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Eleonora Palagano, Giulia Zuccarini, Paolo Prontera, Renato Borgatti, Gabriela Stangoni, Sandro Elisei, Stefano Mantero, Ciro Menale, Antonella Forlino, Paolo Uva, Manuela Oppo, Paolo Vezzoni, Anna Villa, Giorgio R Merlo, Cristina Sobacchi
Acrofrontofacionasal Dysostosis type 1 (AFFND1) is an extremely rare, autosomal recessive syndrome, comprising facial and skeletal abnormalities, short stature and intellectual disability. We analyzed an Indian family with two affected siblings by exome sequencing and identified a novel homozygous truncating mutation in the Neuroblastoma-Amplified Sequence (NBAS) gene in the patients' genome. Mutations in the NBAS gene have recently been associated with different phenotypes mainly involving skeletal formation, liver and cognitive development...
June 18, 2018: Bone
Marion McElwee, Swetha Vijayakrishnan, Frazer Rixon, David Bhella
Herpesviruses include many important human pathogens such as herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, varicella-zoster virus, and the oncogenic Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Herpes virions contain a large icosahedral capsid that has a portal at a unique 5-fold vertex, similar to that seen in the tailed bacteriophages. The portal is a molecular motor through which the viral genome enters the capsid during virion morphogenesis. The genome also exits the capsid through the portal-vertex when it is injected through the nuclear pore into the nucleus of a new host cell to initiate infection...
June 20, 2018: PLoS Biology
Sen Lin, Yi Min Xie, Qing Li, Xiaodong Huang, Zhe Zhang, Guowei Ma, Shiwei Zhou
Being one of the commonest deformation modes for soft matters, shell buckling is the primary reason for the growth and nastic movement of many plants, as well as the formation of complex natural morphology. On-demand regulation of buckling-induced deformation associated with wrinkling, ruffling, folding, creasing and delaminating has profound implications for diverse scopes, which can be seen in its broad applications in microfabrication, 4D printing, actuator and drug delivery. This paper reviews the recent remarkable developments in the shell buckling of soft matters to explain the most representative natural morphogenesis from the perspectives of theoretical analysis in continuum mechanics, finite element analysis, and experimental validations...
June 20, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Abhishak C Gupta, Shikha Chawla, Ashok Hegde, Divya Singh, Balaji Bandyopadhyay, Chandrasekharan C Lakshmanan, Gurpreet Kalsi, Sourabh Ghosh
Human hair dermal papilla (DP) cells are specialized mesenchymal cells that play a pivotal role in hair regeneration and hair cycle activation. The current study aimed to first develop three-dimensional (3D) DP spheroids (DPS) with or without a silk-gelatin (SG) microenvironment, which showed enhanced DP-specific gene expression, resulting in enhanced extracellular matrix (ECM) production compared with a monolayer culture. We tested the feasibility of using this DPS model for drug screening by using minoxidil, which is a standard drug for androgenic alopecia...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Jie Chen, Chu-Ze Shen, Yan-Ping Guo, Guang-Yuan Rao
There are several types of capitulum in the Asteraceae due to different combinations of florets varying in corolla shape and stamen development. Previous studies have shown that the formation of ray florets on a radiate capitulum may be related to the parallel co-option of CYC2 -like genes among independent Asteraceae lineages. The present work tests that hypothesis and attempts to shed light on the pattern of evolution of the Asteraceae capitulum and floral heteromorphism under the regulation of CYC2 -like genes...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Shira Michaeli, Vivian Dakwar, Keren Weidenfeld, Ortal Granski, Odelya Gilon, Sagie Schif-Zuck, Anatolii Mamchur, Imad Shams, Dalit Barkan
Different subtypes of macrophages have been shown to participate in different stages of inflammation and tissue repair. In the late stage of tissue repair, the macrophages, following their engulfment of apoptotic neutrophils, acquire a new phenotype termed alternatively activated macrophages. These macrophages produce growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), that facilitate the angiogenic response as part of tissue restoration. Then, in the later stages of tissue healing, capillary regression takes place...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Beate M Rüger, Tanja Buchacher, Alexander Giurea, Bernd Kubista, Michael B Fischer, Johannes M Breuss
Introduction: New vessel formation requires a continuous and tightly regulated interplay between endothelial cells with cells of the perivascular microenvironment supported by mechanic-physical and chemical cues from the extracellular matrix. Aim: Here we investigated the potential of small fragments of synovial tissue to form de novo vascular structures in the context of inflammation within three dimensional (3D) fibrin-based matrices in vitro , and assessed the contribution of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-immune cell cross-talk to neovascularization considering paracrine signals in a fibrin-based co-culture model...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Sahnawaz Ahmed, Kandan Natarajan Amba Sankar, Bapan Pramanik, Kallol Mohanta, Debapratim Das
Molecular organization of electron-deficient aromatic systems like perylenediimides (PDI) is extremely appealing, as they are potential candidates for organic electronics. Performance of these molecules in such applications primarily depends on the self-organization of the molecules. However, any correlation between the morphology of these self-assembled semiconducting molecules and their electrical performances have not yet been formulated. Herein, for the first time, we have made an effort to find such a correlation by studying the self-assembly, morphology and their conducting properties for a peptide-PDI conjugate...
