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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452155/comparative-developmental-biology-of-the-cardiac-inflow-tract
#1
REVIEW
Rita Carmona, Laura Ariza, Ana Cañete, Ramón Muñoz-Chápuli
The vertebrate heart receives the blood through the cardiac inflow tract. This area has experienced profound changes along the evolution of vertebrates; changes that have a reflection in the cardiac ontogeny. The development of the inflow tract involves dynamic changes due to the progressive addition of tissue derived from the secondary heart field. The inflow tract is the site where oxygenated blood coming from lungs is received separately from the systemic return, where the cardiac pacemaker is established and where the proepicardium develops...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452107/trabecular-meshwork-morphogenesis-a-comparative-analysis-of-wildtype-and-anterior-segment-dysgenesis-mouse-models
#2
Rebecca L Rausch, Richard T Libby, Amy E Kiernan
The trabecular meshwork (TM), a tissue residing in the iridocorneal angle of the eye, is the primary site of aqueous humor outflow and often develops abnormally in children with anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD). However, the cellular mechanisms underlying both normal and pathophysiological TM formation are poorly understood. Here, we improve the characterization of TM development via morphological and molecular analyses. We first assessed the TM of wild-type C57BL/6J mice at multiple time points throughout development (E15...
February 13, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451339/an-indispensable-role-of-androgen-receptor-in-wnt-responsive-cells-during-prostate-development-maturation-and-regeneration
#3
Yongfeng He, Erika Hooker, Eun-Jeong Yu, Huiqing Wu, Gerald R Cunha, Zijie Sun
Androgen signaling is essential for prostate development, morphogenesis, and regeneration. Emerging evidence indicates that Wnt/β-catenin signaling also contributes to prostate development specifically through regulation of cell fate determination. Prostatic Axin2-expressing cells are able to respond to Wnt signals and possess the progenitor properties to regenerate prostatic epithelium. Despite critical roles of both signaling pathways, the biological significance of androgen receptor (AR) in Axin2-expressing Wnt-responsive cells remains largely unexplored...
February 16, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450919/looking-into-the-future-toward-advanced-3d-biomaterials-for-stem-cell-based-regenerative-medicine
#4
REVIEW
Zhongmin Liu, Mingliang Tang, Jinping Zhao, Renjie Chai, Jiuhong Kang
Stem-cell-based therapies have the potential to provide novel solutions for the treatment of a variety of diseases, but the main obstacles to such therapies lie in the uncontrolled differentiation and functional engraftment of implanted tissues. The physicochemical microenvironment controls the self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells, and the key step in mimicking the stem cell microenvironment is to construct a more physiologically relevant 3D culture system. Material-based 3D assemblies of stem cells facilitate the cellular interactions that promote morphogenesis and tissue organization in a similar manner to that which occurs during embryogenesis...
February 16, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450535/a-spatiotemporal-requirement-for-prickle-1-mediated-pcp-signaling-in-eyelid-morphogenesis-and-homeostasis
#5
Dianlei Guo, Zhaohui Yuan, Jiali Ru, Xinyu Gu, Wang Zhang, Fuxiang Mao, Hong Ouyang, Kaili Wu, Yizhi Liu, Chunqiao Liu
Purpose: Tissue closure/fusion is a fundamental process during organogenesis, driven in part by the Wnt/planar cell polarity (Wnt/PCP) pathway. This study explored the spatial and temporal aspects of PCP signaling in eyelid development through analysis of mice lacking Prickle 1, a core PCP component, and the Prickle1-dependent signaling networks underlying eyelid development. Methods: Wild type and Prickle 1 compound mutant mice with a hypomorphic and a null allele were bred and used to study eyelid morphogenesis...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449840/c-abl-twist1-epigenetically-dysregulate-inflammatory-responses-during-mycobacterial-infection-by-co-regulating-bone-morphogenesis-protein-and-mir27a
#6
Kasturi Mahadik, Praveen Prakhar, R S Rajmani, Amit Singh, Kithiganahalli Narayanaswamy Balaji
Mycobacteria propelled modulation of host responses is of considerable interest in the face of emerging drug resistance. Although it is known that Abl tyrosine kinases affect entry and persistence of mycobacteria, mechanisms that couple c-Abl to proximal signaling pathways during immunity are poorly understood. Loss-of-function of c-Abl through Imatinib, in a mouse model of tuberculosis or RNA interference, identified bone morphogenesis protein (BMP) signaling as its cellular target. We demonstrate that c-Abl promotes mycobacterial survival through epigenetic modification brought about by KAT5-TWIST1 at Bmp loci...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447756/the-biomechanical-significance-of-the-frontal-sinus-in-kabwe-1-homo-heidelbergensis
#7
Ricardo Miguel Godinho, Paul O'Higgins
Paranasal sinuses are highly variable among living and fossil hominins and their function(s) are poorly understood. It has been argued they serve no particular function and are biological 'spandrels' arising as a structural consequence of changes in associated bones and/or soft tissue structures. In contrast, others have suggested that sinuses have one or more functions, in olfaction, respiration, thermoregulation, nitric oxide production, voice resonance, reduction of skull weight, and craniofacial biomechanics...
