Read by QxMD icon Read


Dong-Yuan Chen, Justin Crest, David Bilder
Cell migration is indispensable to morphogenesis and homeostasis. Live imaging allows mechanistic insights, but long-term observation can alter normal biology, and tools to track movements in vivo without perturbation are lacking. We develop here a tool called M-TRAIL (matrix-labeling technique for real-time and inferred location), which reveals migration histories in fixed tissues. Using clones that overexpress GFP-tagged extracellular matrix (ECM) components, motility trajectories are mapped based on durable traces deposited onto basement membrane...
October 17, 2017: Cell Reports
Daniel Méndez-Sánchez, Rosaura Mayén-Estrada, Xiaotian Luo, Xiaozhong Hu
The genus Oxytricha Bory de Saint-Vincent in Lamouroux, Bory de Saint-Vincent and Deslongchamps, 1824 comprises about 38 species distributed worldwide and has been considered to be a non-monophyletic group. Based on living observations, protargol preparations, and a small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequence, we describe a new subspecies Oxytricha granulifera chiapasensis n. subsp. This new taxon is morphologically characterized by undulating membranes basically in a Stylonychia-pattern, six dorsal kineties, size in vivo ca...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Benoit Tesson, Sarah J L Lerch, Mark Hildebrand
Diatoms are known for their intricate, silicified cell walls (frustules). Silica polymerization occurs in a compartment called the silica deposition vesicle (SDV) and it was proposed that the cytoskeleton influences silica patterning through the SDV membrane (silicalemma) via interactions with transmembrane proteins. In this work we identify a family of proteins associated with the silicalemma, named SAPs for Silicalemma Associated Proteins. The T. pseudonana SAPs (TpSAPs) are characterized by their motif organization; each contains a transmembrane domain, serine rich region and a conserved cytoplasmic domain...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
D Yamaji, M M Soliman, A Kamikawa, T Ito, M M Ahmed, Y Okamatsu-Ogura, M Saito, K Kimura
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a mesenchymal cell-derived factor that regulates cell growth, cell motility, and morphogenesis. Since there are conflicting reports on HGF-producing cells, we herein examined HGF activity in conditioned medium (CM) of bovine and mouse preadipocytes before and after adipogenic differentiation. CM of bovine adipocytes and mouse preadipocytes induced the morphogenesis of mammary epithelial cells that was inhibited by an NK4 HGF antagonist, whereas CM of bovine preadipocytes and mouse adipocytes did not...
September 15, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
Anindito Sen, Amar N Ghosh
Phage D10, an O1 El Tor tying vibriophage, has been successfully employed to tract the outspread of cholera epidemic. Using Transmission Electron Microscopy and computational image analysis, we have determined the structures of the capsid, head-to-tail connector, the contractile helical tail, the baseplate and combined them to form the complete three-dimensional (3D) D10 phage structure. Using partial denaturation experiments on the genome and using the computed 3D structure of the phage, we have established the packing of the genome ends inside the capsid together with the release styles during the phage infection, respectively...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Thomas Mathivet, Claire Bouleti, Matthias Van Woensel, Fabio Stanchi, Tina Verschuere, Li-Kun Phng, Joost Dejaegher, Marly Balcer, Ken Matsumoto, Petya B Georgieva, Jochen Belmans, Raf Sciot, Christian Stockmann, Massimiliano Mazzone, Steven De Vleeschouwer, Holger Gerhardt
Glioma growth and progression are characterized by abundant development of blood vessels that are highly aberrant and poorly functional, with detrimental consequences for drug delivery efficacy. The mechanisms driving this vessel dysmorphia during tumor progression are poorly understood. Using longitudinal intravital imaging in a mouse glioma model, we identify that dynamic sprouting and functional morphogenesis of a highly branched vessel network characterize the initial tumor growth, dramatically changing to vessel expansion, leakage, and loss of branching complexity in the later stages...
October 16, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
James Lefevre, Kieran M Short, Timothy O Lamberton, Odyssé Michos, Daniel Graf, Ian M Smyth, Nicholas A Hamilton
Metanephric kidney development is orchestrated by the iterative branching morphogenesis of the ureteric bud. We describe an underlying patterning associated with the ramification of this structure and show that this pattern is conserved between developing kidneys, in different parts of the organ and across developmental time. This regularity is associated with a highly reproducible branching asymmetry that is consistent with locally operative growth mechanisms. We then develop a class of tip state models to represent elaboration of the ureteric tree and describe rules for "half delay" branching morphogenesis that describe almost perfectly the patterning of this structure...
