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Morphogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933081/the-density-and-length-of-root-hairs-are-enhanced-in-response-to-cadmium-and-arsenic-by-modulating-gene-expressions-involved-in-fate-determination-and-morphogenesis-of-root-hairs-in-arabidopsis
#1
Ramin Bahmani, Dong G Kim, Jin A Kim, Seongbin Hwang
Root hairs are tubular outgrowths that originate from epidermal cells. Exposure of Arabidopsis to cadmium (Cd) and arsenic [arsenite, As(III)] increases root hair density and length. To examine the underlying mechanism, we measured the expression of genes involved in fate determination and morphogenesis of root hairs. Cd and As(III) downregulated TTG1 and GL2 (negative regulators of fate determination) and upregulated GEM (positive regulator), suggesting that root hair fate determination is stimulated by Cd and As(III)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932491/lipid-droplets-are-central-organelles-for-meiosis-ii-progression-during-yeast-sporulation
#2
Tzu-Han Hsu, Rey-Huei Chen, Yun-Hsin Cheng, Chao-Wen Wang
Neutral lipids, predominantly triacylglycerol (TAG) and sterol ester (SE), are stored within the cellular organelle termed lipid droplets (LDs). Although it is believed that the major function of LDs is to supply the cell with energy and membranes, little is known about the cellular events directly involving LDs and their contents. In this study, we provide cytological evidence to reveal that LDs formed direct contacts with the prospore membrane (PSM) that is synthesized de novo during meiosis II to sequester the dividing nuclei in sporulating yeast...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932423/integrated-genomic-analysis-of-survival-outliers-in-glioblastoma
#3
Sen Peng, Harshil Dhurv, Brock Armstrong, Bodour Salhia, Christophe Legendre, Jeffrey Kiefer, Julianna Parks, Selene Virk, Andrew E Sloan, Quinn T Ostrom, Jill S Barnholtz-Sloan, Nhan L Tran, Michael E Berens
BACKGROUND: To elucidate molecular features associated with disproportionate survival of glioblastoma (GB) patients, we conducted deep genomic comparative analysis of a cohort of patients receiving standard therapy (surgery plus concurrent radiation and temozolomide); "GB outliers" were identified: long-term survivor of 33 months (LTS; n = 8) versus short-term survivor of 7 months (STS; n = 10). METHODS: We implemented exome, RNA, whole genome sequencing, and DNA methylation for collection of deep genomic data from STS and LTS GB patients...
December 8, 2016: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930654/whole-organism-developmental-expression-profiling-identifies-rab-28-as-a-novel-ciliary-gtpase-associated-with-the-bbsome-and-intraflagellar-transport
#4
Victor L Jensen, Stephen Carter, Anna A W M Sanders, Chunmei Li, Julie Kennedy, Tiffany A Timbers, Jerry Cai, Noemie Scheidel, Breandán N Kennedy, Ryan D Morin, Michel R Leroux, Oliver E Blacque
Primary cilia are specialised sensory and developmental signalling devices extending from the surface of most eukaryotic cells. Defects in these organelles cause inherited human disorders (ciliopathies) such as retinitis pigmentosa and Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS), frequently affecting many physiological and developmental processes across multiple organs. Cilium formation, maintenance and function depend on intracellular transport systems such as intraflagellar transport (IFT), which is driven by kinesin-2 and IFT-dynein motors and regulated by the Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) cargo-adaptor protein complex, or BBSome...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930287/emergent-structures-and-dynamics-of-cell-colonies-by-contact-inhibition-of-locomotion
#5
Bart Smeets, Ricard Alert, Jiří Pešek, Ignacio Pagonabarraga, Herman Ramon, Romaric Vincent
Cells in tissues can organize into a broad spectrum of structures according to their function. Drastic changes of organization, such as epithelial-mesenchymal transitions or the formation of spheroidal aggregates, are often associated either to tissue morphogenesis or to cancer progression. Here, we study the organization of cell colonies by means of simulations of self-propelled particles with generic cell-like interactions. The interplay between cell softness, cell-cell adhesion, and contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) yields structures and collective dynamics observed in several existing tissue phenotypes...
