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Morphogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234285/a-microarray-study-of-carpet-shell-clam-ruditapes-decussatus-shows-common-and-organ-specific-growth-related-gene-expression-differences-in-gills-and-digestive-gland
#1
Carlos Saavedra, Massimo Milan, Ricardo B Leite, David Cordero, Tomaso Patarnello, M Leonor Cancela, Luca Bargelloni
Growth rate is one of the most important traits from the point of view of individual fitness and commercial production in mollusks, but its molecular and physiological basis is poorly known. We have studied differential gene expression related to differences in growth rate in adult individuals of the commercial marine clam Ruditapes decussatus. Gene expression in the gills and the digestive gland was analyzed in 5 fast-growing and five slow-growing animals by means of an oligonucleotide microarray containing 14,003 probes...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234149/effect-of-maternal-iron-deficiency-anemia-on-fetal-neural-development
#2
Sriparna Basu, Dinesh Kumar, Shampa Anupurba, Ashish Verma, Ashok Kumar
OBJECTIVE: Perinatal iron deficiency may have deleterious consequences on fetal neural development. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of maternal iron deficiency anemia (IDA) on fetal hippocampal morphogenesis and production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). STUDY DESIGN: Seventy term, singleton neonates born to mothers with IDA (hemoglobin <110g/L and serum ferritin <12 μg/L) formed the study group. Twenty gestational age-matched neonates born to healthy mothers without IDA (hemoglobin ≥110 g/L and serum ferritin >12 μg/L) served as controls...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234067/the-human-blood-nerve-barrier-transcriptome
#3
Steven P Palladino, E Scott Helton, Preti Jain, Chaoling Dong, Michael R Crowley, David K Crossman, Eroboghene E Ubogu
The blood-nerve barrier (BNB), formed by tight junction-forming microvessels within peripheral nerve endoneurium, exists to regulate its internal microenvironment essential for effective axonal signal transduction. Relatively little is known about the unique human BNB molecular composition. Such knowledge is crucial to comprehend the relationships between the systemic circulation and peripheral nerves in health, adaptations to intrinsic or extrinsic perturbations and alterations that may result in disease. We performed RNA-sequencing on cultured early- and late-passage adult primary human endoneurial endothelial cells and laser-capture microdissected endoneurial microvessels from four cryopreserved normal adult human sural nerves referenced to the Genome Reference Consortium Human Reference 37 genome browser, using predefined criteria guided by known transcript or protein expression in vitro and in situ...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233477/molecular-anatomy-of-the-developing-human-retina
#4
Akina Hoshino, Rinki Ratnapriya, Matthew J Brooks, Vijender Chaitankar, Matthew S Wilken, Chi Zhang, Margaret R Starostik, Linn Gieser, Anna La Torre, Mario Nishio, Olivia Bates, Ashley Walton, Olivia Bermingham-McDonogh, Ian A Glass, Rachel O L Wong, Anand Swaroop, Thomas A Reh
Clinical and genetic heterogeneity associated with retinal diseases makes stem-cell-based therapies an attractive strategy for personalized medicine. However, we have limited understanding of the timing of key events in the developing human retina, and in particular the factors critical for generating the unique architecture of the fovea and surrounding macula. Here we define three key epochs in the transcriptome dynamics of human retina from fetal day (D) 52 to 136. Coincident histological analyses confirmed the cellular basis of transcriptional changes and highlighted the dramatic acceleration of development in the fovea compared with peripheral retina...
