keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Morphogenesis

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692003/involvement-of-a-host-cathepsin-l-in-symbiont-induced-cell-death
#1
Suzanne M Peyer, Natacha Kremer, Margaret J McFall-Ngai
The cathepsin L gene of the host squid, Euprymna scolopes, is upregulated during the first hours of colonization by the symbiont Vibrio fischeri. At this time, the symbiotic organ begins cell death-mediated morphogenesis in tissues functional only at the onset of symbiosis. The goal of this study was to determine whether Cathepsin L, a cysteine protease associated with apoptosis in other animals, plays a critical role in symbiont-induced cell death in the host squid. Sequence analysis and biochemical characterization demonstrated that the protein has key residues and domains essential for Cathepsin L function and that it is active within the pH range typical of these proteases...
April 24, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691438/the-hippo-signaling-transducer-taz-regulates-mammary-gland-morphogenesis-and-carcinogen-induced-mammary-tumorigenesis
#2
Kayla E Denson, Ashley L Mussell, He Shen, Alexander Truskinovsky, Nuo Yang, Natesh Parashurama, Yanmin Chen, Costa Frangou, Fajun Yang, Jianmin Zhang
Hippo signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that controls organ size by regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis and stem cell self-renewal. TAZ (transcriptional coactivator with the PDZ-binding motif) is a key downstream effector of the mammalian Hippo pathway. Here, using a transgenic mouse model with mammary-gland-specific expression of constitutively active TAZ, we found that TAZ induction in mammary epithelial cells was associated with an increase in mammary glandular size, which probably resulted from adipocyte hypertrophy...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689262/dual-function-model-revised-by-thyroid-hormone-receptor-alpha-knockout-frogs
#3
REVIEW
Daniel R Buchholz, Yun-Bo Shi
All vertebrates require thyroid hormone (TH) for normal growth and development. Plasma TH enters cells and alters gene expression via nuclear receptors TRα and TRβ. In-vitro studies showed that TRs function as repressors of TH-inducible genes in the absence of TH and as activators of those same genes in the presence of TH. A dual function model was proposed to harmonize these molecular TR actions with the dynamic expression of TRs and peak in production of TH experienced during development. Conclusive tests of the repression activity of TRs early in development as predicted by the model awaited gene knockout technology targeting TRα...
April 21, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689229/tensile-forces-and-mechanotransduction-at-cell-cell-junctions
#4
REVIEW
Guillaume Charras, Alpha S Yap
Cell-cell junctions are specializations of the plasma membrane responsible for physically integrating cells into tissues. We are now beginning to appreciate the diverse impacts that mechanical forces exert upon the integrity and function of these junctions. Currently, this is best understood for cadherin-based adherens junctions in epithelia and endothelia, where cell-cell adhesion couples the contractile cytoskeletons of cells together to generate tissue-scale tension. Junctional tension participates in morphogenesis and tissue homeostasis...
April 23, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689199/arginine-methylation-by-prmt2-controls-the-functions-of-the-actin-nucleator-cobl
#5
Wenya Hou, Sabine Nemitz, Simone Schopper, Michael Lund Nielsen, Michael Manfred Kessels, Britta Qualmann
The complex architecture of neuronal networks in the brain requires tight control of the actin cytoskeleton. The actin nucleator Cobl is critical for neuronal morphogenesis. Here we reveal that Cobl is controlled by arginine methylation. Coprecipitations, coimmunoprecipitations, cellular reconstitutions, and in vitro reconstitutions demonstrated that Cobl associates with the protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT2 in a Src Homology 3 (SH3) domain-dependent manner and that this promotes methylation of Cobl's actin nucleating C-terminal domain...