January 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446223/evolution-and-development-of-scyphozoan-jellyfish
#8
Rebecca R Helm
Scyphozoan jellyfish, or scyphomedusae, are conspicuous members of many ocean ecosystems, and have large impacts on human health and industry. Most scyphomedusae are the final stage in a complex life cycle that also includes two intermediate stages: the larval planula and benthic polyp. In species with all three life-cycle stages, the metamorphosis of a polyp into a juvenile scyphomedusa (ephyra) is termed strobilation, and polyps can produce one ephyra (termed monodisc strobilation) or many ephyrae (termed polydisc strobilation)...
February 14, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444894/morphometrics-of-complex-cell-shapes-lobe-contribution-elliptic-fourier-analysis-loco-efa
#9
Yara E Sánchez-Corrales, Matthew Hartley, Jop van Rooij, Athanasius F M Marée, Verônica A Grieneisen
Quantifying cell morphology is fundamental to the statistical study of cell populations, and can help unravel mechanisms underlying cell and tissue morphogenesis. Current methods, however, require extensive human intervention, are highly parameter sensitive, or produce metrics difficult to interpret biologically. We therefore developed a method, Lobe Contribution Elliptical Fourier Analysis (LOCO-EFA), which generates from digitalised 2D cell outlines meaningful descriptors that can be directly matched to morphological features...
February 14, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443958/tissue-stiffening-coordinates-morphogenesis-by-triggering-collective-cell-migration-in-vivo
#10
Elias H Barriga, Kristian Franze, Guillaume Charras, Roberto Mayor
Collective cell migration is essential for morphogenesis, tissue remodelling and cancer invasion. In vivo, groups of cells move in an orchestrated way through tissues. This movement involves mechanical as well as molecular interactions between cells and their environment. While the role of molecular signals in collective cell migration is comparatively well understood, how tissue mechanics influence collective cell migration in vivo remains unknown. Here we investigated the importance of mechanical cues in the collective migration of the Xenopus laevis neural crest cells, an embryonic cell population whose migratory behaviour has been likened to cancer invasion...
February 14, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443094/in-vivo-imaging-of-muscle-tendon-morphogenesis-in-drosophila-pupae
#11
Sandra B Lemke, Frank Schnorrer
Muscles together with tendons and the skeleton enable animals including humans to move their body parts. Muscle morphogenesis is highly conserved from animals to humans. Therefore, the powerful Drosophila model system can be used to study concepts of muscle-tendon development that can also be applied to human muscle biology. Here, we describe in detail how morphogenesis of the adult muscle-tendon system can be easily imaged in living, developing Drosophila pupae. Hence, the method allows investigating proteins, cells and tissues in their physiological environment...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442322/zebrafish-zic-genes-mediate-developmental-signaling
#12
Cecilia Lanny Winata, Vladimir Korzh
The introduction of genomics into the field of developmental biology led to a vast expansion of knowledge about developmental genes and signaling mechanisms they are involved in. Unlike mammals, the zebrafish features seven Zic genes. This provides an interesting insight into Zic gene evolution. In addition, an unprecedented bioimaging capability of semitransparent zebrafish embryos turns to be a crucial factor in medium- to large-scale analysis of the activity of potential regulatory elements. The Zic family of zinc finger proteins plays an important, relatively well-established, role in the regulation of stem cells and neural development and, in particular, during neural fate commitment and determination...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442016/properties-and-role-of-the-quorum-sensing-molecule-farnesol-in-relation-to-the-yeast-candida-albicans
#13
S Dižová, H Bujdáková
Farnesol is a quorum sensing (QS) molecule synthesized by Candida albicans acting as a negative regulator of morphogenesis; it blocks the yeast-to-hyphae transformation. This molecule is currently studied in particular from the viewpoint of possible use as a substance with anticancer properties and with an antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm effect in yeasts resistant or tolerant to conventional therapeutic agents, for example fluconazole. Besides the aforementioned effect on morphological transformation through cyclic AMP (cAMP)/protein kinase A (cAMP-PKA) pathway, it also affects other biochemical pathways of yeasts, for example those ones for sterol biosynthesis or triggering of apoptosis via accumulation of ROS (reactive oxygen species) that damage essential cellular compartments...