June 19, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Sho Ohta, Gary C Schoenwolf
Dorsoventral (DV) patterning of the otocyst gives rise to formation of the morphologically and functionally complex membranous labyrinth composed of unique dorsal and ventral sensory organs. DV patterning results from extracellular signaling by secreted growth factors, which presumably form reciprocal concentration gradients across the DV axis of the otocyst. Previous work suggested a model in which two important growth factors, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and SHH, undergo crosstalk through an intersecting pathway to coordinate DV patterning...
June 19, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Bilal Ökmen, Bastian Kemmerich, Daniel Hilbig, Raphael Wemhöner, Jörn Aschenbroich, Andreas Perrar, Pitter F Huesgen, Kerstin Schipper, Gunther Doehlemann
Fungalysins from several phytopathogenic fungi have been shown to be involved in cleavage of plant chitinases. While fungal chitinases are responsible for cell wall remodeling during growth and morphogenesis, plant chitinases are important components of immunity. This study describes a dual function of the Ustilago maydis fungalysin UmFly1 in modulation of both plant and fungal chitinases. Genetic, biochemical and microscopic experiments were performed to elucidate the in vitro and in planta functions of U...
June 19, 2018: New Phytologist
Emiliano Izquierdo, Theresa Quinkler, Stefano De Renzis
During organismal development, cells undergo complex changes in shape whose causal relationship to individual morphogenetic processes remains unclear. The modular nature of such processes suggests that it should be possible to isolate individual modules, determine the minimum set of requirements sufficient to drive tissue remodeling, and re-construct morphogenesis. Here we use optogenetics to reconstitute epithelial folding in embryonic Drosophila tissues that otherwise would not undergo invagination. We show that precise spatial and temporal activation of Rho signaling is sufficient to trigger apical constriction and tissue folding...
June 18, 2018: Nature Communications
Moira R Conith, Yinan Hu, Andrew J Conith, Maura A Maginnis, Jacqueline F Webb, R Craig Albertson
Phenotypic novelties are an important but poorly understood category of morphological diversity. They can provide insights into the origins of phenotypic variation, but we know relatively little about their genetic origins. Cichlid fishes display remarkable diversity in craniofacial anatomy, including several novelties. One aspect of this variation is a conspicuous, exaggerated snout that has evolved in a single Malawi cichlid lineage and is associated with foraging specialization and increased ecological success...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Marissa A Scavuzzo, Jessica Teaw, Diane Yang, Malgorzata Borowiak
The pancreas is a complex organ composed of many different cell types that work together to regulate blood glucose homeostasis and digestion. These cell types include enzyme-secreting acinar cells, an arborized ductal system responsible for the transportation of enzymes to the gut, and hormone-producing endocrine cells. Endocrine beta-cells are the sole cell type in the body that produce insulin to lower blood glucose levels. Diabetes, a disease characterized by a loss or the dysfunction of beta-cells, is reaching epidemic proportions...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Li Fan, Yichao Lu, Xiulian Shen, Hong Shao, Lun Suo, Qiang Wu
Diverse clustered protocadherins are thought to function in neurite morphogenesis and neuronal connectivity in the brain. Here we report that the protocadherin alpha ( Pcdha ) gene cluster regulates neuronal migration during cortical development and cytoskeletal dynamics in primary cortical culture through the WAVE (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome family verprolin homologous protein, also known as WASP or Wasf) complex. In addition, overexpression of proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2, also known as Ptk2b, Cakb, Raftk, Fak2, and Cadtk), a non-receptor cell-adhesion kinase and scaffold protein downstream of Pcdha, impairs cortical neuron migration via inactivation of the small GTPase Rac1...