April 23, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689194/morphogenesis-and-compartmentalization-of-the-intestinal-crypt
#6
Kaelyn D Sumigray, Michael Terwilliger, Terry Lechler
The adult mammalian intestine is composed of two connected structures, the absorptive villi and the crypts, which house progenitor cells. Mouse crypts develop postnatally and are the architectural unit of the stem cell niche, yet the pathways that drive their formation are not known. Here, we combine transcriptomic, quantitative morphometric, and genetic analyses to identify mechanisms of crypt development. We uncover the upregulation of a contractility gene network at the earliest stage of crypt formation, which drives myosin II-dependent apical constriction and invagination of the crypt progenitor cells...
April 23, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686105/cobll1-modulates-cell-morphology-and-facilitates-androgen-receptor-genomic-binding-in-advanced-prostate-cancer
#7
Ken-Ichi Takayama, Takashi Suzuki, Tetsuya Fujimura, Satoru Takahashi, Satoshi Inoue
Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is essential for prostate cancer progression and acquiring resistance to hormone therapy. However, the molecular pathogenesis through AR activation has not been fully understood. We performed integrative transcriptomic analysis to compare the AR program in a castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) model with that in their parental hormone-sensitive cells. We found that the gene cordon-bleu-like 1 ( COBLL1 ) is highly induced by AR in CRPC model cells. The expression of COBLL1 that possesses an actin-binding domain is up-regulated in clinical prostate cancer tissues and is associated with a poor prognosis for prostate cancer patients...
April 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685894/bambi-is-a-novel-hif1-dependent-modulator-of-tgf%C3%AE-mediated-disruption-of-cell-polarity-in-hypoxia
#8
Irina Raykhel, Fazeh Moafi, Satu M Myllymäki, Patricia G Greciano, Karl S Matlin, Jose V Moyano, Aki Manninen, Johanna Myllyharju
Hypoxia and loss of cell polarity are common features of malignant carcinomas. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1) is the major regulator of cellular hypoxia response through activation of ∼300 genes. Increased HIF1 signaling is known to be associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transformation. Here we report that hypoxia disrupts polarized epithelial morphogenesis of MDCK cells in HIF1α-dependent manner by modulating the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling pathway. Analysis of potential HIF1 targets in the TGFβ pathway identified the bone morphogenetic protein and activin membrane-bound inhibitor (BAMBI), a transmembrane glycoprotein related to the type I receptors of the TGFβ family, whose expression was essentially lost in HIF1-depleted cells...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685496/are-pax-proteins-potential-therapeutic-targets-in-kidney-disease-and-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Edward Grimley, Gregory R Dressler
Pax genes encode developmental regulators that are expressed in a variety of tissues and control critical events in morphogenesis. In the kidney, Pax2 and Pax8 are expressed in embryonic development and in specific renal diseases associated with aberrant epithelial cell proliferation. Prior genetic and cell biological studies suggest that reducing the activity of Pax proteins in renal cancer or in polycystic kidney disease can slow the progression of these conditions. The Pax proteins may be critical for providing tissue and locus specificity to recruit epigenetic modifiers that control gene expression and chromatin structure...
April 20, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684787/the-body-electric-2-0-recent-advances-in-developmental-bioelectricity-for-regenerative-and-synthetic-bioengineering
#10
REVIEW
Juanita Mathews, Michael Levin
Breakthroughs in biomedicine and synthetic bioengineering require predictive, rational control over anatomical structure and function. Recent successes in manipulating cellular and molecular hardware have not been matched by progress in understanding the patterning software implemented during embryogenesis and regeneration. A fundamental capability gap is driving desired changes in growth and form to address birth defects and traumatic injury. Here we review new tools, results, and conceptual advances in an exciting emerging field: endogenous non-neural bioelectric signaling, which enables cellular collectives to make global decisions and implement large-scale pattern homeostasis...
