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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636457/notch-signaling-in-lung-diseases
#1
Jiehan Jiang, Kui Xiao, Ping Chen
NOTCH is a fundamental signaling system that regulates normal embryonic development and tissue homeostasis in adult life. NOTCH receptor is a single-pass transmembrane protein normally triggered via direct cell-to-cell contact, in which NOTCH ligands bind the extracellular domain of the receptor, inducing γ-secretase cleavage and release of intracellular domain. The intracellular domain binds to the transcriptional effector RBPJκ to activate transcription of target genes that regulate cell differentiation, patterning, and morphogenesis during embryonic development and adult life...
June 21, 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635588/genome-sequence-variation-in-the-constricta-strain-dramatically-alters-the-protein-interaction-and-localization-map-of-potato-yellow-dwarf-virus
#2
Chanyong Jang, Renyuan Wang, Joseph Wells, Fabian Leon, Mark Farman, John Hammond, Michael M Goodin
The genome sequence of the constricta strain of Potato yellow dwarf virus (CYDV) was determined to be 12 792 nt long and organized into seven ORFs with the gene order 3'-N-X-P-Y-M-G-L-5', which encodes the nucleocapsid, phospho, movement, matrix, glyco, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase proteins, respectively, except for X, which is of unknown function. Cloned ORFs for each gene, except L, were used to construct a protein interaction and localization map (PILM) for this virus, which shares greater than 80 % amino acid similarity in all ORFs except X and P with the sanguinolenta strain of this species (SYDV)...
June 21, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634271/development-of-the-thyroid-gland
#3
REVIEW
Mikael Nilsson, Henrik Fagman
Thyroid hormones are crucial for organismal development and homeostasis. In humans, untreated congenital hypothyroidism due to thyroid agenesis inevitably leads to cretinism, which comprises irreversible brain dysfunction and dwarfism. Elucidating how the thyroid gland - the only source of thyroid hormones in the body - develops is thus key for understanding and treating thyroid dysgenesis, and for generating thyroid cells in vitro that might be used for cell-based therapies. Here, we review the principal mechanisms involved in thyroid organogenesis and functional differentiation, highlighting how the thyroid forerunner evolved from the endostyle in protochordates to the endocrine gland found in vertebrates...
June 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634239/the-dual-activity-responsible-for-the-elongation-and-branching-of-%C3%AE-1-3-glucan-in-the-fungal-cell-wall
#4
Vishukumar Aimanianda, Catherine Simenel, Cecile Garnaud, Cecile Clavaud, Rui Tada, Lise Barbin, Isabelle Mouyna, Christoph Heddergott, Laura Popolo, Yoshikazu Ohya, Muriel Delepierre, Jean-Paul Latge
β-(1,3)-Glucan, the major fungal cell wall component, ramifies through β-(1,6)-glycosidic linkages, which facilitates its binding with other cell wall components contributing to proper cell wall assembly. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model, we developed a protocol to quantify β-(1,6)-branching on β-(1,3)-glucan. Permeabilized S. cerevisiae and radiolabeled substrate UDP-((14)C)glucose allowed us to determine branching kinetics. A screening aimed at identifying deletion mutants with reduced branching among them revealed only two, the bgl2Δ and gas1Δ mutants, showing 15% and 70% reductions in the branching, respectively, compared to the wild-type strain...
June 20, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631994/gene-expression-and-morphogenesis-during-the-deposition-of-drosophila-wing-cuticle
#5
Paul N Adler
The exoskeleton of insects and other arthropods is a very versatile material that is characterized by a complex multilayer structure. In Sobala and Adler (2016) we analyzed the process of wing cuticle deposition by RNAseq and electron microscopy. In this extra view we discuss the unique aspects of the envelope the first and most outermost layer and the gene expression program seen at the end of cuticle deposition. We discussed the role of undulae in the deposition of cuticle and how the hydrophobicity of wing cuticle arises...
February 17, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630321/how-selective-severing-by-katanin-promotes-order-in-the-plant-cortical-microtubule-array
#6
Eva E Deinum, Simon H Tindemans, Jelmer J Lindeboom, Bela M Mulder
Plant morphogenesis requires differential and often asymmetric growth. A key role in controlling anisotropic expansion of individual cells is played by the cortical microtubule array. Although highly organized, the array can nevertheless rapidly change in response to internal and external cues. Experiments have identified the microtubule-severing enzyme katanin as a central player in controlling the organizational state of the array. Katanin action is required both for normal alignment and the adaptation of array orientation to mechanical, environmental, and developmental stimuli...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630022/lamprey-metamorphosis-thyroid-hormone-signaling-in-a-basal-vertebrate
#7
REVIEW
Richard G Manzon, Lori A Manzon
As one of the most basal living vertebrates, lampreys represent an excellent model system to study the evolution of thyroid hormone (TH) signaling. The lamprey hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid and reproductive axes overlap functionally. Lampreys have 3 gonadotropin releasing hormones and a single glycoprotein hormone from the hypothalamus and pituitary, respectively, that regulate both the reproductive and thyroid axes. TH synthesis in larval lampreys takes place in an endostyle that transforms into typical vertebrate thyroid tissue during metamorphosis; both the endostyle and follicular tissue have all the typical TH synthetic components found in other vertebrates...
