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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026163/revealing-the-saline-adaptation-strategies-of-the-halophilic-bacterium-halomonas-beimenensis-through-high-throughput-omics-and-transposon-mutagenesis-approaches
#1
Yan-Huey Chen, Chia-Wei Lu, Yuan-Tay Shyu, Shih-Shun Lin
Studies on the halotolerance of bacteria are attractive to the fermentation industry. However, a lack of sufficient genomic information has precluded an investigation of the halotolerance of Halomonas beimenensis. Here, we describe the molecular mechanisms of saline adaptation in H. beimenensis based on high-throughput omics and Tn5 transposon mutagenesis. The H. beimenensis genome is 4.05 Mbp and contains 3,807 genes, which were sequenced using short and long reads obtained via deep sequencing. Sixteen Tn5 mutants with a loss of halotolerance were identified...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018959/invariant-natural-killer-t-infiltration-in-neuroblastoma-with-favorable-outcome
#2
Tomoro Hishiki, Naoko Mise, Kazuaki Harada, Fumie Ihara, Mariko Takami, Takeshi Saito, Keita Terui, Mitsuyuki Nakata, Shugo Komatsu, Hideo Yoshida, Shinichiro Motohashi
BACKGROUND: Tumor immunity has been suggested to play a key role in clinical and biological behavior of neuroblastomas. Given that CD1-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells enhance both innate and acquired tumor immunity, we investigated the expression of the iNKT-cell-specific T-cell receptor Vα24-Jα18 in neuroblastoma tissues and its correlation with clinical and biological characteristics. METHODS: Using real- time quantitative PCR, we quantified the expression of Vα24-Jα18 in untreated tumor samples from 107 neuroblastoma cases followed in our institution and analyzed the correlation between the presence of infiltrated iNKT cells and clinical characteristics or patients' outcome...
October 10, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977586/estradiol-sensitizes-the-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1-receptor-in-pain-responses
#3
Maja Payrits, Éva Sághy, Kata Cseko, Krisztina Pohóczky, Kata Bölcskei, Dávid Ernszt, Klaudia Barabás, János Szolcsányi, István M Ábrahám, Zsuzsanna Helyes, Éva Szoke
Sex differences exist in chronic pain pathologies, and gonadal estradiol (E2) alters the pain sensation. The nocisensor transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor plays a critical role in triggering pain. Here we examined the impact of E2 on the function of TRPV1 receptor in mice sensory neurons in vitro and in vivo. Both mechano- and thermonociceptive thresholds of the plantar surface of the paw of female mice were significantly lower in proestrus compared with the estrus phase. These thresholds were higher in ovariectomized (OVX) mice and significantly lower in sham-operated mice in proestrus compared with the sham-operated mice in estrus phase...
October 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971611/nerve-growth-factor-inhibitor-with-novel-binding-domain-demonstrates-nanomolar-efficacy-in-both-cell-based-and-cell-free-assay-systems
#4
Allison E Kennedy, Corey A Laamanen, Mitchell S Ross, Rahul Vohra, Douglas R Boreham, John A Scott, Gregory M Ross
Nerve growth factor (NGF), a member of the neurotrophin family, is known to regulate the development and survival of a select population of neurons through the binding and activation of the TrkA receptor. Elevated levels of NGF have been associated with painful pathologies such as diabetic neuropathy and fibromyalgia. However, completely inhibiting the NGF signal could hold significant side effects, such as those observed in a genetic condition called congenital insensitivity to pain and anhidrosis (CIPA). Previous methods of screening for NGF-inhibitors used labeling techniques which have the potential to alter molecular interactions...
October 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961193/fascaplysin-exerts-anti-cancer-effects-through-the-downregulation-of-survivin-and-hif-1%C3%AE-and-inhibition-of-vegfr2-and-trka
#5
Taek-In Oh, Yoon-Mi Lee, Taek-Jin Nam, Young-San Ko, Shinmee Mah, Jinhee Kim, Younghoon Kim, Rallabandi Harikrishna Reddy, Young Jun Kim, Sungwoo Hong, Ji-Hong Lim
Fascaplysin has been reported to exert anti-cancer effects by inhibiting cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4); however, the precise mode of action by which fascaplysin suppresses tumor growth is not clear. Here, we found that fascaplysin has stronger anti-cancer effects than other CDK4 inhibitors, including PD0332991 and LY2835219, on lung cancer cells that are wild-type or null for retinoblastoma (RB), indicating that unknown target molecules might be involved in the inhibition of tumor growth by fascaplysin. Fascaplysin treatment significantly decreased tumor angiogenesis and increased cleaved-caspase-3 in xenografted tumor tissues...
