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Johannes Eimer, Jan Vesterbacka, Irina Savitcheva, Rayomand Press, Homayoun Roshanisefat, Piotr Nowak
RATIONALE: Cognitive dysfunction is a common presenting symptom in patients with HIV/AIDS. It is usually directly associated with HIV infection or due to opportunistic infection. Rapidly progressive dementia, however, is rarely observed in acute HIV infection or during immune reconstitution. Recently, a case of Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (CJD) has been reported in a patient with chronic HIV infection. The incidence of CJD is not known to be increased among immunocompromised patients. PATIENT CONCERNS: We here report the case of a 59-year-old male patient with a recent diagnosis of HIV/AIDS and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia presenting with secondary behavioral changes and disorientation...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Trine Printz, Camilla Slot Mehlum, Gohar Nikoghosyan-Bossen
Childhood apraxia of speech and oral dyspraxia are subtypes of dyspraxia: a neurological motor disorder with absence of neuromuscular deficits. The core impairment is in planning and/or programming spatiotemporal parameters of movement sequences, which results in errors in speech sound production and prosody, or in oral motor movements and gestures. Correct diagnostics and focus on differential diagnoses and co-morbidity are crucial, as treatment differs from other types of speech- and oral motor disorders...
March 19, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Ricardo F Allegri, Pablo Bagnatti
The first step from the neuropsychology in Argentina was in 1883 with the thesis of Antonio Piñeiro about the brain localization of the language and vision disorders, only few years after Broca. The aim of this work has been to describe the development of the neuropsychology in Argentina and its relation with the psychology, neurology and psychiatry. The first period was into the neurology with its French school in?uence. In 1907, Jose Ingeniero published in French his book about "amusia", Cristofredo Jakob the "folia neurobiologica" where he described the organization of the human brain, Vicente Dimitri in 1933 his book "aphasia" and Bernardo de Quiros in 1959 his works about dyslexia...
November 2017: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
Laurel J Buxbaum, Jennifer Randerath
Limb apraxia is a heterogeneous disorder of skilled action and tool use that has long perplexed clinicians and researchers. It occurs after damage to various loci in a densely interconnected network of regions in the left temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes. Historically, a highly classificatory approach to the study of apraxia documented numerous patterns of performance related to two major apraxia subtypes: ideational and ideomotor apraxia. More recently, there have been advances in our understanding of the functional neuroanatomy and connectivity of the left-hemisphere "tool use network," and the patterns of performance that emerge from lesions to different loci within this network...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Guido Gainotti, Luigi Trojano
Since the classic papers of Kleist, Mayer Gross, and Critchley, constructional apraxia (CA) has been considered to be a typical sign of a parietal lobe lesion, and as a precious tool to appreciate the spatial abilities subserved by this lobe. However, the development of more sophisticated neuropsychologic models and methods of investigation has revealed several problematic aspects. It has become increasingly clear that CA is a heterogeneous construct that can be examined with very different tasks, that are only mildly interconnected, and tap various kinds of visuospatial, perceptual, attentional, planning, and motor mechanisms...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Giovanni Berlucchi, Giuseppe Vallar
The development and change of knowledge on the function of the parietal lobe from the second half of the 19th century to the early 1970s are reviewed. Motor and somatosensory functions were initially localized in a broad frontoparietal region. At the beginning of the 20th century the motor cortex was restricted to the posterior frontal lobe. The separate attribution of somatosensory functions to the parietal lobe was initially based on anatomic considerations, but mostly on localized bodily sensations elicited by electric stimulation in awake patients...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Magdalena Chechlacz
In 1909 Rezsö Bálint published an extraordinary case study of a man with complex visuospatial deficits resulting from bilateral parietal lesions. Despite some controversies over the nature of reported symptoms, in 1954 Hecaen and Ajuriaguerra conceived the term "Bálint syndrome," not only to honor Bálint's influential work but to firmly conceptualize this striking neurologic disorder. Nowadays it is largely agreed that, while Bálint syndrome may result from multiple etiologies, it is principally diagnosed based on the presence of three symptoms: simultanagnosia, optic ataxia, and ocular apraxia...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Arran T Reader, Ben P Royce, Jade E Marsh, Katy-Jayne Chivers, Nicholas P Holmes