June 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440555/c8orf37-is-required-for-photoreceptor-outer-segment-disc-morphogenesis-by-maintaining-outer-segment-membrane-protein-homeostasis
#14
Ali S Sharif, Dongmei Yu, Stuart Loertscher, Richard Austin, Kevin Nguyen, Pranav D Mathur, Anna M Clark, Junhuang Zou, Ekaterina S Lobanova, Vadim Y Arshavsky, Jun Yang
C8ORF37 is a causative gene for three different clinical forms of incurable retinal degeneration. However, the completely unknown function of C8ORF37 limits our understanding of the pathogenicity of C8ORF37 mutations. Here, we performed a comprehensive phenotypic characterization of a C8orf37 knockout mouse line, generated using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Both C8orf37 knockout male and female mice exhibited progressive and simultaneous degeneration of rod and cone photoreceptors but no non-ocular phenotypes. The major ultrastructural feature of C8orf37 knockout photoreceptors was massive disorganization of the outer segment (OS) membrane discs, starting from the onset of disc morphogenesis during development...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439932/in-vivo-imaging-of-single-mammalian-cells-in-development-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Melanie D White, Ziqing W Zhao, Nicolas Plachta
Live imaging has transformed biomedical sciences by enabling visualization and analysis of dynamic cellular processes as they occur in their native contexts. Here, we review key recent efforts applying in vivo optical imaging with single-cell resolution to mammalian systems ranging from embryos to adult tissues and organs. We highlight insights into active processes regulating cell fate and morphogenesis during embryonic development, how neuronal circuitry and non-neuronal cell types contribute to neurological functions, and how novel imaging-based approaches enable the dissection of neurological disorders and cancer with high spatio-temporal resolution...
February 10, 2018: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439148/biodiversity-of-cs-proteoglycan-sulphation-motifs-chemical-messenger-recognition-modules-with-roles-in-information-transfer-control-of-cellular-behaviour-and-tissue-morphogenesis
#16
REVIEW
Anthony Hayes, Kazuyuki Sugahara, Brooke Farrugia, John M Whitelock, Bruce Caterson, James Melrose
Chondroitin sulphate (CS) glycosaminoglycan chains on cell and extracellular matrix proteoglycans (PGs) can no longer be regarded as merely hydrodynamic space fillers. Overwhelming evidence over recent years indicates that sulphation motif sequences within the CS chain structure are a source of significant biological information to cells and their surrounding environment. CS sulphation motifs have been shown to interact with a wide variety of bioactive molecules, e.g. cytokines, growth factors, chemokines, morphogenetic proteins, enzymes and enzyme inhibitors, as well as structural components within the extracellular milieu...
February 9, 2018: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438884/sprouting-angiogenesis-induces-significant-mechanical-heterogeneities-and-ecm-stiffening-across-length-scales-in-fibrin-hydrogels
#17
Benjamin A Juliar, Mark T Keating, Yen P Kong, Elliot L Botvinick, Andrew J Putnam
Matrix stiffness is a well-established instructive cue in two-dimensional cell cultures. Its roles in morphogenesis in 3-dimensional (3D) cultures, and the converse effects of cells on the mechanics of their surrounding microenvironment, have been more elusive given the absence of suitable methods to quantify stiffness on a length-scale relevant for individual cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. In this study, we applied traditional bulk rheology and laser tweezers-based active microrheology to probe mechanics across length scales during the complex multicellular process of capillary morphogenesis in 3D, and further characterized the relative contributions of neovessels and supportive stromal cells to dynamic changes in stiffness over time...
February 6, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438403/release-of-transcriptional-repression-through-the-hcr-promoter-region-confers-uniform-expression-of-hwp1-on-surfaces-of-candida-albicans-germ-tubes
#18
Samin Kim, Quoc Bao Nguyen, Michael J Wolyniak, Gregory Frechette, Christian R Lehman, Brandon K Fox, Paula Sundstrom
The mechanisms that fungi use to co-regulate subsets of genes specifically associated with morphogenic states represent a basic unsolved problem in fungal biology. Candida albicans is an important model of fungal differentiation both for rapid interconversion between yeast and hyphal growth forms and for white/opaque switching mechanisms. The Sundstrom lab is interested in mechanisms regulating hypha-specific expression of adhesin genes that are critical for C. albicans hyphal growth phenotypes and pathogenicity...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438257/recent-insights-into-vascular-development-from-studies-in-zebrafish
#19
Ryota L Matsuoka, Didier Y R Stainier
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Zebrafish has provided a powerful platform to study vascular biology over the past 25 years, owing to their distinct advantages for imaging and genetic manipulation. In this review, we summarize recent progress in vascular biology with particular emphasis on vascular development in zebrafish. RECENT FINDINGS: The advent of transcription activator-like effector nuclease and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 genome-editing technologies has dramatically facilitated reverse genetic approaches in zebrafish, as in other models...
February 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437830/face-morphogenesis-is-promoted-by-pbx-dependent-emt-via-regulation-of-snail1-during-frontonasal-prominence-fusion
#20
Marta Losa, Maurizio Risolino, Bingsi Li, James Hart, Laura Quintana, Irina Grishina, Hui Yang, Irene F Choi, Patrick Lewicki, Sameer Khan, Robert Aho, Jennifer Feenstra, C Theresa Vincent, Anthony M C Brown, Elisabetta Ferretti, Trevor Williams, Licia Selleri
Human cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is a common craniofacial abnormality caused by impaired fusion of the facial prominences. We have previously reported that in the mouse embryo epithelial apoptosis mediates fusion at the seam where the prominences coalesce. Here, we show that apoptosis alone is not sufficient to remove the epithelial layers. We observed morphological changes in the seam epithelia, intermingling of cells of epithelial descent into the mesenchyme, and molecular signatures of Epithelial-Mesenchymal-Transition (EMT)...
February 5, 2018: Development
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