September 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961087/the-kampo-medicine-yokukansan-yks-enhances-nerve-growth-factor-ngf-induced-neurite-outgrowth-in-pc12-cells
#6
Kazuki Terada, Yukari Matsushima, Kazuhisa Matsunaga, Jiro Takata, Yoshiharu Karube, Atsushi Ishige, Koji Chiba
Accumulating evidence indicates that neurotrophic factor-like substances involved in the induction of neurotrophic factor synthesis may aid in the treatment of neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. Yokukansan (YKS), a traditional Kampo medicine, has been used for the treatment of anxiety and mood disorders. In the present study, we analyzed the neurite length of nerve growth factor (NGF)-treated rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells via Western blot analysis. Akt and extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation levels were assessed in the presence of YKS and following the treatment with TrkA inhibitor, K252a...
September 28, 2017: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955492/prongf-p75ntr-axis-plays-a-proinflammatory-role-in-inflamed-joints-a-novel-pathogenic-mechanism-in-chronic-arthritis
#7
Gaetana Minnone, Marzia Soligo, Ivan Caiello, Giusi Prencipe, Luigi Manni, Denise Pires Marafon, Silvia Magni-Manzoni, Antonio Manzo, Fabrizio De Benedetti, Luisa Bracci-Laudiero
OBJECTIVE: To identify the role of mature nerve growth factor (mNGF), its immature form proNGF and their receptors in arthritis inflammation. METHODS: Real-time PCR, western blot and ELISA were performed to evaluate NGF, proNGF, their receptor and cytokine expression in synovial tissue and cells of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and controls. RESULTS: proNGF and not mNGF is the prevalent form measured in synovial fluids of patients with JIA and RA with synovial fibroblasts as a major source of proNGF in the inflamed synoviae...
2017: RMD Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950095/trka-bumps-into-its-future-self
#8
Kelly Barford, Austin Keeler, Christopher Deppmann, Bettina Winckler
In neurons, correct targeting of receptors to the axon is critical for cell survival and circuit formation. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Yamashita et al. (2017) report that the ER-resident phosphatase PTP1B is required to prime TrkA for axonal transport.
September 25, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928825/nerve-growth-factor-and-its-receptors-on-onset-and-diagnosis-of-ovarian-cancer
#9
Xiaolin Yu, Zhaoxia Liu, Rui Hou, Yijun Nie, Rensheng Chen
The effect of nerve growth factor (NGF) and its receptors on the onset and diagnosis of ovarian cancer was investigated. A total of 35 patients with ovarian tumor admitted in the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University from July 2014 to July 2015 were selected as study subjects and were divided into an observation group (including 21 patients with benign ovarian tumor, and 14 patients with malignant ovarian tumor), and a control group (21 healthy women). The quantity of expression of mRNA in NGF and its receptors (TrkA and p75NTR) was detected using fluorescent quantitative PCR...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924861/role-of-bdnf-and-neurotrophic-receptors-in-human-inner-ear-development
#10
L Johnson Chacko, M J F Blumer, E Pechriggl, H Rask-Andersen, W Dietl, A Haim, H Fritsch, R Glueckert, J Dudas, A Schrott-Fischer
The expression patterns of the neurotrophin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF, and the neurotrophic receptors-p75NTR and Trk receptors-in the developing human fetal inner ear between the gestational weeks (GW) 9 to 12 are examined via in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. BDNF mRNA expression was highest in the cochlea at GW 9 but declined in the course of development. In contrast to embryonic murine specimens, a decline in BDNF expression from the apical to the basal turn of the cochlea could not be observed...