October 16, 2017: Development
Julien Chlasta, Pascale Milani, Gaël Runel, Jean-Luc Duteyrat, Leticia Arias, Laurie-Anne Lamiré, Arezki Boudaoud, Muriel Grammont
The regulation of morphogenesis by the basement membrane (BM) may rely on changes in its mechanical properties. To test this, we developed an AFM-based method to measure BM mechanical stiffness during two key processes in Drosophila ovarian follicle development. First, follicle elongation depends on epithelial cells that collectively migrate secreting BM fibrils perpendicularly to the anteroposterior axis. Our data show that BM stiffness increases during this migration and that fibril incorporation enhances BM stiffness...
October 16, 2017: Development
Wanxu Wang, Ting Shi, Xiaopeng Ni, Yanshuai Xu, Shenchun Qu, Zhihong Gao
The microRNAs (miRNAs) comprise a broad class of non-coding small endogenous RNAs that are associated with many biological processes through the regulation of target genes, such as leaf morphogenesis and polarity, biotic and abiotic stress responses, root and flower development. We identified a miRNA that affects flower development, miR319a, in Prunus mume. The Pm-miR319a target, Pm-TCP4, was validated by 5'RACE. The higher expression of Pm-TCP4 in imperfect flowers showed that the Pm-TCP4 might promote pistil abortion...
October 16, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Harish P Janardhan, Zachary J Milstone, Masahiro Shin, Nathan D Lawson, John F Keaney, Chinmay M Trivedi
Lymphedema, the most common lymphatic anomaly, involves defective lymphatic valve development; yet the epigenetic modifiers underlying lymphatic valve morphogenesis remain elusive. Here, we showed that during mouse development, the histone-modifying enzyme histone deacetylase 3 (Hdac3) regulates the formation of both lymphovenous valves, which maintain the separation of the blood and lymphatic vascular systems, and the lymphatic valves. Endothelium-specific ablation of Hdac3 in mice led to blood-filled lymphatic vessels, edema, defective lymphovenous valve morphogenesis, improper lymphatic drainage, defective lymphatic valve maturation, and complete lethality...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Samad Ahadian, Robert Civitarese, Dawn Bannerman, Mohammad Hossein Mohammadi, Rick Lu, Erika Wang, Locke Davenport-Huyer, Ben Lai, Boyang Zhang, Yimu Zhao, Serena Mandla, Anastasia Korolj, Milica Radisic
Significant advances in biomaterials, stem cell biology, and microscale technologies have enabled the fabrication of biologically relevant tissues and organs. Such tissues and organs, referred to as organ-on-a-chip (OOC) platforms, have emerged as a powerful tool in tissue analysis and disease modeling for biological and pharmacological applications. A variety of biomaterials are used in tissue fabrication providing multiple biological, structural, and mechanical cues in the regulation of cell behavior and tissue morphogenesis...
October 16, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Yohei Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi Ichinose, Masahiro Nakamura, Masato Nishizawa, Kimihiro Igari, Takahiro Toyofuku, Toshifumi Kudo, Yoshinori Inoue
Venous malformations (VMs) are the most common type of vascular malformations, resulting from errors in vascular morphogenesis. Because of the wide variety in their presentations, selecting the appropriate treatment, especially for large VMs, may be challenging. Herein, we report a case of a 59-year-old man with a large VM in the lower extremity who achieved favorable outcomes by complete surgical resection. Even large VMs can be successfully treated with surgery when patients are properly selected. An accurate and careful evaluation is essential for achieving optimal outcome in patients with VMs...
March 24, 2017: Annals of Vascular Diseases
Alison Kuony, Frederic Michon
As an element of the lacrimal apparatus, the lacrimal gland (LG) produces the aqueous part of the tear film, which protects the eye surface. Therefore, a defective LG can lead to serious eyesight impairment. Up to now, little is known about LG morphogenesis and subsequent maturation. In this study, we delineated elements of the cellular and molecular events involved in LG formation by using three epithelial markers, namely aSMA, Krt14, and Krt19. While aSMA marked a restricted epithelial population of the terminal end buds (TEBs) in the forming LG, Krt14 was found in the whole embryonic LG epithelial basal cell layer...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Koshi Kunimoto, Roy D Bayly, Eszter K Vladar, Tyson Vonderfecht, Anna-Rachel Gallagher, Jeffrey D Axelrod
Oriented cell division (OCD) and convergent extension (CE) shape developing renal tubules, and their disruption has been associated with polycystic kidney disease (PKD) genes, the majority of which encode proteins that localize to primary cilia. Core planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling controls OCD and CE in other contexts, leading to the hypothesis that disruption of PCP signaling interferes with CE and/or OCD to produce PKD. Nonetheless, the contribution of PCP to tubulogenesis and cystogenesis is uncertain, and two major questions remain unanswered...
