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Morphogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098558/platelet-derived-growth-factor-pdgf-signaling-directs-cardiomyocyte-movement-toward-the-midline-during-heart-tube-assembly
#1
Joshua Bloomekatz, Reena Singh, Owen Wj Prall, Ariel C Dunn, Megan Vaughan, Chin-San Loo, Richard P Harvey, Deborah Yelon
Communication between neighboring tissues plays a central role in guiding organ morphogenesis. During heart tube assembly, interactions with the adjacent endoderm control the medial movement of cardiomyocytes, a process referred to as cardiac fusion. However, the molecular underpinnings of this endodermal-myocardial relationship remain unclear. Here, we show an essential role for platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (Pdgfra) in directing cardiac fusion. Mutation of pdgfra disrupts heart tube assembly in both zebrafish and mouse...
January 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098184/infrared-laser-induced-gene-expression-for-tracking-development-and-function-of-single-c-elegans-embryonic-neurons
#2
Anupriya Singhal, Shai Shaham
Visualizing neural-circuit assembly in vivo requires tracking growth of optically resolvable neurites. The Caenorhabditis elegans embryonic nervous system, comprising 222 neurons and 56 glia, is attractive for comprehensive studies of development; however, embryonic reporters are broadly expressed, making single-neurite tracking/manipulation challenging. We present a method, using an infrared laser, for reproducible heat-dependent gene expression in small sublineages (one to four cells) without radiation damage...
January 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096473/vimentin-intermediate-filaments-control-actin-stress-fiber-assembly-through-gef-h1-and-rhoa
#3
Yaming Jiu, Johan Peränen, Niccole Schaible, Fang Cheng, John E Eriksson, Ramaswamy Krishnan, Pekka Lappalainen
The actin and intermediate filament cytoskeleltons contribute to numerous cellular processes, including morphogenesis, cytokinesis, and migration. These two cytoskeletal systems associate with each other, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here,we show that inactivation of vimentin leads to increased actin stress fiber assembly and contractility, and consequent elevation of myosin light chain phosphorylation and stabilization of tropomyosin-4.2. The vimentin knockout phenotypes can be rescued by re-expression of wild-type vimentin, but not by the non-filamentous 'unit length form' vimentin, demonstrating that intact vimentin intermediate filaments are required to facilitate the effects on the actin cytoskeleton...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096360/measurement-of-cortical-elasticity-in-drosophila-melanogaster-embryos-using-ferrofluids
#4
Konstantin Doubrovinski, Michael Swan, Oleg Polyakov, Eric F Wieschaus
Many models of morphogenesis are forced to assume specific mechanical properties of cells, because the actual mechanical properties of living tissues are largely unknown. Here, we measure the rheology of epithelial cells in the cellularizing Drosophila embryo by injecting magnetic particles and studying their response to external actuation. We establish that, on timescales relevant to epithelial morphogenesis, the cytoplasm is predominantly viscous, whereas the cellular cortex is elastic. The timescale of elastic stress relaxation has a lower bound of 4 min, which is comparable to the time required for internalization of the ventral furrow during gastrulation...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096292/regulation-of-kidney-development-by-the-mdm2-mdm4-p53-axis
#5
REVIEW
Samir El-Dahr, Sylvia Hilliard, Zubaida Saifudeen
While p53 activity is required for tumor suppression, unconstrained p53 activity on the other hand is detrimental to the organism, resulting in inappropriate cellular death or proliferation defects. Unimpeded p53 activity is lethal in the developing embryo, underlining the need for maintaining a tight control on p53 activity during this period. The critical role of the negative regulators of p53, Mdm2 and Mdm4, in vertebrate development came to light by fatal disruption of embryogenesis that was observed with Mdm2 and Mdm4 gene deletions in mice...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096264/adherens-junctions-on-the-move-membrane-trafficking-of-e-cadherin
#6
Lena Brüser, Sven Bogdan
Cadherin-based adherens junctions are conserved structures that mediate epithelial cell-cell adhesion in invertebrates and vertebrates. Despite their pivotal function in epithelial integrity, adherens junctions show a remarkable plasticity that is a prerequisite for tissue architecture and morphogenesis. Epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) is continuously turned over and undergoes cycles of endocytosis, sorting and recycling back to the plasma membrane. Mammalian cell culture and genetically tractable model systems such as Drosophila have revealed conserved, but also distinct, mechanisms in the regulation of E-cadherin membrane trafficking...
January 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096261/tuning-collective-cell-migration-by-cell-cell-junction-regulation
#7
Peter Friedl, Roberto Mayor
Collective cell migration critically depends on cell-cell interactions coupled to a dynamic actin cytoskeleton. Important cell-cell adhesion receptor systems implicated in controlling collective movements include cadherins, immunoglobulin superfamily members (L1CAM, NCAM, ALCAM), Ephrin/Eph receptors, Slit/Robo, connexins and integrins, and an adaptive array of intracellular adapter and signaling proteins. Depending on molecular composition and signaling context, cell-cell junctions adapt their shape and stability, and this gradual junction plasticity enables different types of collective cell movements such as epithelial sheet and cluster migration, branching morphogenesis and sprouting, collective network migration, as well as coordinated individual-cell migration and streaming...