September 19, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924549/potassium-2-1-hydroxypentyl-benzoate-attenuates-neuronal-apoptosis-in-neuron-astrocyte-co-culture-system-through-neurotrophy-and-neuroinflammation-pathway
#11
Dongmei Liu, Man Zhang, Xianfang Rong, Jiang Li, Xiaoliang Wang
Potassium 2-(1-hydroxypentyl)-benzoate (d,l-PHPB), a new drug candidate for ischemic stroke at the phase II clinic trial, has been shown to protect neurons by inhibiting oxidative injury and reducing neuron apoptosis in previous studies. But the mechanisms of d,l-PHPB remain to be studied. In this study, a neuron-astrocytes co-culture system was used to elucidate the roles of astrocytes in neuroprotection of d,l-PHPB under oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) condition. Our data showed that d,l-PHPB reduced neuronal apoptosis in mono-culture system and this effect was enhanced in neuron-astrocyte co-culture system under the OGD/R condition...
September 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919207/phospho-regulation-of-soma-to-axon-transcytosis-of-neurotrophin-receptors
#12
Naoya Yamashita, Rajshri Joshi, Sheng Zhang, Zhong-Yin Zhang, Rejji Kuruvilla
Axonal targeting of signaling receptors is essential for neuronal responses to extracellular cues. Here, we report that retrograde signaling by target-derived nerve growth factor (NGF) is necessary for soma-to-axon transcytosis of TrkA receptors in sympathetic neurons, and we define the molecular underpinnings of this positive feedback regulation that enhances neuronal sensitivity to trophic factors. Activated TrkA receptors are retrogradely transported in signaling endosomes from distal axons to cell bodies, where they are inserted on soma surfaces and promote phosphorylation of resident naive receptors, resulting in their internalization...
September 25, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918935/dense-intra-adipose-sympathetic-arborizations-are-essential-for-cold-induced-beiging-of-mouse-white-adipose-tissue
#13
Haochen Jiang, Xiaofan Ding, Ying Cao, Huanhuan Wang, Wenwen Zeng
Efferent signals from the central nervous system represent a key layer of regulation of white adipose tissue (WAT). However, the mechanism by which efferent neural signals control WAT metabolism remains to be better understood. Here, we exploit the volume fluorescence-imaging technique to visualize the neural arborizations in mouse inguinal WAT at single-fiber resolution. The imaging reveals a dense network of sympathetic arborizations that had been previously undetected by conventional methods, with sympathetic fibers being in close apposition to > 90% of adipocytes...
September 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915606/proteolytic-cleavages-in-the-extracellular-domain-of-receptor-tyrosine-kinases-by-membrane-associated-serine-proteases
#14
Li-Mei Chen, Karl X Chai
The epithelial extracellular membrane-associated serine proteases matriptase, hepsin, and prostasin are proteolytic modifying enzymes of the extracellular domain (ECD) of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Matriptase also cleaves the ECD of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and the angiopoietin receptor Tie2. In this study we tested the hypothesis that these serine proteases may cleave the ECD of additional receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). We co-expressed the proteases in an epithelial cell line with Her2, Her3, Her4, insulin receptor (INSR), insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-1R), the platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs) α and β, or nerve growth factor receptor A (TrkA)...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903424/identification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-scyl3-ntrk1-rearrangement-in-a-colorectal-cancer-patient
#15
Massimo Milione, Elena Ardini, Jason Christiansen, Emanuele Valtorta, Silvio Veronese, Roberta Bosotti, Alessio Pellegrinelli, Adele Testi, Filippo Pietrantonio, Giovanni Fucà, Ge Wei, Danielle Murphy, Salvatore Siena, Antonella Isacchi, Filippo De Braud
In colorectal cancer patients, chromosomal rearrangements involving NTRK1 gene (encoding the TRKA protein) are shown in a small subset of patients and are associated with the constitutive activation of the kinase domain of TRKA. In turn, activated TRKA-fusion proteins are associated with proliferation and survival in colorectal cancer tumors. Here we report the identification and functional characterization of a new SCYL3-NTRK1 fusion gene in a 61-year-old colorectal cancer patient. To our knowledge, this fusion protein has never been previously documented in oncological patients...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894299/dhea-inhibits-acute-microglia-mediated-inflammation-through-activation-of-the-trka-akt1-2-creb-jmjd3-pathway
#16
V I Alexaki, G Fodelianaki, A Neuwirth, C Mund, A Kourgiantaki, E Ieronimaki, K Lyroni, M Troullinaki, C Fujii, W Kanczkowski, A Ziogas, M Peitzsch, S Grossklaus, B Sönnichsen, A Gravanis, S R Bornstein, I Charalampopoulos, C Tsatsanis, T Chavakis
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is the most abundant circulating steroid hormone in humans, produced by the adrenals, the gonads and the brain. DHEA was previously shown to bind to the nerve growth factor receptor, tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA), and to thereby exert neuroprotective effects. Here we show that DHEA reduces microglia-mediated inflammation in an acute lipopolysaccharide-induced neuro-inflammation model in mice and in cultured microglia in vitro. DHEA regulates microglial inflammatory responses through phosphorylation of TrkA and subsequent activation of a pathway involving Akt1/Akt2 and cAMP response element-binding protein...