June 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630011/interplay-between-hepatitis-c-virus-and-lipid-metabolism-during-virus-entry-and-assembly
#8
REVIEW
Muriel Lavie, Jean Dubuisson
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health problem worldwide. In most cases, HCV infection becomes chronic, leading to the development of liver diseases that range from fibrosis to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Due to its medical importance, the HCV life cycle has been deeply characterized, and a unique feature of this virus is its interplay with lipids. Accordingly, all the steps of the virus life cycle are influenced by the host lipid metabolism. Indeed, due to their association with host lipoproteins, HCV particles have a unique lipid composition...
June 16, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627749/determining-the-impact-of-cell-mixing-on-signaling-during-development
#9
REVIEW
Koichiro Uriu, Luis G Morelli
Cell movement and intercellular signaling occur simultaneously to organize morphogenesis during embryonic development. Cell movement can cause relative positional changes between neighboring cells. When intercellular signals are local such cell mixing may affect signaling, changing the flow of information in developing tissues. Little is known about the effect of cell mixing on intercellular signaling in collective cellular behaviors and methods to quantify its impact are lacking. Here we discuss how to determine the impact of cell mixing on cell signaling drawing an example from vertebrate embryogenesis: the segmentation clock, a collective rhythm of interacting genetic oscillators...
June 19, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627439/mitochondrial-prohibitin-and-its-ubiquitination-during-spermatogenesis-of-the-swimming-crab-charybdis-japonica
#10
Ya-Ru Xu, Yun-Shu Fan, Wan-Xi Yang
It has been proposed that prohibitin (PHB) involved in multiple cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, senescence and carcinogenesis. Various cellular compartment location of PHB demonstrates its diverse roles. Based on the full-length sequence of PHB gene, we analyzed the deduced amino acid sequence and the predicted protein structure of this gene in the swimming crab Charybdis japonica. It shows that the structure and function of PHB are conservative. The expression level of PHB mRNA and protein in different tissues were analyzed by sqRT-PCR and western blot respectively, which showed its high expression in testis...
June 13, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627384/cadherin-genes-and-evolutionary-novelties-in-the-octopus
#11
REVIEW
Z Yan Wang, Clifton W Ragsdale
All animals with large brains must have molecular mechanisms to regulate neuronal process outgrowth and prevent neurite self-entanglement. In vertebrates, two major gene families implicated in these mechanisms are the clustered protocadherins and the atypical cadherins. However, the molecular mechanisms utilized in complex invertebrate brains, such as those of the cephalopods, remain largely unknown. Recently, we identified protocadherins and atypical cadherins in the octopus. The octopus protocadherin expansion shares features with the mammalian clustered protocadherins, including enrichment in neural tissues, clustered head-to-tail orientations in the genome, and a large first exon encoding all cadherin domains...
June 13, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626889/from-basal-cell-morphogenesis-to-the-alopecia-induced-by-hedgehog-inhibitors-connecting-the-dots
#12
REVIEW
C Dessinioti, C Antoniou, A J Stratigos
The deciphering of the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway implicated in the tumorigenesis of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), led to the development of targeted drug therapies, e.g. the hedgehog pathway inhibitors (HPI), vismodegib and sonidegib. In the skin, physiologic Hh signaling is activated in growing hair follicles, where it is required for proliferation of the epithelium of hair follicles during morphogenesis and for their postnatal growth. The effects of HPI treatment leading to the regression of BCC and the development of alopecia, underpin the central role of the Hh pathway in BCC formation as well as hair cycling...
June 18, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623968/oxygen-and-tissue-culture-affect-placental-gene-expression
#13
O Brew, M H F Sullivan
INTRODUCTION: Placental explant culture is an important model for studying placental development and functions. We investigated the differences in placental gene expression in response to tissue culture, atmospheric and physiologic oxygen concentrations. METHODS: Placental explants were collected from normal term (38-39 weeks of gestation) placentae with no previous uterine contractile activity. Placental transcriptomic expressions were evaluated with GeneChip(®) Human Genome U133 Plus 2...