Apraxia (a disorder of complex movement) suggests that the left inferior parietal lobule plays a role in kinematic or spatial aspects of imitation, which may be particularly important for meaningless (i.e., unfamiliar intransitive) actions. Mirror neuron theories indicate that the inferior parietal lobule is part of a frontoparietal system that can support imitation by linking observed and stored actions through visuomotor matching, and have less to say about different subregions of the left inferior parietal lobule, or how different types of action (i...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Kerstin Schweyer, Marc Aurel Busche, Jochen Hammes, Andreas Zwergal, Carsten Buhmann, Thilo van Eimeren, Günter U Höglinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2018: Neurology
Gohar Nikoghosyan-Bossen
In the absence of any known neurological condition, dyspraxia is the inability to plan and execute movement. This case report describes a girl with swallowing difficulties, who was diagnosed with oral dyspraxia, as all other possible explanations had been ruled out. A percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was performed at the age of 6.5 months, and as a five-year-old she was still dependent on supplementary nutrition through the tube, even though she had gradually learned to swallow. Her difficulties to correctly pronounce syllables and words were later diagnosed as childhood apraxia of speech, another subtype of dyspraxia...
February 26, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Viviana Lo Buono, Lilla Bonanno, Francesco Corallo, Maria Foti, Rosanna Palmeri, Marra Angela, Giuseppe Di Lorenzo, Antonino Todaro, Placido Bramanti, Alessia Bramanti, Silvia Marino
BACKGROUND: Vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease are the most diffuse forms of dementia. Sometimes, they are difficult to distinguish due to overlaps in symptomatology, pathophysiology, and comorbidity. Visual constructive apraxia is very common in dementia and impairment in these abilities can provide clinical information for differential diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients underwent Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) at basal visit (T0) and after 1 year (T1)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
F Ali, J L Whitwell, P R Martin, M L Senjem, D S Knopman, C R Jack, V J Lowe, R C Petersen, B F Boeve, K A Josephs
Corticobasal syndrome (CBS) is a phenotypic manifestation of diverse pathologies, including Alzheimer's disease and 4-repeat tauopathies. Predicting pathology in CBS is unreliable and, hence, molecular neuroimaging may prove to be useful. The aim of this study was to assess regional patterns of uptake on [18 F] AV-1451 PET in CBS and determine whether patterns of uptake differ according to beta-amyloid deposition or differing clinical presentations. Fourteen patients meeting criteria for CBS underwent Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) and [18 F] AV-1451 PET...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Lisa D Bunker, Sandra Wright, Julie L Wambaugh
Purpose: Combined Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech Treatment (CAAST) is a newly developed treatment shown to increase production of accurate content in narrative discourse for persons with aphasia and apraxia of speech. The purpose of this post hoc study was to further describe lexical and morphosyntactic changes associated with changes in content production. Method: Existing probe data from 8 persons with aphasia who had completed CAAST were used to complete analyses of morphosyntactic production, lexical diversity, and novelty of content...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Julie L Wambaugh, Sandra Wright, Emily Boss, Shannon C Mauszycki, Catharine DeLong, William Hula, Patrick J Doyle
Purpose: This investigation was designed to examine the effects of treatment intensity (i.e., dose frequency) on the outcomes of Sound Production Treatment (SPT) for acquired apraxia of speech. Method: Five men with chronic apraxia of speech and aphasia received both intense SPT (3 hr per day/3 days per week) and nonintense/traditional SPT (SPT-T; 1 hr per day/3 days per week) in the context of single-case experimental designs. Each treatment was applied separately to a designated set of experimental words with 1 treatment applied at a time...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
O Giotakos
A variety of phenomena might be considered as reflecting impaired insight in psychosis, like failure to recognize signs, symptoms or disease, failure to derive appropriate cognitive representations, despite recognition of the disease, and misattribution of the source or cause of the disease. The unawareness of tardive dyskinesia symptoms in schizophrenic patients points that self-awareness deficits in schizophrenia may be domain specific. Poor insight is an independent phenomenological and a prevalent feature in psychotic disorders in general, and in schizophrenia in particular, but we don't know yet if delusions in schizophrenia are the result of an entirely normal attempt to account for abnormal perceptual experiences or a product of abnormal experience but of normal reasoning...
