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Epigenetic trauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922638/enhancing-dopaminergic-signaling-and-histone-acetylation-promotes-long-term-rescue-of-deficient-fear-extinction
#1
N Whittle, V Maurer, C Murphy, J Rainer, D Bindreither, M Hauschild, A Scharinger, M Oberhauser, T Keil, C Brehm, T Valovka, J Striessnig, N Singewald
Extinction-based exposure therapy is used to treat anxiety- and trauma-related disorders; however, there is the need to improve its limited efficacy in individuals with impaired fear extinction learning and to promote greater protection against return-of-fear phenomena. Here, using 129S1/SvImJ mice, which display impaired fear extinction acquisition and extinction consolidation, we revealed that persistent and context-independent rescue of deficient fear extinction in these mice was associated with enhanced expression of dopamine-related genes, such as dopamine D1 (Drd1a) and -D2 (Drd2) receptor genes in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and amygdala, but not hippocampus...
December 6, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913254/quetiapine-treatment-reverses-depressive-like-behavior-and-reduces-dna-methyltransferase-activity-induced-by-maternal-deprivation
#2
Zuleide M Ignácio, Gislaine Z Réus, Helena M Abelaira, Amanda L Maciel, Airam B de Moura, Danyela Matos, Júlia P Demo, Júlia B I da Silva, Fernanda F Gava, Samira S Valvassori, André F Carvalho, João Quevedo
Stress in early life has been appointed as an important phenomenon in the onset of depression and poor response to treatment with classical antidepressants. Furthermore, childhood trauma triggers epigenetic changes, which are associated with the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Treatment with atypical antipsychotics such as quetiapine, exerts therapeutic effect for MDD patients and induces epigenetic changes. This study aimed to analyze the effect of chronic treatment with quetiapine (20mg/kg) on depressive-like behavior of rats submitted to maternal deprivation (MD), as well as the activity of histone acetylation by the enzymes histone acetyl transferases (HAT) and deacetylases (HDAC) and DNA methylation, through DNA methyltransferase enzyme (DNMT) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc) and hippocampus...
November 29, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900532/mir-148a-the-epigenetic-regulator-of-bone-homeostasis-is-increased-in-plasma-of-osteoporotic-postmenopausal-women
#3
Ajda Bedene, Simona Mencej Bedrač, Lea Ješe, Janja Marc, Peter Vrtačnik, Janez Preželj, Tomaž Kocjan, Tilen Kranjc, Barbara Ostanek
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a prevalent skeletal disorder characterized by reduced bone mineral density and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, resulting in bone fragility and low-trauma fractures. Imaging techniques are routinely used to detect low bone mass; however, they are unable to identify deterioration of bone quality. Recently, microRNAs have emerged as regulators of bone remodelling and potentially also as a new class of sensitive biomarkers of bone health to aid in diagnosis and treatment monitoring of osteoporosis...
November 29, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886370/epigenetic-alterations-of-the-bdnf-gene-in-combat-related-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#4
T Y Kim, S J Kim, H G Chung, J H Choi, S H Kim, J I Kang
OBJECTIVE: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a crucial role in modulating resilience and vulnerability to stress. The aim of this study was to investigate whether epigenetic regulation of the BDNF gene is a biomarker of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) development among veterans exposed to combat in the Vietnam War. METHODS: Using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, combat veterans were grouped into those with (n = 126) and without (n = 122) PTSD...
November 25, 2016: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869483/the-epigenetic-impacts-of-social-stress-how-does-social-adversity-become-biologically-embedded
#5
Vincent T Cunliffe
Epigenetic mechanisms are implicated in the processes through which social stressors erode health in humans and other animals. Here I review progress in elucidating the biological pathways underlying the social gradient in health, with particular emphasis on how behavioral stresses influence epigenomic variation linked to health. The evidence that epigenetic changes are involved in embedding of social status-linked chronic stress is reviewed in the context of current knowledge about behavior within animal dominance hierarchies and the impacts of social position on behaviors that affect health...
November 21, 2016: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867757/epigenetics-media-coverage-and-parent-responsibilities-in-the-post-genomic-era
#6
Martine Lappé
Environmental epigenetics is the study of how exposures and experiences can turn genes "on" or "off" without changing DNA sequence. By examining the influence that environmental conditions including diet, stress, trauma, toxins, and care can have on gene expression, this science suggests molecular connections between the environment, genetics, and how acquired characteristics may be inherited across generations. The rapid expansion of research in this area has attracted growing media attention. This coverage has implications for how parents and prospective parents understand health and their perceived responsibilities for children's wellbeing...
September 2016: Current Genetic Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845777/newer-insights-into-the-role-of-mirna-a-tiny-genetic-tool-in-psychiatric-disorders-focus-on-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#7
REVIEW
V V Giridharan, R A Thandavarayan, G R Fries, C Walss-Bass, T Barichello, N J Justice, M K Reddy, J Quevedo
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder occurring in about 2-9% of individuals after their exposure to life-threatening events, such as severe accidents, sexual abuse, combat or a natural catastrophe. Because PTSD patients are exposed to trauma, it is likely that epigenetic modifications have an important role in disease development and prognosis. For the past two decades, abnormal expression of the epigenetic regulators microRNAs (miRs) and miR-mediated gene regulation have been given importance in a variety of human diseases, such as cancer, heart disease and viral infection...
