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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719048/developmental-mechanisms-of-intervertebral-disc-and-vertebral-column-formation
#1
REVIEW
Lisa Y Lawson, Brian D Harfe
The vertebral column consists of repeating units of ossified vertebrae that are adjoined by fibrocartilagenous intervertebral discs. These structures form from the embryonic notochord and somitic mesoderm. In humans, congenital malformations of the vertebral column include scoliosis, kyphosis, spina bifida, and Klippel Feil syndrome. In adulthood, a common malady affecting the vertebral column includes disc degeneration and associated back pain. Indeed, recent reports estimate that low back pain is the number one cause of disability worldwide...
July 18, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718990/fungitoxicity-of-organic-extracts-of-ocimum-basilicum-on-growth-and-morphogenesis-of-bipolaris-species-teleomorph-cochliobolus
#2
E A Elsherbiny, N A Safwat, M M Elaasser
AIMS: This study aimed at evaluating the inhibitory effects of various organic extracts of Ocimum basilicum against some species of Bipolaris and Cochliobolus with GC-MS and HPLC analysis. METHODS AND RESULTS: The ethyl acetate extract consisted of methyl cinnamate as the most abundant component, while butylated hydroxytoluene was the major component in the methanol extract. Pyrogallol and chlorogenic acid were major phenolic compounds in the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, respectively...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717874/distinct-functions-of-crumbs-regulating-slit-diaphragms-and-endocytosis-in-drosophila-nephrocytes
#3
Florian Hochapfel, Lucia Denk, Gudrun Mendl, Ulf Schulze, Christine Maaßen, Yulia Zaytseva, Hermann Pavenstädt, Thomas Weide, Reinhard Rachel, Ralph Witzgall, Michael P Krahn
Mammalian podocytes, the key determinants of the kidney's filtration barrier, differentiate from columnar epithelial cells and several key determinants of apical-basal polarity in the conventional epithelia have been shown to regulate podocyte morphogenesis and function. However, little is known about the role of Crumbs, a conserved polarity regulator in many epithelia, for slit-diaphragm formation and podocyte function. In this study, we used Drosophila nephrocytes as model system for mammalian podocytes and identified a conserved function of Crumbs proteins for cellular morphogenesis, nephrocyte diaphragm assembly/maintenance, and endocytosis...
July 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717174/over-expression-of-kdsoc1-gene-affected-plantlet-morphogenesis-in-kalanchoe-daigremontiana
#4
Chen Zhu, Li Wang, Jinhua Chen, Chenglan Liu, Huiming Zeng, Huafang Wang
Kalanchoe daigremontiana reproduces asexually by producing plantlets along the leaf margin. The aim of this study was to identify the function of the SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 gene in Kalanchoe daigremontiana (KdSOC1) during plantlet morphogenesis. In this study, KdSOC1 gene expression was detected at stem cell niche during in vitro somatic embryogenesis and plantlet morphogenesis. Disrupting endogenous auxin transportation suppressed the KdSOC1 gene response. Knockdown of the KdSOC1 gene caused a defect in cotyledon formation during the early heart stage of somatic embryogenesis...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716887/cell-cell-contact-and-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-signaling
#5
Christine Chiasson-MacKenzie, Andrea I McClatchey
The behavior of cells within tissues is governed by the activities of adhesion receptors that provide spatial cues and transmit forces through intercellular junctions, and by growth-factor receptors, particularly receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), that respond to biochemical signals from the environment. Coordination of these two activities is essential for the patterning and polarized migration of cells during morphogenesis and for homeostasis in mature tissues; loss of this coordination is a hallmark of developing cancer and driver of metastatic progression...
July 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716713/n-myc-regulates-growth-and-fiber-cell-differentiation-in-lens-development
#6
Gabriel R Cavalheiro, Gabriel E Matos-Rodrigues, Yilin Zhao, Anielle L Gomes, Deepti Anand, Danilo Predes, Silmara de Lima, Jose G Abreu, Deyou Zheng, Salil A Lachke, Ales Cvekl, Rodrigo A P Martins
Myc proto-oncogenes regulate diverse cellular processes during development, but their roles during morphogenesis of specific tissues are not fully understood. We found that c-myc regulates cell proliferation in mouse lens development and previous genome-wide studies suggested functional roles for N-myc in developing lens. Here, we examined the role of N-myc in mouse lens development. Genetic inactivation of N-myc in the surface ectoderm or lens vesicle impaired eye and lens growth, while "late" inactivation in lens fibers had no effect...