December 1, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232409/lupeol-and-stigmasterol-suppress-tumor-angiogenesis-and-inhibit-cholangiocarcinoma-growth-in-mice-via-downregulation-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE
#5
Thaned Kangsamaksin, Supattra Chaithongyot, Chanida Wootthichairangsan, Rattanavinan Hanchaina, Chayada Tangshewinsirikul, Jisnuson Svasti
Lupeol and stigmasterol, major phytosterols in various herbal plants, possess anti-inflammatory activities and have been proposed as candidates for anti-cancer agents, but their molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of lupeol and stigmasterol on tumor and endothelial cells in vitro and their anti-cancer activities in vivo. Our results demonstrated that lupeol and stigmasterol suppressed cell viability, migration, and morphogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) but not cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229864/cytoplasmic-cl-couples-membrane-remodeling-to-epithelial-morphogenesis
#6
Mu He, Wenlei Ye, Won-Jing Wang, Eirish S Sison, Yuh Nung Jan, Lily Yeh Jan
Chloride is the major free anion in the extracellular space (>100 mM) and within the cytoplasm in eukaryotes (10 ∼ 20 mM). Cytoplasmic Cl- level is dynamically regulated by Cl- channels and transporters. It is well established that movement of Cl- across the cell membrane is coupled with cell excitability through changes in membrane potential and with water secretion. However, whether cytoplasmic Cl- plays additional roles in animal development and tissue homeostasis is unknown. Here we use genetics, cell biological and pharmacological tools to demonstrate that TMEM16A, an evolutionarily conserved calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC), regulates cytoplasmic Cl- homeostasis and promotes plasma membrane remodeling required for mammalian epithelial morphogenesis...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229667/prostate-organogenesis
#7
Jeffrey C Francis, Amanda Swain
The prostate is a male exocrine gland that secretes components of the seminal fluid. In men, prostate tumors are one of the most prevalent cancers. Studies on the development of the prostate have given a better understanding of the processes and genes that are important in the formation of this organ and have provided insights into the mechanisms of prostate tumorigenesis. These developmental studies have provided evidence that some of the genes and signaling pathways involved in development are reactivated or deregulated during prostate cancer...
December 11, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229492/programming-morphogenesis-through-systems-and-synthetic-biology
#8
REVIEW
Jeremy J Velazquez, Emily Su, Patrick Cahan, Mo R Ebrahimkhani
Mammalian tissue development is an intricate, spatiotemporal process of self-organization that emerges from gene regulatory networks of differentiating stem cells. A major goal in stem cell biology is to gain a sufficient understanding of gene regulatory networks and cell-cell interactions to enable the reliable and robust engineering of morphogenesis. Here, we review advances in synthetic biology, single cell genomics, and multiscale modeling, which, when synthesized, provide a framework to achieve the ambitious goal of programming morphogenesis in complex tissues and organoids...
December 8, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227993/in-vivo-zebrafish-morphogenesis-shows-cyp26b1-promotes-tendon-condensation-and-musculoskeletal-patterning-in-the-embryonic-jaw
#9
Patrick D McGurk, Mary E Swartz, Jessica W Chen, Jenna L Galloway, Johann K Eberhart
Integrated development of diverse tissues gives rise to a functional, mobile vertebrate musculoskeletal system. However, the genetics and cellular interactions that drive the integration of muscle, tendon, and skeleton are poorly understood. In the vertebrate head, neural crest cells, from which cranial tendons derive, pattern developing muscles just as tendons have been shown to in limb and trunk tissue, yet the mechanisms of this patterning are unknown. From a forward genetic screen, we determined that cyp26b1 is critical for musculoskeletal integration in the ventral pharyngeal arches, particularly in the mandibulohyoid junction where first and second arch muscles interconnect...
December 11, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227471/inhibiting-mitochondrial-phosphate-transport-as-an-unexploited-antifungal-strategy
#10
Catherine A McLellan, Benjamin M Vincent, Norma V Solis, Alex K Lancaster, Lucas B Sullivan, Cathy L Hartland, Willmen Youngsaye, Scott G Filler, Luke Whitesell, Susan Lindquist
The development of effective antifungal therapeutics remains a formidable challenge because of the close evolutionary relationship between humans and fungi. Mitochondrial function may present an exploitable vulnerability because of its differential utilization in fungi and its pivotal roles in fungal morphogenesis, virulence, and drug resistance already demonstrated by others. We now report mechanistic characterization of ML316, a thiohydantoin that kills drug-resistant Candida species at nanomolar concentrations through fungal-selective inhibition of the mitochondrial phosphate carrier Mir1...