January 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096216/basal-filopodia-and-vascular-mechanical-stress-organize-fibronectin-into-pillars-bridging-the-mesoderm-endoderm-gap
#8
Yuki Sato, Kei Nagatoshi, Ayumi Hamano, Yuko Imamura, David Huss, Seiichi Uchida, Rusty Lansford
Cells may exchange information with other cells and tissues by exerting forces on the extracellular matrix (ECM). Fibronectin (FN) is an important ECM component that forms fibrils through cell contacts and creates directionally biased geometry. Here, we demonstrate that FN is deposited as pillars between widely separated germ layers, namely the somitic mesoderm and the endoderm, in quail embryos. Alongside the FN pillars, long filopodia protrude from the basal surfaces of somite epithelial cells. Loss-of-function of Ena/VASP, α5β1-integrins or talin in the somitic cells abolished the FN pillars, indicating that FN pillar formation is dependent on the basal filopodia through these molecules...
January 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096213/endothelial-cell-regulation-of-salivary-gland-epithelial-patterning
#9
Hae Ryong Kwon, Deirdre A Nelson, Kara A DeSantis, Jennifer M Morrissey, Melinda Larsen
Perfusion-independent regulation of epithelial pattern formation by the vasculature during organ development and regeneration is of considerable interest for application in restoring organ function. During murine submandibular salivary gland development, the vasculature co-develops with the epithelium during branching morphogenesis; however, it is not known whether the vasculature has instructive effects on the epithelium. Using pharmacological inhibitors and siRNA knockdown in embryonic organ explants, we determined that VEGFR2-dependent signaling is required for salivary gland epithelial patterning...
January 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095912/study-on-expression-of-cdh4-in-lung-cancer
#10
Zhupeng Li, Dan Su, Lisha Ying, Guangmao Yu, Weimin Mao
BACKGROUND: The human CDH4 gene, which encodes the R-cadherin protein, has an important role in cell migration and cell adhesion, sorting, tissue morphogenesis, and tumor genesis. This study analyzed the relationship of CDH4 mRNA expression with lung cancer. METHODS: Real time PCR was applied to detect CDH4 mRNA transcription in 142 paired cases of lung cancer and noncancerous regions. RESULTS: No correlation was identified between CDH4 mRNA expression and gender, age, lymphnode metastasis, TNM stage, family history, smoking state, drinking state (P > 0...
January 17, 2017: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095652/exosomal-trafficking-in-xenopus-development
#11
REVIEW
Michael Danilchik, Tess Tumarkin
Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by many cell types in both normal and pathogenic circumstances. Because EVs, particularly exosomes, are known to transfer biologically active proteins, RNAs and lipids between cells, they have recently become the focus of intense interest as potential mediators of cell-cell communication, particularly in long-range and juxtacrine signaling events associated with adaptive immune function and progression of cancer. Among the EVs, exosomes appear particularly adapted for long-range delivery of cargoes between cells...
January 17, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095644/xenopus-as-a-model-organism-to-study-heterotrimeric-g-protein-pathway-during-collective-cell-migration-of-neural-crest
#12
REVIEW
G Toro-Tapia, S Villaseca, J I Leal, A Beyer, J Fuentealba, M Torrejón
Collective cell migration is essential in many fundamental aspects of normal development, like morphogenesis, organ formation, wound healing and immune responses, as well as in the etiology of severe pathologies, like cancer metastasis. In spite of the huge amount of data accumulated on cell migration, such a complex process involves many molecular actors, some of which still remain to be functionally characterized. One of these signals is the heterotrimeric G-protein pathway that has been studied mainly in gastrulation movements...
January 17, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094206/hepatocyte-growth-factor-in-physiology-and-infectious-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Ryu Imamura, Kunio Matsumoto
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a pleiotropic cytokine composed of an α-chain and a β-chain, and these chains contain four kringle domains and a serine protease-like structure, respectively. The receptor for HGF was identified as the c-met proto-oncogene product of transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase. HGF-induced signaling through the receptor Met provokes dynamic biological responses that support morphogenesis, regeneration, and the survival of various cells and tissues, which includes hepatocytes, renal tubular cells, and neurons...
January 13, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091901/contractility-of-right-ventricular-myocardium-in-male-and-female-rats-during-physiological-and-pathological-hypertrophy
#14
Yu L Protsenko, A A Balakin, D A Kuznetsov, A G Kursanov, R V Lisin, E A Mukhlynina, O N Lookin
Sex differences in the morphogenesis and adaptation of the mechanisms controlling myocardium contractility during physiological and pathological hypertrophy of the right ventricle were demonstrated in mature rats. The study revealed sex-dependent effects of physiological and pathological cardiac hypertrophy on the coefficient of variation of the cardiomyocyte diameter, length-dependent control of the contractile force, and the maximum velocity of isotonic shortening.