December 5, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929136/an-integrated-genomic-approach-for-the-study-of-mandibular-prognathism-in-the-european-seabass-dicentrarchus-labrax
#6
Massimiliano Babbucci, Serena Ferraresso, Marianna Pauletto, Rafaella Franch, Chiara Papetti, Tomaso Patarnello, Paolo Carnier, Luca Bargelloni
Skeletal anomalies in farmed fish are a relevant issue affecting animal welfare and health and causing significant economic losses. Here, a high-density genetic map of European seabass for QTL mapping of jaw deformity was constructed and a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was carried out on a total of 298 juveniles, 148 of which belonged to four full-sib families. Out of 298 fish, 107 were affected by mandibular prognathism (MP). Three significant QTLs and two candidate SNPs associated with MP were identified...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927890/massively-increased-caries-susceptibility-in-an-irf6-cleft-lip-palate-model
#7
B Tamasas, T C Cox
Patients with cleft lip/palate (CLP) have been reported, in some studies, to exhibit an increased prevalence of caries, although the underlying cause for this increase is unknown. In genetically defined mouse models, studies of postnatal sequelae associated with CLP have been hampered by neonatal lethality. Using a conditional targeting approach, we ablated the major CLP gene Irf6 only in the late embryonic oral epithelium (Irf6 cKO), bypassing the role of the gene in lip and palate morphogenesis and thus ensuring survival to adulthood...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926928/an-interactome-centered-protein-discovery-approach-reveals-novel-components-involved-in-mitosome-function-and-homeostasis-in-giardia-lamblia
#8
Samuel Rout, Jon Paulin Zumthor, Elisabeth M Schraner, Carmen Faso, Adrian B Hehl
Protozoan parasites of the genus Giardia are highly prevalent globally, and infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts including humans, with proliferation and pathology restricted to the small intestine. This narrow ecological specialization entailed extensive structural and functional adaptations during host-parasite co-evolution. An example is the streamlined mitosomal proteome with iron-sulphur protein maturation as the only biochemical pathway clearly associated with this organelle. Here, we applied techniques in microscopy and protein biochemistry to investigate the mitosomal membrane proteome in association to mitosome homeostasis...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926875/ship2-regulates-lumen-generation-cell-division-and-ciliogenesis-through-the-control-of-basolateral-to-apical-lumen-localization-of-aurora-a-and-hef-1
#9
Ola Hamze-Komaiha, Sokavuth Sarr, Yannick Arlot-Bonnemains, Didier Samuel, Ama Gassama-Diagne
Lumen formation during epithelial morphogenesis requires the creation of a luminal space at cell interfaces named apical membrane-initiation sites (AMISs). This is dependent upon integrated signaling from mechanical and biochemical cues, vesicle trafficking, cell division, and processes tightly coupled to ciliogenesis. Deciphering relationships between polarity determinants and lumen or cilia generation remains a fundamental issue. Here, we report that Src homology 2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase 2 (SHIP2), a basolateral determinant of polarity, regulates RhoA-dependent actin contractility and cell division to form AMISs...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926871/in%C3%A2-vivo-visualization-of-cardiomyocyte-apicobasal-polarity-reveals-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-like-transition-during-cardiac-trabeculation
#10
Vanesa Jiménez-Amilburu, S Javad Rasouli, David W Staudt, Hiroyuki Nakajima, Ayano Chiba, Naoki Mochizuki, Didier Y R Stainier
Despite great strides in understanding cardiac trabeculation, many mechanistic aspects remain unclear. To elucidate how cardiomyocyte shape changes are regulated during this process, we engineered transgenes to label their apical and basolateral membranes. Using these tools, we observed that compact-layer cardiomyocytes are clearly polarized while delaminating cardiomyocytes have lost their polarity. The apical transgene also enabled the imaging of cardiomyocyte apical constriction in real time. Furthermore, we found that Neuregulin signaling and blood flow/cardiac contractility are required for cardiomyocyte apical constriction and depolarization...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926854/structural-characterization-and-statistical-mechanical-model-of-epidermal-patterns
#11
Duyu Chen, Wen Yih Aw, Danelle Devenport, Salvatore Torquato
In proliferating epithelia of mammalian skin, cells of irregular polygon-like shapes pack into complex, nearly flat two-dimensional structures that are pliable to deformations. In this work, we employ various sensitive correlation functions to quantitatively characterize structural features of evolving packings of epithelial cells across length scales in mouse skin. We find that the pair statistics in direct space (correlation function) and Fourier space (structure factor) of the cell centroids in the early stages of embryonic development show structural directional dependence (statistical anisotropy), which is a reflection of the fact that cells are stretched, which promotes uniaxial growth along the epithelial plane...
December 6, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924605/embryonic-explant-culture-studying-effects-of-regulatory-molecules-on-gene-expression-in-craniofacial-tissues
#12
Katja Närhi
The ex vivo culture of embryonic tissue explants permits the continuous monitoring of growth and morphogenesis at specific embryonic stages. The functions of soluble regulatory molecules can be analyzed by introducing them into culture medium or locally with beads to the tissue. Gene expression in the manipulated tissue explants can be analyzed using in situ hybridization, quantitative PCR, and reporter constructs combined to organ culture to examine the functions of the signaling molecules.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924451/mir-124-promotes-newborn-olfactory-bulb-neuron-dendritic-morphogenesis-and-spine-density
#13
Guifa Li, Shucai Ling
Using microarray analysis, we detected microRNA-124 (miR-124) to be abundantly expressed in the olfactory bulb (OB). miR-124 regulates adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ). However, much less is known about its role in newborn OB neurons. Here, using both gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches, we demonstrate that brain-specific miR-124 affects dendritic morphogenesis and spine density in newborn OB neurons. Functional Annotation Clustering of miR-124 targets was enriched in "cell morphogenesis involved in neuron differentiation...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923661/cdc-25-2-a-caenorhabditis-elegans-ortholog-of-cdc25-is-required-for-male-tail-morphogenesis
#14
Sangmi Oh, Sunghee Yoon, Esther Youn, Ichiro Kawasaki, Yhong-Hee Shim
Cell division cycle 25 (Cdc25) is an evolutionarily conserved phosphatase that promotes cell cycle progression by activating cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) which are inactivated by Wee1/Myt1 kinases. It was previously reported that cdc-25.2 promotes oocyte maturation and intestinal cell divisions in Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodites. Here, we report a novel function of cdc-25.2 in male tail development which was significantly deformed by cdc-25.2 RNAi depletion and in cdc-25.2 mutant males. The deformation was also observed after RNAi depletion of other cell cycle regulators, cdk-1, cyb-3, cyd-1, and cyl-1...