April 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684595/apelin-and-elabela-toddler-double-ligands-for-apj-apelin-receptor-in-heart-development-physiology-and-pathology
#11
Keiji Kuba, Teruki Sato, Yumiko Imai, Tomokazu Yamaguchi
Apelin is an endogenous peptide ligand for the G protein-coupled receptor APJ/AGTRL1/APLNR and is widely expressed throughout human body. In adult hearts Apelin-APJ/Apelin receptor axis is potently inotropic, vasodilatory, and pro-angiogenic and thereby contributes to maintaining homeostasis in normal and pathological hearts. Apelin-APJ/Apelin receptor is also involved in heart development including endoderm differentiation, heart morphogenesis, and coronary vascular formation. APJ/Apelin receptor had been originally identified as an orphan receptor for its sequence similarity to Angiotensin II type 1 receptor, and it was later deorphanized by identification of Apelin in 1998...
April 20, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684491/dynamic-regulation-of-mrna-and-mirna-associated-with-the-developmental-stages-of-skin-pigmentation-in-japanese-ornamental-carp
#12
Xue Tian, Xiaolei Pang, Liangyan Wang, Mengrong Li, Chuanju Dong, Xiao Ma, Lei Wang, Dongying Song, Jianxin Feng, Peng Xu, Xuejun Li
The Japanese ornamental carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Koi) is famous for multifarious colors and patterns, making it commonly culture and trade across the world. Although functional genes and inheritance of color traits have been commonly studied, seldom attentions were focused on the genetic regulation during the developmental process of pigmentation. To better understand the mechanism of skin color development, we observed the morphogenesis of pigment cells during the post-embryonic stages and analysed the temporal expression pattern of mRNAs/miRNAs profiles in four distinct developmental stages...
April 20, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684089/alternative-ribosomal-proteins-are-required-for-growth-and-morphogenesis-of-mycobacterium-smegmatis-under-zinc-limiting-conditions
#13
Allexa Dow, Sladjana Prisic
Zinc is an essential micronutrient required for proper structure and function of many proteins. Bacteria regularly encounter zinc depletion and have evolved diverse mechanisms to continue growth when zinc is limited, including the expression of zinc-independent paralogs of zinc-binding proteins. Mycobacteria have a conserved operon encoding four zinc-independent alternative ribosomal proteins (AltRPs) that are expressed when zinc is depleted. It is unknown if mycobacterial AltRPs replace their primary paralogs in the ribosome and maintain protein synthesis under zinc-limited conditions, and if such replacements contribute to their physiology...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683439/perfusable-vascular-network-with-a-tissue-model-in-a-microfluidic-device
#14
Yuji Nashimoto, Yukako Teraoka, Ramin Banan Sadeghian, Akiko Nakamasu, Yuichiro Arima, Sanshiro Hanada, Hidetoshi Kotera, Koichi Nishiyama, Takashi Miura, Ryuji Yokokawa
A spheroid (a multicellular aggregate) is regarded as a good model of living tissues in the human body. Despite the significant advancement in the spheroid cultures, a perfusable vascular network in the spheroids remains a critical challenge for long-term culture required to maintain and develop their functions, such as protein expressions and morphogenesis. The protocol presents a novel method to integrate a perfusable vascular network within the spheroid in a microfluidic device. To induce a perfusable vascular network in the spheroid, angiogenic sprouts connected to microchannels were guided to the spheroid by utilizing angiogenic factors from human lung fibroblasts cultured in the spheroid...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681751/utilization-of-transcription-factors-for-controlling-floral-morphogenesis-in-horticultural-plants
#15
REVIEW
Katsutomo Sasaki
Transcription factors play important roles not only in the development of floral organs but also in the formation of floral characteristics in various plant species. Therefore, transcription factors are reasonable targets for modifying these floral traits and generating new flower cultivars. However, it has been difficult to control the functions of transcription factors because most plant genes, including those encoding transcription factors, exhibit redundancy. In particular, it has been difficult to understand the functions of these redundant genes by genetic analysis...