October 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
T Kesayan, K M Heilman
Apraxic agraphia can be caused by left hemispheric cerebral lesions in the area that contains the spatial representations of the movements required to write, from a lesion in, or connections to, the frontal premotor cortex that converts these spatial representations to motor programs (Exner's area).  A right-handed woman with Marchiafava Bignami disease and lesions of the genu and splenium of her corpus callosum had apraxic agraphia without ideomotor apraxia of her left. A disconnection of Exner's area in the left hemisphere from the right hemisphere's premotor and motor areas may have led to her inability to write with her left hand...
February 26, 2018: Neurocase
Marie Coutelier, Monia B Hammer, Giovanni Stevanin, Marie-Lorraine Monin, Claire-Sophie Davoine, Fanny Mochel, Pierre Labauge, Claire Ewenczyk, Jinhui Ding, J Raphael Gibbs, Didier Hannequin, Judith Melki, Annick Toutain, Vincent Laugel, Sylvie Forlani, Perrine Charles, Emmanuel Broussolle, Stéphane Thobois, Alexandra Afenjar, Mathieu Anheim, Patrick Calvas, Giovanni Castelnovo, Thomas de Broucker, Marie Vidailhet, Antoine Moulignier, Robert T Ghnassia, Chantal Tallaksen, Cyril Mignot, Cyril Goizet, Isabelle Le Ber, Elisabeth Ollagnon-Roman, Jean Pouget, Alexis Brice, Andrew Singleton, Alexandra Durr
Importance: Molecular diagnosis is difficult to achieve in disease groups with a highly heterogeneous genetic background, such as cerebellar ataxia (CA). In many patients, candidate gene sequencing or focused resequencing arrays do not allow investigators to reach a genetic conclusion. Objectives: To assess the efficacy of exome-targeted capture sequencing to detect mutations in genes broadly linked to CA in a large cohort of undiagnosed patients and to investigate their prevalence...
February 26, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Lydia A Trupe, Rachel W Mulheren, Donna Tippett, Argye E Hillis, Marlís González-Fernández
Speech and swallowing utilize overlapping anatomy and are thus inherently related processes. We sought to identify common neural mechanisms between risk of swallowing dysfunction and apraxia of speech (AOS). This was a retrospective analysis using data from a prospectively collected cohort. Left hemisphere stroke patients (68 subjects) tested with the Apraxia Battery for Adults II, a swallow screen, and MRI were included in the study. Main outcome measure was the presence of AOS or aspiration risk after stroke...
February 24, 2018: Dysphagia
Marian L Dale, Carolin Curtze, John G Nutt
"Apraxia of gait" is not a useful concept and freezing of gait should also not be considered an apraxia. The concept of apraxia may, however, be applied to distortions of postural transitions that can accompany fronto-parietal lesions.
February 19, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Marco Rossi, Luca Fornia, Guglielmo Puglisi, Antonella Leonetti, Gianmarco Zuccon, Enrica Fava, Daniela Milani, Alessandra Casarotti, Marco Riva, Federico Pessina, Gabriella Cerri, Lorenzo Bello
OBJECTIVE Apraxia is a cognitive-motor deficit affecting the execution of skilled movements, termed praxis gestures, in the absence of primary sensory or motor disorders. In patients affected by stroke, apraxia is associated with lesions of the lateral parietofrontal stream, connecting the posterior parietal areas with the ventrolateral premotor area and subserving sensory-motor integration for the hand movements. In the neurosurgical literature to date, there are few reports regarding the incidence of apraxia after glioma surgery...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
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