of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and further focuses on anxiety-relevant endophenotypes, such as pathological worry fear of uncertainty, and neuroticism. We inspect clinical genetic evidence for the familialityl heritability of GAD and cross-disorder phenotypes based on family and twin studies. Recent advances of linkage studies, genome-wide association studies, and candidate gene studies (eg, 5-HTT, 5-HT1A, MAOA, BDNF) are outlined. Functional and structural neuroimaging and neurophysiological readouts relating to peripheral stress markers and psychophysiology are further integrated, building a multilevel disease framework...
June 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867284/crp-polymorphisms-and-dna-methylation-of-the-aim2-gene-influence-associations-between-trauma-exposure-ptsd-and-c-reactive-protein
#13
M W Miller, H Maniates, E J Wolf, M W Logue, S A Schichman, A Stone, W Milberg, R McGlinchey
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have implicated inflammatory processes in the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). C-reactive protein (CRP) is a widely-used measure of peripheral inflammation, but little is known about the genetic and epigenetic factors that influence blood levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in individuals with PTSD. METHODS: Participants were 286 U.S. military veterans of post-9/11 conflicts (57% with current PTSD). Analyses focused on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CRP gene and DNA methylation at cg10636246 in AIM2-a locus recently linked to CRP levels through results from a large-scale epigenome-wide association study...
August 31, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795405/genomewide-dna-methylation-analysis-in-combat-veterans-reveals-a-novel-locus-for-ptsd
#14
D Mehta, D Bruenig, T Carrillo-Roa, B Lawford, W Harvey, C P Morris, A K Smith, E B Binder, R McD Young, J Voisey
OBJECTIVE: Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation may play a key role in the aetiology and serve as biomarkers for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We performed a genomewide analysis to identify genes whose DNA methylation levels are associated with PTSD. METHOD: A total of 211 individuals comprising Australian male Vietnam War veterans (n = 96) and males from a general population belonging to the Grady Trauma Project (n = 115) were included. Genomewide DNA methylation was performed from peripheral blood using the Illumina arrays...
November 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761330/epigenetic-memory-of-oxidative-stress-does-nephrilin-exert-its-protective-effects-via-rac1
#15
Desmond D Mascarenhas, David N Herndon, Istvan Arany
AIM: Nephrilin peptide, a designed inhibitor of Rictor complex (mTORC2), exerts pleiotropic protective effects in metabolic, xenobiotic and traumatic stress models. Stress can generate enduring epigenetic changes in gene function. In this work we examine the possibility that nephrilin treatment protects against acute and enduring global changes in oxidative metabolism, with a focus on the Rictor-complex-mediated activation of Rac1, a subunit of NADPH oxidase (Nox) via PKCs, Prex1 and p66shc...
2017: Biologics: Targets & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754344/the-effect-of-childhood-trauma-on-serum-bdnf-in-bipolar-depression-is-modulated-by-the-serotonin-promoter-genotype
#16
Francesco Benedetti, Oliver Ambrée, Clara Locatelli, Cristina Lorenzi, Sara Poletti, Cristina Colombo, Volker Arolt
In healthy humans, both childhood trauma and the short form of the serotonin promoter transporter genotype (5-HTTLPR) are associated with lower levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In subjects with bipolar disorder (BD), lower levels of BDNF and a higher degree of childhood trauma were observed compared with healthy controls. However, is still unknown if the functional 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms exerts an effect on both abnormalities. In 40 inpatients affected by a major depressive episode in the course of BD, we genotyped 5-HTTLPR, measured serum BDNF with ELISA, and assessed early adversities by the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ)...
July 25, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731985/accelerated-dna-methylation-age-associations-with-ptsd-and-mortality
#17
Erika J Wolf, Mark W Logue, Tawni B Stoop, Steven A Schichman, Annjanette Stone, Naomi Sadeh, Jasmeet P Hayes, Mark W Miller
OBJECTIVE: Recently-developed indices of cellular age based on DNA methylation (DNAm) data, referred to as DNAm age, are being used to study factors that influence the rate of aging and the health correlates of these metrics of the epigenetic clock. This study evaluated associations between trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and accelerated versus decelerated DNAm age among military veterans. We also examined if accelerated DNAm age predicted mortality over the course of a 6...
July 20, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698219/the-transcription-factor-c-ebp%C3%AE-in-the-dorsal-root-ganglion-contributes-to-peripheral-nerve-trauma-induced-nociceptive-hypersensitivity
#18
Zhisong Li, Yuanyuan Mao, Lingli Liang, Shaogen Wu, Jingjing Yuan, Kai Mo, Weihua Cai, Qingxiang Mao, Jing Cao, Alex Bekker, Wei Zhang, Yuan-Xiang Tao
Changes in gene transcription in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) after nerve trauma contribute to the genesis of neuropathic pain. We report that peripheral nerve trauma caused by chronic constriction injury (CCI) increased the abundance of the transcription factor C/EBPβ (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β) in the DRG. Blocking this increase mitigated the development and maintenance of CCI-induced mechanical, thermal, and cold pain hypersensitivities without affecting basal responses to acute pain and locomotor activity...
July 11, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691784/epigenome-wide-association-of-ptsd-from-heterogeneous-cohorts-with-a-common-multi-site-analysis-pipeline
#19
Andrew Ratanatharathorn, Marco P Boks, Adam X Maihofer, Allison E Aiello, Ananda B Amstadter, Allison E Ashley-Koch, Dewleen G Baker, Jean C Beckham, Evelyn Bromet, Michelle Dennis, Melanie E Garrett, Elbert Geuze, Guia Guffanti, Michael A Hauser, Varun Kilaru, Nathan A Kimbrel, Karestan C Koenen, Pei-Fen Kuan, Mark W Logue, Benjamin J Luft, Mark W Miller, Colter Mitchell, Nicole R Nugent, Kerry J Ressler, Bart P F Rutten, Murray B Stein, Eric Vermetten, Christiaan H Vinkers, Nagy A Youssef, Monica Uddin, Caroline M Nievergelt, Alicia K Smith
Compelling evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation play a role in stress regulation and in the etiologic basis of stress related disorders such as Post traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Here we describe the purpose and methods of an international consortium that was developed to study the role of epigenetics in PTSD. Inspired by the approach used in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, we brought together investigators representing seven cohorts with a collective sample size of N = 1147 that included detailed information on trauma exposure, PTSD symptoms, and genome-wide DNA methylation data...
September 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680507/bndf-methylation-in-mothers-and-newborns-is-associated-with-maternal-exposure-to-war-trauma
#20
Darlene A Kertes, Samarth S Bhatt, Hayley S Kamin, David A Hughes, Nicole C Rodney, Connie J Mulligan
BACKGROUND: The BDNF gene codes for brain-derived neurotrophic factor, a growth factor involved in neural development, cell differentiation, and synaptic plasticity. Present in both the brain and periphery, BDNF plays critical roles throughout the body and is essential for placental and fetal development. Rodent studies show that early life stress, including prenatal stress, broadly alters BDNF methylation, with presumed changes in gene expression. No studies have assessed prenatal exposure to maternal traumatic stress and BDNF methylation in humans...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
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