December 11, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226547/avian-embryonic-coronary-arterio-venous-pattering-involves-the-contribution-of-different-endothelial-and-endocardial-cell-populations
#11
Paul Palmquist-Gomes, Juan Antonio Guadix, José M Pérez-Pomares
BACKGROUND: Coronary vasculature irrigates the myocardium and is crucial to late embryonic and adult heart function. Despite the developmental significance and clinical relevance of these blood vessels, the embryonic origin and the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate coronary arterio-venous patterning are not known in detail. In this study, we have used the avian embryo to dissect the ontogenetic origin and morphogenesis of coronary vasculature. RESULTS: We show that sinus venosus endocardial sprouts and proepicardial angioblasts pioneer coronary vascular formation, invading the developing heart simultaneously...
December 11, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226467/axon-guidance-pathways-and-the-control-of-gene-expression
#12
REVIEW
Samantha A Russell, Greg J Bashaw
Axons need to be properly guided to their targets to form synaptic connections, and this requires interactions between highly conserved extracellular and transmembrane ligands and their cell surface receptors. The majority of studies on axon guidance signaling pathways have focused on the role of these pathways in rearranging the local cytoskeleton and plasma membrane in growth cones and axons. However, a smaller body of work has demonstrated that axon guidance signaling pathways also control gene expression via local translation and transcription...
December 11, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224891/the-bmp-signaling-pathway-regulates-development-of-left-right-asymmetry-in-amphioxus
#13
Vladimir Soukup, Zbynek Kozmik
Establishment of asymmetry along the left-right (LR) body axis in vertebrates requires interplay between Nodal and Bmp signaling pathways. In the basal chordate amphioxus, the left-sided activity of the Nodal signaling has been attributed to the asymmetric morphogenesis of paraxial structures and pharyngeal organs, however the role of Bmp signaling in LR asymmetry establishment has not been addressed to date. Here, we show that Bmp signaling is necessary for the development of LR asymmetric morphogenesis of amphioxus larvae through regulation of Nodal signaling...
December 7, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223822/exposure-to-acrylamide-induces-cardiac-developmental-toxicity-in-zebrafish-during-cardiogenesis
#14
Mengmeng Huang, Jingjing Jiao, Jun Wang, Zhidan Xia, Yu Zhang
Acrylamide (AA), an environmental pollutant, has been linked to neurotoxicity, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. AA is widely used to synthesize polymers for industrial applications, is widely found in Western-style carbohydrate-rich foods and cigarette smoke, and can also be detected in human umbilical cord blood and breast milk. This is the first study that demonstrated the cardiac developmental toxicity of AA in zebrafish embryos. Post-fertilization exposure to AA caused a clearly deficient cardiovascular system with a shrunken heart and abortive morphogenesis and function...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223398/epha7-regulates-claudin6-and-pronephros-development-in-xenopus
#15
Jian Sun, Xiaolei Wang, Yu Shi, Jiejing Li, Chaocui Li, Zhaoying Shi, Yonglong Chen, Bingyu Mao
Eph/ephrin molecules are widely expressed during embryonic development, and function in a variety of developmental processes. Here we studied the roles of the Eph receptor EphA7 and its soluble form in Xenopus pronephros development. EphA7 is specifically expressed in pronephric tubules at tadpole stages and knockdown of EphA7 by a translation blocking morpholino led to defects in tubule cell differentiation and morphogenesis. A soluble form of EphA7 (sEphA7) was also identified. Interestingly, the membrane level of claudin6 (CLDN6), a tetraspan transmembrane tight junction protein, was dramatically reduced in the translation blocking morpholino injected embryos, but not when a splicing morpholino was used, which blocks only the full length EphA7...