July 14, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716076/klf8-regulates-left-right-asymmetric-patterning-through-modulation-of-kupffer-s-vesicle-morphogenesis-and-spaw-expression
#7
Che-Yi Lin, Ming-Yuan Tsai, Yu-Hsiu Liu, Yu-Fen Lu, Yi-Chung Chen, Yun-Ren Lai, Hsin-Chi Liao, Huang-Wei Lien, Chung-Hsiang Yang, Chang-Jen Huang, Sheng-Ping L Hwang
BACKGROUND: Although vertebrates are bilaterally symmetric organisms, their internal organs are distributed asymmetrically along a left-right axis. Disruption of left-right axis asymmetric patterning often occurs in human genetic disorders. In zebrafish embryos, Kupffer's vesicle, like the mouse node, breaks symmetry by inducing asymmetric expression of the Nodal-related gene, spaw, in the left lateral plate mesoderm (LPM). Spaw then stimulates transcription of itself and downstream genes, including lft1, lft2, and pitx2, specifically in the left side of the diencephalon, heart and LPM...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715701/synthetic-biological-approaches-to-optogenetically-control-cell-signaling
#8
REVIEW
Katja Kolar, Wilfried Weber
Precise spatial and temporal control of cellular processes is in life sciences a highly sought-after capability. In the recent years, this goal has become progressively achievable through the field of optogenetics, which utilizes light as a non-invasive means to control genetically encoded light-responsive proteins. The latest optogenetic systems, such as those for control of subcellular localization or cellular decision-making and tissue morphogenesis provide us with insights to gain a deeper understanding of the cellular inner workings...
July 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715414/kinesin-1-promotes-chondrocyte-maintenance-during-skeletal-morphogenesis
#9
Adrian Santos-Ledo, Marina Garcia-Macia, Philip D Campbell, Marta Gronska, Florence L Marlow
During skeletal morphogenesis diverse mechanisms are used to support bone formation. This can be seen in the bones that require a cartilage template for their development. In mammals the cartilage template is removed, but in zebrafish the cartilage template persists and the bone mineralizes around the cartilage scaffold. Remodeling of unmineralized cartilage occurs via planar cell polarity (PCP) mediated cell rearrangements that contribute to lengthening of elements; however, the mechanisms that maintain the chondrocyte template that supports perichondral ossification remain unclear...
July 17, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714975/association-analyses-based-on-false-discovery-rate-implicate-new-loci-for-coronary-artery-disease
#10
Christopher P Nelson, Anuj Goel, Adam S Butterworth, Stavroula Kanoni, Tom R Webb, Eirini Marouli, Lingyao Zeng, Ioanna Ntalla, Florence Y Lai, Jemma C Hopewell, Olga Giannakopoulou, Tao Jiang, Stephen E Hamby, Emanuele Di Angelantonio, Themistocles L Assimes, Erwin P Bottinger, John C Chambers, Robert Clarke, Colin N A Palmer, Richard M Cubbon, Patrick Ellinor, Raili Ermel, Evangelos Evangelou, Paul W Franks, Christopher Grace, Dongfeng Gu, Aroon D Hingorani, Joanna M M Howson, Erik Ingelsson, Adnan Kastrati, Thorsten Kessler, Theodosios Kyriakou, Terho Lehtimäki, Xiangfeng Lu, Yingchang Lu, Winfried März, Ruth McPherson, Andres Metspalu, Mar Pujades-Rodriguez, Arno Ruusalepp, Eric E Schadt, Amand F Schmidt, Michael J Sweeting, Pierre A Zalloua, Kamal AlGhalayini, Bernard D Keavney, Jaspal S Kooner, Ruth J F Loos, Riyaz S Patel, Martin K Rutter, Maciej Tomaszewski, Ioanna Tzoulaki, Eleftheria Zeggini, Jeanette Erdmann, George Dedoussis, Johan L M Björkegren, Heribert Schunkert, Martin Farrall, John Danesh, Nilesh J Samani, Hugh Watkins, Panos Deloukas
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in coronary artery disease (CAD) had identified 66 loci at 'genome-wide significance' (P < 5 × 10(-8)) at the time of this analysis, but a much larger number of putative loci at a false discovery rate (FDR) of 5% (refs. 1,2,3,4). Here we leverage an interim release of UK Biobank (UKBB) data to evaluate the validity of the FDR approach. We tested a CAD phenotype inclusive of angina (SOFT; ncases = 10,801) as well as a stricter definition without angina (HARD; ncases = 6,482) and selected cases with the former phenotype to conduct a meta-analysis using the two most recent CAD GWAS...