September 12, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893462/developing-drugs-in-cancer-related-bone-pain
#17
REVIEW
Maurizio Lucchesi, Gaetano Lanzetta, Andrea Antonuzzo, Antonio Rozzi, Iacopo Sardi, Claudio Favre, Carla Ida Ripamonti, Daniele Santini, Grazia Armento
INTRODUCTION: Cancer-related bone pain is a frequent and important key problem for metastatic patients that may reduce quality of life, with related limitations in daily activities and morbidity. Often traditional approach to pain may fail given the complex pathophysiology of this phenomenon. METHODS: The aim of this review is to describe promising therapies for cancer-related bone pain, from the pathophysiology to the clinical trials currently ongoing. Moreover, any new evidence for better approach to cancer-related bone pain with the traditional drugs is also considered...
August 25, 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892045/mn1-overexpression-is-driven-by-loss-of-dnmt3b-methylation-activity-in-inv-16-pediatric-aml
#18
N S D Larmonie, T C J M Arentsen-Peters, A Obulkasim, D Valerio, E Sonneveld, A A Danen-van Oorschot, V de Haas, D Reinhardt, M Zimmermann, J Trka, A Baruchel, R Pieters, M M van den Heuvel-Eibrink, C M Zwaan, M Fornerod
In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), specific genomic aberrations induce aberrant methylation, thus directly influencing the transcriptional programing of leukemic cells. Therefore, therapies targeting epigenetic processes are advocated as a promising therapeutic tool for AML treatment. However, to develop new therapies, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism(s) driving the epigenetic changes as a result of acquired genetic abnormalities is necessary. This understanding is still lacking. In this study, we performed genome-wide CpG-island methylation profiling on pediatric AML samples...
September 11, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888073/selective-decline-of-neurotrophin-and-neurotrophin-receptor-genes-within-ca1-pyramidal-neurons-and-hippocampus-proper-correlation-with-cognitive-performance-and-neuropathology-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Stephen D Ginsberg, Michael H Malek-Ahmadi, Melissa J Alldred, Shaoli Che, Irina Elarova, Yinghua Chen, Freddy Jeanneteau, Thorsten M Kranz, Moses V Chao, Scott E Counts, Elliott J Mufson
Hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, a major component of the medial temporal lobe memory circuit, are selectively vulnerable during the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The cellular mechanism(s) underlying degeneration of these neurons and the relationship to cognitive performance remains largely undefined. Here, we profiled neurotrophin and neurotrophin receptor gene expression within microdissected CA1 neurons along with regional hippocampal dissections from subjects who died with a clinical diagnosis of no cognitive impairment (NCI), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or AD using laser capture microdissection (LCM), custom-designed microarray analysis, and qPCR of CA1 subregional dissections...
September 9, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884193/neurotrophin-trk-receptors-new-targets-for-cancer-therapy
#20
Jacopo Meldolesi
In the last few years, exciting reports have emerged regarding the role of the two types of neurotrophin receptors, p75(NTR) and Trks, not only in neurons, where they were discovered, but also in non-neural cells and, especially, in numerous cancers, including breast, lung, colon-rectum, pancreas, prostate, glioblastoma, neuroblastoma, myeloma, and lymphoid tumors. Traditionally, p75(NTR), activated by all neurotrophins and their precursors, is an inhibitor. In various cancers, however, activated p75(NTR) induces variable effects, from inhibition to stimulation of cell proliferation, dependent on their direct or coordinate/indirect mechanism(s) of action...
September 8, 2017: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
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