December 3, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923121/basal-cell-extracellular-matrix-adhesion-regulates-force-transmission-during-tissue-morphogenesis
#15
Katharine Goodwin, Stephanie J Ellis, Emily Lostchuck, Teresa Zulueta-Coarasa, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalez, Guy Tanentzapf
Tissue morphogenesis requires force-generating mechanisms to organize cells into complex structures. Although many such mechanisms have been characterized, we know little about how forces are integrated across developing tissues. We provide evidence that integrin-mediated cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion modulates the transmission of apically generated tension during dorsal closure (DC) in Drosophila. Integrin-containing adhesive structures resembling focal adhesions were identified on the basal surface of the amnioserosa (AS), an extraembryonic epithelium essential for DC...
December 5, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922623/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-the-positive-role-of-treadmill-training-in-locomotor-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Q Liu, B Zhang, C Liu, D Zhao
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the positive role of treadmill training (TMT) in locomotor recovery. METHODS: GSE52763 microarray data were downloaded from GEO database, which was collected from the lumbar spinal cord samples of three groups of mice: mice subjected to contusive injury and killed 1 week after injury (I1), mice subjected to injury and killed 3 weeks after injury (I3), and mice subjected to injury and TMT beginning at week 1 and lasting until week 3 (T3)...
December 6, 2016: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922008/defining-functional-interactions-during-biogenesis-of-epithelial-junctions
#17
J C Erasmus, S Bruche, L Pizarro, N Maimari, T Pogglioli, C Tomlinson, J Lees, I Zalivina, A Wheeler, A Alberts, A Russo, V M M Braga
In spite of extensive recent progress, a comprehensive understanding of how actin cytoskeleton remodelling supports stable junctions remains to be established. Here we design a platform that integrates actin functions with optimized phenotypic clustering and identify new cytoskeletal proteins, their functional hierarchy and pathways that modulate E-cadherin adhesion. Depletion of EEF1A, an actin bundling protein, increases E-cadherin levels at junctions without a corresponding reinforcement of cell-cell contacts...
December 6, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921363/morphomechanics-and-developmental-constraints-in-the-evolution-of-ammonites-shell-form
#18
Alexander Erlich, Derek E Moulton, Alain Goriely, Regis Chirat
The idea that physical processes involved in biological development underlie morphogenetic rules and channel morphological evolution has been central to the rise of evolutionary developmental biology. Here, we explore this idea in the context of seashell morphogenesis. We show that a morphomechanical model predicts the effects of variations in shell shape on the ornamental pattern in ammonites, a now extinct group of cephalopods with external chambered shell. Our model shows that several seemingly unrelated characteristics of synchronous, ontogenetic, intraspecific, and evolutionary variations in ornamental patterns among various ammonite species may all be understood from the fact that the mechanical forces underlying the oscillatory behavior of the shell secreting system scale with the cross-sectional curvature of the shell aperture...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921294/temporal-dissociation-of-developmental-events-in-the-chick-eye-under-low-temperature-conditions
#19
Hideaki Iida, Tiantian Yang, Sadao Yasugi, Yasuo Ishii
The chick embryonic eye is an excellent model for the study of vertebrate organogenesis. Key events in eye development involve thickening, invagination and cytodifferentiation of the lens primordium. While these events occur successively at different developmental stages, the extent to which these events are temporally related is largely unknown. Here we show that the lens invagination is highly sensitive to temperature. Lowering of incubation temperature to 29°C at embryonic day 2 delayed the onset of invagination of the lens, but not thickening and cytodifferentiation, leading to abnormal protrusion of the eye...
December 6, 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921081/a-fungus-specific-protein-domain-is-essential-for-rasa-mediated-morphogenetic-signaling-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#20
Qusai Al Abdallah, Tiffany S Norton, Amy M Hill, Lawrence L LeClaire, Jarrod R Fortwendel
Ras proteins function as conserved regulators of eukaryotic growth and differentiation and are essential signaling proteins orchestrating virulence in pathogenic fungi. Here, we report the identification of a novel N-terminal domain of the RasA protein in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Whereas this domain is absent in Ras homologs of higher eukaryotes, the N-terminal extension is conserved among fungi and is characterized by a short string of two to eight amino acids terminating in an invariant arginine...
November 2016: MSphere
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