November 15, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829172/disordered-app-metabolism-and-neurovasculature-in-trauma-and-aging-combined-risks-for-chronic-neurodegenerative-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Milos D Ikonomovic, Zhiping Mi, Eric E Abrahamson
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), advanced age, and cerebral vascular disease are factors conferring increased risk for late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). These conditions are also related pathologically through multiple interacting mechanisms. The hallmark pathology of AD consists of pathological aggregates of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides and tau proteins. These molecules are also involved in neuropathology of several other chronic neurodegenerative diseases, and are under intense investigation in the aftermath of TBI as potential contributors to the risk for developing AD and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE)...
November 6, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773702/transcriptional-and-chromatin-dynamics-of-muscle-regeneration-after-severe-trauma
#9
Carlos A Aguilar, Ramona Pop, Anna Shcherbina, Alain Watts, Ronald W Matheny, Davide Cacchiarelli, Woojin M Han, Eunjung Shin, Shadi A Nakhai, Young C Jang, Christopher T Carrigan, Casey A Gifford, Melissa A Kottke, Marcella Cesana, Jackson Lee, Maria L Urso, Alexander Meissner
Following injury, adult skeletal muscle undergoes a well-coordinated sequence of molecular and physiological events to promote repair and regeneration. However, a thorough understanding of the in vivo epigenomic and transcriptional mechanisms that control these reparative events is lacking. To address this, we monitored the in vivo dynamics of three histone modifications and coding and noncoding RNA expression throughout the regenerative process in a mouse model of traumatic muscle injury. We first illustrate how both coding and noncoding RNAs in tissues and sorted satellite cells are modified and regulated during various stages after trauma...
November 8, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765646/relationship-of-childhood-adversity-and-neighborhood-violence-to-a-proinflammatory-phenotype-in-emerging-adult-african-american-men-an-epigenetic-link
#10
Linda Witek Janusek, Dina Tell, Noni Gaylord-Harden, Herbert L Mathews
African American men (AAM) who are exposed to trauma and adversity during their early life are at greater risk for poor health over their lifespan. Exposure to adversity during critical developmental windows may embed an epigenetic signature that alters expression of genes that regulate stress response systems, including those genes that regulate the inflammatory response to stress. Such an epigenetic signature may increase risk for diseases exacerbated by inflammation, and may contribute to health disparity...
October 17, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686106/biological-underpinnings-of-trauma-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-focusing-on-genetics-and-epigenetics
#11
Joanne Ryan, Isabelle Chaudieu, Marie-Laure Ancelin, Richard Saffery
Certain individuals are more susceptible to stress and trauma, as well as the physical and mental health consequences following such exposure, including risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This differing vulnerability is likely to be influenced by genetic predisposition and specific characteristics of the stress itself (nature, intensity and duration), as well as epigenetic mechanisms. In this review we provide an overview of research findings in this field. We highlight some of the key genetic risk factors identified for PTSD, and the evidence that epigenetic processes might play a role in the biological response to trauma, as well as being potential biomarkers of PTSD risk...
September 30, 2016: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648526/the-influence-of-fkbp5-genotype-on-expression-of-fkbp5-and-other-glucocorticoid-regulated-genes-dependent-on-trauma-exposure
#12
S Yeo, M-A Enoch, E Gorodetsky, L Akhtar, K Schuebel, A Roy, D Goldman
The FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5), an intrinsic regulator of the glucocorticoid receptor, has been associated with pathological behaviors particularly in the context of childhood trauma (CT), via a putatively regulatory polymorphism, rs1360780. However, trans- and cis-acting effects of this locus and its interaction with CT are incompletely understood. To study its effects on the expression of glucocorticoid-regulated genes including FKBP5, we used lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from 16 CT-exposed patients with greater than two substance dependence/suicidal behavior diagnoses (casesCT+) and 13 non-CT-exposed controls (controlsCT-)...
September 20, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604117/-early-life-stress-and-vulnerability-for-disease-in-later-life
#13
Sonja Entringer, Claudia Buss, Christine Heim
BACKGROUND: The rapidly growing research field of developmental programming of health and disease risk investigates the early life origins of individual vulnerability for common, complex disorders that confer a major burden of disease. OBJECTIVES: The present article introduces the concept of developmental programming of disease vulnerability and summarizes studies on the mental and physical health consequences of exposure to childhood trauma and prenatal stress...