October 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Naser Mohammadi, Rahim Mehrabi, Amir Mirzadi Gohari, Ebrahim Mohammadi Goltapeh, Naser Safaie, Gert H J Kema
The dimorphic fungal pathogen, Zymoseptoria tritici undergoes discrete developmental changes to complete its life cycle on wheat. Molecular mechanisms underlying morphogenesis during infection process of Z. tritici are poorly understood. In this study, we have investigated the role of ZtVf1 gene encoding a transcription factor belonging to C2-H2 subfamily. In planta assays revealed that ZtVf1 is required for virulence. Reduced necrotic lesions and low pycnidia density within the lesions resulted in significantly reduced virulence of ZtVf1 mutants...
October 12, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Sanam Zarei, Kasra Zarei, Bernd Fritzsch, Karen L Elliott
Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling plays a major role in vertebrate development, from regulation of proliferation to the patterning of various organs. In amniotes, Shh affects dorsoventral patterning in the inner ear but affects anteroposterior patterning in teleosts. Currently, it remains unknown the function of Shh in inner ear development in terms of how morphogenesis changes in the sarcopterygian/tetrapod lineage coincide with the evolution of limbs and novel auditory organs in the ear. In this study we used the tetrapod, Xenopus laevis, to test how increasing concentrations of the Shh signal pathway antagonist, Vismodegib, affects ear development...
October 14, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
Vasiliki Kommata, Catherine R Dermon
Complex morphogenetic events, critical for the development of normal cerebellum foliation and layering, are known to involve type III intermediate filament protein such as vimentin expressed by Bergmann glia. The present study aimed to determine aspects of intermediate and late embryonic pattern of vimentin expression during the corticogenesis of chicken cerebellum at embryonic days 10 to 19 (E10-E19), using single and double immunohistochemistry/immunofluorescence. Vimentin expression showed partial co-localization with the glial markers GFAP and BLBP...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Yudong Mei, Haotian Chen, Wenbiao Shen, Wei Shen, Liqin Huang
BACKGROUND: Both hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are separately regarded as a highly reactive molecule involved in root morphogenesis. In this report, corresponding causal link governing lateral root formation was investigated. METHODS: By using pharmacological, anatomic, and molecular approaches, evidence presented here revealed the molecular mechanism underlying tomato lateral root development triggered by H2S. RESULTS: A H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) triggered the accumulation of H2O2, the up-regulation of RBOH1 transcript, and thereafter tomato lateral root formation...
October 13, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Chih-Wei Chou, Jamie Lin, Yun-Jin Jiang, Yi-Wen Liu
Though the zebrafish interrenal tissue has been used as a model for steroidogenesis and genesis of the adrenal gland, its specification and morphogenesis is still largely unclear. In this study, we explored how the WT1-expressing cells are segregated from the SF-1-expressing steroidogenic cells in the zebrafish model. The interrenal tissue precursors expressing ff1b, the equivalent of mammalian SF-1, are derived from wt1-expressing pronephric primordia in the zebrafish embryo. Through histochemistry and in situ hybridization, we demonstrated that the size of functionally-differentiated interrenal tissue was significantly increased upon a global inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway, which was accompanied by a disrupted segregation between the wt1- and ff1b-expressing cells...
September 29, 2017: Endocrinology
Ankur Garg, Mukesh Bansal, Noriko Gotoh, Gen-Sheng Feng, Jian Zhong, Fen Wang, Ariana Kariminejad, Steven Brooks, Xin Zhang
The sequential use of signaling pathways is essential for the guidance of pluripotent progenitors into diverse cell fates. Here, we show that Shp2 exclusively mediates FGF but not PDGF signaling in the neural crest to control lacrimal gland development. In addition to preventing p53-independent apoptosis and promoting the migration of Sox10-expressing neural crests, Shp2 is also required for expression of the homeodomain transcription factor Alx4, which directly controls Fgf10 expression in the periocular mesenchyme that is necessary for lacrimal gland induction...
October 13, 2017: PLoS Genetics
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"