July 17, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714585/mathematical-model-of-collective-cell-migrations-based-on-cell-polarity
#11
Masakazu Akiyama, Takamichi Sushida, Sumire Ishida, Hisashi Haga
Individual cells migrate toward the direction of the cell polarity generated by interior or exterior factors. Under situations without guides such as chemoattractants, they migrate randomly. On the other hand, it has been observed that cell groups lead to systematic collective cell migrations. For example, Dictyostelium discoideum and Madin-Darby canine kidney (epithelial) cells exhibit typical collective cell migration patterns such as uniformly directional migration and rotational migration. In particular, it has been suggested from experimental investigations that rotational migrations are intimately related to morphogenesis of organs and tissues in several species...
July 17, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713398/a-hops-protein-movps41-is-crucially-important-for-vacuolar-morphogenesis-vegetative-growth-reproduction-and-virulence-in-magnaporthe-oryzae
#12
Xiaojie Zhang, Guanghui Wang, Chengdong Yang, Jun Huang, Xiaofeng Chen, Jie Zhou, Guangpu Li, Justice Norvienyeku, Zonghua Wang
The homotypic fusion and protein sorting protein complex (HOPS) is the first known tether complex identified in the endocytic system that plays a key role in promoting homotypic vacuolar fusion, vacuolar biogenesis and trafficking in a wide range of organisms, including plant and fungi. However, the exact influence of the HOPS complex on growth, reproduction and pathogenicity of the economically destructive rice blast fungus has not been investigated. In this study, we identified M. oryzae vacuolar protein sorting 41 (MoVps41) an accessory subunit of HOPS complex and used targeted gene deletion approach to evaluate its contribution to growth, reproduction and infectious life cycle of the rice blast fungus...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712826/induction-of-skeletal-abnormalities-and-autophagy-in-paracentrotus-lividus-sea-urchin-embryos-exposed-to-gadolinium
#13
Chiara Martino, Roberto Chiarelli, Liana Bosco, Maria Carmela Roccheri
Gadolinium (Gd) concentration is constantly increasing in the aquatic environment, becoming an emergent environmental pollutant. We investigated the effects of Gd on Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin embryos, focusing on skeletogenesis and autophagy. We observed a delay of biomineral deposition at 24 hours post fertilization (hpf), and a strong impairment of skeleton growth at 48 hpf, frequently displayed by an asymmetrical pattern. Skeleton growth was found partially resumed in recovery experiments. The mesodermal cells designated to biomineralization were found correctly migrated at 24 hpf, but not at 48 hpf...
July 6, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712724/acylglycerol-kinase-mutated-in-sengers-syndrome-is-a-subunit-of-the-tim22-protein-translocase-in-mitochondria
#14
Milena Vukotic, Hendrik Nolte, Tim König, Shotaro Saita, Maria Ananjew, Marcus Krüger, Takashi Tatsuta, Thomas Langer
Mutations in mitochondrial acylglycerol kinase (AGK) cause Sengers syndrome, which is characterized by cataracts, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and skeletal myopathy. AGK generates phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid, bioactive phospholipids involved in lipid signaling and the regulation of tumor progression. However, the molecular mechanisms of the mitochondrial pathology remain enigmatic. Determining its mitochondrial interactome, we have identified AGK as a constituent of the TIM22 complex in the mitochondrial inner membrane...