December 6, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222779/micropatterned-geometry-shape-oligodendrocyte-and-microglia-plasticity
#16
Cinzia Volonté, Adele De Ninno, Susanna Amadio
Cellular adhesion is essential in maintaining multicellular structure by connecting cells to each other in vivo and to a biomimetic substrate in vitro. In this context, one of the first steps toward the comprehension, for instance, of oligodendrocyte and microglia adhesion and migrating behavior consists in discriminating the different morphological features that can be acquired when cells are cultured on diverse surface topographies that mimic an in vivo three-dimensional environment. With this in mind, in this chapter, we describe how to exploit the silicon isotropic topography consisting of line-grating geometries and micropillar structures fabricated on polydimethylsiloxane by soft lithography...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222391/the-g-protein-coupled-receptor-gpr161-regulates-forelimb-formation-limb-patterning-and-skeletal-morphogenesis-in-a-primary-cilium-dependent-manner
#17
Sun-Hee Hwang, Kevin A White, Bandarigoda Nipunika Somatilaka, John M Shelton, James A Richardson, Saikat Mukhopadhyay
The role of basal suppression of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway and its interaction with Indian hedgehog (Ihh) signaling during limb/skeletal morphogenesis is not well understood. The orphan G-protein-coupled receptor, Gpr161 localizes to primary cilia, and functions as a negative regulator of Shh signaling by promoting Gli transcriptional repressor versus activator formation. Here, we show that forelimb buds are not formed in Gpr161 knockout mice embryos despite establishment of prospective limb fields. Limb-specific deletion of Gpr161 resulted in prematurely expanded Shh signaling and ectopic Shh-dependent patterning defects to cause polysyndactyly...
December 8, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222185/p37-ubxn2b-regulates-spindle-orientation-by-limiting-cortical-numa-recruitment-via-pp1-repo-man
#18
Byung Ho Lee, Francoise Schwager, Patrick Meraldi, Monica Gotta
Spindle orientation determines the axis of division and is crucial for cell fate, tissue morphogenesis, and the development of an organism. In animal cells, spindle orientation is regulated by the conserved Gαi-LGN-NuMA complex, which targets the force generator dynein-dynactin to the cortex. In this study, we show that p37/UBXN2B, a cofactor of the p97 AAA ATPase, regulates spindle orientation in mammalian cells by limiting the levels of cortical NuMA. p37 controls cortical NuMA levels via the phosphatase PP1 and its regulatory subunit Repo-Man, but it acts independently of Gαi, the kinase Aurora A, and the phosphatase PP2A...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222169/nanoscale-tuning-of-vcam-1-determines-vla-4-dependent-melanoma-cell-plasticity-on-rgd-motifs
#19
Katharina Amschler, Eugen Kossmann, Luise Erpenbeck, Sebastian Kruss, Tillmann Schill, Margarete Schön, Sigrid M C Möckel, Joachim P Spatz, Michael P Schön
The biophysical fine-tuning of cancer cell plasticity is crucial for tumor progression but remains largely enigmatic. Although Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1/CD106) has been implicated in melanoma progression, here its presentation on endothelial cells was associated with diminished melanoma cell spreading. Using a specific nanoscale-modulation of VCAM-1 (tunable from 70 to 670 ligands/µm²) next to integrin ligands (RGD motifs) in a bifunctional system, reciprocal regulation of integrin α4 (ITGA4/VLA-4/CD49d)-dependent adhesion and spreading of melanoma cells was found...
December 8, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221437/evolutionary-characterization-and-transcript-profiling-of-%C3%AE-tubulin-genes-in-flax-linum-usitatissimum-l-during-plant-development
#20
Floriana Gavazzi, Gaia Pigna, Luca Braglia, Silvia Gianì, Diego Breviario, Laura Morello
BACKGROUND: Microtubules, polymerized from alpha and beta-tubulin monomers, play a fundamental role in plant morphogenesis, determining the cell division plane, the direction of cell expansion and the deposition of cell wall material. During polarized pollen tube elongation, microtubules serve as tracks for vesicular transport and deposition of proteins/lipids at the tip membrane. Such functions are controlled by cortical microtubule arrays. Aim of this study was to first characterize the flax β-tubulin family by sequence and phylogenetic analysis and to investigate differential expression of β-tubulin genes possibly related to fibre elongation and to flower development...
December 8, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
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