January 2018: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681133/ghwip2-a-wip-zinc-finger-protein-suppresses-cell-expansion-in-gerbera-hybrida-by-mediating-crosstalk-between-gibberellin-abscisic-acid-and-auxin
#16
Guiping Ren, Lingfei Li, Yuhua Huang, Yaqin Wang, Wenbin Zhang, Rouyan Zheng, Chunmei Zhong, Xiaojing Wang
Cell expansion is a key determinant for the final size and shape of plant organ, and is regulated by various phytohormones. Zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) consist of a superfamily involved in multiple aspects of organ morphogenesis. However, little is known about WIP-type ZFP function in phytohormone-mediated organ growth. Using reverse genetics, RNA-seq and phytohormone quantification, we elucidated the role of a new WIP-type ZFP from Gerbera hybrida, GhWIP2, in controlling organ growth via regulation of cell expansion...
April 22, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680904/abnormal-development-of-floral-meristem-triggers-defective-morphogenesis-of-generative-system-in-transgenic-tomatoes
#17
Inna Chaban, Marat Khaliluev, Ekaterina Baranova, Neonila Kononenko, Sergey Dolgov, Elena Smirnova
Parthenocarpy and fruit malformations are common among independent transgenic tomato lines, expressing genes encoding different pathogenesis-related (PR) protein and antimicrobal peptides. Abnormal phenotype developed independently of the expression and type of target genes, but distinctive features during flower and fruit development were detected in each transgenic line. We analyzed the morphology, anatomy, and cytoembryology of abnormal flowers and fruits from these transgenic tomato lines and compared them with flowers and fruits of wild tomatoes, line YaLF used for transformation, and transgenic plants with normal phenotype...
April 21, 2018: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680477/yap1-tead1-signaling-controls-angiogenesis-and-mitochondrial-biogenesis-through-pgc1%C3%AE
#18
Akiko Mammoto, Megan Muyleart, Andrew Kadlec, David Gutterman, Tadanori Mammoto
Mitochondria contribute to key processes of cellular function, while mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and cardiovascular diseases, in which angiogenesis - the formation of new blood capillaries - is dysregulated. The Hippo signaling transducer, Yes-associated protein (YAP1) binds to the TEA domain (TEAD1) transcription factor and controls angiogenesis. YAP1 also regulates glucose metabolism through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-alpha (PGC1α), a major player controlling mitochondrial biogenesis...
April 19, 2018: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679560/developmental-origin-and-morphogenesis-of-the-diaphragm-an-essential-mammalian-muscle
#19
Elizabeth M Sefton, Mirialys Gallardo, Gabrielle Kardon
The diaphragm is a mammalian skeletal muscle essential for respiration and for separating the thoracic and abdominal cavities. Development of the diaphragm requires the coordinated development of muscle, muscle connective tissue, tendon, nerves, and vasculature that derive from different embryonic sources. However, defects in diaphragm development are common and the cause of an often deadly birth defect, Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH). Here we comprehensively describe the normal developmental origin and complex spatial-temporal relationship between the different developing tissues to form a functional diaphragm using a developmental series of mouse embryos genetically and immunofluorescently labeled and analyzed in whole mount...
April 18, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678948/an-rnai-screen-identifies-new-genes-required-for-normal-morphogenesis-of-larval-chordotonal-organs
#20
Abeer Hassan, Yael Timerman, Rana Hamdan, Nitzan Sela, Adel Avetisyan, Naomi Halachmi, Adi Salzberg
The proprioceptive chordotonal organs (ChO) of a fly larva respond to mechanical stimuli generated by muscle contractions and consequent deformations of the cuticle. The ability of the ChO to sense the relative displacement of its epidermal attachment sites likely depends on the correct mechanical properties of the accessory (cap and ligament) and attachment cells that connect the sensory unit (neuron and scolopale cell) to the cuticle. The genetic programs dictating the development of ChO cells with unique morphologies and mechanical properties are largely unknown...
April 20, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
keyword
keyword
2519
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"