January 14, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091527/sox17-drives-functional-engraftment-of-endothelium-converted-from-non-vascular-cells
#15
William Schachterle, Chaitanya R Badwe, Brisa Palikuqi, Balvir Kunar, Michael Ginsberg, Raphael Lis, Masataka Yokoyama, Olivier Elemento, Joseph M Scandura, Shahin Rafii
Transplanting vascular endothelial cells (ECs) to support metabolism and express regenerative paracrine factors is a strategy to treat vasculopathies and to promote tissue regeneration. However, transplantation strategies have been challenging to develop, because ECs are difficult to culture and little is known about how to direct them to stably integrate into vasculature. Here we show that only amniotic cells could convert to cells that maintain EC gene expression. Even so, these converted cells perform sub-optimally in transplantation studies...
January 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089929/impact-of-immobilizing-of-low-molecular-weight-hyaluronic-acid-within-gelatin-based-hydrogel-through-enzymatic-reaction-on-behavior-of-enclosed-endothelial-cells
#16
Mehdi Khanmohammadi, Shinji Sakai, Masahito Taya
The hydrogels having the ability to promote migration and morphogenesis of endothelial cells (ECs) are useful for fabricating vascularized dense tissues in vitro. The present study explores the immobilization of low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (LMWHA) derivative within gelatin-based hydrogel to stimulate migration of ECs. The LMWHA derivative possessing phenolic hydroxyl moieties (LMWHA-Ph) was bound to gelatin-based derivative hydrogel through the horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed reaction. The motility of ECs was analyzed by scratch migration assay and microparticle-based cell migration assay...
January 12, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089869/the-molecular-and-morphogenetic-basis-of-pancreas-organogenesis
#17
REVIEW
Hjalte List Larsen, Anne Grapin-Botton
The pancreas is an essential endoderm-derived organ that ensures nutrient metabolism via its endocrine and exocrine functions. Here we review the essential processes governing the embryonic and early postnatal development of the pancreas discussing both the mechanisms and molecules controlling progenitor specification, expansion and differentiation. We elaborate on how these processes are orchestrated in space and coordinated with morphogenesis. We draw mainly from experiments conducted in the mouse model but also from investigations in other model organisms, complementing a recent comprehensive review of human pancreas development (Jennings et al...
January 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089670/in%C3%A2-vitro-propagation-and-branching-morphogenesis-from-single-ureteric-bud%C3%A2-cells
#18
Shunsuke Yuri, Masaki Nishikawa, Naomi Yanagawa, Oak D Jo, Norimoto Yanagawa
A method to maintain and rebuild ureteric bud (UB)-like structures from UB cells in vitro could provide a useful tool for kidney regeneration. We aimed in our present study to establish a serum-free culture system that enables the expansion of UB progenitor cells, i.e., UB tip cells, and reconstruction of UB-like structures. We found that fibroblast growth factors or retinoic acid (RA) was sufficient for the survival of UB cells in serum-free condition, while the proliferation and maintenance of UB tip cells required glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor together with signaling from either WNT-β-catenin pathway or RA...
January 5, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089629/a-rack1-like-protein-regulates-hyphal-morphogenesis-root-entry-and-in-vivo-virulence-in-verticillium-dahlia
#19
Lei Yuan, Yaxin Su, Shuai Zhou, Yigao Feng, Wangzhen Guo, Xinyu Wang
To identify key genes expressed in Verticillium dahliae in early stages of infection of cotton roots, spore suspensions of eight V. dahliae isolates with different virulence levels were induced by cotton roots and genes expressed in these isolates during the early stages of infection were profiled. A gene that was differentially expressed between highly and less virulent strains was identified. Cloning and bioinformatics analysis of the gene suggested that it belongs to the putative Gβ-like/RACK1 protein family, and has seven WD40 domains...
January 9, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088685/a-semi-interpenetrating-network-of-polyacrylamide-and-recombinant-basement-membrane-allows-pluripotent-cell-culture-in-a-soft-ligand-rich-microenvironment
#20
Andrew J Price, Eva Y Huang, Vittorio Sebastiano, Alexander R Dunn
The physical properties of the extracellular matrix play an essential role in guiding stem cell differentiation and tissue morphogenesis both in vivo and in vitro. Existing work to investigate the role of matrix mechanics in directing stem cell proliferation, self-renewal, and differentiation has been limited by the poor attachment and survival of human pluripotent cells cultured on soft matrices (Young's modulus E ≲ 1000 Pa). To address this limitation we developed a protocol for generating semi-interpenetrating networks of polyacrylamide and recombinant basement membrane...
December 9, 2016: Biomaterials
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