June 18, 2018: ELife
Daniel Wurmbrand, Jörg Wolfram Anselm Fischer, Rose Rosenberg, Klaus Boldt
A fibrillar, polymeric intermediate (Cd2Se)n was isolated from the synthesis of CdSe nanorods, which suggests that the reactants themselves can template anisotropic growth. It is shown that high monomer concentration is the principal factor favouring this reaction pathway. The intermediate is distinct from crystalline semiconductor or small clusters and is surprisingly temperature-stable below 250 °C.
June 18, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Kurtulus Karauzum, Irem Yilmaz Karauzum, Tayfun Sahin, Teoman Kilic
Myocardial non-compaction (NC) is a rare genetic cardiomyopathy commonly believed to develop an intrauterine arrest of endomyocardial morphogenesis. NC is characterized by markedly hypertrabeculations in left ventricle or both ventricles with deep intertrabecular recesses. NC is usually seen isolated, but sometimes other congenital heart abnormalities may accompany to the myocardial NC. In this article we have presented an adult patient with biventricular myocardial NC cardiomyopathy accompanied by severe valvular pulmonary stenosis and patent foramen ovale...
April 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Echography
Simone La Frazia, Sara Piacentini, Anna Riccio, Jean Francois Rossignol, M Gabriella Santoro
The emergence of new avian influenza virus (AIV) strains able to infect humans represents a serious threat to global human health. In addition to surveillance and vaccine development, antiviral therapy remains crucial for AIV control; however, the increase in drug-resistant AIV strains underscores the need for novel approaches to anti-influenza chemotherapy. We have previously shown that the thiazolide anti-infective nitazoxanide (NTZ) inhibits influenza A/PuertoRico/8/1934(H1N1) virus replication, and this effect was associated with inhibition of viral hemagglutinin (HA) maturation...
June 13, 2018: Antiviral Research
Kodavati Manohar, Doureradjou Peroumal, Narottam Acharya
Polη, a unique TLS DNA polymerase that promotes efficient bypass of UV-induced CPDs and cisplatin adducts, has not been explored in Candida species yet. Here we show that CaPolη plays a vital role in protecting Candida albicans genome from diverse array of DNA damaging agents, not limited to UV and cisplatin. Polη deficient strain did not exhibit any hyphal development in the presence of UV and cisplatin while the wild type strain profusely developed DNA damage induced filamentation. The polarized growth induced by HU and MMS was found to be Polη independent...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Priyanka Jain, Subhash Chandra Sethi, Vavilala A Pratyusha, Pramita Garai, Nilofer Naqvi, Sonali Singh, Kalpana Pawar, Niti Puri, Sneha Sudha Komath
The ability of C. albicans to switch between yeast to hyphal form is a property that is primarily associated with the invasion and virulence of this human pathogenic fungus. Several GPI anchored proteins are expressed only during hyphal morphogenesis. One of the major pathways that controls hyphal morphogenesis is the Ras signaling pathway. We examine the cross-talk between GPI anchor biosynthesis and Ras signaling in C. albicans We show that the first step of GPI biosynthesis is activated by Ras in C. albicans This is diametrically opposite to what is reported in S...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jan T Burri, Hannes Vogler, Nino F Läubli, Chengzhi Hu, Ueli Grossniklaus, Bradley J Nelson
Physical forces are involved in the regulation of plant development and morphogenesis by translating mechanical stress into the modification of physiological processes, which, in turn, can affect cellular growth. Pollen tubes respond rapidly to external stimuli and provide an ideal system to study the effect of mechanical cues at the single-cell level. Here, pollen tubes were exposed to mechanical stress while monitoring the reconfiguration of their growth and recording the generated forces in real-time. We combined a lab-on-a-chip device with a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based capacitive force sensor to mimic and quantify the forces that are involved in pollen tube navigation upon confronting mechanical obstacles...
June 15, 2018: New Phytologist
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