October 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596955/childhood-trauma-bdnf-val66met-and-subclinical-psychotic-experiences-attempt-at-replication-in-two-independent-samples
#14
Marta de Castro-Catala, Martine van Nierop, Neus Barrantes-Vidal, Paula Cristóbal-Narváez, Tamara Sheinbaum, Thomas R Kwapil, Elionora Peña, Nele Jacobs, Catherine Derom, Evert Thiery, Jim van Os, Ruud van Winkel, Araceli Rosa
Childhood trauma exposure is a robust environmental risk factor for psychosis. However, not all exposed individuals develop psychotic symptoms later in life. The Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265) has been suggested to moderate the psychosis-inducing effects of childhood trauma in clinical and nonclinical samples. Our study aimed to explore the interaction effect between childhood trauma and the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on subclinical psychotic experiences (PEs). This was explored in two nonclinical independent samples: an undergraduate and technical-training school student sample (n = 808, sample 1) and a female twin sample (n = 621, sample 2)...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565518/slc6a4-methylation-as-an-epigenetic-marker-of-life-adversity-exposures-in-humans-a-systematic-review-of-literature
#15
REVIEW
Livio Provenzi, Roberto Giorda, Silvana Beri, Rosario Montirosso
The application of epigenetics to the study of behavioral and socio-emotional development in humans has revealed that DNA methylation could be a potential marker of adversity exposure and long-lasting programming of health and disease. The serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) is a stress-related gene which has well-documented implications for behavioral and socio-emotional development and which has been shown to be susceptible to transcriptional regulation via epigenetic mechanisms. In the present paper, a systematic review of papers assessing the association among adversity exposures, SLC6A4 methylation and developmental outcomes is reported...
December 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560096/brain-trauma-and-autophagy-what-flies-and-mice-can-teach-us-about-conserved-responses
#16
Eric P Ratliff, Ayeh Barekat, Marta M Lipinski, Kim D Finley
Drosophila models have been successfully used to identify many genetic components that affect neurodegenerative disorders. Recently, there has been a growing interest in identifying innate and environmental factors that influence the individual outcomes following traumatic brain injury (TBI). This includes both severe TBI and more subtle, mild TBI (mTBI), which is common in people playing contact sports. Autophagy, as a clearance pathway, exerts protective effects in multiple neurological disease models. In a recent publication, we highlighted the development of a novel repetitive mTBI system using Drosophila, which recapitulates several phenotypes associated with trauma in mammalian models...
November 2016: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27518140/the-genomic-basis-of-noise-induced-hearing-loss-a-literature-review-organized-by-cellular-pathways
#17
Royce Ellen Clifford, Michael Hoffer, Rick Rogers
OBJECTIVE: Using Reactome, a curated Internet database, noise-induced hearing loss studies were aggregated into cellular pathways for organization of the emerging genomic and epigenetic data in the literature. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and Reactome.org, a relational data base program systematizing biological processes into interactive pathways and subpathways based on ontology, cellular constituents, gene expression, and molecular components. STUDY SELECTION: Peer-reviewed population and laboratory studies for the previous 15 years relating genomics and noise and hearing loss were identified in PubMed...
September 2016: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458544/epigenetic-marks-as-the-link-between-environment-and-development-examination-of-the-associations-between-attachment-socioeconomic-status-and-methylation-of-the-slc6a4-gene
#18
Karen Jones-Mason, Isabel Elaine Allen, Nicole Bush, Steve Hamilton
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic processes act as a link between environment and individual development. This pilot study examined the association between socioeconomic status (SES), attachment, and methylation of the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4). METHODS: Attachment classification and SLC6A4 methylation was determined in 100 late adolescents. We hypothesized that (1) SES would interact with methylation to predict higher unresolved loss (UL) or trauma scores on the Adult Attachment Interview; (2) across SES, participants with unresolved attachment would have lower levels of methylation than organized or secure participants; and (3) within the unresolved classification, SES would predict methylation...
July 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27402412/psychological-stress-in-early-life-as-a-predisposing-factor-for-the-development-of-chronic-pain-clinical-and-preclinical-evidence-and-neurobiological-mechanisms
#19
Nikita N Burke, David P Finn, Brian E McGuire, Michelle Roche
A wealth of research over the past 2 decades has expanded our understanding of the impact of early-life adversity on physiological function and, consequently, health and wellbeing in later life. Early-life adversity increases the risk of developing a number of disorders, such as chronic pain, fibromyalgia, and irritable bowel syndrome. Although much of the research has examined the impact of physical maltreatment, an increasing number of studies have been published over the past few years examining the effect of childhood psychological stress and trauma on the development of various types of chronic pain conditions...
July 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27372176/genetic-and-molecular-basis-of-diabetic-foot-ulcers-clinical-review
#20
REVIEW
Shaurya Jhamb, Venkat N Vangaveti, Usman H Malabu
Diabetic Foot Ulcers (DFUs) are major complications associated with diabetes and often correlate with peripheral neuropathy, trauma and peripheral vascular disease. It is necessary to understand the molecular and genetic basis of diabetic foot ulcers in order to tailor patient centred care towards particular patient groups. This review aimed to evaluate whether current literature was indicative of an underlying molecular and genetic basis for DFUs and to discuss clinical applications. From a molecular perspective, wound healing is a process that transpires following breach of the skin barrier and is usually mediated by growth factors and cytokines released by specialised cells activated by the immune response, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, phagocytes, platelets and keratinocytes...
November 2016: Journal of Tissue Viability
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