July 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623893/evolutionary-origin-of-type-iv-classical-cadherins-in-arthropods
#14
Mizuki Sasaki, Yasuko Akiyama-Oda, Hiroki Oda
BACKGROUND: Classical cadherins are a metazoan-specific family of homophilic cell-cell adhesion molecules that regulate morphogenesis. Type I and type IV cadherins in this family function at adherens junctions in the major epithelial tissues of vertebrates and insects, respectively, but they have distinct, relatively simple domain organizations that are thought to have evolved by independent reductive changes from an ancestral type III cadherin, which is larger than derived paralogs and has a complicated domain organization...
June 17, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623797/phenotypic-defects-in-newborn-gammarus-fossarum-amphipoda-following-embryonic-exposure-to-fenoxycarb
#15
Hélène Arambourou, Arnaud Chaumot, Emmanuelle Vulliet, Gaëlle Daniele, Nicolas Delorme, Khédidja Abbaci, Vincent Debat
During morphogenesis numerous morphogenetic factors ensure the production of a target phenotype. By disrupting these processes, a toxic exposure during this period could cause an increase of phenotypic defects. In the present study, embryos of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus fossarum were exposed throughout the embryogenesis to increasing concentrations of fenoxycarb (0, 0.5µgL(-1), 5µgL(-1) and 50µgL(-1)), a growth regulator insecticide analog of the insect juvenile hormone. In addition, to identify morphogenesis' sensitive period, embryos were exposed during either early or late embryonic development to 5µgL(-1) of fenoxycarb...
June 14, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623666/sox2-regulates-acinar-cell-development-in-the-salivary-gland
#16
Elaine Emmerson, Alison May, Sara Nathan, Noel Cruz Pacheco, Carlos O Lizama, Lenka Maliskova, Ann C Zovein, Yin Shen, Marcus O Muench, Sarah M Knox
Acinar cells play an essential role in the secretory function of exocrine organs. Despite this requirement, how acinar cells are generated during organogenesis is unclear. Using the acini-ductal network of the developing human and murine salivary gland, we demonstrate an unexpected role for SOX2 and parasympathetic nerves in generating the acinar lineage that has broad implications for epithelial morphogenesis. Despite SOX2 being expressed by progenitors that give rise to both acinar and duct cells, genetic ablation of SOX2 results in a failure to establish acini but not ducts...
June 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623590/integration-of-genome-wide-tf-binding-and-gene-expression-data-to-characterize-gene-regulatory-networks-in-plant-development
#17
Dijun Chen, Kerstin Kaufmann
Key transcription factors (TFs) controlling the morphogenesis of flowers and leaves have been identified in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Recent genome-wide approaches based on chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by high-throughput DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) enable systematic identification of genome-wide TF binding sites (TFBSs) of these regulators. Here, we describe a computational pipeline for analyzing ChIP-seq data to identify TFBSs and to characterize gene regulatory networks (GRNs) with applications to the regulatory studies of flower development...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621412/the-not-so-long-history-of-zebrafish-research-in-israel
#18
Janna Blechman, Gil Levkowitz, Yoav Gothilf
The zebrafish has become a model of choice in fundamental and applied life sciences and is widely used in various fields of biomedical research as a human disease model for cancer, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases, and regenerative medicine. The transparency of the zebrafish embryo allows real-time visualization of the development and morphogenesis of practically all of its tissues and organs. Zebrafish are amenable to genetic manipulation, for which innovative genetic and molecular techniques are constantly being introduced...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621039/wbla-a-pleiotropic-regulatory-gene-modulating-morphogenesis-and-daptomycin-production-in-streptomyces-roseosporus
#19
Xingwei Huang, Tingmei Ma, Jun Tian, Lan Shen, Hua Zuo, Changhua Hu, Guojian Liao
AIMS: The wblA gene, encoding a homolog of the WhiB family protein, was identified in the sequenced genome of daptomycin producer S.roseosporus. To explore the function of wblA, we construct wblA disruption strains, complemented strains and overexpression strains to test whether it can affect the production of secondary metabolites and morphogenesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We constructed disruption strains by homologous recombination in S.roseosporus. The disruption mutant of wblA could block aerial mycelium sporulation and enhance the production of daptomycin by 51%...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619823/sin3a-regulates-epithelial-progenitor-cell-fate-during-lung-development
#20
Changfu Yao, Gianni Carraro, Bindu Konda, Xiangrong Guan, Takako Mizuno, Norika Chiba, Matthew Kostelny, Adrianne Kurkciyan, Gregory David, Jonathan L McQualter, Barry R Stripp
Mechanisms that regulate tissue-specific progenitors for maintenance and differentiation during development are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the co-repressor protein Sin3a is critical for lung endoderm development. Loss of Sin3a in early foregut endoderm leads to a specific and profound defect in lung development with lung buds failing to undergo branching morphogenesis and progressive atrophy of the proximal lung endoderm with complete epithelial loss at later stages of development. Consequently, neonatal pups died at birth due to respiratory insufficiency...
June 15, 2017: Development
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