July 8, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712722/cell-polarity-regulates-biased-myosin-activity-and-dynamics-during-asymmetric-cell-division-via-drosophila-rho-kinase-and-protein-kinase-n
#15
Anna Tsankova, Tri Thanh Pham, David Salvador Garcia, Fabian Otte, Clemens Cabernard
Cell and tissue morphogenesis depends on the correct regulation of non-muscle Myosin II, but how this motor protein is spatiotemporally controlled is incompletely understood. Here, we show that in asymmetrically dividing Drosophila neural stem cells, cell intrinsic polarity cues provide spatial and temporal information to regulate biased Myosin activity. Using live cell imaging and a genetically encoded Myosin activity sensor, we found that Drosophila Rho kinase (Rok) enriches for activated Myosin on the neuroblast cortex prior to nuclear envelope breakdown (NEB)...
July 7, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710815/lacrimal-gland-development-from-signaling-interactions-to-regenerative-medicine
#16
REVIEW
Ankur Garg, Xin Zhang
The lacrimal gland plays a pivotal role in keeping the ocular surface lubricated, and protecting it from environmental exposure and insult. Dysfunction of the lacrimal gland results in deficiency of the aqueous component of the tear film, which can cause dryness of the ocular surface, also known as the aqueous-deficient dry eye disease. Left untreated, this disease can lead to significant morbidity, including frequent eye infections, corneal ulcerations and vision loss. Current therapies do not treat the underlying deficiency of the lacrimal gland, but merely provide symptomatic relief...
July 14, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710415/morphogenesis-and-optoelectronic-properties-of-supramolecular-assemblies-of-chiral-perylene-diimides-in-a-binary-solvent-system
#17
Xiaobo Shang, Inho Song, Hiroyoshi Ohtsu, Jiaqi Tong, Haoke Zhang, Joon Hak Oh
Chiral supramolecular structures are attracting great attention due to their specific properties and high potential in chiral sensing and separation. Herein, supramolecular assembling behaviors of chiral perylene diimides have been systematically investigated in a mixed solution of tetrahydrofuran and water. They exhibit remarkably different morphologies and chiral aggregation behaviors depending on the mixing ratio of the solvents, i.e., the fraction of water. The morphogenesis and optoelectronic properties of chiral supramolecular structures have been thoroughly studied using a range of experimental and theoretical methods to investigate the morphological effects of chiral supramolecular assemblies on the electrical performances and photogenerated charge-carrier behaviors...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710397/brain-specific-lamellipodin-knockout-results-in-hyperactivity-and-increased-anxiety-of-mice
#18
Cristian Bodo, Cathy Fernandes, Matthias Krause
Lamellipodin (Lpd) functions as an important signalling integrator downstream of growth factor and axon guidance receptors. Mechanistically, Lpd promotes actin polymerization by interacting with F-actin and the actin effectors Ena/VASP proteins and the SCAR/WAVE complex. Thereby, Lpd supports lamellipodia protrusion, cell migration and endocytosis. In the mammalian central nervous system, Lpd contributes to neuronal morphogenesis, neuronal migration during development and its C. elegans orthologue MIG-10 also supports synaptogenesis...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710028/gene-expression-profiles-of-fin-regeneration-in-loach-paramisgurnus-dabryanu
#19
Li Li, Jingya He, Linlin Wang, Weihua Chen, Zhongjie Chang
Teleost fins can regenerate accurate position-matched structure and function after amputation. However, we still lack systematic transcriptional profiling and methodologies to understand the molecular basis of fin regeneration. After histological analysis, we established a suppression subtraction hybridization library containing 418 distinct sequences expressed differentially during the process of blastema formation and differentiation in caudal fin regeneration. Genome ontology and comparative analysis of differential distribution of our data and the reference zebrafish genome showed notable subcategories, including multi-organism processes, response to stimuli, extracellular matrix, antioxidant activity, and cell junction function...
July 11, 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709949/pulmonary-hypoplasia
#20
REVIEW
C Michael Cotten
To survive the transition to extrauterine life, newborn infants must have lungs that provide an adequate surface area and volume to allow for gas exchange. The dynamic activities of fetal breathing movements and accumulation of lung luminal fluid are key to fetal lung development throughout the various phases of lung development and growth, first by branching morphogenesis, and later by septation. Because effective gas exchange is essential to survival, pulmonary hypoplasia is among the leading findings on autopsies of children dying in the newborn period...
July 11, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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